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  • 1.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Breaking the ice: a work domain analysis of icebreaker operations2018In: Cognition, Technology & Work, ISSN 1435-5558, E-ISSN 1435-5566, Vol. 20, no 3, p. 443-456Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Icebreakers are special-purpose ships designed to operate in different ice-covered waters, either independently or duringassistance of weaker ships. In the Baltic Sea, as well as elsewhere, they are essential for maintaining continuous sea transportservices during wintertime. Icebreaker operations are complex, and every situation in which a vessel requires assistanceis unique, due to, e.g. changing ice and weather conditions, geographical location or language proficiency of the crew onboard the icebreaker or assisted vessel. The icebreaker crew has considerable freedom to adapt to each situation, yet, forsafe operations, there are constraints to which the crew has to conform. The study presented in this paper aims at identifyingthe constraints on nautical officers on board icebreakers during operations, as well as special situations that increasecognitive load. A work domain analysis based on a group interview with nautical icebreaker officers shows the multitudeof tasks performed on board icebreakers. Furthermore, it identifies constraints specific to icebreaker operations such as iceassessment and direct icebreaking, but also generic constraints such as language and communication skills. At times, safetyand efficiency come into conflict, resulting in a trade-off between the two. When that happens, safety gets priority, and theoperation stops until the situation has been evaluated. In addition, several situations that increase cognitive load are identified,with the common denominator that they add elements of uncertainty, e.g. severe weather and technical malfunctions.Finally, further research within the area of icebreaker operations is recommended, with a continued focus on the systemconstraints, and their potential for system improvement.

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  • 2.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnéuniversitetet, Sjöfartshögskolan (SJÖ).
    Creating clarity and managing complexity through co-operation and communication: The case of Swedish icebreaker operations2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea transportation is vital for the global economy, and the amount of seaborne trade is expected to increase in the future. In some areas, icebreakers are necessary for maintaining open shipping lanes all-year round and ensuring safe navigation. Vessels operating in ice are exposed to harsh environmental factors such as severe weather and heavy ice, and when external forces become too strong vessels will depend on icebreaker assistance. However, successful icebreaker operations require the icebreaker to operate in close vicinity to the assisted vessel to break the ice, which in turn increases the risk of collision.

    There are many factors which make icebreaker operations complex. The aim of this thesis is to use work organization, operational safety, and interpersonal communication as three lenses to describe and analyse the complexity of icebreaker operations, and its implications for practice. To thoroughly investigate this complexity, data are drawn from numerous sources; semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire, and a substantial amount of recorded authentic communication all provide complementary insights.

    The results show that the icebreaker performs a multitude of tasks directly concerned with icebreaking, e.g. directing and physically assisting other vessels, but that these tasks indirectly rely on interpersonal interaction and communication. A number of conflicting constraints add to the complexity. For example, harsh winter conditions impede vessels’ independent navigation in ice, while offering icebreaker crews opportunities to practice and maintain important skills. Furthermore, it was shown that language skills and communication play an important role in upholding the operational safety. However, closed-loop communication is not always used as intended, a deviation from intended communication protocol with potential to increase the risk of misunderstandings.

    This thesis suggests that safety and efficiency of winter navigation can be enhanced by making better use of existing technology and data; by examining the past track of other vessels, e.g. via AIS, finding suitable ice tracks will be made easier. Another implication concerning communication is that training institutes should emphasize the logic behind standardized communication protocols rather than focusing on standard phrases, i.e. facilitating means for advanced English speakers to adapt their communication style. That way, novice and advanced speakers could find common ground.

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  • 3.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Creating clarity and managing complexity through co-operation and communication: The case of Swedish icebreaker operations2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sea transportation is vital for the global economy, and the amount of seaborne trade is expected to increase in the future. In some areas, icebreakers are necessary for maintaining open shipping lanes all-year round and ensuring safe navigation. Vessels operating in ice are exposed to harsh environmental factors such as severe weather and heavy ice, and when external forces become too strong vessels will depend on icebreaker assistance. However, successful icebreaker operations require the icebreaker to operate in close vicinity to the assisted vessel to break the ice, which in turn increases the risk of collision.

