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  • 51.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Nyttoanalys - nytt vårdinformationssystem i Landstinget Dalarna2017Report (Other academic)
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  • 52.
    Axelsson, Clara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Utvärdering av iKBT: pilottest av internetstödd psykologisk behandling vid Landstinget i Kalmar län2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykiatriförvaltningen, Landstinget i Kalmar län initierade 2010 en utredning för att undersöka möjligheten att använda internetstödd behandling inom kognitiv beteendeterapi (iKBT). 2011 inleddes diskussioner med två tjänsteföretag inom området: Psykologpartners och Livanda och under perioden 2012-08—2014-02 prövades två behandlingsystem i pilottester inom primärvård och psykiatri. Landstinget i Kalmar län gav eHälsoinstitutet vid Linnéuniversitetet uppdraget att genomföra föreliggande utvärdering. Utvärderingens mål var att beskriva behandlarnas upplevelse av att använda två olika system för iKBT. Särskilt fokus skulle läggas på jämförelse mellan användningen inom primärvård och psykiatri. Utvärderingen skulle också om möjligt identifiera aspekter gällande breddning och upphandling.

    De deltagande behandlarna upplevde metoden iKBT som ett komplement till den traditionella behandling som respektive verksamheter erbjuder. iKBT ansågs kunna vara en kvalitetssäkring i det att materialet ser lika ut för alla patienter oavsett ansvarig behandlare.

    Behandlarna ansåg att det går att upprätthålla kompetens i två program som används relativt ofta men samtidigt ser man det som svårt för den enskilde att upprätthålla kompetens inom alla de program ett system erbjuder. Behandlarna ansåg båda systemen som generellt bra, men med olika positiva värden. Behandlarna upplevde system A som mer patientvänligt då det ansågs ha en stor variation i det material som ingår i de båda testade programmen. Behandlarna upplevde system B som mer behandlarvänligt. Den administrativa delen av systemet, som vänder sig till den behandlande parten, ansågs ha en hög funktionalitet och utgöra ett bra verktyg.

    Deltagarna var överens om att ett beslut om införande av iKBT måste ske på landstingsnivå för att möjliggöra framgångsrik implementation. Samtidigt utryckte deltagande behandlare starkt att det måste finnas en viljeyttring på förvaltnings- och politisk nivå att metoden iKBT är något som ska införas. Deltagarna ansåg att ett fåtal personer bör vara specialister i metoden men också att det måste finnas en, individ eller funktion, som har det övergripande ansvaret.

    Konklusion

    • Det behövs en landstingsövergripande organisation som innefattar både psykiatri och primärvård, enskilda behandlare kan inte driva iKBT som metod inom landstinget.
    • En samordnad marknadsföringsinsats är avgörande för rekrytering av patienter och för att upprätthålla information och kompetens kollegialt.
    • För att nå en framgångsrik användning av iKBT behöver en kontinuerlig funktion för utbildning skapas. Ny personal måste introduceras och redan introducerad personal måste kompetensutvecklas i iKBT och de system som kan användas.
    • Implementering av iKBT och användning av den standardisering av arbetsmetoder som följer programmen borgar för en ökad patientsäkerhet och ökad jämlikhet. Alla patienter i en behandling får ta del av ett utprövat material i sin helhet vilket säkerställer att en viss kvalitet kan uppnås.
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  • 53.
    Axelsson, Clara
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Byrman, Gunilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Skoglund, Astrid
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Swedish Language.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    "Det kan bli så mycket fel": Förstudie om barnmorskors upplevelser av kommunikation med gravida kvinnor utan funktionell behärskning av svenska.2016Report (Other academic)
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  • 54.
    Axelsson Olsson, Diana
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Kartläggning av informationsdelning över huvudmannagränser2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning: Föreliggande rapport syftar till att vara en kartläggning över nuvarande situation med identifierade problem och behov gällande tillgång till information mellan olika huvudmän för att vara ett underlag till strategi och handlingsplan. Arbetet i denna rapport har genomförts i två steg; dels en enkätundersökning och dels genomförande av två workshops.Kartläggningen visade att det finns ett stort antal personer som är behöriga till olika systemstöd men som inte använder dem. Det framkom även att en stor del upplever brister i befintliga rutiner och att rutiner inte följs. Brister inom området med rutiner kan hanteras genom utbildning och revidering av befintliga dokument. Resultatet pekar också på att det brister i förståelse för varandra, mellan huvudmännen, hur rutinerna ser ut och hur man arbetar på olika sätt inom olika verksamheter. Man efterfrågar utbildning och mer specifikt en gemensam utbildning för landsting och kommuner för att få en ökad förståelse och insyn i varandras verksamheter eftersom det i praktiken påverkar och berör det egna dagliga arbetet. En stor del av deltagarna anser att systemen saknar viss typ av informationsmängd eller funktionalitet. Vidare är det även en stor del som upplever dubbelarbete som följd av användningen av systemstöden. Enkätsvaren visar att det finns ett behov från landstingets personal att digitalt kunna ta del av information såsom hälsostatus från kommunerna. Dessutom säger enkätsvaren att båda huvudmännen (men främst kommunernas Socialtjänst) efterfrågar möjligheten att kommunicera på ett säkert och digitalt sätt med andra myndigheter.

  • 55.
    Azami Naeini, Leila
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Mirzoyan, Meri
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Karaktärisering av makulautveckling hos svenska barn med Optical Coherence Tomography Angiography2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 56.
    Backrot, Therése
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Prevalensen av refraktionsfel bland hjälpsökande i Guatemala2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Ametropi, som även kallas refraktionsfel, är vanligt förekommande runt om i världen och många människor är i behov av att bli korrigerade med hjälp av glasögon. Ametropi delas in i tre kategorier myopi, hyperopi och astigmatism.

    Syfte: Syftet med den här studien är att under en resa med hjälporganisationen Vision for All (VFA) till Guatemala undersöka prevalensen av refraktionsfel bland de hjälpsökande och jämföra resultatet med tidigare prevalensstudier från andra delar av världen.

    Material och metod: Studien genomfördes i april 2014 under en resa med Vision for All till Guatemala. Under resan besöktes sju orter, tre orter runt staden Antigua Guatemala och fyra orter i regionen Petén. Befolkningen sökte självmant till undersökningsstationerna där synscreening utfördes med hjälp av flipprar, provlådor, provbågar och syntavlor med optotyper och Snellen E-hake. Undersökningarna utfördes av sex optikerstudenter och en legitimerad optiker. Glasögon delades ut till de hjälpsökande som var i behov av korrektion av tre optikerassistenter. Resultaten från samtliga undersökningar journalfördes och jämfördes med resultat från tidigare prevalensstudier från andra delar av världen.

    Resultat: I studien ingår 1 171 hjälpsökande i åldrarna 6–92 år. Definitionen av myopi är i den här studien SE ≤ -0,50 D och hyperopi SE ≥ +0,50 D. De gränserna valdes för att det oftast är de definitionerna som använts i tidigare studier. Prevalensen av myopi bland de hjälpsökande var i den här studien 15 % och hyperopi var 39 %. I orterna runt Antigua Guatemala undersöktes 344 personer, 30 % var myopa och 19 % hyperopa. I regionen Petén undersöktes 827 personer, 9 % var myopa och 47 % hyperopa.  Studien visade att det inte var någon signifikant skillnad på prevalensen av refraktionsfel mellan män och kvinnor.

    Slutsats: Resultatet från den här studien visar att prevalensen av hyperopi är högre än prevalensen av myopi i Guatemala. Samma resultat kan ses i tidigare studier från Nigeria och Mongoliet. Studier från USA och större delen av Europa visar på motsatsen, prevalensen av myopi är högre än prevalensen av hyperopi.

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  • 57.
    Bardage, Carola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Ekedahl, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ring, Lena
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Health care professionals’ perspectives on automated multi-dose drug dispensing2014In: Pharmacy Practice, ISSN 1885-642X, E-ISSN 1886-3655, Vol. 12, no 4, article id 470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the 1980s, manual repackaging of multi-dose medications from pharmacies in Sweden was successively substituted with automated multi-dose drug dispensing (MDD). There are few studies evaluating the consequences of automated MDD with regard to patient safety, and those that investigate this issue are not very extensive.

    Objectives: To investigate Swedish health care professionals’ perceived experience of automated MDD and its effects on patient adherence and patient safety.

    Methods: Three questionnaire forms, one for physicians, nurses, and assistant nurses/nursing assistants, were developed based on reviews of the literature and pilot testing of the questions in the intended target groups. The target groups were health professionals prescribing or administrating MDD to patients. A sample (every sixth municipality) was drawn from the sampling frame of Swedish municipalities, resulting in 40 municipalities, about 14% of all municipalities in Sweden. Email addresses of general practitioners were obtained from county councils, while the municipalities assisted in getting contact details for nurses, assistant nurses and nursing assistants. A total of 915 questionnaires were distributed electronically to physicians, 515 to nurses, and 4,118 to assistant nurses/nursing assistants. The data were collected in September and October 2012.

