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  • 101. Ender, Andrea
    et al.
    Leemann, AdrianWälchli, BernhardStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Methods in Contemporary Linguistics2012Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present volume is a broad overview of methods and methodologies in linguistics, illustrated with examples from concrete research. It collects insights gained from a broad range of linguistic sub-disciplines, ranging from core-disciplines to topics in cross-linguistic and language-internal diversity or contributions towards language, space and society.

  • 102. Ender, Andrea
    et al.
    Wälchli, Bernhard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The making of a festschrift, is it a ritual?2012In: Methods in Contemporary Linguistics / [ed] Andrea Ender, Adrian Leemann, Bernhard Wälchli, Mouton de Gruyter, 2012, p. 143-168Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 103.
    Engstrand, Olle
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Helgasson, Petur
    Parkvall, Mikael
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The beginnings of a database for historical sound change2008In: Papers from the 21st Swedish Phonetics Conference, 2008, p. 101-104Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    We report a preliminary version of a database from which examples of historical sound change can be retrieved and analyzed. To date, the database contains about 1,000 examples of regular sound changes from a variety of language families. As exemplified in the text, searches can be made based on IPA symbols, articulatory features, segmental or prosodic context, or type of change. The database is meant to provide an adequately large sample of areally and genetically balanced information on historical sound changes that tend to take place in the world’s languages. It is also meant as a research tool in the quest for diachronic explanations of genetic and areal biases in synchronic typology.

  • 104. Evans, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Roque, Lila San
    The grammar of engagement I: framework and initial exemplification2018In: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1866-9808, E-ISSN 1866-9859, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 110-140Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Human language offers rich ways to track, compare, and engage the attentional and epistemic states of interlocutors. While this task is central to everyday communication, our knowledge of the cross-linguistic grammatical means that target such intersubjective coordination has remained basic. In two serialised papers, we introduce the term 'engagement' to refer to grammaticalised means for encoding the relative mental directedness of speaker and addressee towards an entity or state of affairs, and describe examples of engagement systems from around the world. Engagement systems express the speaker's assumptions about the degree to which their attention or knowledge is shared (or not shared) by the addressee. Engagement categories can operate at the level of entities in the here-and-now (deixis), in the unfolding discourse (definiteness vs indefiniteness), entire event-depicting propositions (through markers with clausal scope), and even metapropositions (potentially scoping over evidential values). In this first paper, we introduce engagement and situate it with respect to existing work on intersubjectivity in language. We then explore the key role of deixis in coordinating attention and expressing engagement, moving through increasingly intercognitive deictic systems from those that focus on the the location of the speaker, to those that encode the attentional state of the addressee.

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  • 105. Evans, Nicholas
    et al.
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Roque, Lila San
    The grammar of engagement II: typology and diachrony2018In: Language and Cognition, ISSN 1866-9808, E-ISSN 1866-9859, Vol. 10, no 1, p. 141-170Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Engagement systems encode the relative accessibility of an entity or state of affairs to the speaker and addressee, and are thus underpinned by our social cognitive capacities. In our first foray into engagement (Part 1), we focused on specialised semantic contrasts as found in entity-level deictic systems, tailored to the primal scenario for establishing joint attention. This second paper broadens out to an exploration of engagement at the level of events and even metapropositions, and comments on how such systems may evolve. The languages Andoke and Kogi demonstrate what a canonical system of engagement with clausal scope looks like, symmetrically assigning 'knowing' and 'unknowing' values to speaker and addressee. Engagement is also found cross-cutting other epistemic categories such as evidentiality, for example where a complex assessment of relative speaker and addressee awareness concerns the source of information rather than the proposition itself. Data from the language Abui reveal that one way in which engagement systems can develop is by upscoping demonstratives, which normally denote entities, to apply at the level of events. We conclude by stressing the need for studies that focus on what difference it makes, in terms of communicative behaviour, for intersubjective coordination to be managed by engagement systems as opposed to other, non-grammaticalised means.

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  • 106. Friedlaender, Jonathan S
    et al.
    Hunley, Keith
    Dunn, Michael
    Terrill, Angela
    Lindström, Eva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Friedlaender, Françoise
    Linguistics More Robust Than Genetics: (Letter to the editors)2009In: Science, Vol. 324, no 5926, p. 464-465Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 107.
    Fuster Sansalvador, Carles
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Germanic languages: A micro-typological study on negation2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Traditionally, typological classifications have been done in a macro-typological perspective; that is,they have been based on balanced world-wide samples of languages, which often avoid includingclosely related languages, since these are supposed to act alike with respect to their typologicalfeatures and structures. However, attention has recently been drawn to the idea that even closelyrelated languages, as well as dialects within languages, may differ on their typological features. Theintention of this thesis is to give an overview of and study how the Germanic languages differ fromeach other in regards to their negative word orders and negation strategies. Mainly their negativeadverbs (English equivalent not), but also their negative indefinite quantifiers, are analyzed in mainclauses, subordinate clauses, and (negative) imperative structures. The focus lies on the standardlanguage varieties, but some of their non-standard varieties are included, in order to be able to give amore detailed description of the variation within the family. The expected result that the ratherhomogeneous described area of the Germanic languages will turn out to be much more complex, withrespect to negation aspects, is confirmed. The results show that the standard language varieties behavedifferently than the non-standard ones, which are less "rare" cross-linguistically. In addition, the nonstandardNorth-Germanic varieties show that multiple negation occurs in the North-Germanic branch,which is traditionally claimed to not occur.

