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  • 201.
    Heegård Petersen, Jan
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Narrative structures in languages of the Hindu Kush: A preliminary corpus-based study2022Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing body of areal-typological as well as descriptive studies on languages of the linguistically rich and diverse Hindu Kush region of High Asia (Bashir 2016; Liljegren 2020b), but comparatively little attention has been given to properties related to discourse structures and the characteristics of e.g. storytelling and other primarily oral genres (Heegård Petersen 2015: 75–82; Obrtelová 2019; Schmidt 2003). In the present study, documentation corpora, consisting primarily of narratives with single speakers, have been analysed, with the explicit goal of establishing an areal typology of narrative structures. While the analytical focus is on well-annotated corpora of two selected Indo-Aryan languages spoken in the region that have been subject to modern documentation efforts, additional comparisons are made with – more or less thoroughly – annotated text data from past or ongoing documentation efforts in neighbouring languages.

    Some of the characteristics of Hindu Kush narratives – while far from forming a complete orstructured list – are: a) a high frequency of discourse markers signalling e.g. new developments, topic-shifting or contrast; b) the occurrence of tail-head-linkage and cosubordination (Haspelmath 1995: 20–27); c) the occurrence of “dramatizing” or “intensifying” features, e.g. by means of reduplication or prosodic features such as lengthening, laryngealization or creaky voice; d) feedback prompting, gestural or explicitly expressed as ‘did you understand?’; e) a frequent – although not necessarily a fully grammaticalized - use of evidentiality markers/contrasts, signalling e.g. hearsay, reported speech or reported perception (Bashir 2010; Liljegren 2020a: 147–150); f) formulaic expressions, occurring primarily in the opening or closing phases of a narrative; and g) contents referring to otherwise rarely mentioned mythical creatures or former (particularly pre-Islamic) religious practices (Schmidt 2006).

    While this investigation is largely descriptive by nature, we aim at addressing to what extent the structures that have been identified can be defined as truly area-specific or culture specific, or whether these properties in fact largely line up with more general observations made about narratives. 

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  • 202.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adjectives and clausal complementation2012In: Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, ISSN 1100-097X, Vol. 89, p. 37-67Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 203.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Evaluative adjectives and relative clauses2012In: Discourse and Grammar: a festschrift in honor of Valéria Molnár / [ed] Johan Brandtler, David Håkansson, Stefan Huber, Eva Klingvall, Lund: Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University , 2012, p. 265-280Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 204.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Finiteness in Swedish2012In: Working Papers in Scandinavian Syntax, ISSN 1100-097X, Vol. 90, p. 81-110Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 205.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Long object shift and reflexives2010In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 33, no 1, p. 67-80Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This short communication is concerned with long object shift of reflexives in Swedish. Only 3rd person reflexives can shift across their antecedent. For some reason this is possible even if the antecedent is 1st or 2nd person as well, but certain requirements on the antecedent are necessary. This paper shows that neither a purely syntactic nor a purely semantic analysis can account for all the facts. Instead the best analysis seems to be one that makes use of Bonet's (1995) post-syntactic morphological processes: feature delinking, feature erasure and feature insertion.

  • 206.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Michael A. Arbib, How the Brain Got Language: The Mirror System Hypothesis2013In: Nordic Journal of Linguistics, ISSN 0332-5865, E-ISSN 1502-4717, Vol. 36, no 1, p. 89-94Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 207.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of Meaning and the Lexicon2011In: Linguist List, E-ISSN 1068-4875, no 22, article id 616Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 208.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Review of The Oxford Handbook of Compounding2010In: Linguist List, E-ISSN 1068-4875, no 21, article id 368Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 209.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Swedish evaluative relative clauses2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 210.
    heinat, fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Vilka faktorer påverkar grammatikalitet, Grammatikfestival Göteborgs universitet2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 211.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Klingvall, Eva
    Lund University.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Agreeing passives in Finnish2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 212.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Klingvall, Eva
    Lund University.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    How do things get done? On non-canonical passives in Finnish2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 213.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Evidence for a Finnish Personal Passive, the 24th Annual meeting of the Linguistic Association of Great Britain, University of Leeds2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 214.
    Heinat, Fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Gradient Well-formedness of Finnish Passive Constructions2013In: Proceedings of the 24th Conference of Scandinavian Linguistics / [ed] Tirkkonen, J. and Anttikoski, E., Joensuu, Finland: University of Eastern Finland Press , 2013, p. 59-70Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 215.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Gradient Well-Formedness of Finnish Passive Constructions 24th Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics. University of Joensuu.2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 216.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    How do things get done: on non-canonical passives in Finnish2013In: Non-canonical passives / [ed] Alexiadou, A. and Schäfer, F., Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2013, p. 213-234Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 217.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Manninen, Satu
    Lund University.
    Using gradient acceptability judgments to investigate syntactic constructions, Grammatik i focus, Lunds universitet2010In: Grammatik i focus, Lunds universitet, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 218.
    heinat, fredrik
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Wiklund, Anna-Lena
    Restrictions on RC Extraction: Knowing men who sell flowers and escaping them2014Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 219. Horatius Flaccus, Quintus
    Harding, Gunnar (Author of introduction, etc., Translator)
    Plocka din dag: Oden i urval och översättning2017Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Carpe diem! Nu återupplivas den romerske diktaren Horatius i en svensk nyöversättning för tjugohundratalet. Många av Horatius verser är så träffande att de blivit en del av det svenska språket. Här presenteras ett urval av hans allra kändaste dikter, oden.

    Från sin lantegendom utanför Rom reflekterar Horatius över hur man bör leva sitt liv och hur man ska förhålla sig till döden. Odena är ofta lättsamma, de flödar av kvicka infall och kloka tankar. Horatius påpekar bara sådant som vi vet eller borde veta, men han gör det så skickligt att dikterna tillhör det lilla urval av antika texter som fördes över från papyrus till pergament.

    Horatius (65–8 före vår tid) uppnådde en ställning som en av sin tids största poeter. Tack vare ekonomiskt stöd från den inflytelserika Maecenas kunde han lämna sitt arbete och ägna sig helt åt att skriva poesi. Han var nära vän med kejsar Augustus och räknas än idag som världspoesins största vinkännare – i sina oden är han mycket noga med att redovisa sorterna.

