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  • 1.
    Chilufya, Emma Mainza
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Comparative Study of Physical and Virtual Reality Prototyping of a Migrating Agent Interface2023In: Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Agent Interaction, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 369-371Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Prototyping methods are commonly employed iteratively throughout the design and product development, typically ranging from early low-fidelity to later high-fidelity prototypes. We present a case study focusing on prototyping a receptionist agent migrating between three platforms (a monitor on the wall, a mobile phone, and a physical robot). More specifically, we compare virtual reality (VR) and physical (real world) prototyping methods. The two methods are compared in terms of fidelity and usability. The breadth of features, the degree of functionality, and the interactivity were similar. However, the aesthetic refinement differed. The VR prototyping method also had much higher prerequisites in terms of equipment and skills, and the learning curve for the designer was steep. Both methods were equally efficient in user testing, but the VR method revealed more usability issues in the efficiency category, while the physical space method revealed more issues in the effectiveness category.

  • 2.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ageskar, Olle
    Linköping University.
    Allander, Ida
    Linköping University.
    Degerstedt, Markus
    Linköping University.
    Hyland, Olof
    Linköping University.
    Nguyen, Philip
    Linköping University.
    Naas, Hilda
    Linköping University.
    Wickman, Nils
    Linköping University.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Survey of Attributions and Preferences Regarding Higher-Order Mental States in Artificial Agents2023In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-AGENT INTERACTION, HAI 2023, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2023, p. 97-104Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding how people attribute behavior to underlying mental states is crucial to the study of human social interactions. Previous research has established that people rely on attributing mental states to interpret and interact with artificial agents. For example, a pedestrian encountering a driverless vehicle at a crosswalk might view the vehicle as knowing (or not) that there is a pedestrian in front of it. Nevertheless, little attention has been devoted to investigating people's attributions of higher-order mental states, i.e., mental states that are about the mental states of others (e.g., the vehicle's beliefs about the pedestrian's intentions). Addressing this research gap, the present study conducted a survey to explore people's attributions and preferences concerning higher-order mental states in three types of artificial agents (AI chatbot, virtual assistant, and self-driving car), alongside two human agents (participants themselves, referred to as you, and five-year-old child). The survey revealed that: (1) artificial agents, in contrast to humans, may be perceived as more likely to have higher-order mental states than first-order mental states, depending on the purpose or function of the agent; (2) people may prefer some artificial agents to have mental states of a particular order (but not others); (3) attributions and preferences regarding mental states in artificial agents do not always match. The study also contributes insights regarding the methodological challenge of constructing a survey that effectively captures participants' higher-order attributions while minimizing excessive cognitive demands. We posit that human-agent interaction research and design stand to benefit from further exploration of people's attributions and preferences regarding higher-order mental states in artificial agents.

  • 3.
    Babel, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hock, Philipp
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thellman, Sam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cars As Social Agents (CarSA): A Perspective Shift in Human-Vehicle Interaction2023In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-AGENT INTERACTION, HAI 2023, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2023, p. 498-499Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rapid advancement of autonomous vehicle (AV) technology has opened up new possibilities and challenges in the domain of human-agent interaction. As AVs become increasingly prevalent on our roads, it is crucial to understand how humans perceive and interact with these intelligent systems. This workshop aims to bring together researchers and practitioners to explore the perception of cars as social agents. We explore the shift in user perception and the implications for interactions between autonomous vehicles, human drivers, and vulnerable road users (pedestrians, cyclists, etc.). Additionally, we investigate the communication of goals and intentions between cars and humans, as well as issues related to mixed agency, stakeholder perspectives, in-vehicle avatars, and human-vehicle power dynamics. The workshop aims to uncover the benefits, risks, and design principles associated with this emerging paradigm.

  • 4.
    Babel, Franziska
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thellman, Sam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Cyclists' Perception of Automated Shuttle Buses in Shared Spaces2023In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 11TH CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-AGENT INTERACTION, HAI 2023, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2023, p. 467-469Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As automated shuttle buses gradually become a part of urban traffic solutions, their interactions with vulnerable road users need careful consideration. However, the cyclists' perspectives on autonomous shuttle buses have not been explored extensively. This research addresses this gap by surveying 50 cyclists who regularly encounter automated shuttle buses. The results show that, in general, cyclists exhibit a high level of trust in the safety of the buses. Nevertheless, approximately one-third of the cyclists expressed disapproval as the buses tend to drive on the bicycle lane, leading them to wish for infrastructural solutions to avoid forcing cyclists to divert to pedestrian walkways. Identifying potential conflicts like these is vital for the development of effective and acceptable human-agent interactions in road traffic environments.

  • 5.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thellman, Sam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    How puzzling is the social artifact puzzle?2023In: Behavioral and Brain Sciences, ISSN 0140-525X, E-ISSN 1469-1825, Vol. 46, article id e50Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this commentary we would like to question (a) Clark and Fischer's characterization of the “social artifact puzzle” – which we consider less puzzling than the authors, and (b) their account of social robots as depictions involving three physical scenes – which to us seems unnecessarily complex. We contrast the authors' model with a more parsimonious account based on attributions.

  • 6.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pettersson, Max
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Holmgren, Aksel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    In the eyes of the beheld: Do people think that self-driving cars see what human drivers see?2023In: Companion of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 612-616Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safe interaction with automated vehicles requires that human road users understand the differences between the capabilities and limitations of human drivers and their artificial counterparts. Here we explore how people judge what self-driving cars versus human drivers can perceive by engaging online study participants in visual perspective taking toward a car pictured in various traffic scenes. The results indicate that people do not expect self-driving cars to differ significantly from human drivers in their capability to perceive objects in the environment. This finding is important because unmet expectations can result in detrimental interaction outcomes, such as traffic accidents. The extent to which people are able to calibrate their expectations remains an open question for future research.

  • 7.
    Richter, Kai-Florian
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Horned, Arvid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Inside an autonomous car: some open issues and social implications2023In: CarSA Workshop: Publications / [ed] Franziska Babel; Philipp Hock; Sam Thellman; Tom Ziemke, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driving is a highly social activity with various interactions between the different actors involved in traffic. Autonomous vehicles will pose several challenges to the social fabric of traffic and, as most new technology, will lead to changes in human behavior. This will surely hold for interactions between autonomous vehicles and actors \emph{outside} the vehicle. However and importantly, autonomous vehicles will also alter existing and introduce new social situations and interactions for those \emph{inside} the vehicle, which appears to be an under-researched topic. This paper will focus on the passengers of autonomous vehicles. We will discuss some of the implications and expected changes in the relationship between a car and those inside it, and highlight some of the open issues of being enclosed and driven by a highly complex, largely black-box AI system on wheels.

