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  • 1.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Cykling – en integrerad del i ett framtida transportsystem som bidrar till en hållbar samhällsutveckling: resultat från enkätstudie och workshop2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport redogörs för resultat från en genomförbarhetsstudie, innefattande dels en enkätstudie, dels en workshop. Syftet har varit att identifiera vilka frågor som i ett svenskt utvecklingsarbete behöver prioriteras, integreras och samordnas av olika aktörer ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv, för att skapa underlag och förslag på strategiskt initiativ kring det utvecklingsarbete som Trafikverket och Cykelcentrum gemensamt koordinerar. 

    Enkäten riktade sig till olika svenska aktörer, i form av experter som representerar olika nyckelområden rörande främjande av cykling, så som forskare, planerare på kommunal och regional nivå, statliga myndigheter samt intressenter från bland annat Svenska Turistföreningen, Nationella cykelrådet, Cykelfrämjandet, Svenska Cykelstäder och Svensk Cykling. Analysen baseras dels på de fasta svarsalternativen, dels på de öppna kommentarerna som följde frågorna. 

    Resultaten visar på en rad olika aspekter där arbetet med att främja cykling kan och bör förbättras och utvecklas mot det gemensamma målet för en hållbar samhällsutveckling. Övergripande visar resultaten på en diskrepans mellan mål och utförande. Det kan till exempel handla om upplevda brister för samordning och samverkan på och mellan olika nivåer (nationell, regional och lokal), finansiering och kunskap. Respondenter uttrycker också att bilen fortfarande är norm, vilket försvårar arbetet med främjandet av cykling. För främjande av cykling behöver förändringar ske med ökad prioritering av cykel genom exempelvis förändringar i regler/föreskrifter och i infrastrukturen. För detta krävs dock, enligt respondenterna, ökad finansiering samt förbättringar avseende statistik och mätmetoder. En ytterligare relaterad faktor är bättre samordning och samverkan mellan olika aktörer, på nationell, regional och kommunal nivå. 

    Fem områden har identifierats som särskilt viktiga för fortsatt forskning: 

    • nationell samordning och den nationella cykelstrategin 

    • data, samhällsekonomiska analyser och mätmetoder 

    • arbete och ansvar för barn och ungas cykling till och från skolan 

    • kombinerat resande mellan cykel och kollektivtrafik 

    • cykling och innovation.

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  • 2.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    A crack in the Swedish welfare façade?: A review of assessing social impacts in transport infrastructure planning2018In: Progress in Planning, ISSN 0305-9006, E-ISSN 1873-4510, Vol. 138, article id 100428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of social impact categorisation in strategic planning across European Union Member States shows that Sweden neither categorises nor breaks down categories of social impact in areas such as transport infrastructure development. This article accordingly studies how social issues are handled during transport infrastructure planning. An analysis of different source materials will answer four research questions:

    1. To what extent are social impacts integrated into environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports?
    2. Are social impacts sufficiently integrated and/or does this treatment simply amount to ‘good practice’?
    3. Can any trend be detected over time in terms of addressing social issues in impact assessments?
    4. What key measures could increase the influence of social impact issues on transport infrastructure planning practice?

    The study involved a content analysis of six EIA handbooks and EIA statements (EISs) for 18 large transport infrastructure projects. The concepts searched for in these documents largely apply to issues of vulnerability, health, social problems, perceived safety, and alienation. Our data were interpreted through the theoretical lens of institutional interplay. We found that though social aspects are not new considerations in EIA research, they are included in only a small proportion of the 18 Swedish EISs, mostly in connection with health and accessibility. We also found that the more recent documents allotted less space to social issues. It is unlikely that most individuals in the organisations that order EISs, or the consultancies that write them, are unaware of the broader interpretation of ‘human beings’ which includes social aspects.

    The conclusion is that in the absence of a government initiative to clarify how social impacts can be addressed in transport infrastructure planning, there is a need for an external network for organisations involved in transport infrastructure EISs.

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  • 3.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Äldres vardagliga resor: val av färdmedel och erfarenheter av kollektivtrafik2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study is to gain a deeper understanding of how older women and men are using public transport, but also enhance the understanding of whether they are using other means of transport and what is the basis for their choice. The study’s interest is in variations among older people’s narratives. To grasp the heterogeneity "among older people" the subjects involved were recruited from both urban and rural areas. They have different backgrounds, age and gender. The majority of them are ethnic Swedes, however, the study also included people with different ethnic background. The study includes 30 qualitative interviews with older people from two regions: Östergötland and Jönköping, 18 women and 12 men.

