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  • 151.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introduction to the ASU Corpus: a longitudinal oral and written text corpus of adult learner Swedish with a corresponding part from native Swedes. Version 2010-11-16.2010Report (Other academic)
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  • 152.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Introduktion till ASU-korpusen: En longitudinell muntlig och skriftlig textkorpus av vuxna inlärares svenska med en motsvarande del från infödda svenskar. Version 2010-11-16.2010Report (Other academic)
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    Introduktion till ASU-korpusen
  • 153.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Is it possible to predict phonetic difficulty in a second language?1989In: Language learning and learner language: Papers from a conference held in Stockholm and Åbo, 17-18 October, 1988 / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning , 1989, p. 11-19Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 154.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Jämförelsekonstruktioner i svenskan och grammatikaliseringen av jämfört med1995In: Språk och stil, ISSN 1101-1165, E-ISSN 2002-4010, Vol. 5, p. 21-48Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 155.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Komparativa uttryck i inlärarspråket - en skiss1993In: Rapport fra det andre forskersymposiet om Nordens språk som andrespråk i Oslo den 19.-20. mars 1993 / [ed] Anne Golden, Anne Hvenekilde, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, Institutt for lingvistiske fag, Avdeling for norsk som andrespråk , 1993, p. 209-221Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 156.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Konstruktioner som produkt och process - en studie av hur L1- och L2-talare utnyttjar "det är"2008In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, E-ISSN 2535-3381, Vol. 3, no 1, p. 79-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Linguistic constructions can be viewed as products or processes. The paper explores connections between these aspects, focussing on L1 and L2 speakers’ use of Swedish constructions formed with the highly polyfunctional syntactic fragment det är ‘it is’. A usage-based model of language development is adopted, and the role of frequency of use is taken into account. The data for the study were extracted from a corpus of Swedish L1 and L2 conversational speech. This displays a rich use of different det är constructions, both in terms of the width of the repertoire and in terms of the frequency of use. The learners gradually acquire a pattern of usage which is largely similar to that of the native speakers, some structures occurring earlier than others; there appears a characteristic developmental profile. Det är has a prominent role in utterance production, often serving as a (sometimes only tentative) sentence introducer. There are indications that det är is acquired and functions as a formulaic sequence with a role in supporting utterance planning and execution. A particularly interesting phenomenon is the frequent occurrence of a formulation break after det är, with various ways of continuing the utterance; this provides insights into the ongoing formulation work.

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  • 157.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Kontrastiv lingvistik och sekundärspråksforskning: Föredrag vid en konferens i Åbo och Stockholm 13-14 februari 19791979Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 158.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    L3, the tertiary language2018In: Foreign language education in multilingual classrooms / [ed] Andreas Bonnet, Peter Siemund, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company, 2018, p. 127-150Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fact that learners of a new language often already have experience of one or more other non-native languages has come into focus with the growing interest in multilingualism as a linguistic phenomenon and multilingual education as a practical concern. Third language or L3 has become a regular term fairly recently in dealing with the complex constellations of languages that occur with multilingual speakers and exploring the roles of these languages in the acquisition process. The purpose of the present chapter is to examine and discuss the construct of L3 in the context of the individual speaker’s multilingual repertoire and language learning. I first touch upon the wide occurrence of bi- and multilingualism in the world of today, especially as promoted by globalization and modern communication technology, and individual multilingualism (plurilingualism) as the normal form of linguistic competence that develops in human speakers. I then discuss the speaker/learner’s linguistic repertoire as a dynamic complex system, as well as the mutual connection between the developing repertoire and the process of language use and acquisition in specific situations in time. What we mean by L3 is seldom reflected on in the literature on so-called third language acquisition (TLA). In defining L3, we should ask what kind of concept we need in order to represent a speaker’s non-first non-native language. It should be a concept which is cognitively grounded and compatible with the terms L1 and L2 as these are commonly used in SLA studies. This leads to a definition of L3 and a discussion of its cognitive role as “tertiary” in relation to pre-existing L1s and L2s. Cross-linguistic influence becomes more complex when more background languages than a single L1 are involved, since both L1s and L2s can become activated in the process. Recent literature has explored a range of factors that may determine which language will dominate as source language when acquiring an L3, and formed conflicting hypotheses regarding their relative strength. I examine some problems that are reflected in this research, including the “L2 status issue”. This has implications for understanding the potential benefit of a multilingual language background in language learning.