    Results: The response rate among physicians, nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants was 31%, 43% and 23%, respectively. The professionals reported that automated MDD reduces duplication of medication, contributes to correct dosages, helps patients take their medication at the right time, and reduces confusion among patients. Fifteen per cent of the physicians and about onethird of the nurses and assistant nurses/nursing assistants reported that generic substitution makes it more difficult for the patient to identify the various medicines available in the sachets. The physicians did, however, note that prescribing medicine to patients with automated MDD is complicated and can be a risk for patient safety. Both physicians and nurses requested more information on and training in automated MDD. They also asked for more medication reviews.

    Conclusions: The professionals generally had a positive attitude to automated MDD with regard to improved medication adherence, but said they believed that the electronic prescribing system posed a safety risk for patients.

  • 58.
    Bartels, Sara Laureen
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Johnsson, Sophie, I
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Flink, Ida
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    McCracken, Lance M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Petersson, Suzanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Christie, Hannah L.
    Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Feldman, Inna
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Simons, Laura E.
    Stanford Univ, USA.
    Onghena, Patrick
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium.
    Vlaeyen, Johan W. S.
    Katholieke Univ Leuven, Belgium;Maastricht Univ, Netherlands.
    Wicksell, Rikard K.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Capio St Göran Hospital, Sweden.
    Development, evaluation and implementation of a digital behavioural health treatment for chronic pain: study protocol of the multiphase DAHLIA project2022In: BMJ Open, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 12, no 4, article id e059152Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction Chronic pain affects about 20%-40% of the population and is linked to mental health outcomes and impaired daily functioning. Pharmacological interventions are commonly insufficient for producing relief and recovery of functioning. Behavioural health treatment is key to generate lasting benefits across outcome domains. However, most people with chronic pain cannot easily access evidence-based behavioural interventions. The overall aim of the DAHLIA project is to develop, evaluate and implement a widely accessible digital behavioural health treatment to improve well-being in individuals with chronic pain. Methods and analysis The project follows the four phases of the mHealth Agile Development and Evaluation Lifecycle: (1) development and pre-implementation surveillance using focus groups, stakeholder interviews and a business model; (2) iterative optimisation studies applying single case experimental design (SCED) method in 4-6 iterations with n=10 patients and their healthcare professionals per iteration; (3) a two-armed clinical randomised controlled trial enhanced with SCED (n=180 patients per arm) and (4) interview-based post-market surveillance. Data analyses include multilevel modelling, cost-utility and indicative analyses. In October 2021, inter-sectorial partners are engaged and funding is secured for four years. The treatment content is compiled and the first treatment prototype is in preparation. Clinical sites in three Swedish regions are informed and recruitment for phase 1 will start in autumn 2021. To facilitate long-term impact and accessibility, the treatment will be integrated into a Swedish health platform (www.1177.se), which is used on a national level as a hub for advice, information, guidance and e-services for health and healthcare. Ethics and dissemination The study plan has been reviewed and approved by Swedish ethical review authorities. Findings will be actively disseminated through peer-reviewed journals, conference presentations, social media and outreach activities for the wider public.

  • 59.
    Bartels, Sara Laureen
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Taygar, Afra S.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Uskudar Univ, Turkiye.
    Johnsson, Sophie I.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Petersson, Suzanne
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Flink, Ida
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    Boersma, Katja
    Örebro University, Sweden.
    McCracken, Lance M.
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Wicksell, Rikard K.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden;Capio St. Göran Hospital, Sweden.
    Using Personas in the development of eHealth interventions for chronic pain: A scoping review and narrative synthesis2023In: Internet Interventions, ISSN 2214-7829, Vol. 32, article id 100619Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: Behavioral eHealth interventions can enhance self-management and improve well-being in people with chronic pain. The development of these interventions calls for a user-centered approach to ensure that patient needs are appreciated. However, it may be challenging to involve patients; particularly during the early stages of the process. Fictional user profiles, known as Personas, can represent needs and guide designing eHealth interventions. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the use of Personas in the development of behavioral eHealth interventions for people with chronic pain with the aim to identify benefits and challenges. Methods: Bibliographic databases (Medline, Web of Science Core Collection, PsycInfo, CINAHL) and registries (PubMed Central, medaRxiv) were systematically searched. In a double-reviewing process, n = 6830 hits and n = 351 full-texts were screened and read. Ten peer-reviewed studies published between 2017 and 2022 were included in the narrative synthesis. Findings: Ten studies reported using "Pain Personas" in the development of eHealth interventions for such purposes as to gain a shared understanding of the user and to discuss solutions in team meetings, or for patients to identify with (if Personas are included in the intervention). Personas were based on qualitative and/or quantitative data. However, the procedure for creating Personas was only described in half of the included studies (n = 5). These five studies provided descriptive details of the Personas (i.e., picture, name, narrative of their pain behavior, technological skills, and motivation). Conclusions: Although Personas have been used by pain researchers in recent projects and were highlighted as an important ingredient in the development process, available design guidelines for the creation and use of Personas are not followed or communicated transparently. Benefits and challenges when using Personas in the development of eHealth interventions for people with chronic pain are discussed to support future eHealth efforts and to improve the quality of eHealth innovation in the field of pain.

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  • 60.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Calabrèse, Aurélie
    Castet, Eric
    Moreno, Laura
    Silva, Marta
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Scoring reading parameters: an inter-rater reliability study using the MNREAD test2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: Estimating MNREAD parameters such as Critical Print Size (CPS) and Maximum Reading Speed (MRS) - using the time taken to read blocks of text - often requires subjective analysis of the reading profile. Depending on the rater, parameters may be over- or under-estimated, resulting in difficult or even impossible between-study comparisons. The aim of this project was to evaluate the inter-rater reliability of MNREAD parameters in subjects with visual impairment. Methods: Reading times for the Portuguese version of the MNREAD chart from 32 subjects, reading binocularly were analyzed. Reading speed was computed by a single experimenter (AFM) using reading time and number of errors. Based on reading speeds, three experimented raters (AFM, AC and KB) computed MRS and CPS using the following method. CPS was defined as the print size at which subsequent smaller print sizes were read at 1.96 x standard deviation slower than the mean of the preceding print sizes; MRS was estimated as the mean reading speed for sentences in print larger than the CPS. Inter-rater reliability was assessed using intra-class correlation (ICC) coefficient for both MRS and CPS for all three raters. Results: Near acuity range was 0.14-1.9 logMAR. The average measure ICC for CPS was 0.896 with a 95% CI from 0.814 to 0.946 (p< 0.001). The average measure ICC for MRS was 0.984 with a 95% CI from 0.970 to 0.992 (p< 0.001). Conclusion: A high degree of reliability was found between the three raters for both CPS and MRS. Even though some small variability exists this may be due to raters’ high-level experience with MNREAD data. Future directions will involve: 1) including more raters with various level of experience in MNREAD rating; 2) investigating the degree of inter-rater reliability for raters using different estimation methods.

  • 61.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Calabrèse, Aurélie
    Aix-Marseille University, France;CNRS, France.
    Hernandez-Moreno, Laura
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Santos, Diana
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Macedo, Antonio Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Reading performance in Portuguese children from second to tenth grade with the MNREAD reading acuity test2023In: Journal of Optometry, ISSN 1888-4296, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 261-267Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    To assess reading performance and report normative values for normal sighted Portuguese schoolchildren using the Portuguese version of the MNREAD reading acuity chart.

    Methods

    Children in the 2nd, 4th, 6th, 8th, and 10th grade in Portugal were recruited for this study. One hundred and sixty-seven children from 7 to 16 years of age participated. The Portuguese version of the printed MNREAD reading acuity chart was used to measure reading performance in these children. The non-linear mixed effects model with negative exponential decay function was used to compute maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) automatically. Reading acuity (RA) and reading accessibility index (ACC) were computed manually.

    Results

    The mean MRS in words-per-minute (wpm) for the 2nd grade was 55 wpm (SD = 11.2 wpm), 104 wpm (SD = 27.9) for the 4th grade, 149 wpm (SD = 22.5) for 6th grade, 172 wpm (SD = 24.6) for 8th grade and 180 wpm for the 10th grade (SD = 16.8). There was a significant difference in MRS between school grades (p < 0.001). Participants’ reading speed increased by 14.5 wpm (95% CL: 13.1–15.9) with each year of increase in age. We found a significant difference between RA and school grades, but not for CPS.

    Conclusions

    This study provides normative reading performance values for the Portuguese version of the MNREAD chart. The MRS increased with increasing age and school grade, while RA shows initial improvement from early school years and gradually stabilizes in the more mature children. Normative values for the MNREAD test can now be used to determine reading difficulties or slow reading speed in, for example, children with impaired vision.