    There are many factors which make icebreaker operations complex. The aim of this thesis is to use work organization, operational safety, and interpersonal communication as three lenses to describe and analyse the complexity of icebreaker operations, and its implications for practice. To thoroughly investigate this complexity, data are drawn from numerous sources; semi-structured interviews, a questionnaire, and a substantial amount of recorded authentic communication all provide complementary insights.

    The results show that the icebreaker performs a multitude of tasks directly concerned with icebreaking, e.g. directing and physically assisting other vessels, but that these tasks indirectly rely on interpersonal interaction and communication. A number of conflicting constraints add to the complexity. For example, harsh winter conditions impede vessels’ independent navigation in ice, while offering icebreaker crews opportunities to practice and maintain important skills. Furthermore, it was shown that language skills and communication play an important role in upholding the operational safety. However, closed-loop communication is not always used as intended, a deviation from intended communication protocol with potential to increase the risk of misunderstandings.

    This thesis suggests that safety and efficiency of winter navigation can be enhanced by making better use of existing technology and data; by examining the past track of other vessels, e.g. via AIS, finding suitable ice tracks will be made easier. Another implication concerning communication is that training institutes should emphasize the logic behind standardized communication protocols rather than focusing on standard phrases, i.e. facilitating means for advanced English speakers to adapt their communication style. That way, novice and advanced speakers could find common ground.

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  • 4.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Effective simulator training in preparation for icebreaking operations and ice management assessment2010In: 16th International Navigation Simulator Lecturers' Conference Proceedings, Dalian, China: Dalian Maritime University , 2010, p. 40-47Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is estimated that as much as 13 per cent of the world's undiscovered conventional oil resources are located in The Arctic (the region located north of the Arctic Circle) [1]. As a result, future prospecting and drilling operations in this area will be of uttermost importance for guaranteeing a continuous supply of crude oil. To meet the demand of nautical officers with icebreaking competence, the Transatlantic Ice Academy (TIA) was established in 2008. The Ice Academy is a co-operation between Kalmar Maritime Academy, AB Transatlantic, the simulator manufacturer Kongsberg A/S and the Swedish Maritime Administration, and aims to educate and prepare nautical officers for the extreme conditions ice exerts on a crew. This paper describes two of the courses that TIA offers, the way that TIA has set up effective simulator exercises and how they will prepare the officer for upcoming challenges.

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  • 5.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Group Composition in the Navigation Simulator: a Pilot Study2012In: 17th International Navigation Simulator Lecturers' Conference / [ed] Knud Benedict, Warnemunde, Germany: Hochschule Wismar , 2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At Kalmar Maritime Academy (KMA) the first-year students at the Master Mariner program complete a course in the use of ARPA. The course includes eight simulator exercises, where seven of them are completed in pairs and the last exercise is an individual assessment. Previously, instructors have encouraged students to choose a new partner for each of the first seven exercises; however, the reason for this strategy has not been well documented.

     

    The aim of this study was to examine the effect of fixed versus rotating bridge teams on the individual learning outcome. During an eight-week course in spring 2012, two groups of students were asked to work either with the same or a new partner for each exercise during a course. The result showed no difference between the two groups with regard to the individual assessment, and the students who failed did so because of inadequate interpretation of the ARPA information, and not because of insufficient radar knowledge.

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  • 6.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Mind the Gap!: A quantitative comparison between ship-to-ship communication and intended communication protocol2020In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 123, p. 1-8, article id 104567Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Icebreaker operations, when an icebreaker assists other vessels through ice-packed fairways, are hazardous due to harsh environmental conditions and complexity of procedures. The severity of operations is further aggravated by the necessity for maintaining a small distance between the vessels, which consequently increases the risk of collision. Even though miscommunication is widely identified as a contributing factor to shipping accidents, previous research within winter navigation has focused largely on technical aspects of icebreaker operations to increase the operational safety. This study aimed to investigate to what extent closed-loop communication is used during icebreaker operations, and whether this practice deviates from stipulated communication protocols. A quantitative analysis was performed, coding 40 days of verbal radio communication. Subsequently, the data was compared to the stipulated communication protocol outlined in the Standard Marine Communication Phrases. The results show that closed-loop communication is not utilized to its full extent. Some message types are completely repeated at a higher rate, mainly instruction and question, while other message types, such as information and intention often receive a yes-no answer. A full closed-loop, i.e. a completely repeated message followed by a confirmation, was only observed in 16.4% of the messages initiated by an icebreaker and 14.0% for the assisted vessels. Thus, this study clearly shows that there is a gap between actual language use and stipulated communication protocol. Finally, since misunderstandings during icebreaker operations can have serious consequences, more research is needed into the underlying reasons for miscommunication in situations with little room for error.