  • 8.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Johnson, Ericka
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Investigating healthcare workers' technostress when welfare technology is introduced in long-term care facilities2023In: Behavior and Information Technology, ISSN 0144-929X, E-ISSN 1362-3001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Welfare technology has recently reached older adults in long-term care facilities (LTCFs). Many Swedish municipalities are introducing emerging technologies such as virtual reality, robotic assistive devices, and social robots in LTCFs as part of everyday care. However, not only older adults are affected by these deployments. Healthcare workers are left to master these technologies - and integrate them into existing care practices. Previous research has identified an increase in work-related stress associated with the introduction of technology for healthcare workers. The literature is, however, sparse on how healthcare workers in LTCFs are affected by the introduction. Therefore, we explored different factors that could affect healthcare workers technostress through an online survey and semi-structured interviews to get a deeper understanding of how healthcare workers are experiencing deployments of welfare technology. The main findings showed that some of the healthcare workers are finding it difficult to adopt and use welfare technology due to, for example, older age, language difficulties, or a negative attitude toward technology. We conclude that municipalities and LTCFs need to invest in their healthcare workers in order to achieve better on-boarding and reduce technostress.

  • 9.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Holmgren, Aksel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pettersson, Max
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Out of Sight, Out of Mind? Investigating People's Assumptions About Object Permanence in Self-Driving Cars2023In: Companion of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, New York, NY, USA: ACM Digital Library, 2023, p. 602-606Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Safe and efficient interaction with autonomous road vehicles requires that human road users, including drivers, cyclists, and pedestrians, understand differences between the capabilities and limitations of self-driving vehicles and those of human drivers. In this study, we explore how people judge the ability of self-driving cars versus human drivers to keep track of out-of-sight objects by engaging online study participants in cognitive perspective taking toward a car in an animated traffic scene. The results indicate that people may expect self-driving cars to have similar object permanence capability as human drivers. This finding is important because unmet expectations on autonomous road vehicles can result in undesirable interaction outcomes, such as traffic accidents.

  • 10.
    Jernberg, Christian
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Sandin, Jesper
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    The effect of latency, speed and task performed on remotely operated vehicles2023In: Proceedings of the 11th Young Researchers Seminar (YRS2023), Zenodo , 2023Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Understanding Social Robots: Attribution of Intentional Agency to Artificial and Biological Bodies2023In: Artificial Life, ISSN 1064-5462, E-ISSN 1530-9185, Vol. 29, no 3, p. 351-366Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Much research in robotic artificial intelligence (AI) and Artificial Life has focused on autonomous agents as an embodied and situated approach to AI. Such systems are commonly viewed as overcoming many of the philosophical problems associated with traditional computationalist AI and cognitive science, such as the grounding problem (Harnad) or the lack of intentionality (Searle), because they have the physical and sensorimotor grounding that traditional AI was argued to lack. Robot lawn mowers and self-driving cars, for example, more or less reliably avoid obstacles, approach charging stations, and so on—and therefore might be considered to have some form of artificial intentionality or intentional directedness. It should be noted, though, that the fact that robots share physical environments with people does not necessarily mean that they are situated in the same perceptual and social world as humans. For people encountering socially interactive systems, such as social robots or automated vehicles, this poses the nontrivial challenge to interpret them as intentional agents to understand and anticipate their behavior but also to keep in mind that the intentionality of artificial bodies is fundamentally different from their natural counterparts. This requires, on one hand, a “suspension of disbelief ” but, on the other hand, also a capacity for the “suspension of belief.” This dual nature of (attributed) artificial intentionality has been addressed only rather superficially in embodied AI and social robotics research. It is therefore argued that Bourgine and Varela’s notion of Artificial Life as the practice of autonomous systems needs to be complemented with a practice of socially interactive autonomous systems, guided by a better understanding of the differences between artificial and biological bodies and their implications in the context of social interactions between people and technology.

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  • 12.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Marsja, Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Linköping University, Sweden.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Will It Yield?: Expectations on Automated Shuttle Bus Interactions With Pedestrians and Bicyclists2023In: ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, IEEE Computer Society , 2023, p. 292-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles that operate on public roads need to be predictable to others, including vulnerable road users. In this study, we asked participants to take the perspective of videotaped pedestrians and cyclists crossing paths with an automated shuttle bus, and to (1) judge whether the bus would stop safely in front of them and (2) report whether the bus's actual stopping behavior accorded with their expectations. The results show that participants expected the bus to brake safely in approximately two thirds of the human-vehicle interactions, more so to pedestrians than cyclists, and that they tended to underestimate rather than overestimate the bus's capability to yield in ways that they considered as safe. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of automated shuttle bus services.

  • 13.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Marsja, Erik
    Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Disability Research Division.
    Anund, Anna
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Will It Yield: Expectations on Automated Shuttle Bus Interactions With Pedestrians and Bicyclists2023In: HRI '23: Companion of the 2023 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2023, p. 292-296Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autonomous vehicles that operate on public roads need to be predictable to others, including vulnerable road users. In this study, we asked participants to take the perspective of videotaped pedestrians and cyclists crossing paths with an automated shuttle bus, and to (1) judge whether the bus would stop safely in front of them and (2) report whether the bus's actual stopping behavior accorded with their expectations. The results show that participants expected the bus to brake safely in approximately two thirds of the human-vehicle interactions, more so to pedestrians than cyclists, and that they tended to underestimate rather than overestimate the bus's capability to yield in ways that they considered as safe. These findings have implications for the design and implementation of automated shuttle bus services.