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    Negation in Germanic languages
  • 108. Gast, Volker
    et al.
    Koptjevskaja-Tamm, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The areal factor in lexical typology: Some evidence from lexical databases2018In: Aspects of linguistic variation / [ed] Daniël Van Olmen, Tanja Mortelmans, Frank Brisard, Walter de Gruyter, 2018, p. 43-82Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Our study aims to explore how much information about areal patterns of colexification we can gain from lexical databases, such as CLICS and ASJP. We adopt a bottom-up (rather than hypothesis-driven) approach, identifying areal patterns in three steps: (i) determine spatial autocorrelations in the data, (ii) identify clusters as candidates for convergence areas and (iii) test the clusters resulting from the second step controlling for genealogical relatedness. Moreover, we identify a (genealogical) diversity index for each cluster. This approach yields promising results, which we regard as a proof of concept, but we also point out some drawbacks of the use of major lexical databases.

  • 109.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att skapa ett språk i en kontext2008In: Psyke og Logos: Tema: Spädbarnspsykologi, ISSN 0107-1211, Vol. 2, no 29, p. 557-579Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Utan en språklig infrastruktur av relativt stabil natur blir det svårt för ett barn att finna tolkningsbara mönster i de verbala och ickeverbala stimuli det möter. Sådana stabila mönster verkar emellertid finnas i föräldrarnas språkliga agerande, vilket beskrivs och illustreras i artikeln. Huvudsaklig fokus är dock att lyfta fram och diskutera den hittills mindre uppmärksammade aspekten av barnets eget agerande för att tillägna sig de språkliga ramar och normer som utgör basen för samvaro. Ett agerande där de genom bl.a. blickbeteende och direkta frågor vidmakthåller föräldrarnas scaffoldingramar, samt själva laborerar med fraser och beteenden som de tillägnat sig genom interaktion med föräldrarna. I artikeln introduceras även begrepp som avser att benämna två kvalitativt olika former av beteenden som återfinns hos barn mellan 1 och 5 år: oinskränkt vs normkänsligt beteende. Utifrån den ständiga växelverkan mellan föräldrarnas reaktioner och responser och barnets tolkning av desamma argumenteras för att barnet guidas mot att välja en utvecklingsprocess där den ena formen av språkligt och ickespråkligt beteende ersätts av den andra.

  • 110.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Att uttrycka känslor språkligt - hinder och möjligheter2011In: VAKKI Symposium XXX: Språk och känslor / [ed] Niina Nissilä,Nestori Siponkoski, Vasa: Vasa universitet , 2011, p. 10-28Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although language and emotion has received an increasing interest during the last decades we still lack a definition of what this language consist of. In the paper it is argued that one major reason for this state of affairs relates to the fact that language and emotion reside on different poles of the dichotomies body/mind, nature/culture, etc. Thus, researchers from different camps have addressed the issue from oppositional vantage points while at the same time attempting to answer the same questions. As an alternative this paper argues that to define emotive language we need to study the actual crossing point between language and emotion, i.e. the language used together with nonverbal and vocal expressions of emotion. Drawing on a video-recorded material of interaction between children and their parents, three categories of emotive language are illustrated: autonomous, accompanying and descriptive utterances. In the paper the internal relation between these categories is discussed as well as their position vis-á-vis prior research.

  • 111.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Children's development of facework practices - An emotional endeavor2011In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 43, no 13, p. 3099-3110Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article addresses the origin and development of facework practices in young children by focusing on two kinds of practices in child–parent interaction: (1) situations in which a child’s verbal and nonverbal emotive expressions indicate a need to save face; and (2) situations in which a child uses various strategies in order to save face. Through illustrations from a longitudinal material of child–adult interaction it is argued that emotive reactions constitute the base for face awareness in children. This awareness in time turns to child facework practices, a process aided and shaped by the interactional routines with parents. The central aim of the article is to highlight these two aspects of facework, one internal, emotional and related to face; the other external and interactional. As a second aim the article will enforce that the way we analyze interaction must be transparent in that it can be understood, reviewed and contested by others.