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    Mind the Gap
  • 7.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Other-initiated repair as an indicator of critical communication in ship-to-ship interaction2021In: Journal of Pragmatics, ISSN 0378-2166, E-ISSN 1879-1387, Vol. 174, p. 78-92Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication is an essential part of most joint activities, and effective means to identify and rectify misunderstandings are necessary to reach mutual understandings. In the maritime domain, faulty communication is often a contributing cause to ship accidents, potentially putting human lives, vessels, and the environment at risk. This study explores the use of other-initiated repair in maritime ship-to-ship communication. The purpose is to classify and analyse other-initiated repair and describe the specific practices used to initiate repair and rectify mistakes. Based on an analysis of authentic communication between vessels involved in icebreaker operations, findings indicate that other-initiated repair occurs less frequently in this corpus compared to other corpora of naturally occurring conversations. A possible reason is that radio communication, which is highly structured, has other means to identify communicative errors. More than half of the repair initiations use open requests to identify a trouble turn, and the most common repair solution is a full or partial repeat. Furthermore, maritime radio communication has an inherent slowness due to technical limitations that do not permit simultaneous talk. It is argued this refrains speakers from using long or complex messages, as the listener has no way to indicate trouble until next turn.

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  • 8.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Simulating Advanced Arctic Operations - Lessons Learned2014In: 18th International Navigation Simulator Lecturers' Conference / [ed] Sam Teel, Massachusetts Maritime Academy, USA, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of simulators is widely used for preparing someone, be it a person or organization, for an upcoming task. There are several reasons for this. Many endeavours are costly, and the gain from a real life experience might not justify its costs. Another reason might be that the task involves hazardous elements, with potential to harm people or the environment. There is also the possibility that the experience sought occurs so infrequently, that one is unlikely to experience it under real conditions. In all of these situations, a simulated training experience can be equally good, or even better, compared to real on-the-job training.

     This paper gives an account of a course in advanced arctic operations, where the simulator was used in preparation for operations in ice. The preparations and execution of the training itself are explained, accompanied by the views of the course instructors about the lessons learned. The result indicates that one of the key components of successful training is to avoid having too detailed exercises, and rather to focus on the fundamental principles of the upcoming activity. In combination with the important debriefing where more specific aspects of the operation can be discussed, a broad training leaves the participant well equipped to handle real life challenges as they appear in the field.

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  • 9.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Creating Clarity and Crew Courage: Preventive and Promotive Measures for a Maritime Industry Without Bullying and Harassment2022In: Occupational Health Science, ISSN 2367-0134, Vol. 6, no 4, p. 605-629Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafaring shares many characteristics with contemporary working life ashore. However, a major difference is that seafarers can spend up to 12 months aboard a ship that constitutes a work, living and recreational environment. Onboard work includes many stressors that can potentially contribute to workplace bullying and harassment, which in turn can affect safety critical operations. The aim of this study was to identify underlying causes in the organizational and social work environment that can cause workplace bullying and harassment at sea, and to suggest appropriate preventive and promotive strategies and measures. Data were collected mainly through World Cafe workshops with 56 participants from the Swedish maritime industry. Seafarer occupational health, safety, and wellbeing is largely determined by interdependent factors at micro, meso, and macro levels, where different stakeholders play various roles. Strategies and measures starting at the individual seafarer, and gradually expanding outwards toward the maritime industry are suggested. It is important that a victim of bullying or harassment receives adequate support. Creating crew courage enables employees to both recognize troubling situations and know how to act and respond to a situation. To bridge the gap between policy and practice, the legislative framework needs translating into practical procedures to make sense to the middle manager at the sharp end, with limited knowledge, time, resources, and decision latitude. Future research should evaluate the effectiveness of work environment interventions - what works, for whom, and under which circumstances.