  • 14.
    Axell, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Berg, Astrid
    Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science.
    Hallström, Jonas
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Thellman, Sam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Artificial Intelligence in Contemporary Children’s Culture: A Case Study2022In: PATT 39: PATT on the Edge Technology, Innovation and Education / [ed] David Gill, Jim Tuff, Thomas Kennedy, Shawn Pendergast, Sana Jamil, Memorial University of Newfoundland , 2022, p. 376-386Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim of the school subject technology is to develop pupils’ understanding of technological solutions in everyday life. A starting point for this study is that it is important for teachers in technology to have knowledge of pupils’ prior conceptions of the subject content since these can both support and hinder their learning. In a previous study we found that when pupils (age 7) talk about digital technology and programming, they often refer to out-of-school experiences such as films, television programmes and books. Typically, their descriptions include robots with some form of intelligence. Hence, it seems like children’s culture may have an impact on the conceptions they bring to the technology classroom. In light of this, it is vital that technology teachers have knowledge about how robots and artificial intelligence (AI) are portrayed in children’s culture, and how pupils perceive these portrayals. However, knowledge about these aspects of technology in children’s culture is limited.The purpose of this study is to investigate how artifacts with artificial intelligence are portrayed in television programmes and literature aimed at children. This study is the first step in a larger study aiming to examine younger pupils’ conceptions and ideas about artificial intelligence. A novice conception of artificial intelligence can be described as an understanding of what a programmed device may, or may not, “understand” in relation to a human, which includes discerning th edifferences between the artificial and the human mind. Consequently, as a theoretical framework for investigating how artificial intelligence is portrayed in children’s culture, the concepts of Theoryof Mind (ToM) and Theory of Artificial Mind (ToAM), are used. The empirical material presented in this paper, i.e. four children’s books and a popular children’s television programme, was analysed using a qualitative thematic analysis. The results show that the portrayal of AI is ambiguous. The structure and function of the robot has elements of both human and machine, and the view of the human fictional characters of the robot is sometimes that of a machine, sometimes of a human. In addition, the whole empirical material includes portrayals of AI as a threat as well as a saviour. As regards implications, there is a risk that without real-life experiences of robots, the representations children’s books and other media convey can lead to ambivalent feelings towards real robots.

  • 15.
    Elgarf, Maha
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (EECS), Computer Science, Computational Science and Technology (CST).
    Child-Robot Behavioral Alignment and Creativity Performance2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, robots have been prevalent in almost all domains. One of the most common applications of social robotics is for education with children. This dissertation addresses the integration of creativity-related education in child-robot interactions. Creativity is a required skill in the 21st century. It is regarded by many researchers as an essential survival skill. It has been established that current educational methods limit children's freedom of expression and therefore, negatively impact their creative abilities. To date, a few research attempts have focused on developing social child-robot interactions to foster children's creativity. 

    In this work, methods were investigated to boost children's creativity skills through social interactions with a robot in a storytelling context. To define and evaluate creativity, standard four creativity measures were used throughout the thesis: fluency, flexibility, elaboration and originality. 

    First, a social activity was developed to be performed between a social robot and a child. The activity comprises of two games: an interactive priming game and a storytelling game. The activity has been used throughout the thesis to evaluate implemented algorithms and methods. Second, 3 field studies were conducted with 210 school-aged children (5-10 years old). In these studies, the developed activity was used and notions of emotional alignment and creativity alignment between a child and a social robot were examined. In the context of this work, the concept of behavioral alignment refers to the synchronisation between the robot and the child that results in the child mirroring the robot. Emotional alignment occurs when a child mirrors the robot's emotions. Whereas, creativity alignment results in the child behaving creatively as an effect of interacting with a creative robot. Through the conducted studies, the effects of the various types of child-robot behavioral alignment on children's emotional states, engagement with the robot and children's creativity skills were investigated. Third, a computational model that enables a conversational agent to collaboratively interact with a child in a storytelling activity in a creative manner was produced. The computational model was implemented to be used in an integrated manner with the software interface of the storytelling game. The data collected in the first two studies was used to train the computational model that was assessed through the third and last study.

    The findings highlight the effectiveness of social robots in promoting children's creativity skills. They emphasize the potential of the developed educational application (storytelling game interface + computational model) in improving children's creative abilities. This work enriches the literature with new insights on developing robot's behaviors that benefit children's creative processes and therefore, is significant to the child-robot interaction (cHRI) community.

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  • 16.
    Ziemke, Tom
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thellman, Sam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Do we really want AI to be human-like?2022In: SCIENCE ROBOTICS, ISSN 2470-9476, Vol. 7, no 68, article id eadd0641Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Behavioral variability can be used to make robots more human-like, but we propose that it may be wiser to make them less so.

  • 17.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    de Graaf, Maartje
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mental State Attribution to Robots: A Systematic Review of Conceptions, Methods, and Findings2022In: ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, E-ISSN 2573-9522, Vol. 11, no 4, article id 41Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The topic of mental state attribution to robots has been approached by researchers from a variety of disciplines, including psychology, neuroscience, computer science, and philosophy. As a consequence, the empirical studies that have been conducted so far exhibit considerable diversity in terms of how the phenomenon is described and how it is approached from a theoretical and methodological standpoint. This literature review addresses the need for a shared scientific understanding of mental state attribution to robots by systematically and comprehensively collating conceptions, methods, and findings from 155 empirical studies across multiple disciplines. The findings of the review include that: (1) the terminology used to describe mental state attribution to robots is diverse but largely homogenous in usage; (2) the tendency to attribute mental states to robots is determined by factors such as the age and motivation of the human as well as the behavior, appearance, and identity of the robot; (3) there is a computer < robot < human pattern in the tendency to attribute mental states that appears to be moderated by the presence of socially interactive behavior; (4) there are conflicting findings in the empirical literature that stem from different sources of evidence, including self-report and non-verbal behavioral or neurological data. The review contributes toward more cumulative research on the topic and opens up for a transdisciplinary discussion about the nature of the phenomenon and what types of research methods are appropriate for investigation.

  • 18.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Andler, Sten F.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Brohede, Marcus
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Klingegård (Nilsson), Maria
    Folksam, Sweden ; Integrated Transport Research Lab, Royal Institute of Technology Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    On the Definition and Scope of Information Fusion as a Field of Research2022In: ISIF Perspectives on Information Fusion, ISSN 2831-4824, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 3-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A definition of information fusion (IF) as a field of research can benefit researchers within the field, who may use such a definition when motivating their own work and evaluating the contributions of others. Moreover, it can enable researchers and practitioners outside the field to more easily relate their own work to the field and more easily understand the scope of IF techniques and methods. Based on strengths and weaknesses of existing definitions, a definition is proposed that is argued to effectively fulfill the requirements that can be put on a definition of IF as a field of research. Although the proposed definition aims to be precise, it does not fully capture the richness and versatility of the IF field. To address that limitation, we highlight some topics to explore the scope of IF, covering the systems perspective of IF and its relation to ma-chine learning, optimization, robot behavior, opinion aggregation, and databases.

  • 19.
    Johansson, Ronnie
    et al.
    Swedish Defence Research Agency, Sweden.
    Karlsson, Alexander
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Andler, Sten
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Brohede, Marcus
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    van Laere, Joeri
    University of Skövde, Sweden.
    Klingegård, Maria
    Folksam, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    On the Definition and Scope of Information Fusion as a Field of Research2022In: Perspectives on Information Fusion, ISSN 2831-4824, Vol. 5, no 1, p. 3-12Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A definition of information fusion (IF) as a field of research can benefit researcherswithin the field, who may use such a definition when motivating their own work and evaluatingthe contributions of others. Moreover, it can enable researchers and practitioners outside thefield to more easily relate their own work to the field and more easily understand the scope of IFtechniques and methods. Based on strengths and weaknesses of existing definitions, a definitionis proposed that is argued to effectively fulfill the requirements that can be put on a definitionof IF as a field of research. Although the proposed definition aims to be precise, it does not fullycapture the richness and versatility of the IF field. To address that limitation, we highlight sometopics to explore the scope of IF, covering the systems perspective of IF and its relation to ma-chine learning, optimization, robot behavior, opinion aggregation, and databases.