  • 220.
    Hunley, Keith
    et al.
    University of New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reesink, Ger
    Terrill, Angela
    Radboud University.
    Inferring Prehistory from Genetic, Linguistic, and Geographic Variation2007In: Genes, Language, and Culture History in the Southwest Pacific / [ed] Friedlaender, Jonathan S, New York: Oxford University Press , 2007, p. 141-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 221.
    Hunley, Keith
    et al.
    Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Dunn, Michael
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands; Max Planck Institute for Psycholinguistics, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reesink, Ger
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Terrill, Angela
    Centre for Language Studies, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Healey, Meghan E.
    Department of Anthropology, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque, New Mexico.
    Koki, George
    Human Genetics, Institute for Medical Research, Goroka, Papua New Guinea.
    Friedlaender, Françoise R.
    Independent Researcher, Sharon, Connecticut, United States of America.
    Friedlaender, Jonathan S.
    Department of Anthropology, Temple University, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
    Genetic and Linguistic Coevolution in Northern Island Melanesia2008In: PLOS Genetics, ISSN 1553-7390, E-ISSN 1553-7404, Vol. 4, no 10, article id e1000239Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent studies have detailed a remarkable degree of genetic and linguistic diversity in Northern Island Melanesia. Here we utilize that diversity to examine two models of genetic and linguistic coevolution. The first model predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed following population splits and isolation at the time of early range expansions into the region. The second is analogous to the genetic model of isolation by distance, and it predicts that genetic and linguistic correspondences formed through continuing genetic and linguistic exchange between neighboring populations. We tested the predictions of the two models by comparing observed and simulated patterns of genetic variation, genetic and linguistic trees, and matrices of genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. The data consist of 751 autosomal microsatellites and 108 structural linguistic features collected from 33 Northern Island Melanesian populations. The results of the tests indicate that linguistic and genetic exchange have erased any evidence of a splitting and isolation process that might have occurred early in the settlement history of the region. The correlation patterns are also inconsistent with the predictions of the isolation by distance coevolutionary process in the larger Northern Island Melanesian region, but there is strong evidence for the process in the rugged interior of the largest island in the region (New Britain). There we found some of the strongest recorded correlations between genetic, linguistic, and geographic distances. We also found that, throughout the region, linguistic features have generally been less likely to diffuse across population boundaries than genes. The results from our study, based on exceptionally fine-grained data, show that local genetic and linguistic exchange are likely to obscure evidence of the early history of a region, and that language barriers do not particularly hinder genetic exchange. In contrast, global patterns may emphasize more ancient demographic events, including population splits associated with the early colonization of major world regions.

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  • 222. Hyman, Larry M.
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, MariaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Linguistic Typology: The Unabashed Typologist: A Frans Plank Schubertiade: 21st Anniversary Issue in Honour of Frans Plank2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 223. Hyman, Larry M.
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Lahiri, Aditi
    Nichols, Johanna
    The unabashed typologist: A Frans Plank Schubertiade2017In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 21, p. 1-8Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 224.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Expectation-based processing of grammatical functions in Swedish2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research indicate that language processing is expectation-based, drawing on statistical patterns in the input (MacDonald 2013). In this talk, I present evidence for this idea from experimental and corpus-based studies on the comprehension and production of grammatical functions (GFs) in Swedish transitive sentences. The preferred word order in such sentences is SVO. However, Swedish also allows for OVS word ordering, with the object placed sentence-initially and the subject post-verbally. Since the NP argument GFs of such sentences may not be correctly determined from the sentence constituent order (i.e., NPs and verb), they are potentially ambiguous. They can therefore be costly to comprehend when the initial NP lacks case marking. In such cases, comprehenders need to revise their initial sentence interpretation as subject-initial upon encountering the disambiguating post-verbal subject NP (Hörberg et al. 2013).

    However, corpus-based and typological research shows that GFs correlate with prominence-based (e.g., animacy and definiteness) and verb-semantic (e.g., volitionality) information, both in the frequency distributions in language use within individual languages (e.g., Bouma 2008), and the grammatical encoding of GFs across languages (e.g., Aissen 2003), creating complex statistical regularities in the distribution of  prominence-based, morphosyntactic and verb-semantic properties. These properties and their interplay may be utilized during encoding and decoding of GFs in production and comprehension in order to overcome potential ambiguity problems.

    I will present results from a corpus study of written Swedish investigating the distribution of these properties in subject-initial, object-initial and passive sentences. I will argue that writers tend to balance their use of these properties in order to avoid GF ambiguities. In particular, writers less frequently use OVS sentences when other morphosyntactic or animacy-based information about GFs are unavailible (Hörberg 2018). In such cases, writers more frequently use the unambiguous passive construction.

    I will then present an expectation-based model of processing difficulty during incremental GF assignment in Swedish transitive sentences, based upon the statistical regularities observed in the corpus data (Hörberg 2016). Processing difficulty is quantified as the on-line change in the expectation of a particular GF assignment (subject- or object-initial) upon encountering the properties of a constituent (e.g., NP2) with respect to the previously encountered properties (e.g., NP1 and verb(s)) in terms of Bayesian surprise.

    I will finally provide empirical evidence for this expectation-based model on the basis of a self-paced reading experiment, testing some of the most prominent model predictions. Here, by-region reading times converged with the region-specific Bayesian surprise predicted by the model. For example, NP2 reading times in ambiguous OVS sentences were mitigated when NP1 animacy and its interaction with verb class bias towards an object-initial word order.

    These findings provide evidence for the expectation-based account in that they indicate that language users are sensitive to statistical regularities in their language during both production and comprehension of GFs. During production, writers seem to balance their use of morphosyntactic and prominence-based cues to GFs in a manner that accommodates comprehension. During comprehension, incremental GF assignment draws upon statistical regularities in the distribution of morphosyntactic, prominence-based and verb-semantic properties.