  • 112.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Conventions for annotation and transcription of the MINT-project: Modulating child language acquisition through parent-child interaction, MAW:2011.0072018Report (Other academic)
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    Conventions for annotation and transcription of the MINT-project
  • 113.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Imitation vs association in child-adult and child-child interaction2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of imitation in language development is debated and unclear (e.g., Meltzoff, 2011; Heyes, 2001; Paulus, 2012) in part because of the difficulty to define imitation. Is it when A copies an act or an utterance from B within a specific time frame, or is it when the goal of B is captured and executed by A, regardless of the means to reach the goal? Further, must A be aware that s/he imitated B, or should low-level cognitive mechanisms be regarded as imitation as well?

    The aim of the present study was to identify and describe imitative behaviors in young children as they appear in a longitudinal material of child-child and child-adult interaction. “Imitation” was defined as: any verbal/vocal/nonverbal act that i) occurs after an identical such act; ii) semantically and/or pragmatically repeats an earlier verbal/vocal/nonverbal act. An example of the first kind would be a child, A, clapping his hands against his head hollering “hallo” and another nearby child, B, starts doing the same while watching A. The second kind could be illustrated with a child, C, saying to another mother than his own “mommy there is no need to talk, you can just go straight away” to which his own mother says “I recognize that comment, that’s what I say to grandma”. While the first example appears to be a direct, situated, practice where instant imitation is taking place, the second is a sequence where a more or less formulaic verbalization is copied from some previous occasion/s and delivered in a situation where it appears to fit, an associated imitation.

    In the talk, different imitative behavioral will be illustrated and related to instant vs associated contextual aspects. It will be argued that both behaviors build on common mechanisms of learning (Schöner, 2009; Smith & Katz, 1996), that they appear in parallel throughout the ages studied (see below), but that they differ in cognitive – although not necessarily social – complexity, as well as in their part in language development and socialization routines.

    Data consists of 22 hours of video recordings of 5 Swedish families with in all 11 children. The children are in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 years old and were recorded during a period of 2 ½ years. The recordings were done in a home environment together with siblings and parents.

  • 114.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Mamma!2010In: Språktidningen, ISSN 1654-5028, Vol. December, no 6, p. 24-27Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 115.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Nods, headshakeas and the perception of multimodal constructions in child language2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within gesture studies, gesture and speech is often conceived of as a single communicative system. This means that human production of gestures are temporally and semantically synchronized with the concurrent verbal phrase, or vice versa. These multimodal clusters are described as constructions where the modalities add different but interrelated content to a common semantic whole, an Utterance (e.g. Goldin-Meadow, 2009, 2011; Kendon, 2004; Murillo & Belinchón, 2012). While this appears to be true for a large amount of gesture types – in particular those who fall under the heading Co-speech Gestures (i.e. gesture that by definition co-occur with a spoken utterance) – there are other gestures that are less explored as to their relation to speech and multimodal meaning. Among these other gestures we find emblems, a vaguely defined group of gestures that are often claimed to carry a semantic meaning on their own, regardless of (optional) concurrent verbalizations (McNeill, 1992). The present study investigated two emblematic gesture forms – nods and headshakes – and their appearance and use in a longitudinal, naturalistic material of child-child and child-adult interaction. The data consists of 11 Swedish children in the ages 0;9 to 5;10 years of age, recorded during a period of 2 ½ years as they interacted with siblings, parents, and friends in their home environment. In all, 22 hours of video recordings were transcribed and analyzed. From the data we could conclude two main factors: i) even emblems appear to be largely speech dependent for their interpretation; and ii) nods and headshakes appear to follow different developmental trajectories and behave rather differently throughout the ages studied. These findings will be discussed in relation to language development in general and to the perceptive system of humans in particular.

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  • 116.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Språkprojektet i Farsta/Fagersjö1998In: Samverkan för barn och ungdom: en antologi om konsten att bedriva projekt / [ed] Ulf Hammare, Stockholm: Resursförvaltningen skola och socialtjänst, Forsknings- och utvecklingsenheten , 1998, p. 72-97Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 117.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The Swedish MINT-project – or, the quest to pull apart and put together constituents of verbal and nonverbal interaction2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 118.
    Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Hörberg, Thomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Tonér, Signe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Kallioinen, Petter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Frankenberg, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Kjällander, Susanne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Palmer, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    Lenz Taguchi, Hillevi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Child and Youth Studies.
    A protocol for a three-arm cluster randomized controlled superiority trial investigating the effects of two pedagogical methodologies in Swedish preschool settings on language and communication, executive functions, auditive selective attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills2018In: BMC Psychology, E-ISSN 2050-7283, Vol. 6, article id 29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    During the preschool years, children develop abilities and skills in areas crucial for later success in life. These abilities include language, executive functions, attention, and socioemotional skills. The pedagogical methods used in preschools hold the potential to enhance these abilities, but our knowledge of which pedagogical practices aid which abilities, and for which children, is limited. The aim of this paper is to describe an intervention study designed to evaluate and compare two pedagogical methodologies in terms of their effect on the above-mentioned skills in Swedish preschool children.