  • 20.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Angström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carsting, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Faber, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gummesson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henne, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mastell, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mjörnman, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tell, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Wizard of Oz Approach to Robotic Therapy for Older Adults With Depressive Symptoms2021In: HRI '21 Companion: Companion of the 2021 ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2021, p. 294-297Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults with late-life depression often suffer from cognitive symptoms, such as dementia. This patient group is not prioritised for psychotherapy and therefore often medicated with antidepressants. However, in the last 20-years, the evidence base for psychotherapy has increased and one promising area is technology-based psychotherapy. Investigations of the possibilities in this area are also motivated by the Covid-19 pandemic, where many older adults are isolated, which makes it impossible for them to meet with a therapist. Therefore, we have developed a Wizard of Oz system allowing a human therapist to control a humanoid robot through a graphical user interface, including natural speech for natural conversations, which enables the robot to be stationed in, for example, a care home. For future research, we will conduct user-centered studies with both therapists and older adults to further develop the system.

  • 21.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Angström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carsting, Tim
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Faber, Petra
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gummesson, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Henne, Alexander
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mastell, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mjörnman, Jesper
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tell, Joel
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Wizard of Oz Approach to Robotic Therapy for Older Adults With Depressive Symptoms2021In: HRI 21: COMPANION OF THE 2021 ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2021, p. 294-297Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Older adults with late-life depression often suffer from cognitive symptoms, such as dementia. This patient group is not prioritised for psychotherapy and therefore often medicated with antidepressants. However, in the last 20-years, the evidence base for psychotherapy has increased and one promising area is technology-based psychotherapy. Investigations of the possibilities in this area are also motivated by the Covid-19 pandemic, where many older adults are isolated, which makes it impossible for them to meet with a therapist. Therefore, we have developed a Wizard of Oz system allowing a human therapist to control a humanoid robot through a graphical user interface, including natural speech for natural conversations, which enables the robot to be stationed in, for example, a care home. For future research, we will conduct user-centered studies with both therapists and older adults to further develop the system.

  • 22.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Does Emotional State Affect How People Perceive Robots?2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions serve important regulatory roles in social interaction. Although recognition, modeling, and expression of emotion have been extensively researched in human-robot interaction and related fields, the role of human emotion in perceptions of and interactions with robots has so far received considerably less attention. We here report inconclusive results from a pilot study employing an affect induction procedure to investigate the effect of people's emotional state on their perceptions of human-likeness and mind in robots, as well as attitudes toward robots. We propose a new study design based on the findings from this study.

  • 23.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Does Emotional State Affect How People Perceive Robots?2021In: HRI 21: COMPANION OF THE 2021 ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2021, p. 113-115Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emotions serve important regulatory roles in social interaction. Although recognition, modeling, and expression of emotion have been extensively researched in human-robot interaction and related fields, the role of human emotion in perceptions of and interactions with robots has so far received considerably less attention. We here report inconclusive results from a pilot study employing an affect induction procedure to investigate the effect of peoples emotional state on their perceptions of human-likeness and mind in robots, as well as attitudes toward robots. We propose a new study design based on the findings from this study.

  • 24.
    Rosberg, Tomas
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Transport planning. VTI.
    Evaluation of Train Driving with Lineside ATPand ERTMS Signaling2021Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    From many perspectives there is a need to understand more of how capacity, signal systems, anddriving behavior interact, and naturally since ERTMS is in its early stage, some areas are stillunexplored. The number of retrofitted ERTMS lines and new designed ERTMS lines are increasing inEurope, which implies extra focus on the capacity optimization in the network planning process.Many of these signaling projects involves going from traditional national lineside signaling to ERTMS.One of the parameters in capacity assessments that is relatively unexplored is the impact of the traindriver. One important knowledge gap to fill, is how simulation parameters should be adapted formore realistic capacity planning, based on driving behavior. ERTMS support new possibilities ofsignaling with its design of speed profiles, but what consequences does the choices have? It is animportant topic since ERTMS is a paradigm shift in train driving, and driveability has an impact onsafety, energy-consumption, and capacity. The purpose of this PhD project is adding knowledge tothis field. The work has been carried out incrementally, beginning with investigation of drivingbehavior with Swedish traditional lineside signaling (ATC), and with this new information proceedingto the area of ERTMS. The continuation of this project aims at investigating train driving behavior forERTMS with a proposed new measuring method based on the standardized ETCS radio signaling. Thisnew method offers a broad spectrum of train driving analysis for ERTMS in a new efficient way.Lastly, in the perspective of ERTMS lines have been evaluated as more challenging to drive, asystematic literature review was conducted to understand ERTMS driveability and how driveabilitycan be assessed. In the overall picture the impact on driveability originates from both technological,organizational, and train driver aspects. Analyzing the research objectives in this area aims atcontributing to a more effective and beneficial network planning process.

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  • 25.
    De Graaf, Maartje M. A.
    et al.
    Univ Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Dragan, Anca
    Univ Calif Berkeley, CA 94720 USA.
    Malle, Bertram F.
    Brown Univ, RI 02912 USA.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Introduction to the Special Issue on Explainable Robotic Systems2021In: ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, E-ISSN 2573-9522, Vol. 10, no 3, article id 22Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 26.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Pandemic Effects on Social Companion Robot Use in Care Homes2021In: 2021 30TH IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON ROBOT AND HUMAN INTERACTIVE COMMUNICATION (RO-MAN), IEEE , 2021, p. 983-988Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the past year with a pandemic, there have been many discussions of the use of robots in healthcare, and in particular the care of older adults. There are reports that COVID-19 drives adoption of robot technologies, and that health institutions are more positive to the use of robots due to the lower risk of virus spread, among other reasons. The media have contributed significantly to an increased interest in caring robots and from a societal perspective - given recent lockdowns, social distancing, etc. - an increase of robot usage in health care settings is not difficult to imagine. Older adults have in many countries been isolated, either at home or in care homes. This group, and especially individuals with dementia, were already vulnerable before the pandemic, living with an increased risk for loneliness and depression. For the last 10 years in Sweden, many actions have been taken to improve these peoples well-being and quality of life, including the use of social companion robots as psychological interventions. Given the increased isolation due to the pandemic, we wanted to investigate how the use of social companion robots has been affected in care homes during this time. We, therefore, interviewed nine health care staff members from seven different care homes for older adults in Sweden. The results summarised in this paper provides a real-world status report, one year after the outbreak, of how the pandemic has affected the usage of social companion robots in care homes.