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  • 159.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Language learning and learner language: Papers from a conference held in Stockholm and Åbo, 17-18 October, 19881989Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 160.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Learnability and learner strategies in second language syntax and phonology1985In: Modelling and assessing second language acquisition / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Manfred Pienemann, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 1985, p. 153-175Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 161.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Maskinell generering av böjningsformer och identifikation av ordklass1966In: Förhandlingar vid Sammankomst för att dryfta frågor rörande svenskans beskrivning 3, Göteborg: Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för nordiska språk , 1966, p. 59-70Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 162.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Några grunddrag i uttalsutvecklingen i andrapråket1988In: Första symposiet i svenska som andraspråk. Vol. I. Föredrag om språk, språkinlärning och interaktion / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Inger Lindberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Centrum för tvåspråkighetsforskning , 1988, p. 178-190Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 163.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    On intralingual, interlingual and developmental solutions in interlanguage1979In: Interlanguage: Workshop at the Fifth Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Frostavallen, April 27-29 1979 / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Moira Linnarud, Stockholm: Almqvist & Wiksell International , 1979, p. 7-24Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 164.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Problem, process, product in language learning: Papers from the Stockholm-Åbo Conference, 21-22 October 19921993Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 165.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Problems in defining the concepts of L1, L2 and L32014In: Teaching and learning in multilingual contexts: Sociolinguistic and educational perspectives / [ed] Agnieszka Otwinowska, Gessica De Angelis, Bristol: Multilingual Matters, 2014, p. 3-18Chapter in book (Refereed)
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  • 166.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Processes in third language acquisition2009Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume brings together six case studies of an adult multilingual speaker who acquires a new language through social interaction. The book deals especially with the multilingual situation, the learner’s acquisitional activities, and the involvement of her background languages in the process of speaking. It offers a coherent study of various linguistic phenomena in one individual, including patterns and functions of language switching, word search in interaction, hypothetical construction of words, and articulatory settings in speaking. The main languages involved are English (L1), German (L2) and Swedish (L3). The activation of these languages in the learner’s speech is examined in a cognitive perspective in relation to current models of the speaking process. A longitudinal corpus of NNS–NS conversations covering 21 months from the beginner stage provides the main data for these studies.

  • 167.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Roles of L1 and L2 in L3 production and acquisition2001In: Cross-Linguistic Influence in Third Language Acquisition: Psycholinguistic Perspectives / [ed] Jasone Cenoz, Britta Hufeisen, Ulrike Jessner, Clevedon: Multilingual Matters, 2001, p. 21-41Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 168.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenska som målspråk1975In: Språkvård, ISSN 0038-8440, Vol. 1975, no 2, p. 12-15Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 169.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Svenskan i ljuset av invandrares språkfel1977In: Nysvenska studier, ISSN 0345-8768, Vol. 57, p. 60-73Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 170.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Teoretiska ramar för andraspråksforskning2013In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle / [ed] Hyltenstam, Kenneth & Lindberg, Inger, Lund: Studentlitteratur , 2013, 2, p. 27-84Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 171.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Teoretiska ramar för andraspråksforskning2004In: Svenska som andraspråk: i forskning, undervisning och samhälle, Lund: Studentlitteratur, 2004, p. 25-78Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 172.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The course of development in second language phonology acquisition: A natural path or strategic choice?1993In: Progression & regression in language: Sociocultural, neuropsychological & linguistic perspectives / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Åke Viberg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993, p. 439-462Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 173.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The factor 'perceived crosslinguistic similarity' in third language production: How does it work?2009In: Processes in Third Language Acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 127-153Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 174.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The insufficiency of error analysis1974In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 12, no 1-4, p. 185-192Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 175.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The insufficiency of error analysis1973In: Errata: Papers in error analysis, Lund: Gleerup , 1973, p. 29-35Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 176.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The languages of the multilingual: Some conceptual and terminological issues2010In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 48, no 2-3, p. 91-104Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on individual multilingualism and third language acquisition has expanded greatly in recent years. A theoretical correlate of this is the recognition of the fact that humans are potentially multilingual by nature, that multilingualism is the default state of language competence, and that this in turns has implications for an adequate theory of language competence, use and acquisition. Traditional SLA research usually treats all non-first language learners as L2 learners. The recent focus on L3 acquisition means that one has begun taking the complexity of multilingual learners’ language background into account. This gives raise to reflection about some of the currently used basic terminology in the field, in particular how the concepts first, second and third language are understood.

