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  • 1.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Guntupalli, Lakshmikanth
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Modeling of Enhanced Distributed Channel Access with Station Grouping: A Throughput Analysis2018In: Proc. IEEE 88th Vehicular Technology Conference (VTC'18-fall), Chicago, USA, Aug. 2018., IEEE conference proceedings, 2018, article id 8690814Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Machine to Machine (M2M) communication networksare expected to connect a large number of power constrained devices in long range applications with differentquality of service (QoS) requirements. Medium access control with QoS support such as the Enhanced Distributed Channel Access (EDCA) defined by IEEE 802.11e provides traffic differentiation and corresponding priority classes, which guarantees QoSaccording to the needs of applications. In this paper, we employa station grouping mechanism for enhancing the scalability of EDCA to handle the massive number of access attempts expected in large M2M networks. Furthermore, we develop a discrete time Markov chain (DTMC) model to analyze the performance of EDCA with station grouping. Using the developed DTMC model, we calculate throughput for each access category as well as for different combinations of grouping and EDCA parameters. Thenumerical results show that the model can precisely reveal the behavior of EDCA mechanism. Moreover, it is demonstrated that employing the proposed grouping mechanism for EDCA increasesthe normalized throughput significantly for all classes of priority.

  • 2.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Ferrari, Paolo
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Synchronous LoRa Communication by Exploiting Large-Area out-of-band Synchronization2021In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 8, no 10, p. 7912-7924Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many new narrowband low-power wide-area networks (LPWANs) (e.g., LoRaWAN, Sigfox) have opted to use pure ALOHA-like access for its reduced control overhead and asynchronous transmissions. Although asynchronous access reduces the energy consumption of IoT devices, the network performance suffers from high intra-network interference in dense deployments. Contrarily, adopting synchronous access can improve throughput and fairness, however, it requires time synchronization. Unfortunately, maintaining synchronization over the narrowband LPWANs wastes channel time and transmission opportunities. In this paper, we propose the use of out-of-band time-dissemination to relatively synchronize the LoRa devices and thereby facilitate resource-efficient slotted uplink communication. In this respect, we conceptualize and analyze a co-designed synchronization and random access communication mechanism that can effectively exploit technologies providing limited time accuracy, such as FM radio data system (FM-RDS). While considering the LoRa-specific parameters, we derive the throughput of the proposed mechanism, compare it to a generic synchronous random access using in-band synchronization, and design the communication parameters under time uncertainty. We scrutinize the transmission time uncertainty of a device by introducing a clock error model that accounts for the errors in the synchronization source, local clock, propagation delay, and transceiver’s transmission time uncertainty. We characterize the time uncertainty of FM-RDS with hardware measurements and perform simulations to evaluate the proposed solution. The results, presented in terms of success probability, throughput, and fairness for a single-cell scenario, suggest that FM-RDS, despite its poor absolute synchronization, can be used effectively to realize time-slotted communication in LoRa with performance similar to that of more accurate time-dissemination technologies. 

  • 3.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Interference Modelling in a Multi-Cell LoRa System2018In: 2018 14th International Conference on Wireless and Mobile Computing, Networking and Communications (WiMob), IEEE, 2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the market for low-power wide-area network (LPWAN) technologies expands and the number of connected devices increases, it is becoming important to investigate the performance of LPWAN candidate technologies in dense deployment scenarios. In dense deployments, where the networks usually exhibit the traits of an interference-limited system, a detailed intra- and inter-cell interference analysis of LPWANs is required. In this paper, we model and analyze the performance of uplink communication of a LoRa link in a multi-cell LoRa system. To such end, we use mathematical tools from stochastic geometry and geometric probability to model the spatial distribution of LoRa devices. The model captures the effects of the density of LoRa cells and the allocation of quasi-orthogonal spreading factors (SF) on the success probability of the LoRa transmissions. To account for practical deployment of LoRa gateways, we model the spatial distribution of the gateways with a Poisson point process (PPP) and Matèrn hard-core point process (MHC). Using our analytical formulation, we find the uplink performance in terms of success probability and potential throughput for each of the available SF in LoRa’s physical layer. Our results show that in dense multi-cell LoRa deployment with uplink traffic, the intercell interference noticeably degrades the system performance.

  • 4.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    LoRa beyond ALOHA: An Investigation of Alternative Random Access Protocols2021In: IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, ISSN 1551-3203, E-ISSN 1941-0050, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 3544-3554Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present a stochastic geometry-based model to investigate alternative medium access choices for LoRaWAN a widely adopted low-power wide-area networking (LPWAN) technology for the Internet-of-things (IoT). LoRaWAN adoption is driven by its simplified network architecture, air interface, and medium access. The physical layer, known as LoRa, provides quasi-orthogonal virtual channels through spreading factors (SFs) and time-power capture gains. However, the adopted pure ALOHA access mechanism suffers, in terms of scalability, under the same-channel same-SF transmissions from a large number of devices. In this paper, our objective is to explore access mechanisms beyond-ALOHA for LoRaWAN. Using recent results on time- and power-capture effects of LoRa, we develop a unified model for the comparative study of other choices, i.e., slotted ALOHA and carrier-sense multiple access (CSMA). The model includes the necessary design parameters of these access mechanisms, such as guard time and synchronization accuracy for slotted ALOHA, carrier sensing threshold for CSMA. It also accounts for the spatial interaction of devices in annular shaped regions, characteristic of LoRa, for CSMA. The performance derived from the model in terms of coverage probability, throughput, and energy efficiency are validated using Monte-Carlo simulations. Our analysis shows that slotted ALOHA indeed has higher reliability than pure ALOHA but at the cost of lower energy efficiency for low device densities. Whereas, CSMA outperforms slotted ALOHA at smaller SFs in terms of reliability and energy efficiency, with its performance degrading to pure ALOHA at higher SFs.

  • 5.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Ferrari, Paolo
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Department of Information Engineering, University of Brescia, 25123 Brescia, Italy.
    Energy efficiency of slotted LoRaWANcommunication with out-of-band synchronization2021In: IEEE Transactions on Instrumentation and Measurement, ISSN 0018-9456, E-ISSN 1557-9662Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although the idea of using wireless links for covering large areas is not new, the advent of Low Power Wide area networks (LPWANs) has recently started changing the game. Simple, robust, narrowband modulation schemes permit the implementation of low-cost radio devices offering high receiver sensitivity, thus improving the overall link budget. The several technologies belonging to the LPWAN family, including the well-known LoRaWAN solution, provide a cost-effective answer to many Internet-of-things (IoT) applications, requiring wireless communication capable of supporting large networks of many devices (e.g., smart metering). Generally, the adopted medium access control (MAC) strategy is based on pure ALOHA, which, among other things, allows to minimize the traffic overhead under constrained duty cycle limitations of the unlicensed bands. Unfortunately, ALOHA suffers from poor scalability, rapidly collapsing in dense networks. This work investigates the design of an improved LoRaWAN MAC scheme based on slotted ALOHA. In particular, the required time dissemination is provided by out-of-band communications leveraging on Radio Data System(FM-RDS) broadcasting, which natively covers wide areas both indoor and outdoor. An experimental setup based on low-cost hardware is used to characterize the obtainable synchronization performance and derive a timing error model. Consequently, improvements in success probability and energy efficiency have been validated by means of simulations in very large networks with up to 10000 nodes. It is shown that the advantage of the proposed scheme over conventional LoRaWAN communication is up to 100% when short update time and large payload are required. Similar results are obtained regarding the energy efficiency improvement, that is close to 100% for relatively short transmission intervals and long message duration; however, due to the additional overhead for listening the time dissemination messages, efficiency gain can be negative for very short duration of message fastly repeating.