  • 27.
    Thellman, Sam
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Social Robots as Intentional Agents2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Social robots are robots that are intended for social interaction with people. Because of the societal benefits that they are expected to bring, social robots are likely to become more common. Notably, social robots may be able to perform tasks that require social skills, such as communicating efficiently, coordinating actions, managing relationships, and building trust and rapport. However, robotic systems currently lack most of the technological preconditions for interacting socially. This means that until the necessary technology is developed, humans will have to do most of the work coordinating social interactions with robots. However, social robots are a phenomenon that might also challenge the human ability to interact socially. In particular, the actions of social robots may be less predictable to the ordinary people who will interact with them than the comparable actions of humans. In anticipating the actions of other people, we commonly employ folk-psychological assumptions about what others are likely to believe, want, and intend to do, given the situation that they are in. Folk psychology allows us to make instantaneous, unconscious judgments about the likely actions of others around us, and therefore, to interact socially. However, the application of folk psychology will be challenged in the context of social interaction with robots because of significant differences between humans and robots.

    This thesis addresses the scope and limits of people's ability to interact socially with robots by treating them as intentional agents, i.e., agents whose behavior is most appropriately predicted by attributing it to underlying intentional states, such as beliefs and desires. The thesis provides an analysis of the problem(s) of attributing behavior-congruent intentional states to robots, with a particular focus on the perceptual belief problem, i.e., the problem of understanding what robots know (and do not know) about objects and events in the environment based on their perception. The thesis presents evidence that people's understanding of robots as intentional agents is important to their ability to interact socially with them but that it may also be significantly limited by (1) the extendability of the rich folk-psychological understanding that people have gained from sociocultural experiences with humans and other social animals to interactions with robots, and (2) the integrability of new experiences with robots into a usable and reasonable accurate folk psychological understanding of them. Studying the formation and application of folk psychology in interactions with robots should therefore be a central undertaking in social robotics research.

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  • 28.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Social Robots in Care Homes for Older Adults: Observations from Participatory Design Workshops2021In: Social Robotics, 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluations of social robots for older adults in care home environments during the past 20 years have shown mostly positive results. However, many of these studies have been short-term and with few participants, as well as limited to few countries. Recent evidence, however, indicates that social robots might not work in all settings or for everyone. Therefore, we conducted a participatory workshop with key stakeholders as an attempt to begin to disentangle the many interrelated factors behind a successful implementation. The result showed similarities in preferred embodiment and morphology, differences in behavioural complexity and task performance, as well as a maybe surprising lack of interest in emotional support. It further showed that older adults living in care homes prior—to meeting social robots—showed relatively little interest in these robots. Based on these observations, we formulate future research directions.

  • 29.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Social Robots in Care Homes for Older Adults Observations from Participatory Design Workshops2021In: SOCIAL ROBOTICS, ICSR 2021, SPRINGER INTERNATIONAL PUBLISHING AG , 2021, Vol. 13086, p. 475-486Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evaluations of social robots for older adults in care home environments during the past 20 years have shown mostly positive results. However, many of these studies have been short-term and with few participants, as well as limited to few countries. Recent evidence, however, indicates that social robots might not work in all settings or for everyone. Therefore, we conducted a participatory workshop with key stakeholders as an attempt to begin to disentangle the many interrelated factors behind a successful implementation. The result showed similarities in preferred embodiment and morphology, differences in behavioural complexity and task performance, as well as a maybe surprising lack of interest in emotional support. It further showed that older adults living in care homes prior to meeting social robots showed relatively little interest in these robots. Based on these observations, we formulate future research directions.

  • 30.
    Bjurling, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Swarms, teams, or choirs?: Metaphors in multi-UAV systems design2021In: Advances in Human Factors in Robots, Unmanned Systems and Cybersecurity / [ed] Matteo Zallio, Carlos Raymundo Ibañez, Jesus Hechavarria Hernandez, Cham, 2021, p. 10-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are projected to fly and operate in swarms. The swarm metaphor makes explicit and implicit mappings regarding system architecture and human interaction to aspects of natural systems, such as bee societies. Compared to the metaphor of a team, swarming agents as individuals are less capable, more expendable, and more limited in terms of communication and coordination. Given their different features and limitations, the two metaphors could be useful in different scenarios. We also discuss a choir metaphor and illustrate how it can give rise to different design concepts. We conclude that designers and engineers should be mindful of the metaphors they use because they influence—and limit—how to think about and design for multi-UAV systems.

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  • 31.
    Bjurling, Oscar
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Swarms, Teams, or Choirs?: Metaphors in Multi-UAV Systems Design2021In: International Conference on Applied Human Factors and ErgonomicsAHFE 2021: Advances in Human Factors in Robots, Unmanned Systems and Cybersecurity, Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH , 2021, p. 10-15Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Future Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are projected to fly and operate in swarms. The swarm metaphor makes explicit and implicit mappings regarding system architecture and human interaction to aspects of natural systems, such as bee societies. Compared to the metaphor of a team, swarming agents as individuals are less capable, more expendable, and more limited in terms of communication and coordination. Given their different features and limitations, the two metaphors could be useful in different scenarios. We also discuss a choir metaphor and illustrate how it can give rise to different design concepts. We conclude that designers and engineers should be mindful of the metaphors they use because they influence—and limit—how to think about and design for multi-UAV systems. © 2021, The Author(s)

  • 32.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    The Perceptual Belief Problem: Why Explainability Is a Tough Challenge in Social Robotics2021In: ACM Transactions on Human-Robot Interaction, E-ISSN 2573-9522, Vol. 10, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The explainability of robotic systems depends on people’s ability to reliably attribute perceptual beliefs to robots, i.e., what robots know (or believe) about objects and events in the world based on their perception. However, the perceptual systems of robots are not necessarily well understood by the majority of people interacting with them. In this article, we explain why this is a significant, difficult, and unique problem in social robotics. The inability to judge what a robot knows (and does not know) about the physical environment it shares with people gives rise to a host of communicative and interactive issues, including difficulties to communicate about objects or adapt to events in the environment. The challenge faced by social robotics researchers or designers who want to facilitate appropriate attributions of perceptual beliefs to robots is to shape human–robot interactions so that people understand what robots know about objects and events in the environment. To meet this challenge, we argue, it is necessary to advance our knowledge of when and why people form incorrect or inadequate mental models of robots’ perceptual and cognitive mechanisms. We outline a general approach to studying this empirically and discuss potential solutions to the problem.