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  • 10.
    Boström, Magnus
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy. IVL Swedish Environmental Research Institute.
    Improving operational safety during icebreaker operations2017In: WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs (JoMA), ISSN 1651-436X, E-ISSN 1654-1642, Vol. 16, no 1, p. 73-88Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The study presented in this paper aims at investigating what safety measures that can be taken to improve the operational safety during icebreaker operations in the Baltic Sea. During icebreaker operations, the icebreaker and the assisted vessel operate in close proximity to each other, a distance which can be even smaller if weather and ice conditions are severe. This poses a severe threat to the operation, since the extremely short distance between the vessels leaves no room for error. The results, which are based on data collected through individual interviews and questionnaires, indicate several possible improvements. Firstly, on a regulatory level, the introduction of an ice navigation certificate for deck officers would set a minimal level of formal competency. Secondly, on a knowledge level, more ice navigation training and better language skills work in favour for the safety. Thirdly, on a technical level, having an electronic chart with target tracking capability increases the efficiency and safety of the passage through ice. In addition to these results, this study shows a need to further research the communication and language situation during icebreaker operations.

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  • 11.
    Österman, Cecilia
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Rock the boat: How to contribute to a good organizational and social work environment and prevent bullying and harassment2023Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The occurrence of workplace bullying and harassment in variousforms is unfortunately nothing new, and this naturally applies to seafarers as well. Despite this, #metoo became an eye-opener for many when it became clear how extensive these issues are on board and the severity of the cases that occur. Victims of bullying and harassment often suffer physically and mentally and may develop long-term health problems. Additionally, the social isolation on board can make it even more difficult for affected individuals to receive support from family and friends when such incidents occur.

    Even though the symptoms of workplace bullying and harassment are primarily visible in the individual, it’s important to remember that preventive efforts need to encompass the organizational and social work environment. Deficiencies and ambiguities in the organization, uncertainties about roles and responsibilities, managers lacking sufficient knowledge and resources, high workloads, and a workplace climate that tolerates a harsh tone and offensive banter are some well-known factors that need to be addressed.

    So, what should one do in practice? A system needs to be questioned to function and evolve, and therefore, we need to rock the boat. This means that we need to become better at challenging existing structures and work methods and learn to ask new questions. Both employees and managers need to become better at clearly demonstrating their disapproval when incidents of workplace bullying and harassment occur. Employees can do so by not passively stand by if something happens but instead speak up and offer support - we call it crew courage. Managers must lead the way in defining what is acceptable and actively investigate the work environment, identify risk factors, and take early action on warning signals.

    Here, we share what you can do to contribute to a good organizational and social work environment free from workplace bullying and harassment. These tips are based on a research project conducted at Kalmar Maritime Academy, Linnaeus University, during 2019-2021. The project was funded by AFA Försäkring. These examples have been gathered through a systematic literature review and in dialogue with many individuals with various backgrounds and experiences. All results and a more detailed description of the methodology can be found in the final report Praktiskt arbetsmiljöarbete för en jämställd sjöfart, by Cecilia Österman and Magnus Boström at Linnaeus University. This report and other publications are available at intejobbadumt.se.

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    Rock the boat
  • 12.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Drivkrafter för kompetensförsörjning i en socialt hållbar sjöfart2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This project has identified incentives for the supply of skills in a socially sustainable maritime industry and investigated how these can be put into practice. The overall aim has been to recommend measures that can increase the interest in maritime education among a wider target group and create good conditions for a sustainable working life in shipping.

    The project's research activities comprise six parts: a systematic literature review; a follow-up of high school students at Sjömansskolan in Stockholm; questionnaire survey aimed at former students at Sjömansskolan in Stockholm that graduated between 2010 and 2020; research interviews with high school students; register study of student applications for master mariner and marine engineering students during the years 2008–2018; as well as research interviews with marine engineering students. The results have been compiled, analysed, discussed, synthesised, and developed into recommendations.