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  • 225.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Functional motivations behind direct object fronting in written Swedish: A corpus-distributional account2018In: Glossa: a journal of general linguistics, E-ISSN 2397-1835, Vol. 3, no 1, article id 81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Swedish, grammatical functions are primarily encoded by word order. In prototypical transitive sentences, the subject precedes the direct object. However, Swedish also allows for fronting of the direct object, although such sentences are potentially ambiguous with respect to grammatical functions. This study therefore investigates direct object fronting in written Swedish with respect to 1) which functions this construction serves and 2) whether the use of direct object fronting is dispreferred when the grammatical functions cannot be determined on other information types. These questions are investigated on the basis of quantitative differences in the distribution of NP prominence properties (e.g., givenness and animacy) and formal, morphosyntactic cues to grammatical functions (e.g., case marking and verb particles) between OVS and SVO sentences, and between OVS sentences and passives. The results indicate that direct object fronting is used when the object either is topical and highly discourse prominent, or when it is contrastive. I also argue that direct object fronting is used to introduce new topics into the discourse. Subjects are more frequently high in discourse prominence in object-initial sentences than in subject-initial sentences. I suggest that this stems from a motivation to keep the information in object-initial sentences following the sentence-initial object “informationally light” and predictable. Unambiguous formal markers of grammatical functions are used more frequently in OVS sentences than in SVO sentences, but less frequently in passives than in SVO sentences. OVS sentences also more frequently contain an animate subject and an inanimate object than SVO sentences, and in passives, animate subjects and inanimate objects are even less frequent. Writers therefore seem to prefer the structurally unambiguous passive construction over the potentially ambiguous object-initial construction, when grammatical functions cannot be determined on the basis of other formal markers or an NP argument animacy difference. Further, sentences with two animate arguments more frequently contain formal markers than sentences with at most one animate argument. These findings indicate that writers actively avoid direct object fronting when it potentially results in an ambiguity, and provide evidence for the hypothesis that writers are inclined to actively avoid ambiguities more generally.

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  • 226.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Incremental syntactic prediction in the comprehension of Swedish2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Comprehenders need to incrementally integrate incoming input with previously processed material. Constraint-based and probabilistic theories of language understanding hold that comprehenders do this by drawing on implicit knowledge about the statistics of the language signal, as observed in their previous experience. I test this prediction against the processing of grammatical relations in Swedish transitive sentences, combining corpus-based modeling and a self-paced reading experiment.

    Grammatical relations are often assumed to express role-semantic (e.g., Actor and Undergoer) and discourse-related (such as topic and focus) functions that are encoded on the basis of a systematic interplay between morphosyntactic (e.g., case and word order), semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and definiteness) and verb semantic (e.g., volitionality and sentience) information. Constraint-based and probabilistic theories predict that these information types serve as cues in the process of assigning functions to the argument NPs during language comprehension. The weighting, interplay and availability of these cues vary across languages but do so in systematic ways. For example, languages with fixed word orders tend to have less morphological marking of grammatical relations than languages with less rigid word order restrictions. The morphological marking of grammatical relations is also in many languages restricted to NP arguments which are non-prototypical or marked in terms of semantic or referential properties, given their functions (overt case marking of objects is, e.g., restricted to personal pronouns in English and Swedish). I first assess how these factors affect constituent order (i.e. the order of grammatical relations) in a corpus of Swedish and then test whether comprehenders use the statistical information contained in these cues.

    Corpus study. The distribution of SVO and OVS orders conditional on semantic / referential (e.g., animacy and givenness), morphosyntactic (e.g., case) and verb semantic (e.g. volitionality) information was calculated on the basis of 16552 transitive sentences, extracted from a syntactically annotated corpus of Swedish. Three separate mixed logistic regression models were fit to derive the incremental predictions that a simulated comprehender with experience in Swedish would have after seeing the sentence up to and including the first NP (model 1), the verb (model 2), or the second NP (model 3). The regression models provide separate estimates of the objective probability of SVO vs. OVS word order at each point in the sentence. This information was used to design stimuli for a self-paced reading experiment to test whether comprehenders draw on this objectively present information in the input.

    Self-paced reading experiment. 45 participants read transitive sentences that varied with respect to word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP1 animacy (animate vs. inanimate) and verb class (volitional vs. experiencer).  By-region reading times were well-described by the region-by-region shifts in the probability of SVO vs. OVS word order, calculated as the relative entropy. For example, reading times in the NP2 region observed in locally ambiguous, object-initial sentences were mitigated when the animacy of NP1 and its interaction with the verb class bias towards an object-initial word order, as predicted by the constraint-based and probabilistic theories.

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  • 227.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Influences of Form and Function on Spatial Relations: Establishing functional and geometric influences on projective prepositions in Swedish2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present work is concerned with projective prepositions, which express the relation between two objects by referring to a direction in three-dimensional space. The projective prepositions have been regarded as expressing simple schematic relations of a geometric nature. A theory of the apprehension of projective relations can account for their meanings when they express strictly geometric relations. However, many studies have shown that the appropriateness of the prepositions also depends on the functional relation between the objects and that a number of functional factors influence the comprehension of English prepositions. This experimental study investigates if the acceptability of the Swedish prepositions över, under, ovanför and nedanför are influenced by functional factors as well, and whether acceptability judgments about över and under are more sensitive to functional influences than judgments about ovanför and nedanför, as has been shown for the corresponding English prepositions over and under, and above and below, respectively. It also investigates how the shapes and the parts of the related objects influence their functional interaction, and how the acceptability of the prepositions is in consequence influenced by the shapes of the objects. It was found that the theory of apprehension can indeed account for the acceptability of the prepositions when the relation between the objects is strictly geometric. It was further found that acceptability judgments about them are influenced by functional factors in a similar manner to the corresponding English prepositions when the objects are functionally related, although judgments about under and nedanför are not differentially influenced by these factors. Furthermore, the shapes and the parts of both of the related objects influence acceptability judgments about the prepositions in predictable manners. An extension of the theory of apprehension is suggested which can account for the functional influences indicated in the present study.

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  • 228.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Influences of form and function on the acceptability of projective prepositions in Swedish2008In: Spatial Cognition and Computation, ISSN 1387-5868, E-ISSN 1573-9252, ISSN 1387-5868, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 193-218Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Projective prepositions express the relation between two objects by referring to a direction in space and have traditionally been regarded as expressing purely geometric relations. Recent studies have shown that the appropriateness of English and Spanish projectives also depends on functional relations between objects. This study investigates if the acceptability of the Swedish projectives över, under, ovanför and nedanför are influenced by functional factors as well, and whether över and under are differentially influenced by function than ovanför and nedanför, as has been shown for their English cognates. It also investigates how the shape and parts of the related objects influence their functional interaction, and thereby the acceptability of the prepositions. This is done with respect to the predictions of the AVS-model, a model of the perceptual processes underlying the apprehension of projectives, which takes both the geometric and the functional relation between objects into account. It was found that acceptability judgments about the prepositions are influenced by function as their corresponding English and Spanish prepositions. The acceptability of över was more sensitive to function than ovanför, whereas under and nedanför were not differentially influenced by function, as has been shown for Spanish. It was further found that the shape and parts of both of the related objects influence acceptability regions associated with the prepositions in predictable ways, as functional interactions between objects largely depend on their parts. The results finally show that the AVS-model needs to be further developed in order to account for the form and function of the located object.