    Method

    The study is a randomized control trial (RCT) where two pedagogical methodologies were tested to evaluate how they enhanced children’s language, executive functions and attention, socioemotional skills, and early maths skills during an intensive 6-week intervention. Eighteen preschools including 28 units and 432 children were enrolled in a municipality close to Stockholm, Sweden. The children were between 4;0 and 6;0 years old and each preschool unit was randomly assigned to either of the interventions or to the control group. Background information on all children was collected via questionnaires completed by parents and preschools. Pre- and post-intervention testing consisted of a test battery including tests on language, executive functions, selective auditive attention, socioemotional skills and early maths skills. The interventions consisted of 6 weeks of intensive practice of either a socioemotional and material learning paradigm (SEMLA), for which group-based activities and interactional structures were the main focus, or an individual, digitally implemented attention and math training paradigm, which also included a set of self-regulation practices (DIL). All preschools were evaluated with the ECERS-3.

    Discussion

    If this intervention study shows evidence of a difference between group-based learning paradigms and individual training of specific skills in terms of enhancing children’s abilities in fundamental areas like language, executive functions and attention, socioemotional skills and early math, this will have big impact on the preschool agenda in the future. The potential for different pedagogical methodologies to have different impacts on children of different ages and with different backgrounds invites a wider discussion within the field of how to develop a preschool curriculum suited for all children.

  • 119.
    Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Pagmar, David
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    The MINT-project: Modeling infant language acquisition from parent-child interction2016Conference paper (Other academic)
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  • 120.
    Ghebre, Adi
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Negation in Tigrinya: An Afro-Semitic language2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tigrinya is one of the Afro Semitic languages, traditionally classified as North Ethiopic, and spoken in Eritrean and Northern Ethiopia. In this work Tigrinya negation particles were investigated and analyzed. with the main aim to emphasise distribution of negation particles in different word classes in the language. It is designed to provide some analysis of how the North Afro Semitic languages are related, with some descriptions about how they have different distribution of negation forms. Some linguistic ideas in using Tigrinya negation by comparing it with its sister languages are also given.

  • 121.
    Glaas, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Ett smärtsamt uppsatsvärk: Smärta, värk och ont på svenska2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pain may be expressed in different ways depending on language and experiencer. This study aims to get a close up of Swedish pain expressions, and is based on earlier studies executed on Swedish and Greek respectively. Questions written by experiencers of pain to both the general public and physicians, and blogs of more narrative nature formed a corpus, divided in three different genres, where it was focused on the primary pain words pain and ache. The pain expressions were analyzed to provide information on how ordinary people, with various pain histories, tend to express their pain depending on addressee; if differences are found in between the genres. The results suggested, among other things, that the choice of pain word is to some extent governed by the perception of time, intensity, and also where pain is located within the body. The way chosen to verbally express pain differs somewhat in terms of how pain is perceived; as thing, process or quality.

  • 122. Glahn, Esther
    et al.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Holmen, Anne
    Hvenekilde, Anne
    Håkansson, Gisela
    Lund, Karen
    Pienemanns processabilitetsteori testet på dansk, norsk og svensk2002In: Forskning i nordiske sprog som andet- og fremmedsprog: Rapport fra konference i Reykjavik 23-25 maj 2001 / [ed] Audur Hauksdóttir et al., 2002, p. 31-47Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 123.
    Grigonyte, Gintare
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Pronunciation and Spelling: the Case of Misspellings in Swedish L2 Written Essays2014In: Human Language Technologies - The Baltic Perspective, Baltic HLT 2014 / [ed] Andrius Utka, Gintarė Grigonytė, Jurgita Kapočiūtė-Dzikienė, Jurgita Vaičenonienė, Amsterdam: IOS Press, 2014, p. 95-98Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This research presents an investigation performed on the ASU corpus. We analyse to what extent does the pronunciation of intended words reflects in spelling errors done by L2 Swedish learners. We also propose a method that helps to automatically discriminate the misspellings affected by pronunciation from other types of misspellings.

