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  • 1.
    Alamerew, Yohannes A.
    et al.
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Brissaud, Daniel
    Univ Grenoble Alpes, France.
    A Multi-Criteria Evaluation Method of Product-Level Circularity Strategies2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, SUSTAINABILITY, Vol. 12, no 12, article id 5129Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The circular economy (CE) can drive sustainability. For companies to select and implement circularity strategies, they need to evaluate and compare the performance of these strategies both in terms of progress towards CE but also based on their feasibility and business outcomes. However, evaluation methods for circularity strategies at the product level are lacking. Therefore, this research proposes a multi-criteria evaluation method of circularity strategies at the product level which can be used by business decision-makers to evaluate and compare the initial business of the company, transformative and future circularity strategies. This multi-criteria evaluation method aims to assist business decision-makers to identify a preferred strategy by linking together a wide variety of criteria, i.e., environmental, economic, social, legislative, technical, and business, as well as by proposing relevant indicators that take into consideration, where possible, the life cycle perspective. It also allows for flexibility so that criteria, sub-criteria, and weighing factors can be altered by the business decision-makers to fit the needs of their specific case or product. Two illustrative examples based on case companies are presented to verify and illustrate the proposed method.

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  • 2.
    Engzell, Jeanette
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Project Innovations and Entrepreneurship. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Incumbents versus circular start-ups in the workwear industry: Organisational and individual drivers and barriers to a circular economy2024In: International Small Business Journal, ISSN 0266-2426, E-ISSN 1741-2870, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 551-580Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article analyses the organisational and individual drivers and barriers to the implementation of circular business models (CBM) by incumbents and start-ups in the workwear industry. It is based on a qualitative study of 15 organisations in the Swedish workwear industry. Most incumbents are found to have either long-life models with hybrid elements, such as repair, or access models, while circular start-ups have a larger variety of CBMs, although the most common is gap exploiter. Internal organisational barriers mostly differ between the two groups; however, external organisational barriers are more significant and common, such as the low price of new workwear, a lack of demand and a lack of supporting policies, for example, public procurement. Several organisational drivers are identified, such as opportunities to deliver customer value, textile and digital innovations and environmental concerns. Drivers and barriers are influenced by both type of CBM and type of company. Individual drivers and barriers, which are often overlooked in literature, are found to be important to CBM implementation.

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  • 3.
    Ingemarsdotter, Emilia
    et al.
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jamsin, Ella
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Balkenende, Ruud
    Delft Univ Technol, Netherlands.
    Challenges and solutions in condition-based maintenance implementation - A multiple case study2021In: Journal of Cleaner Production, ISSN 0959-6526, E-ISSN 1879-1786, Vol. 296, article id 126420Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous literature has highlighted many opportunities for digital technologies, such as the Internet of Things (IoT) and data analytics, to enable circular strategies, i.e., strategies which support the transition to a circular economy (CE). As one of the key circular strategies for which the digital opportunities are apparent, maintenance is selected as the focus area for this study. In the field of maintenance, IoT and data analytics enable companies to implement condition-based maintenance (CBM), i.e., maintenance based on monitoring the actual condition of products in the field. CBM can lead to more timely and efficient maintenance, better performing products-in-use, reduced downtime in operations, and longer product lifetimes. Despite these benefits, CBM implementation in practice is still limited. The aim of this research is thus to understand the challenges related to CBM implementation in practice, and to extract solutions which companies have applied to address these challenges. Towards this aim, a multiple case study is conducted at three original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). A framework is derived which allows for a broad analysis of challenges and solutions in the cases. We identify 19 challenges and 16 solutions and translate these into a set of actionable recommendations. Our findings contribute to the field of CBM with a comprehensive view of challenges and solutions in practice, from the OEMs point of view. Moreover, we contribute to CE literature with a concrete case study about IoT-enabled circular strategy implementation. (c) 2021 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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  • 4.
    Kaddoura, Mohamad
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden; CIRAIG, École Polytechnique de Montréal, Montréal, Canada.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tillman, Anne-Marie
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Is Prolonging the Lifetime of Passive Durable Products a Low-Hanging Fruit of a Circular Economy?: A Multiple Case Study2019In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 11, no 18, article id 4819Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extending the lifetime of passive products, i.e., products that do not consume materials or energy during the use phase, by implementing product-service systems (PSS) has a potential to reduce the environmental impact while being an attractive and straightforward measure for companies to implement.