  • 6.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Modelling of EnergyConsumption in IEEE 802.11.ah Networks for M2M Traffic2016In: Proceedings of SNCNW 2016: The 12th Swedish National Computer Networking Workshop, 2016, p. 38-41Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    IEEE 802.11ah is a sub-1 GHz standard designed to meet the requirements of future machine-to-machine (M2M) communications. The standard should be able to support use cases for the M2M communications with thousands of stations capable of generating both periodic and aperiodic traffic for a single access point. In some cases, like environmental and agricultural monitoring. the nodes are typically powered by battery or through energy harvesting. For this application it is important for the communication to be energy efficient. IEEE 802.11ah introduces new energy saving mechanisms and a novel channel access mechanism to achieve this objective even for networks with a large nodes number. This work proposes a mathematical model to compute the energy consumption of an IEEE 802.11ah network.

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  • 7.
    Beltramelli, Luca
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hybrid MAC Mechanism for Energy Efficient Communication in IEEE 802.11ah2017In: Proceedings of the 2017 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Technology (ICIT), IEEE, 2017, p. 1295-1300, article id 7915550Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many applications for machine-to-machine (M2M) communications are characterized by large numbers of devices with sporadic transmissions and subjected to low energy budgets. This work addresses the importance of energy consumption by proposing a new Medium Access Control (MAC) mechanism for improving the energy efficiency of IEEE 802.11ah, a standard targeting M2M communication. We propose to use the features of IEEE 802.11ah MAC to realize a hybrid contention-reservation mechanism for the transmission of uplink traffic. In the proposed mechanism, any device with a buffered packet will first notify the Access Point (AP) during a contention phase before being given a reserved timeslot for the data transmission. We develop a mathematical model to analyse the energy consumption ofthe proposed mechanism and of IEEE 802.11ah. The results show that for a monitoring scenario, the proposed contention reservation mechanism reduces the energy consumption for a successful uplink data transmission by up to 55%.

  • 8.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Chalmers; Konya Food and Agriculture University, 42080 Konya, Turkey.
    Sari, Alparslan
    University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Hardware security of fog end-devices for the internet of things2020In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 20, article id 5729Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proliferation of the Internet of Things (IoT) caused new application needs to emerge as rapid response ability is missing in the current IoT end-devices. Therefore, Fog Computing has been proposed to be an edge component for the IoT networks as a remedy to this problem. In recent times, cyber-attacks are on the rise, especially towards infrastructure-less networks, such as IoT. Many botnet attack variants (Mirai, Torii, etc.) have shown that the tiny microdevices at the lower spectrum of the network are becoming a valued participant of a botnet, for further executing more sophisticated attacks against infrastructural networks. As such, the fog devices also need to be secured against cyber-attacks, not only software-wise, but also from hardware alterations and manipulations. Hence, this article first highlights the importance and benefits of fog computing for IoT networks, then investigates the means of providing hardware security to these devices with an enriched literature review, including but not limited to Hardware Security Module, Physically Unclonable Function, System on a Chip, and Tamper Resistant Memory. 

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  • 9.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sari, Alparslan
    Department of Computer Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Security Implications of Fog Computing on the Internet of Things2019In: International Conference on Consumer Electronics (ICCE), IEEE, 2019, article id 8661909Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Recently, the use of IoT devices and sensors has been rapidly increased which also caused data generation (information and logs), bandwidth usage, and related phenomena to be increased. To our best knowledge, a standard definition for the integration of fog computing with IoT is emerging now. This integration will bring many opportunities for the researchers, especially while building cyber-security related solutions. In this study, we surveyed about the integration of fog computing with IoT and its implications. Our goal was to find out and emphasize problems, specifically security related problems that arise with the employment of fog computing by IoT. According to our findings, although this integration seems to be non-trivial and complicated, it has more benefits than the implications. Index Terms—IoT, IIoT, vulnerabilities, trust, end-device, confidentiality, integrity, availability.

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  • 10.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Chalmers; Konya Food and Agriculture University, Konya, Turkey.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    A Review of Distributed Access Control for Blockchain Systems towards Securing the Internet of Things2021In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 9, p. 5428-5441Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm gets more attention from academia and industry, implementation tools of IoT will be explored more and more. One example is the applicability of blockchain systems to provide security and privacy of IoT networks, which is the topic of this article. Blockchain systems are on the rise, as crypto-currency payment systems (such as Bitcoin, Litecoin, etc.) boomed in the last few years due to their attractive de-centralized and anonymous features. As in every transaction, access of the users to IoT systems needs to be controlled. However, these systems are peer-to-peer systems and do not have centralized control, which means that traditional access control techniques will not be optimal. As a result, distributed access control schemes are needed and this paper aims at providing the state of the art in the literature. Thereby, we introduce and discuss the details and applicability of centralized (rolebased) and distributed (threshold-signature, reputation, trusted-computing, identity, capability, ACL, groupsignature, and hybrid) access control schemes to blockchain systems under the IoT ecosystems. Moreover, permissioned vs. permissionless blockchain systems are also discussed. Finally, challenges and research directions related to the application of all those presented blockchain systems to IoT are discussed. 

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  • 11.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Detecting Intrusions in Cyber-Physical Systems of Smart Cities: Challenges and Directions2019In: Secure Cyber-Physical Systems for Smart Cities / [ed] Riaz Ahmed Shaikh, Hershey, USA: IGI Global, 2019, p. 74-102Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Interfacing the smart cities with cyber-physical systems (CPSs) improves cyber infrastructures while introducing security vulnerabilities that may lead to severe problems such as system failure, privacy violation, and/or issues related to data integrity if security and privacy are not addressed properly. In order for the CPSs of smart cities to be designed with proactive intelligence against such vulnerabilities, anomaly detection approaches need to be employed. This chapter will provide a brief overview of the security vulnerabilities in CPSs of smart cities. Following a thorough discussion on the applicability of conventional anomaly detection schemes in CPSs of smart cities, possible adoption of distributed anomaly detection systems by CPSs of smart cities will be discussed along with a comprehensive survey of the state of the art. The chapter will discuss challenges in tailoring appropriate anomaly detection schemes for CPSs of smart cities and provide insights into future directions for the researchers working in this field.

  • 12.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Preserving location privacy in cyber-physical systems2019In: 2019 IEEE Conference on Communications and Network Security (CNS), IEEE, 2019, p. 1-6Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The trending technological research platform is Internet of Things (IoT)and most probably it will stay that way for a while. One of the main application areas of IoT is Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), in which IoT devices can be leveraged as actuators and sensors in accordance with the system needs. The public acceptance and adoption of CPS services and applications will create a huge amount of privacy issues related to the processing, storage and disclosure of the user location information. As a remedy, our paper proposes a methodology to provide location privacy for the users of CPSs. Our proposal takes advantage of concepts such as mix-zone, context-awareness, and location-obfuscation. According to our best knowledge, the proposed methodology is the first privacy-preserving location service for CPSs that offers adaptable privacy levels related to the current context of the user.