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  • 62.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ekblad, Johan
    SYAB, Kalmar.
    Inde, Krister
    Indenova, Karlstad.
    Melis-Dankers, Bart
    Royal Dutch Visio, Centre of Expertise for Blind and Partially Sighted People, Netherlands.
    Driving performance in participants with quadrantanopia and hemianopia in Sweden: a closed circuit driving track study2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The ability to drive a car is one of the important aspect of a person’s independent lifestyle. People with visual field defects after stroke or traumatic brain injury (TBI) have more limitations in driving. In Sweden, they are not allowed to drive and their driving licenses are revoked. The Swedish transport agency does not allow any on-road test for them to prove their practical fitness to drive. Therefore, the aim was to evaluate driving performance in participants with visual field defects after TBI in a closed circuit driving track.Methods: Eleven participants with varying degrees of quadrantanopia and hemianopia after TBI were recruited for this study. The mean age of the participants was 58 ±13.7 years (37 - 73 years). All participants underwent 10 weeks of explorative saccadic training at the hospital prior to driving assessment. Driving performance were assessed by two driving instructors and they graded the participants from 1 (fail) to 5 (excellent) on the following five categories: maneuvering the vehicle, safety margin, traffic rules, scanning for potential hazards and reacting to situations. The subject passed the driving test only if they scored 3 or more in each category.Results: Five (45%) out of 11 participants passed the driving test and they were adjudged as fit to drive. Remaining six (55%) participants failed at least in one category. Three of them failed in visual scanning, two failed in maneuvering and one failed in both the aforementioned categories as well as safety margin.Discussion: A rehabilitation program aimed at improving safe driving should be implemented and an on-road assessment of fitness to drive should be allowed in Sweden for this population in future.Conclusion: The decision on practical fitness to drive cannot be based solely on the presence of visual field defect and an on-road assessment is required.

  • 63.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Inde, Krister
    Ekblad, Johan
    Melis-Dankers, Bart
    Closed circuit driving performance in persons with quadrantanopia and hemianopia in Sweden2016In: Scandinavian Journal of Optometry and Visual Science, ISSN 1891-0882, E-ISSN 1891-0890, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 14-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, persons with homonymous visual field defects (HVFDs) are not allowed to drive and usually their driving licences are revoked. Although earlier studies (de Haan et al. 2014; Elgin et al. 2010) have shown that HVFDs do not necessarily impair practical fitness to drive, the Swedish transport agency does not allow them any on-road driving testing to prove their practical fitness to drive. The aim of this study was to evaluate driving performance in participants with visual field defects after acquired brain injury in a closed circuit driving track. Eleven former drivers with varying degrees of quadrantanopia and hemianopia after acquired brain damage were recruited for this study from the stroke rehabilitation department at Kalmar County Hospital. The median age of the participants was 55 years and their age ranged from 37 to 73 years. Driving performance was assessed by two experienced driving instructors. They graded the participants on a scale from 1 (major faults) to 5 (excellent) on the following five categories: manoeuvring the vehicle, risk assessment, traffic rules, visual scanning and situation awareness. The subject would pass the driving test only if they had scored 3 or more in each category. The subjects who passed the closed circuit driving track test were evaluated further with a driving simulator. Five (45%) out of 11 participants passed the driving test and were adjudged as fit to drive. The remaining six (55%) participants failed in at least one category. Three failed in visual scanning, two failed in manoeuvring and one failed in both the aforementioned categories as well as risk assessment. Three subjects who passed the closed circuit driving track test were also evaluated in a driving simulator. Out of the three subjects, only one was able to complete and pass the evaluation while the remaining two participants aborted the evaluation due to simulator sickness. Homonymous visual field defects do not necessarily impair fitness to drive. Therefore, an on-road assessment of practical fitness to drive should be allowed in Sweden for this population in the near future. The decision on practical fitness to drive cannot be based solely on the presence of visual field defects. A rehabilitation program aimed at improving safe driving should be put into practice with an on-road driving training and assessment procedure. It should be developed and implemented by experienced traffic inspectors as a complementary part of the decision to either issue or revoke a driving licence for this population.

  • 64.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Inde, Krister
    SMS Projektgrupp, .
    SYAB Kalmar, .
    SMS resultatrapporten2015Report (Refereed)
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  • 65.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Calabrèse, Aurélie
    Aix-Marseille University, France.
    Rater and algorithm data of maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of 101 low vision participants.2019Data set
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    Rater_Algorithm_Data
  • 66.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    He, Yingchen
    University of Minnesota, USA.
    Hernandez-Moreno, Laura
    University of Minho Braga, Portugal.
    Queirós, Tatiana
    Hospital de Braga, Portugal.
    Mansfield, J. Stephen
    SUNY College at Plattsburgh, USA.
    Calabrèse, Aurélie
    Aix-Marseille University, France;CNRS, France.
    Scoring reading parameters: An inter-rater reliability study using the MNREAD chart2019In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 14, no 6, p. 1-14, article id e0216775Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose First, to evaluate inter-rater reliability when human raters estimate the reading performance of visually impaired individuals using the MNREAD acuity chart. Second, to evaluate the agreement between computer-based scoring algorithms and compare them with human rating. Methods Reading performance was measured for 101 individuals with low vision, using the Portuguese version of the MNREAD test. Seven raters estimated the maximum reading speed (MRS) and critical print size (CPS) of each individual MNREAD curve. MRS and CPS were also calculated automatically for each curve using two different algorithms: the original standard deviation method (SDev) and a non-linear mixed effects (NLME) modeling. Intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) were used to estimate absolute agreement between raters and/or algorithms. Results Absolute agreement between raters was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.97; 95%CI [0.96, 0.98]) and ‘moderate’ to ‘good’ for CPS (ICC = 0.77; 95%CI [0.69, 0.83]). For CPS, inter-rater reliability was poorer among less experienced raters (ICC = 0.70; 95%CI [0.57, 0.80]) when compared to experienced ones (ICC = 0.82; 95%CI [0.76, 0.88]). Absolute agreement between the two algorithms was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.96; 95%CI [0.91, 0.98]). For CPS, the best possible agreement was found for CPS defined as the print size sustaining 80% of MRS (ICC = 0.77; 95%CI [0.68, 0.84]). Absolute agreement between raters and automated methods was ‘excellent’ for MRS (ICC = 0.96; 95% CI [0.88, 0.98] for SDev; ICC = 0.97; 95% CI [0.95, 0.98] for NLME). For CPS, absolute agreement between raters and SDev ranged from ‘poor’ to ‘good’ (ICC = 0.66; 95% CI [0.3, 0.80]), while agreement between raters and NLME was ‘good’ (ICC = 0.83; 95% CI [0.76, 0.88]). Conclusion For MRS, inter-rater reliability is excellent, even considering the possibility of noisy and/or incomplete data collected in low-vision individuals. For CPS, inter-rater reliability is lower. This may be problematic, for instance in the context of multisite investigations or follow-up examinations. The NLME method showed better agreement with the raters than the SDev method for both reading parameters. Setting up consensual guidelines to deal with ambiguous curves may help improve reliability. While the exact definition of CPS should be chosen on a case-by-case basis depending on the clinician or researcher’s motivations, evidence suggests that estimating CPS as the smallest print size sustaining about 80% of MRS would increase inter-rater reliability.

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  • 67.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Nilsson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ringbäck, Klara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ternehäll, Michaela
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Svanfeldt, Cecilia
    Region Kalmar County, Sweden.
    Melin, Jeanette
    RISE, Sweden.
    Mohlin, Camilla
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Macedo, António Filipe
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Swedish version of the Massof activity inventory to measure vision-related activity difficulties among patients with nAMD2024In: Acta Ophthalmol, vol 102, issue S279: Special Issue:Abstracts from the 2023 European Association for Vision and Eye Research Festival, 26‐28 October 2023, Valencia, John Wiley & Sons, 2024, Vol. 102, no S279Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims/Purpose: The aim of this study was to assess vision-related activity difficulties among patients with neovascular AMD using a Swedish version of the mass of activity inventory (MAI). Methods: Participants were patients diagnosed with neovascular AMD receiving treatment for the disease in a hospital in southeast Sweden. Participants completed the Swedish version of the MAI questionnaire. MAI can be used to measure the overall visual ability and visual ability in 4 functional domains: reading, mobility, visual motor function and visual information processing. Best corrected distance and near visual acuity (VA) were also measured. Results: Among the 196 participants (mean age=78.5 years, SD=7.67, 66% female) the median VA in the better seeing eye was 0.18 logMAR (IQR=?0.34), and in the worse eye was 0.54 logMAR (IQR=0.98). The median visual ability for all participants was 1.92 logits (IQR=2.69). There was a significant negative correlation between distance VA in the better eye and visual ability (rho=0.4025, p<0.01). Using ROC curves, we tested the capacity of the MAI to detect cases of any vision impairment (VA worse than 0.3 logMAR in the better seeing eye), the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.717 (95% CI=0.643 - 0.791 p<0.001). When we tested for detection of moderate vision impairment (VA worse than 0.5 logMAR in the better seeing eye) the AUC was 0.738 (95% CI=0.648 - 0.829 p?<0.001). Conclusions: The results indicate that the Swedish version of the MAI produce measures of visual ability that are consistent with clinical measures among patients with nAMD. The Swedish version of the MAI can be used as outcome measure in interventions for people with nAMD.

    References

    1. Macedo, A.F. et al. Predictors of problems reported on the EQ-5D-3L dimensions among people with impaired vision in northern Portugal. Health Qual Life Outcomes 2022; 20: 132.