  • 229.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Projektiva prepositioner och perspektivtagande: en experimentell studie om tre faktorers relativa betydelse för användning av projektiva prepositioner i svenska2004Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Traditionellt har det antagits att användning och förståelse av spatiala prepositioner i första hand sker utifrån geometriska kriterier. Senare studier har visat att prepositioner också påverkas dels av huruvida de spatialt relaterade objekten också är funktionellt relaterade eller inte och dels av den visuella miljö som objekten utgör en del av. Dessa faktorer påverkar valet av perspektiv utifrån vilket prepositioner tillskrivs spatiala relationer, samt användning och förståelse av dem i situationer då de enbart kan tillskrivas utifrån ett perspektiv. Detta arbete undersöker experimentellt hur dessa två faktorer påverkar användning och perspektivtagande vid användning av de projektiva prepositionerna ovanför, nedanför, framför, bakom och bredvid. Resultaten visar att en funktionell relation mellan de spatialt relaterade föremålen och tillgången till en visuell miljö ökar benägenheten att använda prepositionerna utifrån ett perspektiv som utgår från föremålens egna orienteringar. Resultaten talar för att användningen av dessa prepositioner är mer situations-beroende än vad som traditionellt har antagits.

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  • 230.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The neurophysiological correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is assumed to proceed incrementally, and comprehenders commit to initial interpretations even in the absence of unambiguous information (e.g., Crocker 1994; Hawkins 2007). Initial ambiguous object arguments are therefore preferably interpreted as subjects, an interpretation that needs to be revised towards an object initial interpretation once the disambiguating information is encountered (e.g, de Vincenzi 1991; Haupt, Schlesewsky, Roehm, Friederici, & Bornkessel-Schlesewsky, 2008). Most accounts of such grammatical function reanalyses (Haupt et al. 2008) assume that they involve phrase structure revisions, and do not differ from other syntactic reanalyses. A number of studies using measurements of event-related brain potentials (ERP:s) provide evidence for this view by showing that both reanalysis types engender similar neurophysiological responses (e.g., P600 effects) (e.g., Bornkessel, McElree, Schlesewsky, & Friederici, 2004; Friederici & Mecklinger, 1996; Matzke, Mai, Nager, Russeler, Munte, 2002). Others have claimed that grammatical function reanalyses rather involves revisions of the mapping of thematic roles to argument NP:s (Bornkessel & Schlesewsky, 2006; Bornkessel-Schlesewsky & Schlesewsky, 2009a, 2009b; Haupt et al., 2008). In line with this, it has been shown that grammatical function reanalysis during spoken language comprehension engender a N400 effect (Haupt et al., 2008), an effect which has been shown to correlate with general problems in the mapping of thematic roles to argument NP:s in a number of languages (see Bornkessel-Schlesewsky & Schlesewsky, 2009b for a review).

    This poster presents a study which investigated the ERP correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish. Post-verbal NP:s that disambiguated the interpretation of object-topicalized sentences towards an object-initial reading engendered a N400 effect with a local, left-parietal distribution. This ―reanalysis N400‖ effect provides further support for the view that grammatical function reanalysis is functionally distinct from syntactic reanalyses and rather involves a revision of the mapping of thematic roles to the sentence arguments.

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  • 231.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    The Processing of Grammatical Functions in Swedish is Expectation-based2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. In order to facilitate information transfer during communication, natural language processing is assumed to be expectation-based, drawing on statistical regularities in the input (e.g., Jaeger 2013; MacDonald 2013; Venhuizen et al. 2019). During comprehension, linguistic and extra-linguistic information in the previous discourse set up expectations that facilitate interpretation. During production, information in the discourse is utilized to balance the upcoming utterance in a way that limits production costs, but also that ensures that the message is informative enough. Central to language processing is the processing of grammatical functions (GFs). GFs enable communication about how participants are related to events or states (e.g., who is doing what to whom), and are related to information structural properties such as a topichood (e.g. Foley 2011). In many languages, speakers have many ways to encode GFs syntactically (word order) and morphologically (e.g., case). Speakers' GF encoding preferences depend on an interplay between NP properties (e.g, animacy and definiteness) and verb semantic properties (e.g., volitionality and sentience) (e.g. Hörberg 2016). This creates complex statistical patterns in the distribution of these GF information types that can be utilized during on-line GF processing. In this talk, I will present findings that show how both GF encoding and decoding in transitive sentences in written Swedish is influenced by sentence-level expectations as based upon such statistical patterns. I will also present my current research project which extends on these findings, investigating how GF processing is affected by discourse-level expectations.

    GFs in Swedish. In Swedish, the preferred word order is SVO. However, when the direct object is topical or contrastive (Hörberg 2018), OVS word order is also used. OVS sentences with a lexical initial NP as 1) Läraren gillade vi inte ('the teacher we didn't like') are potentially ambiguous with respect to GFs, and can be costly to comprehend. Using event-related brain potentials (ERPs), Hörberg et al. (2013) found pronominal subject NPs in OVS sentences (e.g., vi in 1) to engender a "reanalysis N400" effect (a right-parietal negativity in the 375-550 ms time window), reflecting a revision of a tentative subject-first GF assignment upon encountering the disambiguating post-verbal subject NP.

    Influences of sentence-level expectations in GF processing. I will present results indicating that language users are sensitive to statistical regularities in the distribution of GF information, and can utilize them to overcome potential GF ambiguity problems during GF encoding and decoding in written language processing.Writers, on the one hand, tend to balance their use of OVS word order with respect to the availability of GF information in a manner that accommodates comprehension. A corpus-study of 14500 transitive sentences of written Swedish showed that OVS sentences are less frequently used when morphosyntactic or animacy information about GFs are unavailable. In such cases, writers more frequently use an unambiguous passive construction, thereby avoiding ambiguity. Readers, on the other hand, utilize statistical regularities in the distribution of GF information during on-line GF assignment. Such distributions in written corpora was used to train an expectation-based model of incremental GF assignment in transitive sentences. Based on estimates of the objective probability of an object-initial GF assignment at each constituent (NP1, verb, and NP2), the model quantifies the change in the expectation of a GF assignment in terms of Bayesian surprise (i.e., relative entropy over GF assignments before and after seeing the constituent, cf. Kuperberg & Jaeger, 2016). A self-paced reading experiment where 45 participants read 64 transitive sentences varying with respect to word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP1 animacy (animate vs. inanimate) and verb class (volitional vs. experiencer) confirmed the most prominent model predictions. By-region reading times on the verb and NP2 converged with region-specific Bayesian surprise predicted by the model. For example, NP2 reading times in ambiguous OVS sentences were mitigated when NP1 animacy and its interaction with verb class bias towards an object-initial word order.