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    Pronunciation and Spelling: the Case of Misspellings in Swedish L2 Written Essays
  • 124.
    Grzech, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Fieldwork on epistemic authority markers: What we can learn from different types of data2020In: Folia linguistica, ISSN 0165-4004, E-ISSN 1614-7308, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 405-445Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Epistemicity in language encompasses various kinds of constructions and expressions that have to do with knowledge-related aspects of linguistic meaning (cf. Grzech, Karolina, Eva Schultze-Berndt and Henrik Bergqvist. 2020c. Knowing in interaction: an introduction. Folia Linguistica [this issue]). It includes some well-established categories, such as evidentiality and epistemic modality (Boye, Kasper. 2012. Epistemic meaning: A crosslinguistic and functional-cognitive study. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton), but also categories that have been less well described to-date. In this paper, I focus on one such category: the marking of epistemic authority, i.e. the encoding of “the right to know or claim” (Stivers, Tanya, Lorenza Mondada & Jakob Steensig. 2011b. Knowledge, morality and affiliation in social interaction. In ). I explore how the marking of epistemic authority can be documented and analysed in the context of linguistic fieldwork. The discussion is based on a case study of Upper Napo Kichwa, a Quechuan language spoken in the Ecuadorian Amazon that exhibits a rich paradigm of epistemic discourse markers, encoding meanings related to epistemic authority and distribution of knowledge between discourse participants. I describe and appraise the methodology for epistemic fieldwork used in the Upper Napo Kichwa documentation and description project. I give a detailed account of the different tools and methods of data collection, showing their strengths and weaknesses. I also discuss the decisions made at the different stages of the project and their implications for data collection and analysis. In discussing these issues, I extrapolate from the case study, proposing practical solutions for fieldwork-based research on epistemic markers.

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  • 125.
    Grzech, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Managing Common Ground with epistemic marking: ‘Evidential’ markers in Upper Napo Kichwa and their functions in interaction2020In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 168, p. 81-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article proposes that ‘evidential’ markers in Upper Napo Kichwa (Quechuan, Ecuador) are not in fact evidential, but mark epistemic distinctions related to ownership and distribution of knowledge in discourse. To demonstrate this, I analyse two Upper Napo Kichwa epistemic enclitics, =mi and =. I account for their distribution in the corpus, analysing the occurrences of the markers in situated language use. To provide a functional explanation for how the markers are used, I discuss the notion of ‘epistemic Common Ground management’. I postulate that it is relevant to how epistemic discourse strategies and marking systems are used in a variety of languages. Subsequently, I illustrate this claim with a case study, showing how ‘epistemic Common Ground management’ allows to account for the distribution of the Upper Napo Kichwa epistemic markers. Finally, I propose that looking at the formally divergent strategies from a common functional perspective enhances our understanding of how epistemic marking is used cross-linguistically.

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  • 126.
    Grzech, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. SOAS, University of London, UK.
    Planning language, planning identity: A case study of Ecuadorians in London2013In: SOAS Working Papers in Linguistics, Vol. 16, p. 291-310Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 127.
    Grzech, Karolina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. University of Valencia, Spain.
    Using discourse markers to negotiate epistemic stance: A view from situated language use2021In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 177, p. 208-223Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, I analyse the usage of a discourse marker =mari, belonging to the epistemic paradigm attested in Upper Napo Kichwa (Quechuan, Ecuador). I show that the use of =mari indicates that the information is known well to the speaker, but also to some extent familiar to the addressee. In situated language use, the marker contributes to creating a knowing epistemic stance of the speaker. The analysis presented here is based on a 13-h documentary corpus of interactive Upper Napo Kichwa discourse, recorded on audio and video. For the purpose of the paper, the relevant utterances are analysed in their broad interactional context, including not only the surrounding text, but also relationships between the interlocutors, their shared life experience and possible shared knowledge derived from other sources. First, I analyse the semantic and pragmatic contribution of =mari to the conversational turn it occurs in, drawing on conversations extracted from the corpus. Following on from that, I show how tokens of =mari are situated in interactional sequences, and examine how the semantics/pragmatics of the clitic contributes to the discursive actions achieved by the turns which contain it.

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  • 128.
    Grzech, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Schultze-Berndt, Eva
    Bergqvist, Henrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Knowing in interaction: An introduction2020In: Folia linguistica, ISSN 0165-4004, E-ISSN 1614-7308, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 281-315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article provides an introduction for the collection of methodologically oriented papers comprising this Special Issue. We define the concept of epistemicity as used in descriptive linguistics and discuss notions related to it – some well-established, some more recent – such as evidentiality, egophoricity, epistemic authority and engagement. We give a preliminary overview of the different types of epistemic marking attested in the languages of the world and discuss the recent developments in the field of epistemic research focussing on methodologies for investigating epistemic marking. In the second part of the paper, we focus on the more practical side of epistemic fieldwork; the types of data that can be used in documenting linguistic expressions of epistemicity and best practices for data collection. We discuss the experimental methods that are used in the description of epistemic systems, both those developed for this particular purpose and those adapted from other types of linguistic research. We provide a critical evaluation of those materials and stimuli and discuss their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we introduce the contributions to the Special Issue, discussing the languages studied by the authors of the contributions and the fieldwork methods they used in their research.