  • 68.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Olsson, Roger
    Theagarayan, Baskar
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effect of accommodation on peripheral refraction in myopes and emmetropes using a COAS-HD VR open field aberrometer.2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose To investigate the effect of accommodation on both central and peripheral refractive errors in myopes compared to emmetropes using a COAS-HD VR open field aberrometer. Methods 15 myopic subjects (-1.50 D to -8.25 D) and 14 emmetropic subjects (+0.75 D to -0.25 D) participated in this study. The mean age of the myopic group was 24.3 ± 5.7 years and for the emmetropic group was 23.9 ± 5.7 years. Central and peripheral refraction were measured with a COAS-HD VR open field instrument at seven different eccentricities from 0° to ± 30° in 10° steps for three different accommodative demands 0.33 D, 2.50 D and 4.0 D during monocular viewing. The myopic subjects were corrected with soft contact lenses and the measurements were performed on the right eye for a 3 mm pupil diameter for both groups. Relative peripheral refractive error (RPRE) was calculated for all three accommodative demands for both groups. Results Repeated measures ANOVA showed no significant difference in RPRE across eccentricities or between accommodation demands in the myopes (pÂż0.05). The myopic group had minimal hyperopic shift in the periphery for all three accommodative demands. The largest mean hyperopic shift was 0.37 D at 30° nasal retina for an accommodative demand of 4.0 D. On the other hand, the emmetropic group became relatively myopic at peripheral eccentricities, from 20° onwards for all three accommodative demands. The largest mean myopic shift was 1.01 D at 30° temporal retina for an accommodative demand of 2.50 D. Conclusion In the myopic group, we did not find any significant reduction in hyperopic shift in the periphery with accommodation. The emmetropic group showed myopic shift in the periphery for all three accommodative demands with temporal retina being more myopic than nasal retina.

  • 69.
    Batmanian, Naro
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Jämförelse mellan subjektiva och objektiva metoder för bedömning av synnervsutträdet2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the different methods for estimating the optic nerve head and grading the cup-to-disc ratio.

    Methods: In this study 31 subjects were included. The participants were aged between 19-32 years old and all of them had healthy eyes. An OCT was used to scan the optic nerve on both eyes and estimate the cup-to-disc ratio. The OCT scanning gives a 3D image of the optic nerve. Finally, the retina was photographed with a fundus camera, where the images were only 2D. Four experienced opticians graded the cup-to-disc ratio based on the 2D images. The parameters that got estimated were the horizontal and vertical cup-to-disc ratio, but even the cup-to-disc area ratio. Both subjective and objective parameters were compared to each other.

    Results: A paired t-test was performed for the vertical cup-to-disc ratio that was both estimated by the graders and determined by the OCT; the t-test showed a statistically significant difference (p<0,001) between the two. Likewise, a paired t-test was performed for the horizontal cup-to-disc ratio and the cup-to-disc area ratio, which was graded by the opticians and determined by the OCT, and the results showed a significant difference (p<0,001).

    The agreement between the graders were compared, and the correlation between the ratings of the cup-to-disc ratios was not high r<0,8.

    Conclusion: The comparison between the subjective gradings from the opticians of the cup-to-disc ratio and the objective cup-to-disc parameters showed a significant difference.

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  • 70.
    Bengtsson, Hanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Ögonrelaterade nacke-, skuldrabesvär2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte

    Syftet med studien är att jämföra förekomst och typ av ögonrelaterade nacke-, skuldrabesvär hos de som har ett statiskt respektive dynamiskt arbete.

     Metod

    35 korta arbetsplatsbesök utfördes på ett kontor och i två butiker. På arbetsplatsbesöken uppmättes belysningsstyrka och luminans med hjälp av en ljusmätare, blickvinkel och arbetsavstånd uppmättes med hjälp av gradskiva och måttband. Innan arbetsplatsbesöken ägde rum skickades en symptomenkät ut till deltagarna där de fick svara på frågor om eventuella ögon- och muskuloskeletala besvär, om de använder glasögon eller kontaktlinser samt hur de upplever belysningssituationen på arbetsplatsen.

     Resultat

    Resultatet indikerar på att besvären gällande ögon, muskler, nacke och skuldra är större vid statiskt än dynamiskt arbete.

    Luminansförhållanden och belysningsstyrkor var överlag utanför de rekommenderade värdena.

    Skillnaderna mellan grupperna är inte statistiskt signifikanta då den ena gruppen var hälften så stor som den andra och besvärspoängen väldigt spridda.

    Något statistiskt samband mellan ögonbesvär och muskuloskeletalabesvär fanns ej.

     Slutsats

    Trender visar att  nacke-, skuldraproblem är större hos de som har ett statiskt arbete än de som har dynamiskt arbete men detta är inte statistiskt signifikant.

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  • 71.
    Bengtsson, Rickard
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Utveckling av program för utvärdering av binokulära problem2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 72.
    Bergdahl, Emilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Jämförelse mellan rebound tonometri och non-contact tonometri2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:.Syftet med studien är att jämföra icare tonometri med NCT och se om de två metoderna får likvärdiga resultat. Studien ville även se vilken av metoderna som föredras av deltagarna.

    Metod: 85 personer deltog med medelålder 27 ± 9,2 år. Mätningarna utfördes på 82 av deltagarna i slumpmässig ordning på deras högerögon. I studien användes topcon CT-80A non-contact tonometer (topcon coroporation) och icare ® TA01i tonometer (icare Finland Oy).

    Resultat: Medelvärde för icare var 16,4 ± 3,9 mmHg. Medelvärdet för NCT var 15,6 ± 2,6 mmHg. Det var statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan metoderna (p = 0,001). Väldigt god positiv korrelation mellan icare och NCT (r = 0,85; y = 1,2905x - 3,7199). 91% av deltagarna föredrog icare framför NCT.

    Slutsats: Båda metoderna fungerar bra som screeningmetoder av IOP men icare har en tendens att ge högre värden än NCT. Icare tonometer var den metod som de flesta deltagarna föredrog. Det fanns en statistiskt signifikant skillnad mellan icare och NCT vilket tyder på att metoderna skiljer sig åt resultatmässigt. 

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  • 73.
    Bergdahl, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Skillnaden i central och perifer retinal tjocklek mellan olika ametropier - en OCT-studie2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att, med hjälp av Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), undersöka om det finns någon skillnad i central och perifer retinal tjocklek mellan olika ametropier.

    Metod: Studien omfattade 36 försökspersoner, som grupperades beroende på ametropi i en myop, emmetrop och hyperop grupp. Av de 36 försökspersonerna var det 15 myoper, 15 emmetroper och 6 hyperoper. En inledande mätning gjordes där försökspersonernas objektiva refraktion uppmättes med autorefraktor och därefter gjordes en avstämning i provbåge för att säkerställa refraktionen. Med OPKO Spectral OCT/SLO mättes retinas tjocklek både centralt och perifert på höger öga. För att analysera resultatet delades retina in i 15 olika zoner som jämfördes mellan de olika ametropierna.

    Resultat: Resultatet av studien visade en signifikant skillnad i foveal tjocklek mellan de olika ametropierna (p=0,03). Det var en siginifikant skillnad i retinal tjocklek mellan retinas zoner i alla tre ametropier (p<0,01), dock var det ingen signifikant skillnad i perifer retinal tjocklek mellan de tre olika ametropierna (p=0.07).

    Slutsats: Ingen skillnad i central och perifer retinal tjocklek kunde redovisas mellan de olika ametropierna. Då en tidigare studie har visat att den retinala tjockleken skiljer sig mellan olika ametropier kan resultatet av vår studie diskuteras då det i vår studie fanns brister som få antal personer, olika antal personer inom grupperna och en låg utbredning av synfel. 

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    Skillnaden i central och perifer retinal tjocklek mellan olika ametropier - en OCT-studie
  • 74.
    Bergendahl, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Jämförelse av två tårsubstituts påverkan på NITBUT över tid2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to compare  the artificial tears Systane Ultra with Add1 and their performance in NITBUT (Non Invasive Tear Break Up Time). 20 participants between 21-29 years were divided into two groups , one group received Systane Ultra and the other Add1. Once each participant filled out an OSDI survey NITBUT was measured. First without any Artificial tears and then 5, 10, 15 , 20, 30 , 45 and 60 minutes after instillation. The Systane Ultra group and Add1 group differs in this study, however, no significant difference ( P = 0.055 ) in amplitude of NITBUT was obtained. Over time there is no significant difference (P > 0.05). The two drops perform equal at all times.

    There are advantages to using an instrument like Bon Sirius, for example, to avoid the bias of the observer. This study can be considered as an experimental study for future studies in the field.

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  • 75.
    Bergius, Emelie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Prevalensen av katarakt hos hjälpsökande i Ghana2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Undersöka prevalensen av katarakt hos hjälpsökande personer i Ghana. Jämföra prevalensen i olika åldrar, mellan höger och vänster öga samt en jämförelse med andra områden i världen.