    Influences of discourse-level expectations on GF processing. Although these findings indicate that sentence-level GF processing is sensitive to statistical regularities in the distribution of GF information, it does not address whether such regularities causally influence GF processing in spoken discourse contexts. Since sentence-level ambiguities often can be resolved in context, the utility of GF information during communication might be limited in discourse contexts (Rahkonen 2006). Indeed, sentence-level ambiguities have even been suggested to be beneficial for communication when they can be resolved in context (Piantadosi et al. 2012). In the final part of the talk, I will present my current research project that aims to address this question. The project investigates how a specific type of GF information - animacy - causally affects GF processing in transitive sentences in short story discourse contexts. It also addresses whether an appropriate discourse context can facilitate on-line GF comprehension. It consists of three experimental studies with the same stimulus material; spoken short stories accompanied with cartooned images, making up scenes that are presented sequentially. Crucially, the stories set up discourse contexts which licence OVS word order; two critical scenes are accompanied with OVS sentences in which the direct object is contrastive (Hörberg 2018).Study 1 is a picture-description task (similar to Prat-Sala & Branigan 2000), investigating whether speakers' propensity for using OVS word order is causally influenced by animacy in spoken discourse contexts, i.e., whether speakers balance their productions in a way that accomodates comprehension. Participants are exposed to the OVS sentence in the first critical scene (functioning as a prime sentence), but are asked to describe the second critical scene themselves. Crucially, the direct object of the target sentence is either animate or inanimate. If speakers are sensitive to the availibility of the animacy information and balance their use of OVS word order accordingly - in order to avoid a potential ambiguity - OVS word order descriptions should be more frequent when the direct object is inanimate.Study 2 and 3 are comprehension studies, investigating whether a discourse context, animacy information, and/or their interaction causally affect listeners' processing and anticipations regarding GF assignments during OVS sentence comprehension. Participants are exposed to the critical sentences, either with an animate or inanimate direct object, and either with or without the discourse context. Study 1 investigates the ERP response to post-verbal subject NPs in the critical OVS sentences, and - crucially - whether the previously observed reanalysis N400 (Hörberg et al. 2013) is reduced or absent when animacy and/or the discourse context provides support for an OVS interpretation. Using the visual-world eye-trackning paradigm (e.g. Altmann & Kamide 2009), study 3 investigates whether comprehenders can predict (as indexed by eye fixations) unexpected GF assignments when animacy and/or the discourse context is provided.The project will provide novel insights about the processing of GFs in spoken discourse contexts and to what extent animacy, discourse information, and their interaction guide these processes.

    Altmann, G. T. M., & Kamide, Y. (2009). Discourse-mediation of the mapping between language and the visual world: Eye movements and mental representation. Cognition, 111(1), 55–71.

    Foley, W. A. (2011). A typology of information packaging in the clause. In T. Shopen (Ed.), Language Typology and Syntactic Description: Vol. Volume 1:Clause Structure (pp. 362–446).

    Hörberg, T. (2016). Probabilistic and Prominence-driven Incremental Argument Interpretation in Swedish (PhD thesis, Stockholm University).

    Hörberg, T. (2018). Functional motivations behind direct object fronting in written Swedish: A corpus-distributional account. Glossa: A Journal of General Linguistics, 3(1), 81.

    Hörberg, T., Koptjevskaja-Tamm, M., & Kallioinen, P. (2013). The neurophysiological correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish. Language and Cognitive Processes, 28(3), 388–416.

    Jaeger, T. F. (2013). Production preferences cannot be understood without reference to communication. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.

    Kuperberg, G. R., & Jaeger, T. F. (2016). What do we mean by prediction in language comprehension? Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31(1), 32–59.

    MacDonald, M. C. (2013). How language production shapes language form and comprehension. Frontiers in Psychology, 4.

    Piantadosi, S. T., Tily, H., & Gibson, E. (2012). The communicative function of ambiguity in language. Cognition, 122(3), 280–291.

    Prat-Sala, M., & Branigan, H. P. (2000). Discourse Constraints on Syntactic Processing in Language Production: A Cross-Linguistic Study in English and Spanish. Journal of Memory and Language, 42(2), 168–182.

    Rahkonen, M. (2006). Some aspects of topicalization in Swedish declaratives. Linguistics, 44(1), 23–55.

    Venhuizen, N. J., Crocker, M. W., & Brouwer, H. (2019). Expectation-based Comprehension: Modeling the Interaction of World Knowledge and Linguistic Experience. Discourse Processes, 56(3), 229–255.

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  • 232.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    The Processing of Grammatical Functions in Swedish is Expectation-based2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is expectation-based (e.g. Venhuizen et al. 2019). Statistical regularities in the linguistic input set up expectations that are utilized during incremental interpretation. A central part of language comprehension involves assigning grammatical functions (GFs) to NPs, thereby determining how participants are related to events or states. In many languages, speakers have many ways to encode GFs morphosyntactically (e.g. word order, case), and their encoding preferences depend on an interplay between NP properties (e.g, animacy) and verb semantic properties (e.g., volitionality) (Hörberg 2016). This creates complex statistical patterns in the distribution of these GF information types that can be utilized during on-line GF processing. In this talk, I present evidence indicating that GF assignment in transitive sentences in written Swedish is expectation-based, drawing upon such statistical patterns. I will present a corpus-based probabilistic model of incremental GF assignment in Swedish transitive sentences, together with results from a self-paced reading experiment, showing that the model’s strongest predictions are confirmed by human processing preferences.