    These terms are used variably in the literature. One approach, the common practice of labelling a multilingual’s languages along a linear chronological scale as L1, L2, L3, L4 etc., is shown here to be untenable, being based on an inadequate conception of multilingualism. A different and arguably more satisfactory approach is based on the conventional dichotomy of L1 (established during infancy) versus L2 (added after infancy) and relates the notion of L3 to the presence of a more complex language background.

    The limitation to a three-order hierarchy involving the distinction between the concepts of L1, L2 and L3 is discussed and adopted as a working hypothesis, awaiting further research on this issue.

    Finally, the problems with the expressions first, second and third language have become more apparent with the emergence of research on L3 acquisition. Maybe the time is ripe to work for a change of these established terms? As possible replacements, primary, secondary and tertiary language are put forward for discussion.

    The paper stresses the need for reconsideration and clarification of the concepts L1, L2 and L3 from the point of view of multilingual language users and learners.

  • 177.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The learner's word acquisition attempts in conversation1998In: Perspectives on foreign and second language pedagogy: Esays presented to Kirsten Haastrup on the occasion of her sixtieth birthday / [ed] Albrechtsen, Dorte & Henriksen, Birgit & Mees, Inger M. & Poulsen, Erik, Odense: Odense Universitetsforlag, 1998, p. 177-190Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 178.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The learner's word acquisition attempts in conversation2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 86-100Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 179.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Third language acquisition2013In: The Routledge Encyclopedia of Second Language Acquisition / [ed] Peter Robinson, London: Routledge, 2013, p. 644-648Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 180.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Utbildning av lärare i svenska som främmande språk1981In: Språkmöte: Svenska som främmande språk, Hemspråk, Tolkning / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Lund: LiberLäromedel , 1981, p. 96-117Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 181.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Über die deutsche Deutung des schwedischen Gravis-Akzents1972In: Germanistische Beiträge: Gert Mellbourn zum 60. Geburtstag am 21.5.1972 dargebracht von Kollegen und Schülern des Deutschen Instituts der Universität Stockholm / [ed] Lillebill Grähs, Anders Marell, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Tyska institutionen , 1972, p. 87-98Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 182.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Karolinska institutet.
    Articulatory re-setting in the articulation of new languages1993In: Studies presented to Claes-Christian Elert on the occasion of his seventieth birthday: Studies presented to Claes-Christian Elert on the occasion of his seventieth birthday / [ed] Eva Strangert , Mattias Heldner, Peter Czigler, Umeå: University of Umeå, Department of Phonetics , 1993, p. 61-67Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 183.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Karolinska institutet, Stockholm.
    Re-setting the basis of articulation in the acquisition of new languages: A third language case study2009In: Processes in Third Language Acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, 1, p. 74-85Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 184.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Re-setting the basis of articulation in the acquisition of new languages: A third-language case study2005In: Introductory Readings in L3, Stauffenburg Verlag, Tübingen , 2005, p. 11-18Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 185.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Hyltenstam, Kenneth
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Lindberg, Inger
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Josefson, Ingela
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Studium av ett invandrarsvenskt språkmaterial1983Report (Other academic)
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    SSM Report 9
  • 186.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Lunds universitet .
    Martin, Maisa
    Universitetet i Jyväskylä.