  • 33.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Giagtzidou, Asenia
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    An Implicit, Non-Verbal Measure of Belief Attribution to Robots2020In: HRI20: COMPANION OF THE 2020 ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2020, p. 473-475Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Studies of mental state attribution to robots usually rely on verbal measures. However, verbal measures are sensitive to peoples rationalizations, and the outcomes of such measures are not always reflected in a persons behavior. In light of these limitations, we present the first steps toward developing an alternative, non-verbal measure of belief attribution to robots. We report preliminary findings from a comparative study indicating that the two types of measures (verbal vs. non-verbal) are not always consistent. Notably, the divergence between the two measures was larger when the task of inferring the robots belief was more difficult.

  • 34.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Anthropocentric Attribution Bias in Human Prediction of Robot Behavior2020In: HRI20: COMPANION OF THE 2020 ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2020, p. 476-478Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many types of human-robot interactions, people must track the beliefs of robots based on uncertain estimates of robots perceptual and cognitive capabilities. Did the robot see what happened and did it understand what it saw? In this paper, we present preliminary experimental evidence that people estimating what a humanoid robot knows or believes about the environment anthropocentrically assume it to have human-like perceptual and cognitive capabilities. However, our results also suggest that people are able to adjust their incorrect assumptions based on observations of the robot.

  • 35.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Are People Ready for Social Robots in Public Spaces?2020In: HRI20: COMPANION OF THE 2020 ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2020, p. 482-484Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in robotics are potentially changing the nature of service, and research in human-robot interaction has previously shown that humanoid robots could possibly work in public spaces. We conducted an ethnographic study with the humanoid robot Pepper at a central train station. The results indicate that people are not yet accustomed to talking to robots, and people seem to expect that the robot does not talk, that it is a queue ticket machine, or that, one should interact with it by using the tablet on the robots chest.

  • 36.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Linkoping University.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Are People Ready for Unexpected Encounters With Social Robots?2020In: The Forgotten in HRI: Incidental Encounters with Robots in Public Spaces, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recent developments in robotics are potentially changing the nature of service, and research in human-robot interaction has previously shown that humanoid robots could possibly work in public spaces. We conducted a mixed-method study with the humanoid robot Pepper at a central train station. The results indicate that people are not yet accustomed to talking to robots, and people seem to expect that the robot does not talk, that it is a queue ticket machine, or that one should interact with it by using the tablet on the robot's chest.

  • 37.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Rönnqvist, Lisa
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Do robot pets decrease agitation in dementia patients?: An Ethnographic Approach2020In: Social Robotics: 12th International Conference, ICSR 2020, Golden, CO, USA, November 14–18, 2020, Proceedings / [ed] Alan R. Wagner, David Feil-Seifer, Kerstin S. Haring, Silvia Rossi, Thomas Williams, Hongsheng He, Shuzhi Sam Ge, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2020, p. 616-627Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Companion robots, and especially robotic pets, have been argued to have the potential for improving the well-being of elderly people with dementia. Previous research has mainly focused on short-term studies, conducted with relatively expensive robot platforms. With cheaper options on the market, residential homes in Sweden have started to use low-cost off-the-shelf platforms, such as the Joy for All cats and dogs, which have not been the subject of much previous research. We therefore conducted two ethnographic long-term studies of real-world use of the Joy for All robot cat and dog at a care home facility. The care staff report positive outcomes regarding reminiscence and improved well-being, with decreased agitation and increased communication. Furthermore, the robots are perceived to provide companionship and to give patients the feeling of being able to take care of someone. Based on the insights gained in this real-world study of the use of robotic pets in elderly care, we identify a number of research questions and methodological issues for future research.

  • 38.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Do You See what I See? Tracking the Perceptual Beliefs of Robots2020In: iScience, E-ISSN 2589-0042 , Vol. 23, no 10, article id 101625Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Keeping track of others perceptual beliefs-what they perceive and know about the current situation-is imperative in many social contexts. In a series of experiments, we set out to investigate peoples ability to keep track of what robots knowor believe about objects and events in the environment. To this end, we subjected 155 experimental participants to an anticipatory-looking false-belief task where they had to reason about a robots perceptual capability in order to predict its behavior. We conclude that (1) it is difficult for people to track the perceptual beliefs of a robot whose perceptual capability potentially differs significantly from human perception, (2) people can gradually "tune in" to the unique perceptual capabilities of a robot over time by observing it interact with the environment, and (3) providing people with verbal information about a robots perceptual capability might not significantly help them predict its behavior.

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  • 39.
    Bjurling, Oscar
    et al.
    Digital Systems, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Linköping, Sweden.
    Granlund, Rego
    Digital Systems, RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Linköping, Sweden.
    Alfredson, Jens
    Aeronautics, Saab AB, Linköping, Sweden.
    Arvola, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Drone Swarms in Forest Firefighting: A Local Development Case Study of Multi-Level Human-Swarm Interaction2020In: Proceedings of the 11th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Shaping Experiences, Shaping Society, New York, NY, USA: Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020, article id 93Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Swarms of autonomous and coordinating Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) are rapidly being developed to enable simultaneous control of multiple UAVs. In the field of Human-Swarm Interaction (HSI), researchers develop and study swarm algorithms and various means of control and evaluate their cognitive and task performance. There is, however, a lack of research describing how UAV swarms will fit into future real-world domain contexts. To remedy this, this paper describes a case study conducted within the community of firefighters, more precisely two Swedish fire departments that regularly deploy UAVs in fire responses. Based on an initial description of how their UAVs are used in a forest firefighting context, participating UAV operators and unit commanders envisioned a scenario that showed how the swarm and its capabilities could be utilized given the constraints and requirements of a forest firefighting mission. Based on this swarm scenario description we developed a swarm interaction model that describes how the operators’ interaction traverses multiple levels ranging from the entire swarm, via subswarms and individual UAVs, to specific sensors and equipment carried by the UAVs. The results suggest that human-in-the-loop simulation studies need to enable interaction across multiple swarm levels as this interaction may exert additional cognitive strain on the human operator.

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  • 40.
    Thellman, Sam
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Silvervarg, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Some Adults Fail the False-Belief Task When the Believer Is a Robot2020In: HRI20: COMPANION OF THE 2020 ACM/IEEE INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON HUMAN-ROBOT INTERACTION, ASSOC COMPUTING MACHINERY , 2020, p. 479-481Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Peoples mental models of robots affect their predictions of robot behavior in interactions. The present study highlights some of the uncertainties that enter specifically into peoples considerations about the minds and behavior of robots by exploring how people fare in the standard "Sally-Anne" false-belief task from developmental psychology when the protagonist is a robot.