    The model is based upon 16552 transitive sentences, extracted from a corpus of written Swedish, that were annotated for word order (SVO vs. OVS), GF information (e.g., animacy, definiteness, case), and verb semantic properties (e.g. volitionality, sentience). Based on the distribution of these features, estimates of the probability for SVO vs. OVS GF assignment at each sentence region (NP1, verb, NP2) were calculated, using logistic mixed effects regression modeling. In the model, these estimates are used to predict incremental processing costs related to the change in the expectation for a GF assignment at each sentence region. This is done in terms of Bayesian surprise - the relative entropy over the two possible GF assignments before and after seeing the constituent at hand (Kuperberg & Jaeger 2016). Bayesian surprise (over syntactic trees) has also been argued to underlie the correlation between word surprisal and both processing times (Smith & Levy 2013) and certain neural responses (e.g., the N400 effect, Frank et al. 2015).

    In the self-paced reading experiment, 45 participants read 64 transitive sentences that varied with respect to word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP1 animacy (animate vs. inanimate) and verb class (volitional vs. experiencer). By-region reading times on NP1, the verb, and NP2 were well-described by the region-specific Bayesian surprise predicted by the model. For example, reading times in the NP2 region observed in locally ambiguous, object-initial sentences were mitigated when the animacy of NP1 and its interaction with the verb class bias towards an object-initial word order.

    These findings indicate that on-line GF assignment draws upon statistical regularities in the previous language input, as predicted by expectation-based accounts.

    Frank, S. L., Otten, L. J., Galli, G., & Vigliocco, G. (2015). The ERP response to the amount of information conveyed by words in sentences. Brain and Language, 140, 1–11.

    Hörberg, T. (2016). Probabilistic and Prominence-driven Incremental Argument Interpretation in Swedish (PhD thesis, Stockholm University).

    Kuperberg, G. R., & Jaeger, T. F. (2016). What do we mean by prediction in language comprehension? Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31(1), 32–59.

    Smith, N. J., & Levy, R. (2013). The effect of word predictability on reading time is logarithmic. Cognition, 128(3), 302–319.

    Venhuizen, N. J., Crocker, M. W., & Brouwer, H. (2019). Expectation-based Comprehension: Modeling the Interaction of World Knowledge and Linguistic Experience. Discourse Processes, 56(3), 229–255.

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  • 233.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    The Processing of Grammatical Functions in Swedish is Expectation-based2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is expectation-based (e.g. Venhuizen et al. 2019). Statistical regularities in the linguistic input set up expectations that are utilized during incremental interpretation. A central part of language comprehension involves assigning grammatical functions (GFs) to NPs, thereby determining how participants are related to events or states. In many languages, speakers have many ways to encode GFs morphosyntactically (e.g. word order, case), and their encoding preferences depend on an interplay between NP properties (e.g., animacy) and verb semantic properties (e.g., volitionality) (Hörberg 2016). This creates complex statistical patterns in the distribution of these GF information types that can be utilized during on-line GF processing. I will present evidence indicating that GF assignment in transitive sentences in written Swedish is expectation-based, drawing upon such statistical patterns. I present a corpus-based probabilistic model of incremental GF assignment in Swedish transitive sentences, together with results from a self-paced reading experiment, showing that the model’s strongest predictions are confirmed by human processing preferences.

    The model is based upon 16552 transitive sentences, extracted from a corpus of written Swedish, that were annotated for word order (SVO vs. OVS), GF information (e.g., animacy, definiteness, case), and verb semantic properties (e.g. volitionality, sentience). Based on the distribution of these features, estimates of the probability for SVO vs. OVS GF assignment at each sentence region (NP1, verb, NP2) were calculated, using logistic mixed effects regression modeling. In the model, these estimates are used to predict incremental processing costs related to the change in the expectation for a GF assignment at each sentence region. This is done in terms of Bayesian surprise - the relative entropy over the two possible GF assignments before and after seeing the constituent at hand (Kuperberg & Jaeger 2016). Bayesian surprise (over syntactic trees) has also been argued to underlie the correlation between word surprisal and both processing times (Smith & Levy 2013) and certain neural responses (e.g., the N400 effect, Frank et al. 2015).

    In the self-paced reading experiment, 45 participants read 64 transitive sentences that varied with respect to word order (SVO vs. OVS), NP1 animacy (animate vs. inanimate) and verb class (volitional vs. experiencer). By-region reading times on NP1, the verb, and NP2 were well-described by the region-specific Bayesian surprise predicted by the model. For example, reading times in the NP2 region observed in locally ambiguous, object-initial sentences were mitigated when the animacy of NP1 and its interaction with the verb class bias towards an object-initial word order.

    These findings indicate that on-line GF assignment draws upon statistical regularities in the previous language input, as predicted by expectation-based accounts.

    Frank, S. L., Otten, L. J., Galli, G., & Vigliocco, G. (2015). The ERP response to the amount of information conveyed by words in sentences. Brain and Language, 140, 1–11.

    Hörberg, T. (2016). Probabilistic and Prominence-driven Incremental Argument Interpretation in Swedish (PhD thesis, Stockholm University).

    Kuperberg, G. R., & Jaeger, T. F. (2016). What do we mean by prediction in language comprehension? Language, Cognition and Neuroscience, 31(1), 32–59.

    Smith, N. J., & Levy, R. (2013). The effect of word predictability on reading time is logarithmic. Cognition, 128(3), 302–319.

    Venhuizen, N. J., Crocker, M. W., & Brouwer, H. (2019). Expectation-based Comprehension: Modeling the Interaction of World Knowledge and Linguistic Experience. Discourse Processes, 56(3), 229–255.

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  • 234.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Sweden.
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    University of Rochester, United States.
    A Rational Model of Incremental Argument Interpretation: The Comprehension of Swedish Transitive Clauses2021In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 12, article id 674202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A central component of sentence understanding is verb-argument interpretation, determining how the referents in the sentence are related to the events or states expressed by the verb. Previous work has found that comprehenders change their argument interpretations incrementally as the sentence unfolds, based on morphosyntactic (e.g., case, agreement), lexico-semantic (e.g., animacy, verb-argument fit), and discourse cues (e.g., givenness). However, it is still unknown whether these cues have a privileged role in language processing, or whether their effects on argument interpretation originate in implicit expectations based on the joint distribution of these cues with argument assignments experienced in previous language input. We compare the former, linguistic account against the latter, expectation-based account, using data from production and comprehension of transitive clauses in Swedish. Based on a large corpus of Swedish, we develop a rational (Bayesian) model of incremental argument interpretation. This model predicts the processing difficulty experienced at different points in the sentence as a function of the Bayesian surprise associated with changes in expectations over possible argument interpretations. We then test the model against reading times from a self-paced reading experiment on Swedish. We find Bayesian surprise to be a significant predictor of reading times, complementing effects of word surprisal. Bayesian surprise also captures the qualitative effects of morpho-syntactic and lexico-semantic cues. Additional model comparisons find that it—with a single degree of freedom—captures much, if not all, of the effects associated with these cues. This suggests that the effects of form- and meaning-based cues to argument interpretation are mediated through expectation-based processing.