  • 13.
    Butun, Ismail
    et al.
    Chalmers.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Song, Houbing
    Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, Daytona Beach, FL, USA.
    Security of the Internet of Things: Vulnerabilities, Attacks, and Countermeasures2020In: IEEE Communications Surveys and Tutorials, E-ISSN 1553-877X, Vol. 22, no 1, p. 616-644, article id 8897627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) constitute one of the most promising third-millennium technologies and have wide range of applications in our surrounding environment. The reason behind the vast adoption of WSNs in various applications is that they have tremendously appealing features, e.g., low production cost, low installation cost, unattended network operation, autonomous and longtime operation. WSNs have started to merge with the Internet of Things (IoT) through the introduction of Internet access capability in sensor nodes and sensing ability in Internet-connected devices. Thereby, the IoT is providing access to huge amount of data, collected by the WSNs, over the Internet. Hence, the security of IoT should start with foremost securing WSNs ahead of the other components. However, owing to the absence of a physical line-of-defense, i.e., there is no dedicated infrastructure such as gateways to watch and observe the flowing information in the network, security of WSNs along with IoT is of a big concern to the scientific community. More specifically, for the application areas in which CIA (confidentiality, integrity, availability) has prime importance, WSNs and emerging IoT technology might constitute an open avenue for the attackers. Besides, recent integration and collaboration of WSNs with IoT will open new challenges and problems in terms of security. Hence, this would be a nightmare for the individuals using these systems as well as the security administrators who are managing those networks. Therefore, a detailed review of security attacks towards WSNs and IoT, along with the techniques for prevention, detection, and mitigation of those attacks are provided in this paper. In this text, attacks are categorized and treated into mainly two parts, most or all types of attacks towards WSNs and IoT are investigated under that umbrella: 'Passive Attacks' and 'Active Attacks'. Understanding these attacks and their associated defense mechanisms will help paving a secure path towards the proliferation and public acceptance of IoT technology. 

  • 14.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    A Delay-Bounded MAC Protocol for Mission- and Time-Critical Applications in Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2018In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 18, no 6, p. 2607-2616Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) designedfor mission- and time-critical applications require timelyand deterministic data delivery within stringent deadline bounds.Exceeding delay limits for such applications can lead to system malfunction or ultimately dangerous situations that can threaten human safety. In this paper, we propose SS-MAC, an efficient slot stealing MAC protocol to guarantee predictable and timely channel access for time-critical data in IWSNs. In the proposed SS-MAC, aperiodic time-critical traffic opportunistically steals time slots assigned to periodic non-critical traffic. Additionally, a dynamic deadline-based scheduling is introduced to provide guaranteed channel access in emergency and event-based situations where multiple sensor nodes are triggered simultaneously to transmit time-critical data to the controller. The proposed protocol is evaluated mathematically to provide the worst-case delay bound for the time-critical traffic. Performance comparisons are carried out between the proposed SS-MAC and WirelessHARTstandard and they show that, for the time-critical traffic, theproposed SS-MAC can achieve, at least, a reduction of almost 30% in the worst-case delay with a significant channel utilization efficiency.

  • 15.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    DeP-D: A Decentralized Primal-Dual Optimization Algorithm for Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2019In: 2019 15th IEEE International Workshop on Factory Communication Systems (WFCS), IEEE, 2019, article id 8757934Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks (IWSNs) are emerged as flexible and cost-efficient alternatives to the traditional wired networks in various monitoring and control applications within the industrial domain. Low delay is a key feature of delay-sensitive applications as the data is typically valid for a short interval of time. If data arrives too late it is of limited use which may lead to performance drops or even system outages which can create significant economical losses. In this paper, we propose a decentralized optimization algorithm to minimize the End-to-End (E2E) delay of multi-hop IWSNs. Firstly, we formulate the optimization problem by considering the objective function as the network delay where the constraint is the stability criteria based on the total arrival rate and the total service rate. The objective function is proved to be strictly convex for the entire network, then a Decentralized Primal-Dual (DeP-D) algorithm is proposed based on the sub-gradient method to solve the formulated optimization problem. The performance of the proposed DeP-D is evaluated through simulations and compared with WirelessHART network and the results show that the proposed DeP-D can achieve at least 40% reduction in the average E2E delay.

  • 16.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Grimaldi, Simone
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    REA-6TiSCH: Reliable Emergency-Aware Communication Scheme for 6TiSCH Networks2021In: IEEE Internet of Things Journal, ISSN 2327-4662, Vol. 8, no 3, p. 1871-1882Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the perspective of the emerging Industrial Internet of things (IIoT), the 6TiSCH working group has been created with the main goal to integrate the capabilities of the IEEE 802.15.4e Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) with the IPv6 protocol stack. In order to support time-critical applications in IIoT, reliable real-time communication is a key requirement. Specifically, aperiodic critical traffic, such as emergency alarms, must be reliably delivered to the DODAG root within strict deadline bounds to avoid system failure or safety-critical situations. Currently, there is no mechanism defined in the 6TiSCH architecture for timely and reliably handling of such traffic and its prioritization over the non-critical one. In this paper, we introduce REA-6TiSCH, a reliable emergency-aware communication scheme to support real-time communications of emergency alarms in 6TiSCH networks. In REA-6TiSCH, the aperiodic emergency traffic is opportunistically enabled to hijack transmission cells pre-assigned for the regular periodic traffic in the TSCH schedule. Moreover, we introduce a distributed optimization scheme to improve the probability that an emergency flow is delivered successfully within its deadline bound. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first approach to incorporate emergency alarms in 6TiSCH networks. We evaluate the performance of REA-6TiSCH through extensive simulations and the results show the effectiveness of our proposed method in handling emergency traffic compared to Orchestra scheme. Additionally, we discuss the applicability of REA-6TiSCH and provide guidelines for real implementation in 6TiSCH networks.

  • 17.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    PR-CCA MAC: A Prioritized Random CCA MAC Protocol for Mission-Critical IoT Applications2018In: 2018 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), IEEE, 2018, article id 8423018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental challenge in Mission-Critical Internetof Things (MC-IoT) is to provide reliable and timely deliveryof the unpredictable critical traffic. In this paper, we propose an efficient prioritized Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in MC-IoT control applications. The proposed protocol utilizes a random Clear Channel Assessment (CCA)-based channel access mechanism to handlethe simultaneous transmissions of critical data and to reduce thecollision probability between the contending nodes, which in turn decreases the transmission latency. We develop a Discrete-Time Markov Chain (DTMC) model to evaluate the performance of the proposed protocol analytically in terms of the expected delay and throughput. The obtained results show that the proposed protocolcan enhance the performance of the WirelessHART standard by 80% and 190% in terms of latency and throughput, respectively along with better transmission reliability.