    The respondents often transported themselves by walking, sometimes even by bicycle; actually many chose walking or bicycling before bus or car. They stressed the importance of coming out and meeting other people, and moving around in different environments. They even referred to the importance of health reasons.

    Elements of restrictions appear in some of their stories which are not always by their own choice and must therefore be considered in future planning so that these individuals are not left out of the contexts they need and want to participate in. Examples of restrictions might be long distance to the bus stop, stairs, travel centers and other interchanges at different levels/floors, timetables that are not synchronized or buses at times that do not fit older people’s daily activity patterns. Except from deficiencies in public transport, it can also be about cycle paths or sidewalks that abruptly end at a difference in level, or stairs to the next available accessible area. When the whole chain of movements in the transport environment is not available, problems may occur. For the oldest respondents, it is particularly important that the 'whole journey' works. It is more common that the younger respondents travel by car and the interviewees also refer to car driving as an activity when one is reasonably young and healthy. But a lot of them are still driving at the age of 80-–90, some even after the 90th birthday, which indicate that it is not until you can no longer drive a car as you become more dependent on society's resources and of other people. The women in the present study describe the bus in more positive terms than men. Many of those who want to travel by bus believe that the bus is a good means of transport and describe it in certain ways: efficient, safe, environmentally friendly and economically efficient. More women than men in the study also describe that they are happy to choose other means of travel instead of the car in order to be able to relax, watch and meet other people, but also to have some time for themselves.

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  • 4.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings Universitet.
    "I want complete freedom": car use and everyday mobility among the newly retired2015In: European Transport Research Review, ISSN 1867-0717, E-ISSN 1866-8887, Vol. 7, no 4, article id 31Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose was to investigate car use among newly retired people, to explore to what extent car transport is used for everyday mobility and how it is valued in comparison to other transport modes.

    The data consists of travel diaries and qualitative interviews with 24 individuals, aged between 61 and 67, living in a middle-sized Swedish city. The informants filled in a travel diary during 1 week that were analysed by VISUAL-TimePAcTS, an application for visualising and exploring activity diary data. The semi-structured qualitative interviews were analysed using a qualitative content analysis.

    The car was used for several trips daily and often for short trips. The informants had a lot of everyday projects that they would not be able to perform if they did not have access to a car. The informant’s social context implies new space-time constraints. Commitments to family members, engagement in associations and spouses’ occupations affect how much and when they use the car, and their overall mobility.

    In contrast to much research on older people’s mobility that has studied slightly older people, this study have focused on a specific group that are relatively healthy, well-off, and have the possibility to choose between different modes of transport. By combining travel diaries and qualitative interviews, we have explored how newly retired people reason as regard their travel behaviour but also how they actually travel.

  • 5.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Mobility in the transition to retirement: the intertwining of transportation and everyday projects2014In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, no 38, p. 48-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Through travel diaries and interviews with newly retired urban residents in Sweden our aim was to explore (1) mobility patterns in the transition to retirement, (2) the influence of space-time restrictions and resources on mobility and (3) the meaning and embodied experience of mobility. This time-geographic study contributes with knowledge on how mobility is influenced by individual, social and geographical contexts. Illustrated by four cases, our result show that retirement changes the preconditions for mobility and creates new space-time restrictions. To spend more time on projects that were previously carried out outside working time, such as caring for grandchildren, volunteer work and household responsibilities, influenced the informants' demands for mobility and choice of transport mode. However, the informants have resources that can be seen as strategies to overcome space-time restrictions. Most of the informants found it important to structure the day, to some it was vital to have something to do during the day while others enjoyed the possibility to take each day as it comes. Everyday mobility was a way of forming a structure by getting out of the house, either just for a walk or for making errands. The informants' embodied experiences of mobility influenced their choice to walk and cycle for transport for the reasons of comfort, get fresh air, or simply to get out of the house. The daily mobility pattern that was established was a result of individual preferences and resources as well as negotiations with family members. We conclude that the transition to retirement is a period when new mobility patterns are considered, evaluated and practiced.