    Overall, the study shows a high degree of coherence in terms of motives for applying for and completing a maritime education. Largely, it concerns an interest in shipping or boating, or seeking a practical occupation. For others, the decision is more random. It has not been possible to identify any major differences between women's and men's motives. On the other hand, women complete their educations and graduate to a greater extent than men.Pivotal for seafarers’ decision to stay at sea is having an employment with reason-able conditions of employment and a suitable replacement system. Furthermore, it is important with varying work tasks, professional development, and a sense of professional pride. Experiences of good companionship and togetherness are important driving forces. In opposition, social exclusion, harassment, and a poor working environment can affect the decision to leave the maritime industry. Women are at increased risk of being exposed to discrimination and unwelcome behaviour. Despite this, it is noted that women choose to stay at sea to a greater extent than their male colleagues.

    A sustainable skills supply in the maritime industry requires a holistic perspective that includes ways to attract and recruit new staff to the industry, but also efforts to retain already employed personnel and make them grow. Satisfied employees who are allowed to grow in their professional role, are likely to act as excellent ambassadors and thereby contribute to the continued recruitment of seafarers.The visibility of the maritime industry needs to be increased, especially among current minority groups. An increased understanding of the importance of shipping and the scope of possible occupational categories creates favourable conditions for family and friends to act supportively towards those who apply for a maritime education. It needs to become better known that a door to a maritime education can open many other doors.

    A functioning and welcoming onboarding and introduction for new employees and cadets is of crucial importance. Here, the supervision on board is central. The ability to look after the individual's needs and an understanding that everyone is different increases the chances of a well-functioning supervision. It also requires clarity about responsibilities and that supervisors are given time and recognition for the assignment.After finishing school, employment with reasonable employment conditions is a prerequisite for entering working life. Later in working life, adjustments may need to be made for a continued career. There is no one-size-fits-all solution for all seafarers throughout their working lives. Employers and the industry need to meet employees in their various phases during an entire working life, to make them grow.In many areas, shipping is a tightly regulated industry, including requirements for minimum manning and working hours. This requires a choice of path. To retain valuable competence, employers need to explore new avenues to increase the attractiveness of work that motivates people to stay in the organization and preferably give a little extra. Efforts to retain loyal employees with high competence should thus be seen as an investment, rather than a cost.

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  • 13.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Ogilla läget: Tips på hur du kan bidra till en god organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö utan kränkande särbehandling2021Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Att kränkande särbehandling i olika former förekommer på jobbet är tyvärr inget nytt och självklart gäller det även till sjöss. Trots detta blev #metoo en ögonöppnare för många när det stod klart hur omfattande problemen med kränkande särbehandling är ombord och vilka grova fall som förekommer. Den som blir utsatt mår ofta fysiskt och psykiskt dåligt och kan utveckla långvariga hälsoproblem. Samtidigt kan den sociala isoleringen ombord göra det extra svårt för den utsatta att få stöd från familj och vänner när det inträffar.

    Även om symptomen av kränkande särbehandling främst syns hos den enskilde individen är det viktigt att komma ihåg att det förebyggande arbetet måste omfatta den organisatoriska och sociala arbetsmiljön. Brister och otydligheter i organisationen, oklarheter om vem som förväntas göra vad, chefer utan tillräckliga kunskaper och förutsättningar, hög arbetsbelastning och ett arbetsklimat som tillåter en rå jargong är några väl kända faktorer som behöver adresseras.

    Så hur ska en göra rent praktiskt då? Vi menar att vi behöver bli bättre på att ogilla läget. Ett system behöver ifrågasättas för att kunna fungera och utvecklas. Det innebär att vi behöver bli bättre på att utmana befintliga strukturer och invanda arbetssätt och lära oss att ställa nya frågor. Både medarbetare och chefer behöver bli bättre på att ogilla läget i situationer när kränkande särbehandling inträffar. Medarbetare kan ogilla läget genom att inte tyst se på om något inträffar, utan i stället säga ifrån och erbjuda stöd – vi kallar det båtkurage. Chefer visar vägen för vad som är acceptabelt och behöver bli bättre på att undersöka arbetsmiljön, fånga upp och agera på signaler om att allt inte står rätt till.