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  • 129.
    Grzech, Karolina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Schwarz, Anne
    Ennis, Georgia
    Divided we stand, unified we fall? The impact of standardisation onoral language varieties: a case study of Amazonian Kichwa2019In: Revista de Llengua i Dret, ISSN 0212-5056, no 71, p. 123-145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article adds to the discussion on standardisation of minority languages spoken in primarily oral cultures. Focusingon Amazonian Kichwa (Quechuan, lowland Ecuador), we show how the introduction of a written standard can undermine language transmission, prompt contradictory ideologies, and instil conflicting aims within speech communities. Our approach combines descriptive linguistics and ethnography. First, we examine the extent of variation within Amazonian Kichwa and compare the local varieties with the standard. We juxtapose this with the speakers’ perceptions of and attitudes towards variation, evidenced in their linguistic practices and discourse. We show that these perceptions have little to do with the features being standardised, but this does not preclude the speakers’ having clear attitudes towards what the perceived standard. To explain this, we propose that Amazonian Kichwa speakers value authenticity above mutual intelligibility, contrary to ideologies assigning value to languages as potential tools of wider communication. To conclude, we provide policy recommendations grounded in this study, but applicable to minoritised oral varieties in other contexts.

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  • 130.
    Grzech, Karolina Zofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Elizabeth Couper-Kuhlen and Margret Selting, Interactional Linguistics: Studying Language in Social Interaction, Cambridge University Press, 20172019In: Linguist List, E-ISSN 1068-4875, no 30, article id 338Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 131.
    Hallonsten Halling, Pernilla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Prototypical adverbs: from comparative concept to typological prototype2017In: Acta Linguistica Hafniensia. International Journal of Structural Linguistics, ISSN 0374-0463, E-ISSN 1949-0763, Vol. 49, no 1, p. 37-52Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While adjectives and their potential universality have been much debated, adverbs remain rather neglected in the typological and cognitive literature. From a typological perspective, adjectives can be dealt with using a comparative concept: rather than assuming from the outset the existence of a class of adjectives, a particular language-independent definition of adjectives is used as a heuristic for examining recurrent form-meaning combinations. In the present article, adverb is addressed as a comparative concept in the same vein: an adverb is a lexeme that denotes a descriptive property and can be used to narrow the predication of a verb. This comparative concept is applied to a sample of 41 languages from the whole world. The results show that although there are diverse structural possibilities in terms of different adverbial constructions of varying spread and productivity, simple adverbs are found in a considerable number of unrelated languages, even in some cases where adjectives cannot be found. Clear adverb subtypes reminiscent of semantic types of adjectives further emerge, leading to a discussion of whether the comparative concepts in this case allow us to uncover a substantial cross-linguistic prototype.

  • 132.
    Hammar, Tabea
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Personliga pronomen i pidginspråk: En jämförande undersökning2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Pidgins are contact languages that emerge under strained sociolinguistic circumstances. They are seen as the most reduced linguistic system that can still enable successful communication in a specific social context. To this date there is a lack of research investigating how pidgins form their linguistic systems. The present study is intended to be a step towards extended knowledge within the field and aims to investigate how pidgins form their personal pronoun paradigms. The occurrence of nine different grammatical features in 18 pidgins, their lexifiers and most important substrates has been surveyed. The data was collected through literature search and compiled in tables in the computer program Excel. The results show that all surveyed features occur among the pidgins but the frequencies vary. The data indicates that the substrates have a prominent role in the process of pidgins forming their personal pronoun paradigms.

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  • 133.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Acquisition of phonology1989In: Annual Review of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0267-1905, E-ISSN 1471-6356, Vol. 9, p. 23-41Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 134.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Activation of L1 and L2 during production in L3: A comparison of two case studies2009In: Processes in third language acquisition / [ed] Björn Hammarberg, Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press , 2009, p. 101-126Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 135.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Aktuella teman i forskningen om andraspråksuttal1990In: Andra symposiet om svenska som andraspråk i Göteborg 1989 / [ed] Gunnar Tingbjörn, Stockholm: Skriptor Förlag , 1990, p. 297-315Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 136.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Andraspråksforskning med ASU-korpusen2013In: Nordand: nordisk tidsskrift for andrespråksforskning, ISSN 0809-9227, E-ISSN 2535-3381, Vol. 8, no 1, p. 7-33Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ASU is a longitudinal corpus of L2 production by adult learners of Swedish, which is now accessible on the web for searching and analysis. This is a presentation of its intentions and structure, how to work with it, and how to access it. Some examples are also given of the research on L2 Swedish which has been carried out based on data from ASU.