  • 41.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    Univ Plymouth, England; Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Cai, Haibin
    Univ Portsmouth, England.
    Cao, Hoang-Long
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium; Flanders Make, Belgium.
    Ciocan, Anamaria
    Univ Babe Bolyai, Romania.
    Costescu, Cristina
    Univ Babe Bolyai, Romania.
    David, Daniel
    Univ Babe Bolyai, Romania.
    Homewood, Robert
    Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Garcia, Daniel Hernandez
    Univ Plymouth, England.
    Esteban, Pablo Gomez
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium; Flanders Make, Belgium.
    Liu, Honghai
    Univ Portsmouth, England.
    Nair, Vipul
    Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Matu, Silviu
    Univ Babe Bolyai, Romania.
    Mazel, Alexandre
    SoftBank Robot, France.
    Selescu, Mihaela
    Univ Babe Bolyai, Romania.
    Senft, Emmanuel
    Univ Plymouth, England.
    Thill, Serge
    Univ Skovde, Sweden; Radboud Univ Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Vanderborght, Bram
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium; Flanders Make, Belgium.
    Vernon, David
    Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    The DREAM Dataset: Supporting a data-driven study of autism spectrum disorder and robot enhanced therapy2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 8, article id e0236939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a dataset of behavioral data recorded from 61 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The data was collected during a large-scale evaluation of Robot Enhanced Therapy (RET). The dataset covers over 3000 therapy sessions and more than 300 hours of therapy. Half of the children interacted with the social robot NAO supervised by a therapist. The other half, constituting a control group, interacted directly with a therapist. Both groups followed the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) protocol. Each session was recorded with three RGB cameras and two RGBD (Kinect) cameras, providing detailed information of childrens behavior during therapy. This public release of the dataset comprises body motion, head position and orientation, and eye gaze variables, all specified as 3D data in a joint frame of reference. In addition, metadata including participant age, gender, and autism diagnosis (ADOS) variables are included. We release this data with the hope of supporting further data-driven studies towards improved therapy methods as well as a better understanding of ASD in general.

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  • 42.
    Billing, Erik
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    University of Plymouth, United Kingdom / IDLab - imec, Ghent University, Belgium.
    Cai, Haibin
    University of Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Cao, Hoang-Long
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium / Flanders Make, Lommel, Belgium.
    Ciocan, Anamaria
    Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Romania.
    Costescu, Cristina
    Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Romania.
    David, Daniel
    Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Romania.
    Homewood, Robert
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Hernandez Garcia, Daniel
    University of Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Gomez Esteban, Pablo
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium / Flanders Make, Lommel, Belgium.
    Liu, Honghai
    Universityof Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Nair, Vipul
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Matu, Silviu
    Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Romania.
    Mazel, Alexandre
    SoftBank Robotics, Paris, France.
    Selescu, Mihaela
    Universitatea Babeş-Bolyai, Romania.
    Senft, Emmanuel
    University of Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Thill, Serge
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behavior, Radboud University, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.
    Vanderborght, Bram
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium / Flanders Make, Lommel, Belgium.
    Vernon, David
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, Informatics Research Environment. Linköping University, Sweden.
    The DREAM Dataset: Supporting a data-driven study of autism spectrum disorder and robot enhanced therapy2020In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 8, article id e0236939Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a dataset of behavioral data recorded from 61 children diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). The data was collected during a large-scale evaluation of Robot Enhanced Therapy (RET). The dataset covers over 3000 therapy sessions and more than 300 hours of therapy. Half of the children interacted with the social robot NAO supervised by a therapist. The other half, constituting a control group, interacted directly with a therapist. Both groups followed the Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) protocol. Each session was recorded with three RGB cameras and two RGBD (Kinect) cameras, providing detailed information of children’s behavior during therapy. This public release of the dataset comprises body motion, head position and orientation, and eye gaze variables, all specified as 3D data in a joint frame of reference. In addition, metadata including participant age, gender, and autism diagnosis (ADOS) variables are included. We release this data with the hope of supporting further data-driven studies towards improved therapy methods as well as a better understanding of ASD in general.

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  • 43.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Understanding robots2020In: SCIENCE ROBOTICS, ISSN 2470-9476, Vol. 5, no 46, article id eabe2987Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Elucidating the neural and psychological mechanisms underlying people’s interpretation of robot behavior can inform the design of interactive autonomous systems, such as social robots and automated vehicles.

  • 44.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Computer and Information Science , Linköping University , 581 83 , Linköping , Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Computer and Information Science , Linköping University , 581 83 , Linköping , Sweden.
    User-centred design of humanoid robots’ communication2020In: Paladyn - Journal of Behavioral Robotics, ISSN 2080-9778, E-ISSN 2081-4836, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 58-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction between humans and robots will benefit if people have at least a rough mental model of what a robot knows about the world and what it plans to do. But how do we design human-robot interactions to facilitate this? Previous research has shown that one can change people’s mental models of robots by manipulating the robots’ physical appearance. However, this has mostly not been done in a user-centred way, i.e. without a focus on what users need and want. Starting from theories of how humans form and adapt mental models of others, we investigated how the participatory design method, PICTIVE, can be used to generate design ideas about how a humanoid robot could communicate. Five participants went through three phases based on eight scenarios from the state-of-the-art tasks in the RoboCup@Home social robotics competition. The results indicate that participatory design can be a suitable method to generate design concepts for robots’ communication in human-robot interaction.

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  • 45.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Are People Ready for Social Robots in Public Spaces?2019In: Proceedings of the 15th SweCog Conference / [ed] Linus Holm, Erik Billing, Skövde: University of Skövde , 2019, p. 51-53Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Rapp, Amon
    et al.
    Computer Science Department, University of Turin, Italy / ICxT - ICT and Innovation for Society and Territory, University of Turin, Italy.
    Tirassa, Maurizio
    Psychology Department, University of Turin, Italy.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre. Cognition and Interaction Lab, Department of Computer and Information Science, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Cognitive aspects of interactive technology use: From computers to smart objects and autonomous agents2019In: Frontiers in Psychology, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 10, no May, article id 1078Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 47.
    Thunberg, Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Evaluation of PICTIVE as a User-Centered Design Method in Human-Robot Interaction2019In: 1st Edition of Quality of Interaction in Socially Assistive Robots (QISAR) Workshop / [ed] Miguel A. Salichs, Shuzhi Sam Ge, Emilia Ivanova Barakova, John-John Cabibihan, Alan R. Wagner, Álvaro Castro-González, Hongsheng He, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Interaction between humans and interactive robots will benefit if people have a clear mental model of the robots' intent and situation awareness. But how do we design human-robot interactions to achieve this? Previous research has shown that one can change people's mental models of robots by manipulating the robot's physical appearance, but this has often not been done in a user-centered way, i.e. that interactions are not created based on what users need and want. We tested how a participatory design method, PICTIVE, could be used to extract design ideas about how a humanoid robot could communicate intent and awareness. Five participants went through three phases: label, sketch and interview; based on eight scenarios, from the state-of-the-art tasks in the RoboCup@Home challenge. The results show that participatory design can be a suitable method to create design concepts in HRI.