    This research assesses the viability of introducing PSS for passive products, by documenting five real product cases of prolonging the lifetime through repair or refurbishment and by quantifying, through life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle costing (LCC), the change in environmental and economic outcome.

    The environmental impact (measured as global warming potential over the life cycle) was reduced for all cases because extraction and production dominated the impact. This reduction was 45–72% for most cases and mainly influenced by the number of reuses and the relative environmental burden of the components whose lifetime was prolonged. The costs for the company (measured as LCC from the manufacturer’s perspective) decreased too by 8–37%. The main reason that costs reduced less than the environmental impact is that some costs have no equivalent in LCA, e.g., administration and labor costs for services. The decreases in both LCA and LCC results, as well as the willingness of the companies to implement the changes, demonstrate that this measure can be financially attractive for companies to implement and effectively contribute to a circular economy.

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  • 5.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Additional uses for life cycle costing in life cycle management2020In: / [ed] Brissaud D., Zwolinski P., Paris H., Riel A., The Netherlands: Elsevier, 2020, Vol. 90, p. 718-723Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Apart from using Life Cycle Costing (LCC) to compare the cost of alternatives or identify hotspots and uncertainties, this article presents and analyses three additional uses for LCC in Life Cycle Management (LCM). LCC can help identify improvement areas in information systems, support the creation and sharing of knowledge and highlight tensions and mismatches in financial incentives internal and external to the company. These uses were identified when employing LCC to improve the LCM of Product-Service Systems (PSS) at a large industrial manufacturer. Although generally applicable, these uses are especially relevant for LCM of PSS.

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    ProcediaCIRP_Kambanou_2020
  • 6.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    En guide för mer cirkulära produkter och tjänster baserat på ekonomiska kriterier2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta är en guide som, baserat på livscykelkostnader, stödjer val av åtgärder som främjar mer cirkulära produkter och tjänster. Guiden är ett resultat från projektet Circularis inom Produktion 2030.

    Handboken består av fyra delar, där del 1 introducerar begreppet cirkulär ekonomi och vad som menas med åtgärder som ökar produkters och tjänsters cirkularitet. Dessutom diskuteras hur en cirkulär ekonomi förväntas bidra till en minskad resursanvändning samtidigt som en välfungerande ekonomi erhålls. Syftet med handboken är att stödja företag med val av åtgärder som kan göra deras produkter och tjänster mer cirkulära. Valet av åtgärder baseras på livscykelkostnader som beräknas med hjälp av en livscykelskostnadsanalys (Life Cycle Cost, LCC). Enkelt förklarat är en LCC en sammanställning av samtliga kostnader för en produkt eller tjänst under dess livslängd. LCC-begreppet, samt hur man utför en livscykelkostandsanalys beskrivs mer detaljerat i del 2. I del 3 introduceras en steg-för-steg-guide som stödjer val av åtgärder som kan göra produkter och tjänster mer cirkulära. Resultatet från en LCC, samt information om olika åtgärders effekter används för att identifiera lämpliga åtgärder som ökar produkters och tjänsters cirkularitet. Tanken med handboken är att underlätta en övergång till en mer cirkulär ekonomi och därför ges också exempel på praktisk användning. I del 4 visas hur guiden skulle kunna användas för fem produkter på de tre företag, Envac AB, Storbildsfabriken AB och TreCe AB, som har bidragit till forskningsprojektet Circularis.