    After a brief introduction on different kinds of corpora and their degree of accessibility, the next section discusses the various requirements that should be met by a longitudinal corpus, and how these have been handled in ASU. An aim for ASU has been to follow individuals longitudinally from the start of their acquisition of the L2 to an elaborate stage of proficiency, and to be able to observe a clear and coherent development over time. ASU is also characterized by the parallel collection of oral and written material, and by a control material from native Swedes. Foreign students at Stockholm University were recorded individually during conversations with Swedes, and in addition to this they also wrote essays. Corresponding data were collected from native Swedish students. The material was then transcribed and tagged morphologically.

    The corpus, which was compiled in its early form in the 1990s, is now converted into a modern format and has been connected to the user interface ITG, which is handled by the Swedish Language Bank (Språkbanken) at Gothenburg University. This is a flexible instrument for searching, analysing and editing data from the corpus. The article describes briefly how to work with corpus data using ITG.

    The corpus has been used for research on several areas of L2 Swedish. Some examples which are presented briefly here concern reference to future, syllable structure, possessive constructions, the utterance process, and the role of background languages in third language use.

    A description of how to access the corpus terminates the article.

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  • 137.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    ASU-korpusen, en longitudinell korpus av vuxna inlärares svenska1997In: Svenskans bekrivning 22: Förhandlingar vid tjugoandra sammankomsten för svenskans beskrivning, Lund den 18-19 oktober 1996 / [ed] Gisela Håkansson, Lena Lötmarker, Lillemor Santesson, Jan Svensson, Åke Viberg, Lund: Lund University Press , 1997, p. 303-317Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 138.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Bakgrundsspråkens interaktion vid tredjespråksinlärning1998In: Nordiske sprog som andetsprog / [ed] Möller, Janus & Quist, Pia & Holmen, Anne & Jörgensen, J.N., Köbenhavn: Danmarks Laererhöjskole , 1998, p. 41-59Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 139.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Becoming multilingual: The macro and the micro time perspective2017In: International Review of Applied Linguistics in Language Teaching, ISSN 0019-042X, E-ISSN 1613-4141, Vol. 55, no 1, p. 3-22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potential multilingualism is a characteristic property of human language. This paper adopts a usage-based, complex-systems approach in discussing two different but interrelated perspectives on how multilingualism takes shape in individuals: the development of a linguistic repertoire over time (macro time perspective) and the processes of language use and acquisition in specific situations (micro time perspective). The concept of L3 has a role at the micro time level, in the situations of language use. A variable model of the situation of language use and acquisition in micro time is proposed. It adopts a factor approach which is inspired by Hufeisen's Factor Model, but extends that model so as to be applicable to more variable stages and forms of linguistic repertoires. The connection between dynamic processes in micro and macro time is illustrated by data from a longitudinal test of phonological production which exposes both specific usage events and an evolving pattern.

  • 140.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Brytningen tar form - om dynamiken i den tidiga andraspråksforskningen1990In: På väg mot ett nytt språk / [ed] Viveka Adelsvärd, Norman Davies, Uppsala: ASLA , 1990, p. 67-79Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 141.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Case Study Research in Multilingual Contexts2022In: The Cambridge Handbook of Third Language Acquisition and Processing / [ed] Jennifer Cabrelli; Adel Chaouch-Orozco; Jorge González Alonso; Sergio M. Pereira Soares; Eloi Puig-Mayenco and Jason Rothman, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2022, p. 696-743Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter presents and discusses the methodological approach of case study in connection with research on third language acquisition and other areas of multilingualism and gives an overview of occurring case studies in these fields. The first section after a brief introduction, Case study as an approach to knowledge, deals with the purpose of case study and characteristic features such as the real-life orientation and the holistic perspective, as well as the issue of generalizability. The second section. The focus on multilingualism and the acquisition of several languages, discusses the nature and development of multilingual linguistic repertoires. Case studies here often cover large and complex repertoires. The overview of studies in the section Case studies in multilingual contexts has a main focus on the third language acquisition area, but also deals with related thematic areas such as intercomprehension processes, polyglotism, linguistic autobiographies and studies visualizing the multilingual subject.