  • 18.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Sisinni, Emiliano
    Brescia University, Brescia, Italy.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Priority-Aware Wireless Fieldbus Protocol for Mixed-Criticality Industrial Wireless Sensor Networks2019In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, no 7, p. 2767-2780Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Industrial wireless sensor networks are becoming popular for critical monitoring and control applications in industrial automation systems. For such type of applications, providing reliable real-time performance regarding data delivery is considered as a fundamental challenge. The problem becomes more prominent with mixed-criticality systems, where different data flow with different levels of criticality (importance) coexist and characterized by different requirements regarding delay and reliability. In this paper, we propose a wireless fieldbus protocol to enable real-time communication and service differentiation for cluster-based mixed-criticality networks. A process monitoring scenario of plastic extrusion is used to define the protocol requirements and elaborate the working principle of the proposed work. In our proposed protocol, each data flow is scheduled for channel access based on its criticality level using a distributed prioritized medium access mechanism that ensures a guaranteed channel access for the most critical traffic over other traffic types. The performance of the proposed protocol is analyzed analytically using a discrete-time Markov chain model to evaluate the performance in terms of delay and throughput. Moreover, the extensive simulations are conducted to prove the analytical claims and different performance assessments are provided, which also demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach compared with the related existing work.

  • 19.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Congestion control and traffic differentiation for heterogeneous 6tisch networks in IIoT2020In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 20, no 12, p. 1-25, article id 3508Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Routing Protocol for Low power and lossy networks (RPL) has been introduced as the de-facto routing protocol for the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). In heavy load scenarios, particular parent nodes are likely prone to congestion, which in turn degrades the network performance, in terms of packet delivery and delay. Moreover, there is no explicit strategy in RPL to prioritize the transmission of different traffic types in heterogeneous 6TiSCH networks, each according to its criticality. In this paper, we address the aforementioned issues by introducing a congestion control and service differentiation strategies to support heterogeneous 6TiSCH networks in IIoT applications. First, we introduce a congestion control mechanism to achieve load balancing under heavy traffic scenarios. The congestion is detected through monitoring and sharing the status of the queue backlog among neighbor nodes. We define a new routing metric that considers the queue occupancy when selecting the new parent node in congestion situations. In addition, we design a multi-queue model to provide prioritized data transmission for critical data over the non-critical ones. Each traffic type is placed in a separate queue and scheduled for transmission based on the assigned queue priority, where critical data are always transmitted first. The performance of the proposed work is evaluated through extensive simulations and compared with existing work to demonstrate its effectiveness. The results show that our proposal achieves improved packet delivery and low queue losses under heavy load scenarios, as well as improved delay performance of critical traffic. 

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  • 20.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Congestion Detection and Control for 6TiSCH Networks in IIoT Applications2020In: ICC 2020 - 2020 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), IEEE, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the context of Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT), the 6TiSCH working group has been created with the aim to enable IPv6 over the IEEE 802.15.4e Time-Slotted Channel Hopping (TSCH) mode. The Routing Protocol for Low power and lossy networks (RPL) is introduced as the de-facto routing protocol for 6TiSCH networks. However, RPL is primarily designed to handle moderate traffic loads, whereas, during specific events in industrial applications, high traffic rates cause congestion problems at particular intermediate nodes while other nodes are underutilized. Accordingly, packets are dropped due to buffer overflow, which in turn degrades the network performance in terms of packet loss and delay. In this paper, we introduce a congestion detection and control mechanism to reliably handle high traffic load in 6TiSCH networks. The proposed method comprises two parent selection mechanisms to adapt to dynamic traffic load in the network. Congestion is detected through monitoring of the queue backlog level of each node and new parent nodes are selected accordingly to balance the load in the network. Moreover, a new routing metric is defined that considers the queue occupancy while selecting the new parent node. Performance evaluations are carried out to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method and the results show that with a marginal increase in the average delay, our proposal improves the performance of the standard RPL under heavy traffic load conditions by at least 60% and 74% in terms of the packet delivery and queue loss, respectively.

  • 21.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    HyS-R: A Hybrid Subscription-Recovery Method for Downlink Connectivity in 6TiSCH Networks2020In: 2020 25th IEEE International Conference on Emerging Technologies and Factory Automation (ETFA), IEEE, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Routing Protocol for Low power and lossy network (RPL) is designed to support communication requirements in 6TiSCH networks in Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications. RPL is mostly optimized for uplink communication, however, less attention is given to maintain connectivity for downlink communications. Supporting downlink communications is non-trivial task in process automation and control scenarios within the IIoT. RPL in its current definition is inefficient to support reliable downlink communications in terms of scalability and memory requirements leading to significant degradation in network performance. This paper introduces HyS-R, a Hybrid Subscription-Recovery method to maintain downlink connectivity and mitigate memory limitations in large-scale 6TiSCH networks. The proposed method is based on a relief group that is used as alternative route to unreachable destinations in the network. An intermediate node subscribes to the relief group when it fails to advertise a destination to its next-hop node. In addition, members of the relief group keep searching for alternative forwarders to keep the communication traffic to a minimum. Performance evaluations are carried out and the results demonstrate that the proposed HyS-R attains significant improvements in downlink communications compared to RPL storing and non-storing modes with a margin of energy cost.

  • 22.
    Farag, Hossam
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Han, Song
    University of Connecticut,USA.
    RMA-RP: A Reliable Mobility-Aware Routing Protocol for Industrial IoT Networks2019In: 2019 IEEE Global Conference on Internet of Things (GCIoT), IEEE, 2019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many emerging Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) applications involve the use of mobile devices, such as sensors and robots in industrial automation scenarios. Movement of mobile sensor nodes causes intermittent connectivity which in turn deteriorates the network performance in terms of packet loss and delay. The Routing Protocol for Low Power and Lossy Networks (RPL) is introduced as the standard routing protocol for IIoT networks. Although RPL constitutes a reliable and energy-efficient solution for static networks, there is no mechanism defined in the RPL standard of how to support routing in mobile IIoT networks. This paper introduces RMA-RP, a reliable mobility-aware routing protocol to support mobile IIoT networks. RMA-RP utilizes a dynamic motion detection mechanism based on the link quality to cope with topology changes by updating next-hop nodes. Moreover, an adaptive timer is introduced to manage the transmission rate of control messages in order to decrease the network overhead and in turn the energy consumption. We evaluate the performance of RMA-RP through extensive simulations in comparison to existing works and the results demonstrate that RMA-RP has at least 17% higher packet delivery ratio and achieves a reduction of 34% and 51% in terms of delay and network overhead, respectively.

  • 23.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Objective End-to-End QoS Gain from Packet Prioritization and Layering in MPEG-2 Streaming2002In: International Packetvideo workshop 2002, 2002Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Layered video coding as well as prioritized packet scheduling are two well-known methods that may improve the quality of service level in real-time applications with high bandwidth requirements, and are used over packet switched networks. However, it is often difficult to get an idea of, and to quantify, the actual gains that may be achievable, especially from an end-to-end perspective.In this paper, we present some experimental results from using temporally layered MPEG-2 video combined with basic per-layer IP packet prioritization. The goal has been to find out if a basic scheme is useful at all in combination with this particular source coding method, and if so, how much the objective video quality can be increased during bandwidth-constrained periods. The quality is measured in terms of PSNR and the results are compared to the case of equal packet priority. Also, different packet sizes as well as packet queuing disciplines are used. We conclude that using even a relatively simple temporal layering strategy in combination with packet prioritization can quite significantly improve the end-to-end quality of MPEG-2 video, especially in moderately bandwidth constrained situations. Furthermore, packet size and queuing discipline is found to have an impact.