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  • 7.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Life Cycle Costing: Supporting companies towards a circular economy2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increased consumption has resulted in the depletion of non-renewable resources and an explosion in waste. A circular economy proposes to sustain economic growth but decouple it from resource consumption by keeping products and materials in the economy. Established companies have an important role to play because they can implement maintenance, repair, remanufacture, recycling and other circular measures to their offerings, thus facilitating their retention in the economy. When applying circular measures to existing products, their costs and revenues change across the lifecycle, sometimes significantly, thereby calling into question the financial viability of the more circular offering. Life cycle costing (LCC), an existing method for calculating the costs of a product or service across the lifecycle, can help companies take stock of these changes. LCC can also be used in conjunction with Life Cycle Assessment, a method for assessing the environmental impacts of a product or service across the lifecycle.

    The aim of this research, therefore, is to explore how LCC can be used to support established companies in selecting and implementing circular measures to their offerings. The research is conducted through case studies involving four companies, and data is collected through literature reviews, document and cost data sets analysis, interviews and focus groups. The findings are based on six publications.

    The identified uses for LCC go beyond the ones that lead to its selection and are commonly discussed in the literature. Firstly, the difference in material cost between the alternatives being compared can be calculated from the LCC results. This can be used as an indicator of the alternatives’ comparative circularity performance. LCC can also provide input to designers on which parts of the offering to prioritize applying a circular measure, as well as cost exchangeability. One of the most significant uses is that LCC can help create awareness, build up an understanding and provide a forum for discussing the challenges associated with implementing circular measures, such as the changing financial incentive structure, uncertainty, improvement areas for information systems and mismatches in stakeholders’ financial incentives. This use is critical in helping individuals and companies overcome mind-set and cultural barriers to a circular economy. Finally, LCC can spread the lifecycle idea and evidence the need for life cycle management (LCM), but may lead to a narrower understanding of the term life cycle and put the focus exclusively on resources rather than environmental impacts.

    Another finding is that companies, despite the many uses, may not use LCC because it contests elements of their extant practices, such as collective knowledge, mind-set of individuals and symbolic and material objects. It is the outcome of this contestation that will play a significant role in determining if LCC is used.

    The research also identifies methodological considerations, either generally applicable or specifically relating to the identified uses. For example, data displays and disseminating results are key when using LCC to understand challenges. A key methodological consideration when using LCC to compare alternatives from a financial perspective is whether the alternatives are of equal functionality and value for the customer. If not, the customer’s willingness to pay will change, and revenue will need to be calculated. Apart from companies, this is an important consideration for researchers using LCC to build up a body of knowledge on the economic benefits of more circular offerings compared to business-as-usual. Another issue concerns boundary setting and what to include in the life cycle, which should be decided in a multidisciplinary team. The same is recommended for the majority of methodological choices. 

    Concerning future LCC methodological development, the variety of uses should be acknowledged and explicitly addressed. The reasons for not adopting LCC should also be addressed, and method development should consider how to support establishing LCC as a practice over time so that it improves and becomes routinized. This also means that companies should approach LCC in the same way. In line with this, more effort needs to be put into understanding why LCC is not adopted and developing the methodology to overcome the reasons. Finally, this research demonstrates that LCC can have more uses than at first apparent. Maybe this can inspire researchers to re-examine methods and tools and, in the spirit of a circular economy, try “to do more with less”.

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  • 8.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Life Cycle Costing: Understanding How It Is Practised and Its Relationship to Life Cycle Management—A Case Study2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 8, article id 3252Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Despite the existence of many life cycle costing (LCC) methods, LCC is not widely adopted and LCC methods are usually further tailored by practitioners. Moreover, little is known about how practising LCC improves life cycle management (LCM) especially if LCM is considered emergent and constantly developing. In a manufacturing company, LCC is prescriptively introduced to improve LCM. In the first part, this study describes how various methodological choices and other aspects of practising LCC were the outcome of contestation and conformity with extant practices and not only the best way to fulfil the LCC’s objective. This contestation can even influence if LCC is adopted. In the second part of the research, the implications of practising LCC on LCM are explored. LCC is found to positively propel LCM in many ways e.g., by spreading the life cycle idea, but may lead to a narrower understanding of the term life cycle resulting in the sustainability focus of LCM being overridden. The article also discusses how the findings can be taken into consideration when researchers develop LCC methods and when industry practises