    Metod: 74 kvinnor och 51 män deltog i studien med ett totalt deltagande på 125 personer. Medelåldern var 47±20 år, där åldrarna sträckte sig från 8 år till 87 år. Patienterna uppsökte själva någon av Vision For Alls undersökningsplatser. Med ett oftalmoskop som användes på ca 33 cm granskades kristallina linsen rakt framifrån. Rödreflexen graderades med en graderingsskala efter Mehra & Minassian (1988) om reflexen var helt klarröd. Eventuella opaciteter sågs som mörka områden. Graderingsskalan bestod av sju olika steg. Grad 0-1, med ingen eller punkter av opacitet. Grad 2-3, där katarakt fanns och täckte olika mycket av rödreflexen beroende på grad. Grad 4-5, där katarakten inte gick att bedöma på grund av afaki, dislokaliserad lins eller opacitet i hornhinnan. 

    Resultat: 99 personer av de 125 deltagande hade katarakt, grad 2-3, på båda ögonen. 91 procent hade katarakt i något eller i båda ögonen, 93 procent hos kvinnorna och 88 procent hos männen. Vanligaste graden för höger och vänster öga var 2,5 hos båda könen. Inget samband mellan stigande ålder och graden katarakt kunde ses. Mellan höger och vänster öga fanns det inget direkt samband, r = 0,56 och p > 0,05.

    Slutsats: Populationen undersökta i Ghana har en hög grad katarakt vilket kan bero på exponeringen av ultraviolettstrålning och/eller deras mörka pigment. Fler studier bör göras i bättre förhållanden för att utveckla och bekräfta studiens resultat.

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  • 76.
    Bergkvist, Emma
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    En jämförelse mellan två tekniker vid utvärdering av Meiboms körtlar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie var att jämföra tryck med Meibomian Gland Evaluator (MGE) med tryck manuellt med fingret vid utvärdering av Meiboms körtlar. Ytterligare syfte med studien var att utvärdera korrelation mellan Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) enkät och gradering av meibumets kvalitet och sekretion.

    Metod: I studien deltog 30 personer i åldrarna 20–76 år med en medelålder på 51,8±19,8. Personer med uttalade problem med torra ögon uteslöts ur studien. Först utfördes en utvärdering av sekretion och kvalitet av Meiboms körtlar med MGE på höger öga och manuellt med tummen på vänster öga. Efter det fick personerna fylla i en OSDI enkät. Slutligen utfördes utvärdering av sekretion och kvalitet av Meiboms körtlar med manuellt tryck på höger öga och med MGE på vänster öga. Utvärdering av kvalitet och sekretion utfördes med hjälp av graderingsskalor med poäng från 0–3. 

    Resultat: Medianvärden för sekretion och kvalitet med MGE och manuellt på höger och vänster öga gav liknande resultat. Enligt p-värden var det ingen statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan teknikerna i något av fallen. Studien visade en positiv korrelation mellan OSDI poäng och gradering av meibumets sekretion (r=0,47; p=0,01). Ingen statistisk signifikant korrelation kunde påvisas mellan OSDI poäng och gradering av meibumets kvalitet (r=0,32; p=0,09).

    Slutsats: Studien visade att det inte finns någon statistisk signifikant skillnad mellan de två teknikerna. Studien visade positiv korrelation mellan OSDI enkät och gradering av meibumets sekretion. Studien visade att det inte finns någon statistisk signifikant korrelation mellan OSDI enkät och gradering av meibumets kvalitet.

  • 77.
    Bergman, Esther
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    The effect of dynamic exercise on macular perfusion measured with OCTA2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 78.
    Bergman, Frida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Förskrivningskollen utifrån vårdpersonalens perspektiv2022Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the National medication list is to provide healthcare, pharmacies, and the patient with the same picture of the prescribed and dispensed medications of a patient. Förskrivningskollen is a back-up system that healthcare professionals can use until their own electronic health record systems are adapted to the National prescription register. No previous study covers Förskrivningskollen and this phase in the implementation of the National medication list. 

    The aim this master’s thesis is to examine healthcare professionals experience and perception of Förskrivningskollen, which can identify benefits, barriers, and possible risks with the system. The study applied a mixed methods approach, with user statistics from Förskrivningskollen and a survey with open and closed questions. The respondents of the survey (n=288) were healthcare professionals who were users or potential users of the system. The analysis of the qualitative data was conducted using inductive content analysis.

    The result showed that there are high expectations on the National medication list but also many concerns. The knowledge about Förskrivningskollen was low and there was an uncertainty regarding the regulations and work routines linked to the system. There have been seven different healthcare professions among the users of the system up until January 2022. There is a small number of users of Förskrivningskollen in relation to the potential set of users. The result shows that a lack of interoperability with the electronic health record made Förskrivningskollen time consuming to use and could lead to a risk of insufficient documentation. Respondents described that the list was not sufficiently updated and that Förskrivningskollen could lead to a sense of false security. Most of the clinical pharmacist states that Förskrivningskollen has helped to facilitate their work with medication reconciliation. The physicians were more divided in their perceived benefit, some described benefit when prescribing drugs with risk of addiction, some others preferred using other systems such as NPÖ or Pascal.  

    This study showed that there is a need for information on and clarification regarding ways of working and regulations linked to Förskrivningskollen and the National medication list. The perceived problems of the healthcare staff concerning the National medication list is important to consider in the future implementation. 

  • 79.
    Bergman, Frida
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Hammar, Tora
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Healthcare professionals' perceptions of a web-based application for using the new National Medication List in Sweden2023In: Digital Health, E-ISSN 2055-2076, Vol. 9, article id 20552076231171966Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ObjectiveDuring the first stage of implementing the National Medication List in Sweden, a web-based application called Forskrivningskollen (FK) was launched. FK includes information about a patient's prescribed and dispensed medications, and it works as a backup system until the healthcare electronic health record (EHR) systems are fully integrated. The aim of this study was to examine the healthcare professionals' experiences and perceptions of FK. MethodsThe study applied a mixed methods approach, with statistics about the use of FK and a survey with open and closed questions. The respondents (n = 288) were healthcare professionals who were users or potential users of FK. ResultsOverall there was little knowledge about FK and uncertainty regarding working routines and the regulations connected to the application. Lack of interoperability with the EHRs made FK time-consuming to use. Respondents said that the information in FK was not updated, and they were concerned that using FK could lead to a false sense of security about the accuracy of the list. Most clinical pharmacists thought FK added benefit to their clinical work, while as a group, physicians were more ambivalent about FK's benefit. ConclusionsThe concerns of healthcare professionals give important insights for future implementation of shared medication lists. Working routines and regulations linked to FK need to be clarified. In Sweden, the potential value of a national shared medication list will probably not be realized until it is fully integrated into the EHR in a way that supports healthcare professionals' desired ways of working.

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  • 80.
    Bergman, Patrick
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Hagströmer, Maria
    Karolinska institutet, Sweden;Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden;Sophiahemmet university, Sweden.
    No one accelerometer-based physical activity data collection protocol can fit all research questions.2020In: BMC Medical Research Methodology, E-ISSN 1471-2288, Vol. 20, no 1, p. 1-8, article id 141Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Measuring physical activity and sedentary behavior accurately remains a challenge. When describing the uncertainty of mean values or when making group comparisons, minimising Standard Error of the Mean (SEM) is important. The sample size and the number of repeated observations within each subject influence the size of the SEM. In this study we have investigated how different combinations of sample sizes and repeated observations influence the magnitude of the SEM.

    METHODS: A convenience sample were asked to wear an accelerometer for 28 consecutive days. Based on the within and between subject variances the SEM for the different combinations of sample sizes and number of monitored days was calculated.

    RESULTS: Fifty subjects (67% women, mean ± SD age 41 ± 19 years) were included. The analyses showed, independent of which intensity level of physical activity or how measurement protocol was designed, that the largest reductions in SEM was seen as the sample size were increased. The same magnitude in reductions to SEM was not seen for increasing the number of repeated measurement days within each subject.

    CONCLUSION: The most effective way of reducing the SEM is to have a large sample size rather than a long observation period within each individual. Even though the importance of reducing the SEM to increase the power of detecting differences between groups is well-known it is seldom considered when developing appropriate protocols for accelerometer based research. Therefore the results presented herein serves to highlight this fact and have the potential to stimulate debate and challenge current best practice recommendations of accelerometer based physical activity research.