  • 6.
    Berg, Jessica
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Abramsson, Marianne
    Linköpings universitet.
    Hagberg, Jan-Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Time to spare: Everyday activities among newly retired people in a middle-sized city2016Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Retirement has recently been studied as a complex process that affects people’s lives in many different ways (Teuscher 2010; Grenier 2011; Halleröd, Örestig and Stattin 2013). Retirement implies changes in time-space use, interruption in routines and changed social patterns. Leisure activities, shopping, errands and rest are no longer determined by the working life rhythm. New time-space constraints might at the same time occur that limit the individual’s actions, such as reduced income, new or increased commitments towards children and grandchildren, involvement in associations or part-time work (Kleiber and Nimrod, 2009; Szinovacz et al., 2001; Van den Bogaard et al., 2013).

    A vast amount of research from different fields has focused on the implications of retirement for wellbeing (Bender 2012; Wang 2007), adjustment (Van Solinge and Henkens 2008), identity (Teucher 2010), volunteering (Van den Bogaard et.al., 2013) and physical activity (Lahti et al. 2011). So far, only a few studies have investigated everyday activities and timespace use among older people in general and the post-World War II generation in particular (Chatzitheochari and Arber 2011; Gauthier and Smeeding 2003). In many studies of  time-space use, the aim has been to illuminate the juggling of everyday activities that occurs and to deal with the balance between work, leisure and family (Schwanen and de Jong 2008; Kwan 2000; Scholten, Friberg and Sanden 2012). Naturally, retired people have not been included in those studies, although many older people play an important role in the lives of families with small children (Schwanen 2008) and seek supporting and leading roles as citizens (cf. Gagliardi, et al. 2007; Leinonen 2011; Liechty, Yarnal and Kerstetter 2012; McCormack et al. 2008; Nimrod and Adoni 2006; Sperazza and Banerjee 2010). Little is known about the expectations this generation has on retirement and its demands for activities. The aim of this study is therefore to explore newly retired peoples everyday activities. What activities do they take part in and where are these activities carried out? In what respect, and for what reasons, do activities change or stay the same upon retirement?

    The remaining of this paper begins with a discussion of the implications of retirement on everyday activities in accordance to previous research. The time-geographical perspective and concepts used here for studying activities is then presented. That is followed by a description of methods, data and analysis, before the empirical analysis of travel diaries and qualitative interviews is given. The paper ends with a discussion of the results in relation to previous research.

  • 7.
    Book, Karin
    et al.
    Malmö Högskola, Sverige.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Svensson, Åse
    Lunds universitet, Sverige.
    Kollektivtrafikens roll i resenärens vardagsliv: Litteraturöversikt2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The overview takes off with a chapter on studies of travellers’ behaviour, preferences and attitudes. It describes e.g. studies of stated preferences, quality of public transport and well-being of passengers, based on the travellers’ statements and behaviour. Next comes a chapter that describes studies of the complexity of travel and everyday life, which include travel and time, as well as activities associated with public transport and what travellers do when they travel by public transport. Furthermore, one chapter describes studies on accessibility. Partly it is about physical accessibility, with focus on the accessibility to vehicles, railway stations and bus stop locations; partly it is about social aspects of accessibility and travellers’ experiences of their availability to public transport. 

    The literature review also contains a chapter on studies about different passenger groups, which is a vast area where several different categories of travellers can be discerned; such as age (children, young people, older people), sex (gender), travellers with disabilities, commuters and commuting, school trips, leisure trips, etcetera. Furthermore, the literature review has a chapter on studies of safety and security in public transport and its surroundings as well as a chapter on methods and models that are used in planning. 

    In the final chapter, knowledge identified in the overview is discussed in relation to what is needed in the future. Studies of the whole journey (“hela resan”) is seen as a development area and also considered as complementary to the previous knowledge base. Likewise, there is a need for public transport planning to increase knowledge of travellers’ everyday life and to meet the citizens’ needs for everyday mobility (i.e. both users and non-users of public transport). The development of complementary methods and models for forecasting in the planning is also an area for further R&D, as well planning for sustainable travel.