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  • 9.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management.
    Selling integrated products & services: The role & financial perspective of the sales organization2019In: Proceedings of the Spring Servitization Conference: Delivering Services Growth in the Digital Era, 2019Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Many industrial manufacturers operating in the B2B are turning towards the provision of integrated offerings of products and services; this shift is commonly known as servitization. They typically rely on personal selling and operate through direct sales organizations or other intermediaries e.g. franchisees or sister companies. A better understanding of how selling integrated products and services affects the sales organization and its processes can help the sales organizations servitize and the manufacturers to support them.

    KEY DISCUSSION POINTS

    • Different types of services and their level of integration with the product affect the outcome of the sales organization’s servitization.

    • The financial incentives of selling products and selling integrated products and services are in conflict and therefore doing both successfully simultaneously poses challenges.

    • Selling integrated products and services is time consuming and therefore costly and should be managed strategically.

    • Information sharing between the manufacturer and the sales organization is crucial for success for success.

  • 10.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Gagnerud, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Consumption patterns of construction workwear and circular strategies to prolong its lifetime2023In: PROCEEDINGS 5th Product Lifetimes And The Environment (PLATE) Conference / [ed] Niinimäki, Kirsi; Cura, Kirsti, Espoo, Finland, 2023, p. 474-479Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The textile industry is characterized by unsustainable consumption patterns so circular strategies are being implemented to reduce consumption and waste. Workwear is a significant part of the textile industry but has received little attention from the research community. The aim is to describe the consumption patterns of a specific segment of the workwear industry i.e., construction workwear and explore circular strategies that prolong its lifetime. Data is collected through two sets of interviews, one with construction companies and one with companies in workwear industry and analyzed based on seven circular strategies: Refuse, Rethink, Reduce, Reuse, Repair, Refurbish and Remanufacture. The research is conducted in Sweden where employers usually provide clothes to employees. Concerning consumption patterns, the main finding is that workwear is usually discarded due to physical defects to the product, but workwear might also lose aesthetic and comfort value. Most construction workers wash their workwear at home, but some never wash items e.g., work trousers. The most promising circular strategy for construction workwear is repair, however, it is not commonplace. Therefore, construction companies need to set up easy-to-use processes and incentivize workers to send their clothes to repair. The lifetime of clothes has already been prolonged due to design changes in recent years and there is potential for more design improvements that can facilitate various circular strategies. Some infrequent fast fashion tendencies were noted, that should be addressed through policy and other measures. This study demonstrates that the workwear industry cannot be considered a homogeneous market, because different conditions that influence circular strategies apply to different segments.

  • 11.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lindahl, Mattias
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A Literature Review of Life Cycle Costing in the Product-Service System Context2016In: Procedia CIRP, ISSN 2212-8271, E-ISSN 2212-8271, Vol. 47, p. 186-191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A transition from a product-selling to a Product-Service Systems (PSS) business model incurs a transition in costs from customer to provider. Due to this shift in cost ownership, Life Cycle Costing (LCC) is used by providers and customers to better understand the PSS costs spanning from design to end-of-life. Through a literature review the paper determines that there are similarities in the approach to LCC for specific types of PSS e.g. availability type, but further research needs to be undertaken to identify commonalities between different types of PSS. The review also discerned that the terminology for LCC is not consistent and sometimes it is used to identify only the costs incurred by a specific actor. Furthermore, the end-of-life stage and the implications of a second life for a remanufactured PSS in LCC are also yet to be fully understood. A number of challenges associated with obtaining quality data for costing within PSS were identified. These include the lack of availability, the relevancy due to use of pre-PSS data that does not reflect the redesign of products and services to fit in PSS and challenges associated with the design paradox. Finally, a lack of empirical studies is noted.