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  • 235.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jaeger, T. Florian
    Deriving argument ordering biases from expectation-based processing2017In: Cognitive explanations in linguistic typology: Contemporary insights from language processing and language acquisition, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
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  • 236.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The neurophysiological correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish2013In: Language and cognitive processes (Print), ISSN 0169-0965, E-ISSN 1464-0732, Vol. 28, no 3, p. 388-416Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language comprehension is assumed to proceed incrementally, and comprehenders commit to initial interpretations even in the absence of unambiguous information. Initial ambiguous object arguments are therefore preferably interpreted as subjects, an interpretation that needs to be revised towards an object initial interpretation once the disambiguating information is encountered. Most accounts of such grammatical function reanalyses assume that they involve phrase structure revisions, and do not differ from other syntactic reanalyses. A number of studies using measurements of event-related brain potentials (ERPs) provide evidence for this view by showing that both reanalysis types engender similar neurophysiological responses (e.g., P600 effects). Others have claimed that grammatical function reanalyses rather involve revisions of the mapping of thematic roles to argument noun phrases (NPs). In line with this, it has been shown that grammatical function reanalysis during spoken language comprehension engenders a N400 effect, an effect which has been shown to correlate with general problems in the mapping of thematic roles to argument NPs in a number of languages. This study investigated the ERP correlate to grammatical function reanalysis in Swedish. Postverbal NPs that disambiguated the interpretation of object-topicalised sentences towards an object-initial reading engendered a N400 effect with a local, right-parietal distribution. This ‘‘reanalysis N400’’ effect provides further support for the view that grammatical function reanalysis is functionally distinct from syntactic reanalyses and rather involves a revision of the mapping of thematic roles to the sentence arguments. Postverbal subject pronouns in object-topicalised sentences were also found to engender an enhanced P300 wave in comparison to object pronouns, an effect which seems to depend on the overall infrequency of object-topicalised constructions. This finding provides support for the view that the ‘‘reanalysis N400’’ in some cases can be attenuated by a task-related P300 component.

  • 237.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Ekström, Ingrid
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Sandöy, Camilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Lundén, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olfactory Influences on Visual Categorization: Behavioral and ERP Evidence2020In: Cerebral Cortex, ISSN 1047-3211, E-ISSN 1460-2199, Vol. 30, no 7, p. 4220-4237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual stimuli often dominate nonvisual stimuli during multisensory perception. Evidence suggests higher cognitive processes prioritize visual over nonvisual stimuli during divided attention. Visual stimuli should thus be disproportionally distracting when processing incongruent cross-sensory stimulus pairs. We tested this assumption by comparing visual processing with olfaction, a “primitive” sensory channel that detects potentially hazardous chemicals by alerting attention. Behavioral and event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were assessed in a bimodal object categorization task with congruent or incongruent odor–picture pairings and a delayed auditory target that indicated whether olfactory or visual cues should be categorized. For congruent pairings, accuracy was higher for visual compared to olfactory decisions. However, for incongruent pairings, reaction times (RTs) were faster for olfactory decisions. Behavioral results suggested that incongruent odors interfered more with visual decisions, thereby providing evidence for an “olfactory dominance” effect. Categorization of incongruent pairings engendered a late “slow wave” ERP effect. Importantly, this effect had a later amplitude peak and longer latency during visual decisions, likely reflecting additional categorization effort for visual stimuli in the presence of incongruent odors. In sum, contrary to what might be inferred from theories of “visual dominance,” incongruent odors may in fact uniquely attract mental processing resources during perceptual incongruence.

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  • 238.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    The semantic organization of the English odor vocabulary2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people find it difficult to name familiar odors. Many languages, including English, lack a vocabulary devoted to describing odor qualities (compared to, e.g., a color term vocabulary), and little is known about the vocabulary used to describe odors. Attempts to establish “primary odor descriptors” have been unsuccessful. To date, research on odor vocabulary has rarely been done from a data-driven, empirical perspective.

    We present a study on the semantic organization of odor vocabulary, based on the distribution of words in olfactory and gustatory contexts, using a three-billion-word corpus of written English. Using a data-driven, computational linguistic approach developed in our lab, we quantify terms with respect to the degree of olfactory-semantic content they convey. We then derive the semantic organization of the top 200 olfactory-related terms, using a distributional-semantic word vector model, which represent semantic distances as multidimensional vector distances. The model is trained on olfactory and gustatory contexts, using the word2vec neural network implementation. Based on the semantic distances, we then use dimensionality reduction and clustering techniques (i.e., PCA and hierarchical clustering) to derive a 3-dimensional, corpus-based semantic space, and six principal descriptor clusters.

    Using distances based on the Draveneiks odor-term ratings data set, we also derive a semantic space with six specific clusters for the Draveneiks terms. The organization and clustering of our corpus-based semantic space match with the ratings-based semantic space, thereby showing the viability of our corpus-based approach. Based on our corpus-based data, we finally propose a novel domain-general odor term taxonomy (i.e., a domain-general odor wheel) that captures the dimensions and clusters identified in our analyses.

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  • 239.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olofsson, Jonas K.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    The semantic organization of the English odor vocabulary2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Most people find it difficult to name familiar odors (e.g. Herz & Engen, 1996; Jönsson & Stevenson, 2014). Most languages, including English, lack a vocabulary that is devoted to describing odor qualities (as compared to, e.g., a color term vocabulary). Across languages, olfaction has been shown to be the sense with the poorest linguistic codability (i.e. naming consistency, see e.g. Majid et al., 2018). Instead of using devoted, abstract terms for describing odors, speakers of many languages often resort to source-based (e.g. ‘citrusy’) odor descriptions, and relatively little is still known about the vocabulary that is used to describe odors. Attempts to establish “primary odor descriptors” have been unsuccessful in describing wider varieties of odor qualities, and no standard has been agreed upon (e.g. Kaeppler & Mueller, 2013).To date, research on odor vocabulary has rarely been done from a data-driven, empirical perspective.