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  • 81.
    Bertilsson, Emelie
    et al.
    Kalmar County Hospital, Sweden.
    Semark, Birgitta
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Schildmeijer, Kristina
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Bremer, Anders
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Carlsson, Jörg
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Usage of Do-not-attempt-to resuscitate-orders in a Swedish community hospital: patient involvement, documentation and compliance2018In: Resuscitation, ISSN 0300-9572, E-ISSN 1873-1570, Vol. 130, no s1, p. e93-e94Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 82.
    Bitar, Dima
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Oscarsson, Marie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Stevenson-Ågren, Jean
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Application to promote communication between midwives and Arabic-speaking women at antenatal care: Challenges met by researchers when developing content2022In: European Journal of Midwifery, E-ISSN 2585-2906, Vol. 6, article id 68Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    INTRODUCTION Providing good communication is at the core of recent international guidelines for improving women's outcomes at birth. Communication barriers are identified as major obstacles to providing effective and equal care among foreign-born women. There is a need for accurate communication tools in antenatal care. The aim of this study was to describe challenges met by researchers when developing culturally sensitive content in a Swedish-Arabic application for communication support at antenatal care in Sweden. METHODS A co-design methodology was used for the development of the application, entailing collaboration between users and researchers in five different phases: users' needs and preferences, development, field testing I, refinement, and field testing II. RESULTS Five challenges emerged: evidence-based information, time frame, realistic photographs, norm-critical perspective, and cultural issues. One challenge was to meet the needs of the users and combine it with information following evidence-based obstetric welfare guidelines. It was also challenging to produce short informational videos that could be adjusted for the duration of the visit with the midwife without omitting important information and to produce photographs which can become outdated. It was also a challenge to portray a less clinical environment and to maintain parents' integrity. It was also challenging to produce norm-critical content from the women's perspective. CONCLUSIONS When developing content of an application for antenatal care, converting content proposals into a finished product is challenging. Collaboration between a cross-disciplinary research team, midwives and target-language women is essential to ensure that the content is usable and reliable.

  • 83.
    Björk, Matilda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Roth, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effekten av traditionell respektive datorbaserad synträning på utfallet av CISS och utvalda samsynsfunktioner: En pilotstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 84.
    Björkman, Anna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Färgseendets påverkan vid användande av en blåljusfiltrerande ytbehandling2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka om en blåljusfiltrerande ytbehandling på ett par glasögon gav mätbara förändringar på färgseendet i jämförelse med eller utan glasögon. Metod: 30 personer med normalt färgseende, frisk okulär hälsa och visus som lägst 1,0 deltog i studien och fick genomföra ett datoriserat färgtest, Metropsis CCT Ellipse 10a. Testet utfördes en gång med de ytbehandlade glasögon på och en gång utan glasögon. Ordningen slumpades fram. Deltagarna var emmetropa alternativt hade sfäriska synfel som korrigerats med mjuka kontaktlinser. Resultat: Den blåljusfiltrerande ytbehandlingen Crizal Prevencia gav inget statistiskt signifikant mätbart försämrat färgseende. Vid användande av denna ytbehandlingen skedde en axialförändring av konfusionslinjen i färgseendet för alla deltagare vilket kan ge en förändrad uppfattning av olika färgnyanser i jämförelse med och utan glasögon. Denna förändring av färguppfattning är högst individuell och går ej att förutsäga innan användning. Mätningen bör utföras flera gånger med Metropsis CCT Ellipse 10a då memoriseringseffekt uppstod (p-value= 0,0003) och areans storleken hos ellipsen tenderade att minska vid försök två oavsett om glasögonen användes eller inte. Slutsats: Då ytbehandlingen inte gav en mätbar förändrad effekt kan den ses som ett bra komplement på glasögonen för att skydda ögonen mot både det artificiella och naturliga kortvågiga blåa ljuset som ses som en riskfaktor vid flertalet ögonsjukdomar.

  • 85.
    Björneld, Olof
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM). Region Kalmar, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Martin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Region Kalmar län.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM).
    Case study: Feature engineering inspired by domain experts on real world medical data2023In: Intelligence-Based Medicine, ISSN 2666-5212, Vol. 8, article id 100110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To perform data mining projects for knowledge discovery based on health data produced in a daily health care stored in electronic health records (EHR) can be time consuming. This study exemplifies that the involvement of a data scientist improves classification performances. We have performed a case study that comprises two real world medical research projects, comparing feature engineering and knowledge discovery based on classification performance. Project (P1) comprised 82,742 patients with the research question “Can we predict patient falls by use of EHR data” and the second project (P2) included 23,396 patients with the focus on “Negative side effects of antiepileptic drug consumption on bone structure”.

    The results concluded three salient results. (i) It is valuable for medical researchers to involve a data scientist when medical research based on real world medical data is performed. The findings were justified with an analysis of classification metrics when iteratively engineered features were used. The features were generated from domain experts and computer scientists in collaboration with medical researchers. We gave this process the name domain knowledge-driven feature engineering (KDFE).

    To evaluate the classification performance the metric area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was used. (ii) Domain experts are benefited in quantitative terms by KDFE. When KDFE was compared to baseline, the average classification performance measured by AUROC for the engineered features rose for P1 from 0.62 to 0.82 and for P2 from 0.61 to 0.89 (p-values << 0.001). (iii) The engineered features were represented in a systematic structure, which is the foundation of a theoretical model for automated KDFE (aKDFE).

    To our knowledge, this is the first study that proves that via quantitative measures KDFE adds value to real-world. However, the method is not limited to the medical domain. Other areas with similar data properties should also benefit from KDFE.

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  • 86.
    Block, Salome
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Jönsson, Nathalie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Miljöfaktorers påverkan på kontaktlinstillpassning i Sverige2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to investigate if environmental factors and differences in latitude affect how contact lenses are prescribed in different parts of Sweden.

    Methods: Surveys were distributed to optometrists in the areas around Östersund and Gothenburg, where they filled out information about lens material and replacement frequency for their next ten contact lens fits (new or refits). Historical meteorological environmental factors regarding temperature and relative humidity were extracted from SMHI, the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute. The data was then compiled and analyzed.

    Results: A total of 28 optometrists participated in this study, which resulted in 192 contact lens fits. There was no statistically significant difference in relative humidity between the two areas (U = 687,500, p = 0,281). However, there were statistically significant differences regarding the temperature for the first four months of the year (t(86) = 7,968, p <0,001), where the average temperature was higher in Gothenburg. A statistical significant difference was also found regarding the replacement frequency based on lens material on soft contact lenses between the examined areas, X2(4, N = 178) = 13,676, p = 0,008) where optometrists in Östersund prescribed a higher percentage of daily disposable contact lenses.

    Conclusion: Daily disposable contact lenses were prescribed to a greater extent in Östersund that has a colder temperature and higher latitude compared to Gothenburg.

  • 87.
    Blomqvist, Ida
    et al.
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Chaplin, John Eric
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Evalill
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health.
    Henje, Eva
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Dennhag, Inga
    Umeå University, Sweden.
    Swedish translation and cross-cultural adaptation of eight pediatric item banks from the Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS)(R)2021In: Journal of Patient-Reported Outcomes, E-ISSN 2509-8020, Vol. 5, no 1, article id 80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background This study is part of the Swedish initiative for the establishment of standardized, modern patient-reported measures for national use in Swedish healthcare. The goal was to translate and culturally adapt eight pediatric Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS(R)) item banks (anger, anxiety, depressive symptoms, family relationships, fatigue, pain interference, peer relationships and physical activity) into Swedish. Methods Authorization to translate all currently available pediatric PROMIS item banks (autumn, 2016) into Swedish was obtained from the PROMIS Health Organization. The translation followed the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy translation recommendations with one major modification, which was the use of a bilingual multi-professional review workshop. The following steps were applied: translation, reconciliation, a two-day multi professional reviewer workshop, back translation, and cognitive debriefing with eleven children (8-17 years) before final review. The bilingual multi-professional review workshop provided a simultaneous, in-depth assessment from different professionals. The group consisted of questionnaire design experts, researchers experienced in using patient-reported measures in healthcare, linguists, and pediatric healthcare professionals. Results All item banks had translation issues that needed to be resolved. Twenty-four items (20.7%) needed resolution at the final review stage after cognitive debriefing. The issues with translations included 1. Lack of matching definitions with items across languages (6 items); 2. Problems related to language, vocabulary, and cultural differences (6 items); and 3. Difficulties in adaptation to age-appropriate language (12 items). Conclusions The translated and adapted versions of the eight Swedish pediatric PROMIS item banks are linguistically acceptable. The next stage will be cross-cultural validation studies in Sweden. Despite the fact that there are cultural differences between Sweden and the United States, our translation processes have successfully managed to address all issues. Expert review groups from already-established networks and processes regarding pediatric healthcare throughout the country will facilitate the future implementation of pediatric PROMIS item banks in Sweden.

  • 88.
    Bodelsson, Ida
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    En jämförelse av att mäta den horisontella heteroforin med prisma covertest och von Graefe.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att jämföra hur mätresultaten av två forimätningsmetoder, prisma covertest och von Graefe förhåller sig till varandra.

    Material och metod: I studien deltog 54 personer, 44 kvinnor och 10 män, mellan 18-33 år. Medelåldern på de som deltog var 23,6 ± 3,4 år. Alla hade normalt binokulärseende. Undersökningen började med en anamnes, binokulär refraktion, mätning av ackommodationsamplituden samt kontroll av samsyn. Efter detta mättes horisontalforin med prisma covertest och von Graefe på sex meters håll respektive 40 centimeter. Varje fori mättes två gånger för att få fram ett medelvärde.