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  • 142.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Conditions on transfer in phonology1997In: Second-Language Speech: Structure and Process / [ed] A. James, J. Leather, Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1997, p. 161-180Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 143.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Conditions on transfer in second language phonology acquisition1990In: New Sounds 90: Proceedings of the 1990 Amsterdam Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Speech / [ed] Jonathan Leather, Allan James, Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam , 1990, p. 198-215Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 144.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Conditions on transfer in second language phonology acquisition1990In: New Sounds 90: Proceedings of the 1990 Amsterdam Symposium on the Acquisition of Second-Language Sopeech / [ed] Jonathan Leather, Allan James, Amsterdam: University of Amsterdam , 1990Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 145.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Examining the processability theory: The case of adjective agreement in L2 Swedish1996In: Eurosla 6: A selection of papers / [ed] Eric Kellerman, Bert Weltens, Theo Bongaerts, Amsterdam: VU Uigeverij , 1996, p. 75-88Chapter in book (Other academic)
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  • 146.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Flerspråkighet och tredjespråksinlärning: Några grundbegrepp2016In: Tredjespråksinlärning / [ed] Camilla Bardel, Ylva Falk, Christina Lindqvist, Lund: Studentlitteratur AB, 2016, p. 33-58Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Tredjespråksinlärning har under 2000-talet snabbt vuxit fram som ett aktuellt forskningsområde i takt med att man har uppmärksammat hur vanlig flerspråkighet är och vilken betydelse en två- eller flerspråkig bakgrund har vid inlärning av ytterligare språk. En-, två- och flerspråkighet definieras här som kunskap i ett, två respektive tre eller flera språk på någon signifikant färdighetsnivå. Två- eller flerspråkiga personers inlärning av ytterligare språk betecknas som tredjespråksinlärning. Det här kapitlet ger en översikt av centrala begrepp och rön inom detta område. Till de aspekter som ska utvecklas i kapitlet hör följande.

    Människans naturliga flerspråkighet. Människan är av naturen potentiellt flerspråkig, och flera fakta talar för att flerspråkighet är den normala formen av språkkompetens hos vuxna.

    Flerspråkighet i dagens samhälle. Två- eller flerspråkighet anses vara vanligare i världen än ren enspråkighet. Det främjas av en kombination av faktorer och tilltar i det moderna globala kommunikationssamhället. Tredjespråksinlärning sker både spontant i vardagslivet och genom undervisning. Exempel på tredjespråksinlärare i skolan är elever som läser fler än ett främmande språk och tvåspråkiga elever ur språkliga minoriteter.

    Första-, andra- och tredjespråk (L1, L2, L3) som kognitiva begrepp. Begreppen L1 och L2 baseras på den grundläggande skillnaden mellan infött och icke-infött språk, där åldersfaktorn är central. Skilda kognitiva utgångslägen gäller för tillägnande av ett L1, ett första L2 och ytterligare språk, med konsekvenser för L3-inlärning. Definitionen av begreppet L3 är ett problem som genomlyses här.

    Den flerspråkiga kompetensen och talprocessen. En persons kompetens i olika språk bildar en samverkande helhet, inte separata språkkompetenser. I talsituationer kan även andra språk än det valda (s.k. bakgrundsspråk) aktiveras i olika grad, vilket styrs av flera faktorer. I modeller av talprocessen söker man förstå hur yttrandeförloppet sker hos flerspråkiga, hur talaren kontrollerar sitt språkval och hur associationer mellan element i olika språk uppstår. Faktorer i talsituationen kan också leda talaren att hantera sitt språkval genom att anamma olika språkmodus (language modes): en en-, två- eller flerspråkig samtalsstil.

    Tvärspråkligt inflytande. Vad är det som betingar att ett visst bakgrundsspråk, snarare än ett annat, aktiveras i den flerspråkiges talproduktion och orsakar transfer? Flera faktorer har undersökts, såsom färdighetsnivån i språket, aktualitet i användning, typologisk likhet samt L2-status, dvs egenskapen att vara ett L2 för talaren.

    Nyttan av tidigare språkkunskap. Forskning utvisar att tidigare språkkunskap utgör en tillgång vid inlärning av ett nytt språk. Positiva effekter har konstaterats på den språkfärdighet som uppnås, på språklig medvetenhet och på användningen av strategier i språkinlärningen. Pedagogiska aspekter av detta handlar om hur man i språkundervisning kan ta tillvara L3-inlärares tidigare språkliga erfarenheter och ta hänsyn till L3-inlärningens särskilda möjligheter.

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  • 147.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Forskning kring svenska som målspråk: fonologi1984In: Nordens språk som målspråk: Forskning och undervisning / [ed] Kenneth Hyltenstam, Katrin Maandi, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet, Institutionen för lingvistik , 1984, p. 40-60Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 148.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Forskning om svenska som andraspråk i Sverige1992In: Första forskarsymposiet om Nordens språk som andraspråk i Stockholm 1991 / [ed] Monica Axelsson, Åke Viberg, Stockholm: Stockholms universitet , 1992, p. 49-81Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 149.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Inlärningsstrategier i främmandespråksfonologi1992In: Nordens språk i Baltikum: Konferanse for lærere og sendelektorer ved baltiske universiteter Riga 26.-30. november 1991 = Pohjoismaiden kielet Baltiassa : Baltian maiden yliopistojen pohjoismaisten kieltenopettajien kokous Riika 26.-30.11.1991, Oslo: Nordisk språksekretariat , 1992, p. 82-94Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 150.
    Hammarberg, Björn
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Interference in American English speakers' pronunciation of Swedish1967In: Studia linguistica, ISSN 00393193, Vol. 21, p. 15-36Article in journal (Other academic)
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