    Cognitive and functional aspects of second language development1999In: Multiple languages - multiple perspectives: Texts on language teaching and linguistic research / [ed] Päivi Pietilä & Olli-Pekka Salo, Jyväskylä, 1999, p. 55-82Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 187.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Possessiva konstruktioner i svenskan i ett kombinerat språktypologiskt och andraspråkligt perspektiv2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: Rapport fra konference i Reykjavik 23-25 maj 2001 / [ed] Audur Hauksdóttir m fl, 2002, p. 64-83Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 188.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adnominal possession: combining typological and second language perspectives2002In: Typology and second language acquisition / [ed] Anna Giacalone Ramat, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2002, p. 125-179Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 189.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Adnominal possession: combining typological and second language perspectives2002In: Typology and second language acquisition / [ed] Anna Giacalone Ramat, Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter, 2002, p. 125-179Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 190.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Olsson, Leif-Jöran
    Göteborgs universitet, Institutionen för svenska, Språkbanken.
    Arbeta med ASU-korpusen: Partiell bruksanvisning till ITG:s användargränssnitt. Version 2010-11-16.2010Report (Other academic)
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    Arbeta med ASU-korpusen
  • 191.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Anaforiska processer i svenskan i invandrarperspektiv1976In: Nysvenska studier, ISSN 0345-8768, Vol. 55-56, p. 213-226Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 192.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Anaforiska processer i svenskan i invandrarperspektiv - några utgångspunkter1976Report (Other academic)
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    SSM Report 3
  • 193.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Felanalys och språktypologi.: Orientering om två delstudier i SSM-projektet1977Report (Other academic)
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    SSM Report 1
  • 194.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Forskning kring svenska som målspråk: Två forskningsöversikter: 1. Grammatik och ordförråd (Åke Viberg)2. Fonologi (Björn Hammarberg)1984Report (Other academic)
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    SSM Report 10
  • 195.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    Platshållartvånget, ett syntaktiskt problem i svenskan för invandrare1979Report (Other academic)
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    SSM Report 2
  • 196.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reported speech in Swedish and ten immigrant languages1975Report (Other academic)
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    SSM Report 5
  • 197.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Reported speech in Swedish and ten immigrant languages1976In: Papers from the Third Scandinavian Conference of Linguistics, Hanasaari, October 1-3, 1976, Turku: Academy of Finland , 1976, p. 131-148Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 198.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Viberg, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The place-holder constraint, language typology, and the teaching of Swedish to immigrants1977In: Studia linguistica, ISSN 0039-3193, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 106-131Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 199.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Williams, Sarah
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Swedish Language and Multilingualism, Centre for Research on Bilingualism.
    A study of third language acquisition1993In: Problem, process, product in language learning: Papers from the Stockholm-Åbo Conference, 21-22 October 1992 / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Stockholm: Stockholm University, Department of Linguistics , 1993, p. 60-70Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 200. Heegård, Jan
    et al.
    Liljegren, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Geomorphic coding in Palula and Kalasha2018In: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia. International Journal of Structural Linguistics, ISSN 0374-0463, E-ISSN 1949-0763, Vol. 50, no 2, p. 129-160Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article describes the geomorphic systems of spatial reference in the two Indo-Aryan languages Palula and Kalasha, spoken in adjacent areas of an alpine region in Northwestern Pakistan. Palula and Kalasha encode the inclination of the mountain slope as well as the flow of the river, in systematic and similar ways, and by use of distinct sets of nominal lexemes that may function adverbially. In their verbal systems, only Palula encode, landscape features in a systematic way, but both languages make use of a number of verbal sets that in different ways emphasise boundary-crossing. The article relates the analysis to Palmer's Topographic Correspondence Hypothesis that predicts that the linguistic system of spatial reference will reflect the topography of the surrounding landscape. The analysis of the geomorphic systems in Palula and Kalasha supports this hypothesis. However, data from a survey of spatial strategies in neighbouring languages, i.e., languages spoken in a similar alpine landscape, reveal another system that does not to the same extent or in a similar way encode typical landscape features such as the mountain slope and the flow of the river. This calls for a revision of Palmer's hypothesis that also takes language contact into consideration.

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