    Resultat: Medelvärdet ± ett standardfel på avstånd för prisma covertest var -0,63 ± 0,23 prd och för von Graefe -0,56 ± 0,34 prd. På nära håll för prisma covertest var det -2,24 ± 0,58 prd och för von Graefe -3,31 ± 0,75 prd. Resultatet av studien visar ingen signifikant skillnad mellan de båda metoderna på avstånd (p = 0,78), men på nära håll visar resultatet en signifikant skillnad mellan metoderna (p < 0,05). Två Bland Altman diagram skapades för att undersöka överenstämmelsen mellan de båda metoderna på både avstånd och nära håll. Bias ± ”coefficient of agreement” var på avstånd -0,07 ± 3,85 prd och på nära håll 1,07 ± 6,35 prd.

    Slutsats: Denna studie visar att det inte finns någon signifikant skillnad mellan prisma covertest och von Graefe på avstånd, men att det finns en signifikant skillnad mellan metoderna på nära håll. Studien visar även att prisma covertest och von Graefe stämmer bättre överens på avstånd än vad de gör på nära håll.  

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  • 89.
    Bogestrand, Ebba
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Sköld, Viktor
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Förekomsten av myopi hos hjälpsökande i Kenya2024Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of myopia among individuals seeking visual help in Kenya and analyze associated environmental factors in this population.  

    Methods: Over eight days, individuals were seeking help for their vision in the cities of Nairobi, Naivasha, and Nakuru in Kenya. A binocular, subjective refraction was conducted on all participants using flippers, trial lenses, and trial frames. Following the refraction, participants completed a questionnaire regarding environmental factors. The results were then analyzed to explore potential correlations between environmental factors and participants' refraction. For this study, myopia was defined as a Spherical Equivalent Refraction (SER) of ≤ -0.50D.  

    Results: A total of 125 participants aged between 8 and 20, with a mean age of 15.1 years (Standard deviation (SD) ±3.21), were included in the study. Myopia was observed in 42.2% of the participants. There was no significant correlation found between participants’ refraction and outdoor time (p=0.221), near work (p=0.445), or age (p=0.142). However, a significant difference in time spent outdoors was observed when comparing participants who attended school and those who did not (p=0.01). Furthermore, significant differences were observed between groups with and without previous correction regarding outdoor time (p=0.014), age (p=<0.001), and Spherical Equivalent Refraction (SER) (p=0.008). 

    Conclusion: The study highlights a significantly higher prevalence of myopia, affecting almost half of the participants, compared to previous observations in Kenya. This discrepancy is likely attributed to the study's focus on actively help-seeking participants rather than a randomly selected demographic group. Furthermore, no significant association was found between participants' Spherical Equivalent Refraction (SER) and outdoor time, near work, or age. 

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    Examensarbete
  • 90.
    Bohlin, Erik
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Larsson, Jon
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Varför tillpassas det så få stabila linser i Sverige?: En enkätstudie om kontaklinsoptikers syn på RGP-linser2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The proportion of stable lens (RGP) fittings relative to total fitting is relatively low in the world, and Sweden is no exception. There are many reasons for this, despite that a few new RGP lens designs, such as the Ortho-K and mini-scleral lenses, have become available over the past two decades.

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine the reasons as to why the proportion of RGP lens-fittings is low in Sweden and to map the viewpoints of optometrists with licences to fit contact lenses, regarding why they choose not to fit this group of lenses.

    Method: A web-based survey with 20 questions was distributed to the 1550 members of the Swedish association of Optometrists via members-email. Questions focussed on fitting demographics, the reasons why those who did fit RGP-lenses felt comfortable doing this, and why those who did not fit this lens type choose not to. In addition, an interview with an optometrist working at a hospital eye-clinic was also conducted.

    Result: Among the 1550 members of the Swedish association of Optometrists, 359 responded to the survey. Approximately 34% of these fitted RGP-lenses and the majority worked in private self-owned or franchise stores. Those who felt comfortable fitting stable lenses said that it was because they had experience (49%), routine (15%) and knowledge (14%) within the field. The most common reasons given by those who did not fit RGP-lenses, as to why they did not fit RGP-lenses were that this lens type “was not available in the clinic”, that there were “too few customers” or “lack of demand” and that they “lacked essential knowledge”. There were however a majority of this group (76%) who were positive to fitting RGPlenses themselves

    Conclusion: Because of lack of knowledge, the missing of supply at stores and the lack of patients according to opticians, the amount of RGP-lens fitting in Sweden is low.

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  • 91.
    Bolander, Matilda
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Westin, Johanna
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Effektivitet av nya amblyopibehandlingar utifrån kliniska studier: En litteraturstudie2023Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this literature study was to investigate novel amblyopia treatments and their effectiveness based on clinical studies.

    Method: The literature study is based on PubMed searches made between the 16th and 19th of April 2023. The inclusion criteria of the reviewed studies were as follows: it was a clinical trial, available in full text, in Swedish or English, published between 2000 and 2023, and had relevant content. To be included as relevant content, the study had to be discussing treatment options not used in healthcare as a treatment option outside of clinical trials. Studies that did not fulfil the criteria of relevance were excluded.  

    Result: Forty-two studies were reviewed with six identified categories of non-conventional treatment options: dichoptic binocular training, acupuncture, pharmacological, perceptual learning, active monocular therapy, and low-level laser therapy. The effectiveness of the treatments varies greatly between the categories. Of the reviewed studies, dichoptic binocular training is most likely to be used as an adjunct to treatments that are already established.

    Conclusion: Despite the fact that many trials have shown positive results in terms of improvement in visual acuity, none of them seem promising enough to replace current treatments such as occlusion due to mixed results with respect to amblyopia resolution and long-term maintenance of the improved acuity. Some of these solutions are more likely to be available and used as a complement or in situations where established treatments are no longer working. Before they may be regarded as having potential for use in treatment, more clinical trials and studies are required in each area examined.

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    Effektivitet av nya amblyopibehandlingar utifrån kliniska studier
  • 92.
    Borgqvist, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Synnervens storlek hos myoper och emmetroper med Optical Coherence Tomography2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att kontrollera om det finns någon skillnad på synnervens storlek hos myoper och emmetroper med hjälp av optical coherence tomography (OCT).Metod: Totalt deltog 35 personer i studien, 15st emmetroper och 20st myoper. Kriterierna för att man skulle få delta var åldern 18-45 år. Deltagarna delades sedan in i två grupper efter refraktionen, emmetroper mellan +0,75D till -0,25D och myoper minst -0,50D eller högre efter refraktionen. Alla deltagare kontrollerades med biomikroskop för att utesluta förändringar i ögat. OCT kamera användes för att få alla mätvärden i höger öga. Åtta olika mätvärden användes för varje deltagare. Det var disk, cup och bräm area, cup/disk kvot både horisontellt och vertikalt, area kvot, medel cup exkavation och max cup exkavation.Resultat: Mätvärdena sammanställdes i Excel för att analyseras och jämföras med hjälp av ett oberoende T-test. Medelvärden och standardavvikelser (SD) räknades också de ut i Excel. Det fanns ingen signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna, p >0,05. En regressionsanalys gjordes för att jämföra korrelationen mellan den sfäriska ekvivalenten hos myoperna med disk arean. Korrelationen var väldigt låg (r = 0,01).Slutsats: Denna studie visar att det inte finns någon signifikant skillnad på synnervens storlek hos myoper och emmetroper.

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  • 93.
    Borgström, Emma
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Erixon, Maja
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    En jämförande studie av myopibehandlande kontaktlinser: Vilken kontaktlins visar bäst effekt på att bromsa ner tillväxten av myopa barns axiallängd?2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The aim of this comparative literature study was to investigate the effect of different types of contact lens designs on myopia treatment, and the axial length elongation is children with myopia.

    Methods: This review study was based on literature retrieved from scientific publications in the field of optometry. The publications were selected by searching the Google Search and PubMed databases. Eligibility for the selection of articles was based on inspection of title and abstract, and how much they fit the study's inclusion criteria including

    - Studies must have been published after the year 2005.

    - Studies should include a control group that was compared to any of the following myopic control interventions: 

    1. concentric multifocal design, 

    2. aspherical multifocal design or 

    3. orthokeratology. 

    - The studies must be based on children. 

    Results: On average, orthokeratology slowed the growth of AL with 0.22 mm compared to the control group after 24 months. Concentric multifocal design slowed the growth of AL with 0.17 mm compared to its control group, and aspherical multifocal design slowed the growth of AL with 0.13 mm[PD1] . However, there was no statistically significant difference between the lens designs in terms of slowing the progression (p = 0.160).

    Conclusion: The study found that there is no statistically significant difference between the lens designs in terms of slowing down myopic children's growth of AL. As all lens designs have shown similar results, other factors should decide which treatment strategy to choose, such as financial circumstances, compliance and the child's preference. 