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  • 8.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Literature. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Showing where you're going: Instructing the accountable use of the indicator in live traffic2018In: International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0802-6106, E-ISSN 1473-4192, Vol. 28, p. 248-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes an interest in how students at a driving school areinstructed how to make the car's behaviour intelligible (accountable)to other road users in traffic. Taking the indicator as an example,the analytic focus is on the ways in which the indicator'srelevance is instructed and its timely activation practiced, andhow activating the indicator is instructed as part of moreencompassing turning procedures. The indicator is one of the centralresources built into cars for displaying to others a driver'sintention about where to go next. Although indicating does not,in itself, affect the movement of the car, activating the indicatoris crucial for allowing others to anticipate a car's movement inspace, and coordinate themselves with it. The analysis showshow instructors manage trainee drivers' instructed actions duringdriving by providing descriptions of what using the indicatoraccomplishes before a directive to turn (a), after a directive to turn(b), and as accounts for initiating correction of trainee driver carcontrol activity (c).

  • 9.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Showing where you're going. Instructing the accountable use of the indicator in live traffic2018In: International Journal of Applied Linguistics, ISSN 0802-6106, E-ISSN 1473-4192, Vol. 28, no 2, p. 248-264Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article takes an interest in how students at a driving school are instructed how to make the car's behaviour intelligible (accountable) to other road users in traffic. Taking the indicator as an example, the analytic focus is on the ways in which the indicator's relevance is instructed and its timely activation practiced, and how activating the indicator is instructed as part of more encompassing turning procedures. The indicator is one of the central resources built into cars for displaying to others a driver's intention about where to go next. Although indicating does not, in itself, affect the movement of the car, activating the indicator is crucial for allowing others to anticipate a car's movement in space, and coordinate themselves with it. The analysis shows how instructors manage trainee drivers' instructed actions during driving by providing descriptions of what using the indicator accomplishes before a directive to turn (a), after a directive to turn (b), and as accounts for initiating correction of trainee driver car control activity (c).

  • 10.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Communication, Language and Culture. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Levin, Lena
    Starting out as a driver: Progression in instructed pedal work2017In: Memory practices and learning: Interactional, institutional and sociocultural perspectives / [ed] Åsa Mäkitalo, Per Linell & Roger Säljö, Charlotte, N.C.: Information Age Publishing, 2017, p. 115-152Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 11.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping Universitet.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    Linköping Universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Telling the Other's side. Formulating others' mental states in driver training2018In: Language & Communication, ISSN 0271-5309, E-ISSN 1873-3395Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article examines ascriptions of mental states to other road users in live traffic driver training. Through this practice, instructors formulate how others make sense of the trainee driver's car. Using multimodal conversation analysis, we demonstrate how others' side formulations support trainee drivers' communicative handling of the car during ongoing coordination events. In contrast, formulations occurring after coordination events serve educational ends, yielding the generic inferential practices by which competent drivers make contextual sense of others' actions. Therefore, others' side formulations comprise an important instructional resource for introducing neophyte drivers into the real-world theorizing, rendering traffic its orderly social character.

  • 12.
    Broth, Mathias
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Jakob, Cromdal
    Linköping University.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Starting out as a driver: Progression in instructed pedal work2017In: Memory practices and learning: Interactional, institutional and sociocultural perspectives / [ed] Mäkitalo, Åsa; Linell, Per; Säljö, Roger, IPA Publisher , 2017, p. 113-142Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 13.
    Christensen, Hilda Rømer
    et al.
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Breengaard, Michala Hvidt
    Danish School of Education, Denmark.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gender Smart Mobility: Concepts, Methods, and Practices2023 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This book presents gender and diversity in smart transport as a cutting-edge issue in urban contexts around the globe.

    It addresses new challenges and possibilities related to the smart transport sector. It demonstrates how gender and diversity are entangled in concepts and various forms of current smart mobility practices in policy, planning, and innovation. Gender Smart Mobility is presented as a game changer for future transport planning and mobility practices and how smart mobility technologies and practices might be created as a common good for all. The readers are presented with fresh approaches ranging from intersectional and visual analysis of smart mobility, gender scripts and language, to gendered innovation of design and planning. Moreover, the readers will encounter engaging boxed features which present historical, cross-cultural, and methodological examples and pose questions for critical thinking.