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  • 12.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Carlson, Annelie
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Business models and product designs that prolong the lifetime of construction workwear: Success, failure and environmental impacts2024In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 206, article id 107602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The workwear market is growing, but ways to reduce its environmental impacts remain unexplored. We investigate product designs and business models that prolong the lifetime of construction workwear in the Swedish context. Lifecycle Assessments, user interviews, focus groups, user trials, user survey, provider interviews, and participatory workshops were combined to (i) understand the status quo of the workwear market, (ii) develop six product designs and business models for circular workwear, and (iii) assess and trial them in practice. This was done from a user, customer, provider, and environmental perspective. All product design and business model innovations (design for durability, design for repair, design for washing, repair-as-a-service, washing-and-repair-as-a-service, workwear-as-a-service) are expected to improve environmental performance, however, some approaches proved ineffective due to lacking user acceptance or economic viability. Insights into the workwear industry's status quo and entirely novel knowledge on workwear consumption, challenges, and opportunities for an extended workwear lifetime in a circular economy are reported.

  • 13.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A guideline for using LCC when selecting and implementing circular measures2021In: 12th International Symposium on Environmentally Conscious Design and Inverse Manufacturing, 2021Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 14.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Using life cycle costing (LCC) to select circular measures: A discussion and practical approach2020In: Resources, Conservation and Recycling, ISSN 0921-3449, E-ISSN 1879-0658, Vol. 155, article id 104650Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The implementation of circular measures in businesses constitutes a solution to future resource scarcity, which has yet to gain momentum. To select and implement such measures, companies, with limited resources need practical and easy-to-use guides that help them understand the financial outcomes while leading them towards more circular solutions. To this end, a guideline based on Life Cycle Costing (LCC), which fulfils the aforementioned criteria, has been created. The guideline directs the companies towards measures at the top of the CE hierarchy and LCC is used to assess profitability and provide information on material circularity. Its development follows the Design Research Methodology (DRM) and is based on using LCC at three case companies when selecting circular measures and on literature. Insights on the companies’ processes and decision criteria as well as the LCC results are presented. One identified critical criterion is the profitability of a circular measure, but comparing the LCC of alternatives is only an adequate measure of profitability, if the alternatives are functionally equivalent and of equal value for the customer, otherwise revenue and customer costs need to be compared as well. In addition, because labour is included in LCC, by categorizing the costs companies can be guided towards exchanging material costs with labour costs. Concerning circularity, in this comparative context, the difference in material cost between the alternatives can be used to measure circularity performance without additional effort. Finally, customization of products was also identified in the company research as a barrier to the implementation of various circular measures.

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  • 15.
    Matschewsky, Johannes
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Kambanou, Marianna Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sakao, Tomohiko
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Designing and providing integrated product-service systems: challenges, opportunities and solutions resulting from prescriptive approaches in two industrial companies2018In: International Journal of Production Research, ISSN 0020-7543, E-ISSN 1366-588X, Vol. 56, no 6, p. 2150-2168Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to customer pressure and growing competition, industrial companies are increasingly moving towards providing integrated offerings of products and services (PSS). Despite this trend, literature providing a deep understanding of the challenges associated with this transition is limited, while publications discussing approaches that focus on overcoming these challenges are particularly lacking. This article is based on a multi-case study of two Swedish industrial companies undergoing the transition to designing and providing PSS. It reports on the challenges identified at the case companies as well as opportunities arising from and solutions to these challenges. Subsequent to initial research on the challenges, prescriptive approaches such as a life cycle costing method and a PSS design method were applied in the case companies over an extended time frame. On the one hand, these prescriptive approaches provided both a deeper understanding of the challenges, which include a persistent product centred mindset, a lack of adjustment to changed incentive structures and the separation of product and service design. On the other hand, they also led to effective solutions such as focusing on customer value and introducing a PSS transition facilitator for the design team. These solutions were adapted to the situations in the respective companies and they partly went beyond the prescriptive measures first introduced. Therefore, the article shows the applicability of prescriptive approaches and methods to detect, understand and alleviate the challenges of PSS design and provision. Further, the article provides broadly applicable learning for industrial companies undergoing this process.

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