  • 94.
    Boström, Johanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Pettersson, Lovisa
    ,Karolinska Institutet.
    Baskaran, Karthikeyan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Källmark, Fredrik
    Källmarkskliniken, Stockholm.
    Gierow, Peter
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Meibography: Inter-rater reliability2016In: 8th International Conference on the Tear Film & Ocular Surface: Basic Science and Clinical Relevance: Conference Program & Abstract Book, 2016, p. 47-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose. The tear film lipid layer holds an important role in maintaining the integrity and health of the anterior surface of the eye. The meibomian glands found in eyelids are responsible for producing most of the lipids of the tear film. Dysfunction of the meibomian glands leads to increased evaporation of tears, which may lead to dry eye. Meibography is a method used for assessing the drop out of meibomian glands. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability between two different examiners when rating meibography images. Methods. The Sirius 3D scheimpflug camera (C.S.O., Florence, Italy) was used to photograph the everted upper and lower eyelids of the right and left eye of 52 subjects. The grade of meibomian gland loss was subjectively graded using the five-grade Meiboscale (Pult, 2012) and the percentage of gland loss was calculated using Phoenix Meibography software (version 3.0.1.021, bon Optic VertriebsGmbH, Lübeck, Germany). Data was analyzed using MedCalc for Windows (version 16.4.3, MedCalc Software, Ostend, Belgium). Results. The inter-rater reliability for the Meiboscale grade of meibomian gland loss was calculated using weighted Cohen’s kappa (linear weights). The result for all 208 images was Kw = 0.542 (95 % CI 0.454 to 0.630), which indicates a moderate agreement. The inter-rater reliability for the percentage of meibomian gland loss was calculated using intraclass correlation coefficient. The result for all 208 images was ICC = 0.794 (95 % CI 0.737 to 0.839), which indicates a substantial agreement. Conclusions. Imaging is an invaluable tool when managing patients in clinical practice. When performing meibography to evaluate meibomian gland loss, using software to calculate the percentage of gland loss gives a better inter-rater agreement than subjective grading of the images.

  • 95.
    Boukeng, Lionel Berthold Keubou
    et al.
    Univ Yaounde I, Cameroon.
    Dapi Nzefa, Léonie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Sali, Djouwairiyatou
    Univ Yaounde I, Cameroon.
    Minkandi, Claude Axel
    Univ Yaounde I, Cameroon.
    Bevela, Jean Yves
    Univ Yaounde I, Cameroon.
    Nouko, Ariane
    Univ Yaounde I, Cameroon.
    Ebogo, Charly Etoa
    Univ Yaounde I, Cameroon.
    Oral pathologies and underweight conditions among people living with HIV/AIDS in a health facility in Yaoundé, Cameroon: a study of 205 cases2024In: BMC Nutrition, E-ISSN 2055-0928, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 30Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundHuman immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a public health concern worldwide. The clinical manifestations include underweight and oral lesions. The objective of this study was to assess the relationship between oral pathologies and underweight among HIV-positive patients in Yaounde, Cameroon. MethodsWe conducted a cross-sectional study between February 1st and 30th June 2021 at Yaounde Central Hospital in Cameroon. A total of 205 HIV positive patients aged at least 18 years were recruited via consecutive sampling. The questionnaire consisted of sociodemographic information, anthropometric data, dietary habits, HIV history and treatment and oral examination data. The data were analysed with R software. Multivariate analysis was used to assess the risk of being underweight among HIV-positive patients with oral pathologies. A p value < 0.05 was considered to indicate statistical significance. ResultsThe prevalence of oral pathologies was 52.7% (95% CI: 45.6-59.6), and the main pathologies were candidiasis (40.5%, 95% CI: 33.7-47.5) and linear erythema (32.2%, 95% CI: 25.9-39.1). The prevalence of underweight was 20% (95% CI: 14.88-26.26). Binary logistic regression revealed that HIV-positive patients with oral pathologies were 10.89 (95% CI: 2.28-16.63) times more likely to be underweight than were HIV positive and AIDS patients without oral pathologies (p = 0.002). ConclusionOral candidiasis and linear erythema were common in HIV positive and AIDS patients. HIV-positive and AIDS patients with these oral pathologies were at higher risk of being underweight than were those without oral pathologies. The effective medical care of these patients must include oral and nutritional management.

  • 96.
    Boukeng, Lionel Berthold Keubou
    et al.
    Univ Yaounde I, Cameroon.
    Minkandi, Claude Axel
    Univ Yaounde I, Cameroon.
    Dapi Nzefa, Léonie
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work. Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Univ Yaounde I, Cameroon.
    Oral pathology and overweight among pupils in government primary schools in Cameroon: a cross-sectional study2023In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 23, no 1, article id 282Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundTooth decay and periodontal diseases are the main oral pathologies in the world. The prevalence of overweight in children has increased worldwide. Overweight children have alterations in the composition of saliva and excessive consumption of saturated fatty acids tend to slow the metabolism of carbohydrates in the oral cavity leading to tooth decay, periodontal disease and others oral disorders. The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between oral pathologies and overweight in pupils of primary schools of Cameroon.MethodsA cross-sectional study was carried out from June to August 2020 in four government primary schools selected through cluster sampling in Yaounde. 650 pupils aged between 6 and 11 years were enrolled. Data collected included anthropometric, oral pathologies, quality of oral hygiene and feeding habits. Data were analysed with the SPSS 26.0 statistical software and binary logistic regression was used to determine the risks of oral pathologies in overweight pupils. P-value of 0.05 was considered statistically significant.ResultsThe prevalence of overweight was 27% (95% CI: 23.5-30.5). The main oral pathologies was tooth decay (60.3%). Binary logistic regression revealed that overweight pupils were significantly 1.5 times more likely to develop tooth decay than non-overweight pupils (95% CI: 1.1-2.4).ConclusionOverweight, tooth decay are prevalent among pupils. Overweight pupils have a higher risk of developing tooth decay compared to non-obese pupils. An integrated package of oral and nutritional health promotion activities is necessary in primary schools in Cameroon.

  • 97.
    Bravo, Giangiacomo
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Studies.
    Laitinen, Mikko
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Levin, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Department of Languages.
    Löwe, Welf
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of computer science and media technology (CM), Department of Computer Science.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Big Data in Cross-Disciplinary Research: J.UCS Focused Topic2017In: Journal of universal computer science (Online), ISSN 0948-695X, E-ISSN 0948-6968, Vol. 23, no 11, p. 1035-1037Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 98.
    Brigitta, Spirer
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    AKA värdet för myoper vid alternerande mellan glasögon och kontaktlinser2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Myoper alternerar gärna  mellan glasögon och kontaktlinser i det vardagliga livet då det tillfredsställer synkvaliten på ett väldigt bra sätt. De nackdelar som uppstår till följd av detta,  med ökat ackommodations och konvergensbehov bör däremot inte försummas. AKA värdet beskriver sambandet mellan ackommodation och ackommodations konvergens. Det beskriver även om patientens symptom kan avhjälpas med en över eller underkorrektion. Syftet med detta arbete är att jämföra AKA värdet i glasögon med kontaktlinser.

    Metod: 20 myopa personer med refraktionsfel över -1,00D deltog i studien. Samtliga var mellan 18 och 35 år och var både kontaktlins och glasögonbärande. Närforin mättes med refraktionsfelet i provbåge samt med tilläggen +1,00D och -1,00D, AKA förhållandet räknades ut och ett medelvärde togs. Likvärdigt mättes forierna med kontaktlinser där första mätningen utfördes med refraktionsfelet. Resterande två mätningar utfördes med refraktionsfelet och tilläggen +1,00D / -1,00D i kontaktlinsen. Även för dessa värden räknades AKA förhållandet ut och ett medelvärde togs.

    Resultat: Resultatet i denna studie visar att det inte finns någon signifikant skillnad i ett AKA värde mellan glasögon och kontaktlinser. När det gäller den horisontella närforin i de olika korrektionerna fanns det en förändring åt det esoforiska hållet i kontaktlinser. Denna skillnad var däremot inte signifikant. Det resultat där en signifikant skillnad fanns var den horisontella närforin med +1,00D. Korrelationen mellan AKA värde och refraktionsfel samt mellan AKA värde i de olika korrektionerna uppvisade ingen signifikans.

    Slutsats: Slutsatsen av denna studie är att det i ett AKA värde inte uppstår någon signifikant skillnad mellan korrektionerna. 

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  • 99.
    Broberg Danielsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Fossdal Finnas, Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. eHälsoinstitutet.
    Nilsson, Lina
    Blekinge Tekniska Högskola ; Landstinget i Blekinge.
    Professionernas behov av kompetens inom eHälsa: Både befintlig och blivande personal inom hälsa, vård och omsorg2016Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    fulltext
  • 100.
    Broberg Danielsson, Hanna
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Informatics.
    Nilsson, Anna-Lena
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Petersson, Göran
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry.
    Utvärdering av eHälsa - 10 års erfarenhet2014In: Vitalis - Nordens ledande eHälsomöte 2014: Vetenskapliga papers presenterade vid Vitalis konferens, Svenska Mässan, Göteborg, 8-10 april 2014, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hälso- och sjukvården har gjort omfattande satsningar på införande av IT-stöd för att få en bättre, säkrare och effektivare vård. IT-stöden ger dock inte alltid de avsedda effekterna och utvärdering blir då ett viktigt instrument i förbättringsarbetet. Vi har gjort en studie av 26 utvärderingsprojekt vid eHälsoinstitutet senaste 10 åren och kartlagt medarbetarnas erfarenheter av att utvärdera eHälsa. Dessa resultat kommer att användas för att förbättra metodik för utvärdering av eHälsa.

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