  • 48.
    Cao, Hoang-Long
    et al.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Esteban, Pablo G.
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Bartlett, Madeleine
    Plymouth Univ, England.
    Baxter, Paul
    Univ Lincoln, England.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    Plymouth Univ, England; Univ Ghent, Belgium.
    Billing, Erik
    Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Cai, Haibin
    Loughborough Univ, England.
    Coeckelbergh, Mark
    De Montfort Univ, England.
    Costescu, Cristina
    Babes Bolyai Univ, Romania.
    David, Daniel
    Babes Bolyai Univ, Romania.
    De Beir, Albert
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Hernandez, Daniel
    Plymouth Univ, England.
    Kennedy, James
    Plymouth Univ, England.
    Liu, Honghai
    Univ Portsmouth, England.
    Matu, Silviu
    Babes Bolyai Univ, Romania.
    Mazel, Alexandre
    Softbank Robot Europe, France.
    Pandey, Amit
    Softbank Robot Europe, France.
    Richardson, Kathleen
    De Montfort Univ, England.
    Senft, Emmanuel
    Plymouth Univ, England.
    Thill, Serge
    Plymouth Univ, England.
    Van de Perre, Greet
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Vanderborght, Bram
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium.
    Vernon, David
    Univ Skovde, Sweden; Carnegie Mellon Univ Africa, Rwanda.
    Wakunuma, Kutoma
    De Montfort Univ, England.
    Yu, Hui
    Univ Portsmouth, England.
    Zhou, Xiaolong
    Zhejiang Univ Technol, Peoples R China.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Robot-Enhanced Therapy Developing and Validating a Supervised Autonomous Robotic System for Autism Spectrum Disorders Therapy2019In: IEEE robotics & automation magazine, ISSN 1070-9932, E-ISSN 1558-223X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    n/a

  • 49.
    Cao, Hoang-Long
    et al.
    Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Belgium.
    Esteban, Pablo G.
    Mechanical Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brusel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Bartlett, Madeleine
    Plymouth University, United Kingdom.
    Baxter, Paul Edward
    School of Computer Science, University of Lincoln, United Kingdom.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    Faculty of Science and Environment, Plymouth University, United Kingdom.
    Billing, Erik
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Cai, Haibin
    School of computing, University of Portsmouth, Southampton, United Kingdom.
    Coeckelbergh, Mark
    University of Twente, The Netherlands.
    Costescu, Cristina
    Department of Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, Universitatea Babes-Bolyai, Cluj Napoca, Romania.
    David, Daniel
    Babes-Bolyai University, Romania.
    De Beir, Albert
    Robotics & Multibody Mechanics Research Group, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB), Bruxelles, Belgium.
    Hernandez Garcia, Daniel
    School of Computing, Electronics and Mathematics, University of Plymouth, United Kingdom.
    Kennedy, James
    Disney Research Los Angeles, Disney Research, Glendale, California United States of America.
    Liu, Honghai
    Institute of Industrial Research, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Matu, Silviu
    Babes-Bolyai University, Romania.
    Mazel, Alexandre
    Research, Aldebaran-Robotics, Le Kremlin Bicetre, France.
    Pandey, Amit Kumar
    Innovation Department, SoftBank Robotics, Paris, France.
    Richardson, Kathleen
    Faculty of Technology, De Montfort University, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Senft, Emmanuel
    Centre for Robotics and Neural System, Plymouth University, United Kingdom.
    Thill, Serge
    Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition, and Behaviour, Radboud University, Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Van de Perre, Greet
    Applied Mechanics, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Elsene, Belgium.
    Vanderborght, Bram
    Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Brussels, Belgium.
    Vernon, David
    Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University Africa, Kigali, Rwanda.
    Wakanuma, Kutoma
    De Montfort University, United Kingdom.
    Yu, Hui
    Creative Technologies, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, United Kingdom.
    Zhou, Xiaolong
    Computer Science and Technology, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, China.
    Ziemke, Tom
    University of Skövde, School of Informatics. University of Skövde, The Informatics Research Centre.
    Robot-Enhanced Therapy: Development and Validation of a Supervised Autonomous Robotic System for Autism Spectrum Disorders Therapy2019In: IEEE robotics & automation magazine, ISSN 1070-9932, E-ISSN 1558-223X, Vol. 26, no 2, p. 49-58Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Cai, Haibin
    et al.
    Univ Portsmouth, England.
    Fang, Yinfeng
    Univ Portsmouth, England.
    Jue, Zhaojie
    Univ Portsmouth, England.
    Costescu, Cristina
    Babes Bolyai Univ, Romania.
    David, Daniel
    Babes Bolyai Univ, Romania.
    Billing, Erik
    Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Ziemke, Tom
    Linköping University, Department of Computer and Information Science, Human-Centered systems. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Univ Skovde, Sweden.
    Thill, Serge
    Univ Plymouth, England.
    Belpaeme, Tony
    Univ Plymouth, England.
    Vanderborght, Bram
    Vrije Univ Brussel, Belgium; Flanders Make, Belgium.
    Vernon, David
    Carnegie Mellon Univ Africa, Rwanda.
    Richardson, Kathleen
    De Montfort Univ, England.
    Liu, Honghai
    Univ Portsmouth, England.
    Sensing-Enhanced Therapy System for Assessing Children With Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Feasibility Study2019In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 1508-1518Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is evident that recently reported robot-assisted therapy systems for assessment of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) lack autonomous interaction abilities and require significant human resources. This paper proposes a sensing system that automatically extracts and fuses sensory features, such as body motion features, facial expressions, and gaze features, further assessing the children behaviors by mapping them to therapist-specified behavioral classes. Experimental results show that the developed system has a capability of interpreting characteristic data of children with ASD, thus has the potential to increase the autonomy of robots under the supervision of a therapist and enhance the quality of the digital description of children with ASD. The research outcomes pave the way to a feasible machine-assisted system for their behavior assessment.

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