  • 24.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering (2023-).
    Forsberg, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering (2023-).
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering (2023-).
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering (2023-).
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering (2023-).
    Engberg, Birgitta A.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Engineering, Mathematics, and Science Education (2023-).
    Specialanpassade kurser för yrkesverksamma ingenjörer: Erfarenheter och upplevelser2023In: Bidrag från den 9:e utvecklingskonferensen för Sveriges ingenjörsutbildningar, Mälardalens universitet, 2023, p. 348-353Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle blir det allt viktigare att fortbilda sig under hela sitt yrkesverksamma liv. För att möta efterfrågan på det livslånga lärandet har Mittuniversitetet utvecklat och genomfört ett antal kurser som riktar sig mot yrkesverksamma ingenjörer. Detta arbete presenterar våra erfarenheter av att ge dessa kurser, med en tyngdpunkt på studenternas upplevelser. Syftet med detta är att bygga upp en vetenskaplig bas för vad vi gör som är bra, men även vad som kan förbättras och förändras. Målsättningen är att göra dessa specialanpassade kurser riktade mot yrkesverksamma ingenjörer så givande och flexibla som möjligt. Våra initiala resultat visar bland annat att studenternas negativa upplevelser ofta var kopplade till antagningsförfarandet och det praktiska genomförandet av kurserna. Man hade svårigheter med att hitta hur man skulle registrera sig på kursen och att tidsramen för registrering kunde vara ett problem. Läroplattformen uppfattades som svår att överblicka och det förekom även viss otydlighet gällande var undervisningen skulle äga rum. Den positiva responsen i utvärderingarna gällde främst det faktiska kursinnehållet, då man ansåg att uppgifter och kursmaterial var givande. Vidare uppskattades kursupplägget, att man kunde kombinera studierna med arbete. Framledes kommer vi att fortsätta med dessa utvärderingar i takt med att kurserna ges, och därefter anpassa vårt mottagande och kommunikationen med studenterna. Även kursupplägget ses över kontinuerligt via den återkoppling vi mottar. 

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  • 25.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Rise Acreo, Hudiksvall.
    Lindqvist, Jonas
    Rise Acreo, Hudiksvall.
    Surveying and Identifying the Communication Platforms of the Internet of Things2018In: 2018 Global Internet of Things Summit (GIoTS), IEEE, 2018, p. 121-126, article id 8534556Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research and industry invest time and resources in producing Internet of Things-based services, and the concept of Internet of Things platforms is climbing in the hype cycle for emerging technologies. Consequently, there is a vast number of enabling technologies, making it difficult to find the most suitable platform. The aim and goal of this article is to list and identify the currently available communication platforms for the Internet of Things. In this work, we surveyed the area and found over \numTot different platforms for communication of data between things and services, out of which \numProm fulfilled our listed basic requirements for being an IoT communication platform.

  • 26.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Department of Computer and System Sciences Stockholm University.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ubiquitous Secure Interactions with Intelligent Artifacts on the Internet-of-Things2012In: Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom-2012: 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC-2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 1520-1524Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Intelligent artifacts are real-world objects enhancedwith capabilities in order to display relevant behavior in varioustypes of context-aware applications, such as in mHealth,commerce, or pervasive games. This can be achieved by attachingsensors and store associated information on the Internet.Interaction with such artifacts requires secure communication,to protect personal and private information. This mandatesresearch in how to safeguard interactions via heterogeneousmeans of communication involving interconnected local and nonlocalartifacts. In response to these challenges, this paper presentskey schemes to secure interaction via heterogeneous means ofcommunication. In conclusion, the architecture can securelyauthenticate an intelligent artifact as well as securely exchangesensor information with other authenticated artifacts attached inan overlay. Our proof-of-concept application demonstrated in anInternet-of-Things platform validates the approach.

  • 27.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    A Flexible Sensor and Actuator Gateway for Internet-of-Things Applications2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is currently a vast amount of sensors, actuators, and other devices intended to create the Internet-of-Things. However, most of these only operate within a particular manufacturer’s ecosystem and with a limited set of compatible hardware. In response to this we present a general sensor and actuator gateway for the Internet-of-Things, which provides the flexibility to easily exchange sensor and actuator hardware. The gateway is implemented as a proof-of-concept prototype that is verified to be compatible with a wide range of commercial off the shelf hardware. It is also shown to be able to run the SensibleThings platform, a fully distributed and open communication platform for Internet-Things applications.

  • 28.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Challenges when Realizing a Fully Distributed Internet-of-Things - How we Created the SensibleThings Platform2014In: ICDT 2014, The Ninth International Conference on Digital Telecommunications / [ed] Constantin Paleologu, University Politehnica of Bucharest, Romania Andy Snow, Ohio University, USA, 2014, p. 13-18Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The SensibleThings platform is an open source architecturefor enabling Internet-of-Things based applications.During its development, multiple problems have been faced andsolved, for example issues related to networking, information dissemination,sensors, and application access. This paper describesthese problems and the technical solutions that are implementedin the platform. We also present the current progress and aseries of demonstrator applications, which show the wide rangeof possibilities enabled by the platform. Finally, we present futurework and how it will be used in future research endeavors andcommercial interests.

  • 29.
    Forsström, Stefan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Department of Computer and System Sciences Stockholm University.
    Evaluating Ubiquitous Sensor Information Sharing on the Internet-of-Things2012In: Proc. of the 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Trust, Security and Privacy in Computing and Communications, TrustCom-2012: 11th IEEE Int. Conference on Ubiquitous Computing and Communications, IUCC-2012, IEEE conference proceedings, 2012, p. 1454-1460Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Next generation context-aware mobile applicationswill require a continuous update of relevant information about auser’s surroundings, in order to create low latency notificationsand high quality of experience. Existing mobile devices alreadycontain a large number of built in sensors which are capableof producing huge amounts of sensor data, exceeding boththe capacity of the local storage and the Internet connection.Therefore, we will in this paper study the limits when sharingcontextual information from mobile devices, as well as finding theimpact of this information overload for the Internet-of-Things.Furthermore, we present an evaluation model for assessing theeffort required to present applications with relevant contextinformation. In conclusion, the model shows that one feasiblesolution for the future Internet-of-Things is a peer-to-peer basedsolution which can control the flow of information without anycentralized authority, to circumvent earlier limitations.

  • 30.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Department of Computer and System Sciences Stockholm University.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    MediaSense – an Internet of Things Platform for Scalable and Decentralized Context Sharing and Control2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research in Internet-of-Things infrastructures hasso far mainly been focused on connecting sensors and actuatorsto the Internet, while associating these devices to applicationsvia web services. This has contributed to making the technologyaccessible in areas such as smart-grid, transport, health, etc.These early successes have hidden the lack of support forsensor-based applications to share information and limitationsin support for applications to access sensors and actuatorsglobally. We address these limitations in an novel open-sourceplatform, MediaSense. MediaSense offers scalable, seamless,real-time access to global sensors and actuators via hetero-geneous network infrastructure. This paper presents a setof requirements for Internet-of-Things applications support,an overview of our architecture, and application prototypescreated in order to verify the approach in a test bed withusers connected from heterogeneous networks.