    We present a study on the semantic organization of the odor vocabulary, based on the distribution of words in olfactory and gustatory contexts, using a three-billion-word corpus of written English. Using a data-driven, computational linguistic approach recently developed in our lab (Iatropoulos et al., 2018), we quantify terms with respect to degree of olfactory-semantic content they convey. We then derive the semantic organization of the top 200 olfactory-related terms, using a distributional-semantic word vector model, which represents semantic distances as vector distances in a multidimensional space. In order to capture olfactory and gustatory word senses, the model is trained on olfactory and gustatory contexts, using the word2vec neural network implementation (Mikolov, Chen, Corrado, & Dean, 2013). Based on the semantic distances, we then use dimensionality reduction and clustering techniques (i.e., PCA and hierarchical clustering) to derive a 3-dimensional, corpus-based semantic space of the descriptors, and six principal descriptor clusters.

    Using descriptor distances based on the Draveneiks odor-term rating data set (Dravnieks, 1992), we also derive a semantic space with six specific clusters for the Draveneiks terms. The organization and clustering of our corpus-based semantic space matches with the ratings-based semantic space, thereby showing the viability of our corpus-based approach. Based on our analyses of the corpus-based data, we finally propose a novel domain-general odor term taxonomy (i.e., a domain-general odor wheel) that captures the dimensions and clusters identified in our analyses.

    Dravnieks, A. (1992). Atlas of odor character profiles. Philadelphia, PA, USA: American Society for Testing and Materials.

    Herz, R. S., & Engen, T. (1996). Odor memory: Review and analysis. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 3(3), 300–313.

    Iatropoulos, G., Herman, P., Lansner, A., Karlgren, J., Larsson, M., & Olofsson, J. K. (2018). The language of smell: Connecting linguistic and psychophysical properties of odor descriptors. Cognition, 178, 37–49.

    Jönsson, F. U., & Stevenson, R. J. (2014). Odor Knowledge, Odor Naming, and the “Tip-of-the-Nose” Experience. I B. L. Schwartz & A. S. Brown (Red.), Tip-of-the-Tongue States and Related Phenomena (s. 305–326).

    Kaeppler, K., & Mueller, F. (2013). Odor Classification: A Review of Factors Influencing Perception-Based Odor Arrangements. Chemical Senses, 38(3), 189–209.

    Majid, A., Roberts, S. G., Cilissen, L., Emmorey, K., Nicodemus, B., O’Grady, L., … Levinson, S. C. (2018). Differential coding of perception in the world’s languages. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 115(45), 11369–11376.

    Mikolov, T., Chen, K., Corrado, G., & Dean, J. (2013). Efficient Estimation of Word Representations in Vector Space. arXiv:1301.3781 [cs].

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  • 240. Iosad, Pavel
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Piperski, Alexander
    Sitchinava, Dmitri
    Depth, brilliancy, clarity: Andrey Anatolyevich Zaliznyak (1935 – 2017)2018In: Linguistic typology, ISSN 1430-0532, E-ISSN 1613-415X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 175-184Article in journal (Other academic)
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    fulltext
  • 241. Jacobs, Bart
    et al.
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    How ‘Portuguese’ are Palenquero and Chabacano really?2021In: Revue Romane, ISSN 0035-3906, E-ISSN 1600-0811, Vol. 56, no 2, p. 235-266Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A long-lasting debate within creole studies concerns the scarcity of Spanish-based creoles and the theoretical implications this may have. However, there is no agreement as to how many genuinely Spanish-based creoles there are in the world, and identifying the size of that group can generate controversies. Papiamentu, for instance, is canonically classified as a Spanish-based creole, even though most scholars at present seem to agree its origins are Creole Portuguese. A Portuguese lineage has on various occasions and by various authors also been claimed for Chabacano (Philippine Creole Spanish) and Palenquero (spoken in Colombia). These creoles, too, were supposedly once Portuguese-based, only to subsequently be ‘relexified’ towards Spanish. This paper argues that there is little linguistic basis for that claim. Although both creoles do indeed seem to have received some Portuguese (Creole) input, we maintain that this input was limited and substratal in nature, and thus has no bearing on the classification (whether diachronic or synchronic) of the two creoles as truly Spanish-based.

  • 242.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    A história das línguas: uma introduçâo2015 (ed. 1)Book (Refereed)
  • 243.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att välja ur antiken2015In: Klassisk filologi i Sverige: Reflexioner, riktningar, översättningar, öden / [ed] Eric Cullhed, Bo Lindberg, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2015, p. 41-50Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 244.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Barnen kan leda oss till talets rötter2019In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, no 7, p. 28-36Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 245.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bengt Sigurd2011In: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitetsakademiens Årsbok 2011, Stockholm: Kungl. Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, 2011, p. 79-84Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    Sigurd minnesord 2011
  • 246.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Dillerin Tarihi2016Book (Refereed)
  • 247.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Förändring av uppfattningar om språk i Norge och omvärlden2018In: Norsk språkhistorie: Bind 3. Ideologi / [ed] Helge Sandøy, Agnete Nesse, Tove Bull, Stig Rognes, Oslo: Novus Forlag, 2018, p. 421-476Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Numera råder det allmän enighet om att det i staten Norge finns ett språk som har ett eget namn och som i stort sett används i hela Norge men inte mycket utanför statens gränser. De som tidigare levde i det som nu är Norge och deras samtida i omvärlden har haft helt andra uppfattningar om språksituationen. Detta kapitel handlar om vilka föreställningar språkanvändarna och deras omgivning har haft om vilket språk de använde och om vilken utbredning det hade, från den tid då den allmänna åsikten var att en stor del av norra Europa hade ett gemensamt språk, kallat dǫnsk tunga, till den tidpunkt när det officiellt fastställdes att det för Norge gemensamma norska språket har två skriftspråksformer. Förändringarna i uppfattning hade i viss mån att göra med språkförändringar, men också med politiska förändringar, och de var i hög grad kopplade till tendenser och strömningar i omvärlden. Kapitlet beskriver det som hände i Norge i dess europeiska sammanhang.

  • 248.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna - vildar eller hjältar?2014In: Aktuellt om historia, ISSN 0348-503X, no 1, p. 19-30Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 249.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna: myten, historien, språken2013Book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 250.
    Janson, Tore
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Germanerna och vi: Reflektioner över ett populärvetenskapligt projekt2015In: Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets i Uppsala årsbok 40/2013-2014 / [ed] Lars-Gunnar Larsson, Uppsala: Kungl. Vetenskapssamhällets i Uppsala , 2015, p. 9-19Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    fulltext
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