    Här berättar vi vad du kan göra för att bidra till en god organisatorisk och social arbetsmiljö utan kränkande särbehandling. Tipsen är baserade på ett forskningsprojekt som genomfördes vid Sjöfartshögskolan, Linnéuniversitetet under 2019–2021. Projektet finansierades av AFA Försäkring. Dessa exempel har fångats upp genom en systematisk forskningsöversikt och i dialog med många personer med olika bakgrund och erfarenhet. Samtliga resultat och en mer detaljerad metodbeskrivning finns i slutrapporten Praktiskt arbetsmiljöarbete för en jämställd sjöfart, av Cecilia Österman och Magnus Boström vid Linnéuniversitetet.

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    Ogilla läget
  • 14.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Praktiskt arbetsmiljöarbete för en jämställd sjöfart2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The maritime industry is regulated, financed, operated, and provided with manpower supply on a global level. This creates challenges when implementing harmonized regulations for the work environment. The seafaring profession is strongly maledominated. This can cause problems in the organizational and social work environment, leading to workplace bullying and harassment.

    The purpose of this project has been to identify, evaluate and compile existing strategies and methods to reduce the risk of workplace bullying and harassment and strengthen the work for a good organizational and social work environment in an equal maritime industry. This has been done through a systematic literature review, workshops, and interviews with stakeholders in the Swedish maritime industry.

    The literature review clearly demonstrates that workplace bullying and harassment is a significant problem that needs to be addressed. More than 50 percent of women seafarers report that they have been victimized. The perpetrators are mostly found among the victims' managers and supervisors.

    Employees must be ensured of the social support of managers and colleagues, and problems in the work environment must be dealt with quickly and correctly. Creating crew courage, where bystanders interfere in a situation and stand up for the victim, is central. Managers need routines, mandate, but also resources to be able to act forcefully. The entire industry needs to take the leap from policy to practice in creating a diverse and inclusive maritime industry. The image of a seafarer and of required skills need to be revisited and revised, to reach a wider recruitment base. An increased proportion of seafarers from minority groups is likely to challenge and change prevailing gendered norms.

    The results from this project demonstrate that workplace bullying and harassment on board must not be ignored; this would probably exacerbate the scale of the problem. Instead, a broad and united front is required to create a modern and sustainable shipping where decisions about the work environment are based on knowledge.

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    Praktiskt arbetsmiljöarbete för en jämställd sjöfart
  • 15.
    Österman, Cecilia
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Boström, Magnus
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Workplace bullying and harassment at sea: A structured literature review2022In: Marine Policy, ISSN 0308-597X, E-ISSN 1872-9460, Vol. 136, article id 104910Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Seafaring is a masculine-coded occupation with a strong professional culture that values practical experience. Traditionally, youths were accepted on board ships to be guided, socialised, and often bullied into the working and living cultures at sea. The maritime industry is characterised by several factors known from research to constitute a hotbed for workplace bullying and harassment, such as sustained high workload, role conflicts, jargon, and precarious work. Women and minority groups are especially exposed to bulling and harassment in these kind of working environments. At policy level, these issues are addressed by the International Safety Management Code and the Maritime Labour Convention, which require employers to identify and prevent occupational safety and health risks. This study analyses the extent and scope of the peer reviewed literature on workplace bulling and harassment at sea, and what recommendations have been proposed in previous research. The results show that workplace bullying and harassment is a substantial problem in the maritime industry. While research in this field is growing, there is a general need for future research based on strong research designs. Given the complete lack of scientific intervention studies, this should be prioritised in future research. Further, there is a need to address underlying causes of workplace bullying and harassment and ensure decent employment and working conditions at sea. Managers ashore as well as officers on board must be provided with adequate resources, usable tools, and sufficient time for a proactive work. This work should be included as part of the safety management system.

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