  • 31.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness from Sensor Networks2010In: Enabling Context-Aware Web Services: Methods, Architectures, and Technologies, CRC Press, 2010, p. 449-468Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Users require applications and services to be available everywhere, enabling users to focus on what is important to them. Therefore, context information from users (e.g., spatial data, preferences, available connectivity and devices, etc.) needs to be accessible to systems that deliver services via a heterogeneous infrastructure. We present a novel approach to support ubiquitous sensing and availability of context to services and applications. This approach offers a scalable, distributed storage of context derived from sensor networks wirelessly attached to mobile phones and other devices. The support handles frequent updates of sensor information and is interoperable with presence services in 3G mobile systems, thus enabling ubiquitous sensing applications. We demonstrate these concepts and the principle operation in a sample ubiquitous mobile awareness service. The importance of this contribution, in comparison to earlier work, lies in the availability of real-time ubiquitous sensing to both applications on the Internet as well as applications in mobile systems.

  • 32.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Norling, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Distributed Context Support for Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness Services2009In: 2009 Fourth International ICST Conference on Communications and Networking in China. ChinaCom'09., IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 869-873Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context-aware applications and services require ubiquitous access to context information about the users or sensors such as preferences, spatial & environmental data, available connectivity, and device capabilities. Systems for the brokering or the provisioning of context data via wireless networks do so with centralized servers or by employing protocols that do not scale well with real-time distribution capabilities. In other cases, such as the extending of presence systems, the data models are limited in expressive capabilities and consequently incur unnecessary signaling overhead. This paper presents a distributed protocol, the Distributed Context eXchange Protocol (DCXP), and an architecture for the real-time distribution of context information to ubiquitous mobile services: We present the architecture and its principle operation in a sample ubiquitous mobile awareness service. Preliminary results indicate that our approach scales well for the ubiquitous provision of context data in real-time to clients on the Internet via 3G wireless systems. Performed measurements show that DCXP can reduce the time to process context data with a factor of 20 compared to similar approaches.

     

  • 33.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Ubiquitous Mobile Awareness from Sensor Networks2009In: Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering Volume 12, Springer, 2009, p. 147-150Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Users require applications and services to be available everywhere,enabling them to focus on what is important to them. Therefore, contextinformation (e.g., spatial data, user preferences, available connectivity anddevices, etc.) has to be accessible to applications that run in end systems closeto users. In response to this, we present a novel architecture for ubiquitoussensing and sharing of context in mobile services and applications. Thearchitecture offers distributed storage of context derived from sensor networkswirelessly attached to mobile phones and other devices. The architecture alsohandles frequent updates of sensor information and is interoperable withpresence in 3G mobile systems, thus enabling ubiquitous sensing applications.We demonstrate these concepts and the principle operation in a sampleubiquitous Mobile Awareness service.

  • 34.
    Kanter, Theo
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kardeby, Victor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Pettersson, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The MediaSense Framework2009In: Proceedings - 2009 4th International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, ICDT 2009, New York: IEEE conference proceedings, 2009, p. 144-147Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication is evolving rapidly. People no longer only communicate with each other regardless of time and place, but also share other information that is important for tasks with which they are involved. In response to this growing trend the MediaSense framework addresses the intelligent delivery of any information to any host, anywhere, based on context-aware information regarding personal preferences, presence information, and sensor values. This includes another challenge to achieve seamless delivery, especially of multimedia content, and multimodal services via heterogeneous connections.

  • 35.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The MediaSense Framework: Ranking Sensors in a Distributed Architecture2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication is evolving rapidly. People no longer only communicate with each other regardless of time and place, but also share other information that is important for the tasks with which they are involved. In response to this growing trend, the Media Sense framework addresses the intelligent delivery of any information to any host, anywhere, based on context-aware information regarding personal preferences, presence information, and sensor values. The focus of this paper is the overall framework, the handling of user profiles, management of context information, real-time distribution and proof of concepts.

  • 36.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Walters, Jamie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Kanter, Theo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    The updated mediasense framework2010In: 5th International Conference on Digital Telecommunications, ICDT 2010, Athens, Glyfada: IEEE conference proceedings, 2010, p. 48-51Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobile telecommunication is evolving rapidly. People no longer only communicate with each other regardless of time and place, but also share other information that is important for the tasks with which they are involved. In response to this growing trend, the MediaSense framework addresses the intelligent delivery of any information to any host, anywhere, based on context-aware information regarding personal preferences, presence information, and sensor values. The focus of this paper is the overall framework, the handling of user profiles, management of context information, real-time distribution and proof of concepts. © 2010 IEEE.

  • 37.
    Kardeby, Victor
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Jennehag, Ulf
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information and Communication systems.
    Fully Distributed Ubiquitous Information Sharing on a Global Scale for the Internet-of-Things2014In: International Journal on Advances in Telecommunications, E-ISSN 1942-2601, Vol. 7, no 3 & 4, p. 69-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Internet-of-Things will require ubiquitous informationsharing between connected things on a global scale, whichexisting systems do not offer. Most current efforts focus on solutionsfor information dissemination, which induce single pointsof failure and introduce unnecessary communication delays. Tothis end we propose the SensibleThings platform, which is afully distributed open source architecture for Internet-of-Thingsbased applications. This article describes the major problems thatInternet-of-Things platforms must address, our technical solutionto these problems, and an evaluation thereof. We also present thecurrent progress and a series of demonstrators, which show thewide range of applications enabled by the platform. Finally, wepresent how the platform will be used in our future research andpotential spin off companies.

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    Forsström_Fully_distributed_ubiquitous
  • 38.
    Khodakhah, Farnaz
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Abedin, Sarder Fakhrul
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Thar, Kyi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Design and Resource Allocation of NOMA-based Transmission Scheme for Industrial Collaborative AR2022In: 2022 IEEE GLOBECOM Workshops, GC Wkshps 2022 - Proceedings, IEEE conference proceedings, 2022, p. 1604-1609Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Collaborative augmented reality (AR), which enables interaction and consistency in multi-user AR scenarios, is a promising technology for AR-guided remote monitoring, optimization, and troubleshooting of complex manufacturing processes. However, for uplink high data rate demands in collaborative-AR, the design of an efficient transmission and resource allocation scheme is demanding in resource-constrained wireless systems. To address this challenge, we propose a collaborative non-orthogonal multiple access (C-NOMA)-enabled transmission scheme by exploiting the fact that multi-user interaction often leads to common and individual views of the scenario (e.g., the region of interest). C-NOMA is designed as a two-step transmission scheme by treating these views separately and allowing users to offload the common views partially. Further, we define an optimization problem to jointly optimize the time and power allocation for AR users, with an objective of minimizing the maximum rate-distortion of the individual views for all users while guaranteeing a target distortion of their common view for its mutual significance. For its inherent non-linearity and non-convexity, we solve the defined problem using a primal-dual interior-point algorithm with a filter line search as well as by developing a successive convex approximation (SCA) method. The simulation results demonstrate that the optimized C-NOMA outperforms the non-collaborative baseline scheme by 23.94% and 77.28% in terms of energy consumption and achievable distortion on the common information, respectively. 

  • 39.
    Khodakhah, Farnaz
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Multiple Access-Enabled Relaying with Piece-Wise and Forward NOMA: Rate Optimization under Reliability Constraints2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 14, article id 4783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing proliferation of Internet-of-things (IoT) networks in a given space requires exploring various communication solutions (e.g., cooperative relaying, non-orthogonal multiple access, spectrum sharing) jointly to increase the performance of coexisting IoT systems. However, the design complexity of such a system increases, especially under the constraints of performance targets. In this respect, this paper studies multiple-access enabled relaying by a lower-priority secondary system, which cooperatively relays the incoming information to the primary users and simultaneously transmits its own data. We consider that the direct link between the primary transmitter-receiver pair uses orthogonal multiple access in the first phase. In the second phase, a secondary transmitter adopts a relaying strategy to support the direct link while it uses non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) to serve the secondary receiver. As a relaying scheme, we propose a piece-wise and forward (PF) relay protocol, which, depending on the absolute value of the received primary signal, acts similar to decode-and-forward (DF) and amplify-and-forward (AF) schemes in high and low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), respectively. By doing so, PF achieves the best of these two relaying protocols using the adaptive threshold according to the transmitter-relay channel condition. Under PF-NOMA, first, we find the achievable rate region for primary and secondary receivers, and then we formulate an optimization problem to derive the optimal PF-NOMA time and power fraction that maximize the secondary rate subject to reliability constraints on both the primary and the secondary links. Our simulation results and analysis show that the PF-NOMA outperforms DF-NOMA and AF-NOMA-based relaying techniques in terms of achievable rate regions and rate-guaranteed relay locations.

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    fulltext
  • 40.
    Khodakhah, Farnaz
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering (2023-).
    Stefanović, Čedomir
    Mahmood, Aamir
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering (2023-).
    Farag, Hossam
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering (2023-).
    Gidlund, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Computer and Electrical Engineering (2023-).
    NOMA or Puncturing for Uplink eMBB-URLLC Coexistence from an AoI Perspective?2023In: GLOBECOM 2023 - 2023 IEEE Global Communications Conference, IEEE, 2023, p. 4301-4306Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through the lens of the age-of-information (AoI) metric, this paper takes a fresh look into the performance of coexisting enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) and ultra-reliable low-latency (URLLC) services in the uplink scenario. To reduce AoI, a URLLC user with stochastic packet arrivals has two options: orthogonal multiple access (OMA) with the preemption of the eMBB user (labeled as puncturing) or non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) with the ongoing eMBB transmission. Puncturing leads to lower average AoI at the expense of the decrease in the eMBB user's rate, as well as in signaling complexity. On the other hand, NOMA can provide a higher eMBB rate at the expense of URLLC packet loss due to interference and, thus, the degradation in AoI performance. We study under which conditions NOMA could provide an average AoI performance that is close to the one of the puncturing, while maintaining the gain in the data rate. To this end, we derive a closed-form expression for the average AoI and investigate conditions on the eMBB and URLLC distances from the base station at which the difference between the average AoI in NOMA and in puncturing is within some small gap β. Our results show that with β as small as 0.1 minislot, the eMBB rate in NOMA can be roughly 5 times higher than that of puncturing. Thus, by choosing an appropriate access scheme, both the favorable average AoI for URLLC users and the high data rate for eMBB users can be achieved. 

  • 41.
    Lindén, Johannes
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Forsström, Stefan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Multi-language Information Extraction with Text Pattern Recognition2021In: Computer Science & Information Technology (CS & IT): Natural Language Computing7th International Conference on Natural Language Computing (NATL 2021), November 27~28, 2021, London, United Kingdom / [ed] David C. Wyld, Dhinaharan Nagamalai, 2021, Vol. 11, p. 1-17Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Information extraction is a task that can extract meta-data information from text. The research in this article proposes a new information extraction algorithm called GenerateIE. The proposed algorithm identifies pairs of entities and relations described in a piece of text. The extracted meta-data is useful in many areas, but within this research the focus is to use them in news-media contexts to provide the gist of the written articles for analytics and paraphrasing of news information. GenerateIE algorithm is compared with existing state of the art algorithms with two benefits. Firstly, the GenerateIE provides the co-referenced word as the entity instead of using he, she, it, etc. which is more beneficial for knowledge graphs. Secondly GenerateIE can be applied on multiple languages without changing the algorithm itself apart from the underlying natural language text-parsing. Furthermore, the performance of GenerateIE compared with state-of-the-art algorithms is not significantly better, but it offers competitive results. 

  • 42.
    Zhang, Tingting
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Xu, Youzhi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Multicast-Favorable Max-Min Fairness: a general definition of multicast fairness2005In: Proceedings - First International Conference on Distributed Frameworks for Multimedia Applications 2005, DFMA '05, IEEE Computer Society, 2005, p. 239-244, article id 1385208Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As video-streaming services are becoming more common the benefit of multicast transmission is growing, because multicast is more bandwidth efficient than unicast in scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data. Of the same reason the concept of multicast fairness is starting to attract attention, it might be sensible to give multicast flows higher priority and thereby create an incentive for the use of multicast transmission. Allocating link bandwidth in proportion to the logarithm of the number of receivers of a flow, which favors multicast flows without totally starving unicast flows, has been proposed in [1]. That was however just as a bandwidth-allocation policy ran on the individual routers and not a definition of multicast fairness. To our knowledge no one has yet come up with a definition of multicast fairness which prioritizes multicast flows. In this paper we present a general multicast-fairness definition, named multicast-favorable max-min fairness (MFMF), which can be used together with any multicast-favorable function.

  • 43.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Efficient multicast video streaming over heterogeneous networks2004Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The demand for real-time video streaming over Internet is ever growing. The aggregated bandwidth of the video flows can be substantial, which motivates the use of bandwidth-preserving techniques such as multicast transmission and powerful source coding algorithms. With powerful video source coding follow an increased sensitivity to lost or corrupted data. Error-correcting codes may be applied to deal with this side effect. Another topic, which arises when multicast is introduced, is its effect on the notion of fairness. It is debatable if a unicast flow with a single receiver should be entitled to the same amount of bandwidth as a multicast flow with hundreds of receivers. This licentiate thesis aims at exploiting and combining existing techniques and developing new ones, all with the common goal of creating higher satisfaction and fairness for the end users of video streaming services. One of the techniques that are being evaluated is priority dropping, where less important packets are the first to be dropped in the routers in case of congestion. Then a scheme where multicast end users can deal with varying packet-loss rates by individually choosing the amount of error-correcting data they want to receive, is proposed. Further, the area of fairness in multicast environments is addressed, and a new definition of multicast fairness is presented.

  • 44.
    Österberg, Patrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fair Treatment of Multicast Sessions and Their Receivers: Incentives for more efficient bandwidth utilization2007Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Media-streaming services are rapidly gaining in popularity, and new ones are knocking on the door. Standard-definition Internet protocol television (IPTV) has already entered many living rooms, and high-definition IPTV will become common property in the not too distant future. Then even more advanced and resource-demanding services, such as three-dimensional and free-view TV, are next in line. Video streaming is by nature extremely bandwidth intensive, and this development will put the existing network infrastructure to the test.

    In scenarios where many receivers are simultaneously interested in the same data, which is the case with popular live content, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. The reason is that the receivers of a multicast session share the resources through a common transmission tree where data are only transmitted once along any branch. The use of multicast transmission can therefore yield huge bandwidth savings. There are however no really strong incentives for the Internet service providers (ISPs) to support multicast transmission, and the deployment has consequently been slow.

    We propose that more bandwidth is allocated to multicast flows in the case of network congestion. The ratio is based upon the number of receivers and the bitrate that they are able to obtain, since this is what determines the degree of resource sharing. We believe that it is fair to take this into account, and accordingly call the proposed allocation multicast-favorable max-min fair. Further, we present two bandwidth-allocation policies that utilize different amount of feedback to perform allocations that are reasonable close to be multicast-favorable max-min fair.

    We also propose two cost-allocation mechanisms that build upon the assumption that the cost for data transmission should be covered by the receivers. The mechanisms charge the receivers based on their share of the resources usage, which in general is favorable to multicast receivers. The two cost-allocation mechanisms differ in that one strives for optimum fair cost allocations, whereas the other might give discounts to some receivers. The discounts facilitate larger groups of receivers, which can provide cheaper services for the non-discounted receivers as well.

    The proposals make multicast transmission more attractive to the users of media-streaming services. If the proposals were implemented in multicast-enabled networks, the rest of the ISPs would be forced to support multicast, to stay competitive.

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 45.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Receiver-controlled dynamic forward error correction for video streaming2003Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of real-time traffic, being transported over IP networks, appears to be ever increasing. Real-time traffic may, for example, consist of video and audio data, which have real-time constraints in terms of metrics such as maximum delay, delay jitter and packet loss. Bounds on such metrics can be hard to satisfy by the network, hence there is an incentive to make multicast streaming of video more packet-loss resilient. Receiver-driven layered multicast has been proposed for dealing with band limitations, and environments with heterogeneous terminals. We have extended these ideas to handle packet loss, by adding receiver-driven forward error control (FEC). The aim of this paper is to further improve the performance, by optimizing the distribution of the error protection between the layers.

  • 46.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Forsgren, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Receiver-Controlled Joint Source/Channel Coding on the Application Level, for Video Streaming over WLANs2003In: The 57th IEEE Semiannual Vehicular Technology Conference, 2003. VTC 2003-Spring.: Vol. 3, 2003, p. 1558-1561Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The proportion of real-time traffic, being transported over internet protocol (IP) networks, appears to be ever increasing. Real-time traffic may, for example, be video and audio, which have real-time constraints such as maximum delay and delay jitter. Such requirements can be hard to satisfy in a wired infrastructure, and are even more so in a wireless network. Therefore there is a need to make transmission over wireless local area networks (WLANs) more reliable. The aim of this paper is to outline a proposal of such a scheme, which enables efficient transmission of MPEG-4 video over an IEEE 802.11b WLAN, and to experimentally verify its efficiency. Receiver-driven layered multicast has been proposed before, for dealing with band limitations and environments with heterogeneous terminals. We extend these ideas to handle packet loss, by adding receiver-driven unequal error protection (UEP). The proposal can be viewed as receiver-controlled joint source/channel (JSC) coding on the application level.

  • 47.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    A Bandwidth-Allocation Policy Taking Layered Video Multicast into Consideration2004In: Proceedings of the Eighth IASTED International Conference on Internet and Multimedia Systems and Applications, Acta Press , 2004, p. 347-352Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As multicast is slowly gaining in support, the concept of multicast fairness is starting to attract some attention. Should multicast flows be favored at the expense of unicast flows, and if so to what extent? Allocating link bandwidth in proportion to the logarithm of the number of receivers of a flow has been proposed. That kind of policies favors multicast flows, without totally starving unicast flows. A problem of maintaining such policies emerges if layered multicast flows are introduced, since each layer is transmitted to a separate multicast IP address and will therefore be treated as an individual flow. Layered multicast flows will consequently be allocated too much bandwidth. In this paper, a logarithmic bandwidth-allocation policy that copes with layered multicast is proposed and evaluated through simulations. The results confirm that the proposal meets the expectations by preserving the intended fairness properties in scenarios with layered multicast traffic.

  • 48.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Bid-Based Cost Sharing Among Multicast Receivers2007In: 4th International Conference on Heterogeneous Networking for Quality, Reliability, Security and Robustness and Workshops, QSHINE '07, ACM Press, 2007, article id 37Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. The reason is that the receivers of a multicast session share the resources through a common transmission tree. Since the resources are shared between the receivers, it is reasonable that the costs corresponding to these resources should be shared as well. This paper deals with fair cost sharing among multicast receivers, and the work is based upon the assumption that costs should be shared according to the resource usage. However, it is not for certain that an optimally fair cost allocation is most beneficial for the receivers; receivers that cannot cover their fair share of the costs may nevertheless be able to contribute to the cost sharing to some extent. We propose a cost-allocation mechanism that strives to allocate the costs fairly, but gives discount to poor receivers who at least manage to cover the additional cost of providing them with the service.

  • 49.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fair Allocation of Link Capacity through Feedback of Bottleneck Information2007In: Digital Telecommunications, , 2006. ICDT '06. International Conference on 29-31 Aug. 2006, IEEE conference proceedings, 2007, p. 59-59Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper we propose a bandwidth-allocation policy that is fairer and more bandwidth efficient than existing policies. The improvements are achieved through feedback of information regarding the largest bottleneck link of the downstream receivers of each flow. According to this information, the router nodes can avoid allocating more bandwidth to a flow than will be of use to at least one of its receivers. The proposed bandwidth-allocation policy, called bottleneck-feedback and receiver dependent (BFRD), is simulated with promising results

  • 50.
    Österberg, Patrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Zhang, Tingting
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Technology and Media.
    Fair Allocation of Multicast Transmission Costs2008In: International Journal on Advances in Telecommunications, E-ISSN 1942-2601, Vol. 1, no 1, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In scenarios where many receivers simultaneously are interested in the same data, multicast transmission is more bandwidth efficient than unicast. The reason is that the receivers of a multicast session share the resources through a common transmission tree. Since the resources are shared between the receivers, it is reasonable that the costs corresponding to these resources should be shared as well.

    This paper deals with fair cost sharing among multicast receivers, and the work is based upon the assumption that costs should be shared according to the resource usage. However, it is not for certain that an optimally fair cost allocation is most beneficial for the receivers; receivers that cannot cover their fair share of the costs may nevertheless be able to contribute to the cost sharing to some extent. We propose a cost-allocation mechanism that strives to allocate the costs fairly, but gives discount to poor receivers who at least manage to cover the additional cost of providing them with the service.

     

     

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