    This book meets a need for a systematic, accessible, and practical introduction and is of interest to city planners, transport providers, and politicians as well as the general public. It will also be a valuable reference for graduate and postgraduate students at technical universities, schools of architecture and planning, and for students and faculties in the social sciences, humanities, and IT and design studies.

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  • 14.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Broth, Mathias
    Linköping University, Department of Culture and Society, Division of Language, Culture and Interaction. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Björklund, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Division of Learning, Aesthetics, Natural Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Sensational driving: instructing and calibrating sensory perception in early driver training2020In: Discursive psychology and embodiment: beyond subject-object binaries / [ed] Sally Wiggins, Karin Osvaldsson Cromdal, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, p. 169-196Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although psychological states have been widely examined as social objects indiscursive psychology (DP), little is known about the interactional organisationof perception. This chapter is about joint sensorial activities in driver training.Specifically, we explore how neophyte drivers are being trained in identifyingand analysing kinetic information—including the car’s vibration, movementand direction—when performing routine car control operations. Throughmultimodal conversation analysis of four video-recorded examples, wedemonstrate how driving instructors gesturally enact sensations to invite theirstudents to “feel” the car’s kinetic status, how they jointly produce coordinatedsensory activities and how the sensoriality of the event is intersubjectivelyestablished through “feel enquiries”. Treating sensory perception asembedded—and embodied—in practical social activity, highlights the benefitsof including corporeality in future DP enquiry.

  • 15.
    Cromdal, Jakob
    et al.
    Linköping University.
    Broth, Mathias
    Linköping University.
    Björklund-Flärd, Daniel
    Linköping University.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sensational Driving: Instructing and Calibrating Sensory Perception in Early Driver Training2020In: Discursive Psychology and Embodiment: Beyond Subject-Object Binaries / [ed] Editors: Wiggins, Sally, Osvaldsson Cromdal, Karin, Palgrave Macmillan, 2020, 1, p. 169-196Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Dahl, Emmy
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings universitet.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Linköpings universitet.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Konstruktioner av maskulinitet i samtal om kollektivtrafik2012In: Norma, ISSN 1890-2138, E-ISSN 1890-2146, Vol. 7, no 2, p. 160-181Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article highlights how environmental issues influence transport planning, and how they make transport planners rethink previous categorizations of user groups. The introduction of an environmental discourse leads to a questioning of men’s travel activities, i.e. car driving. However, the critique against men’s travelling does not address all men. Instead, two types of masculinities are constructed in the local planning discourse: the first one is a ‘problematic’ obsolete old driver. The second one is a young ‘quality conscious’ man who opts for new technological solutions. The relationship between these two constructions of masculinities is hierarchical.

    The transport planners interpret it as their responsibility to make sure that public transport is regarded as attractive to younger men and their imagined ‘needs’. The elderly men however, are made scapegoats and are blamed for their unsustainable travelling. These rather stereotypical constructions of men also include a negative perception of elderly men. The analysis is based on discussions in eight focus groups, accomplished in 2009 with 36 transport planners and politicians (24 men and 12 women) working with the planning of the future public transport system in Malmö city in the south of Sweden.

  • 17. Deppermann, Arnulf
    Mondada, Lorenza ()
    Broth, Mathias (Contributor)
    Cromdal, Jakob (Contributor)
    de Stefani, Elwys (Contributor)
    Haddington, Pentti (Contributor)
    Levin, Lena (Contributor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nevile, Maurice (Contributor)
    Rauniomaa, Mirka (Contributor)
    Overtaking as an interactional achievement: video analyses of participants' practices in traffic2018Report (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we pursue a systematic and extensive study of overtaking in traffic as an interactional event. Our focus is on the accountable organisation and accomplishment of overtaking by road users in real-world traffic situations. Data and analysis are drawn from multiple research groups studying driving from an ethnomethodological and conversation analytic perspective. Building on multimodal and sequential analyses of video recordings of overtaking events, the article describes the shared practices which overtakers and overtaken parties use in displaying, recognising and coordinating their manoeuvres. It examines the three sequential phases of an overtaking event: preparation and projection; the overtaking proper; the realignment post-phase including retrospective accounts and assessments. We identify how during each of these phases drivers and passengers organise intra-vehicle and inter-vehicle practices: driving and non-driving related talk between vehicleoccupants, the emerging spatiotemporal ecology of the road, and the driving actions of other road users. The data is derived from a two camera set-up recording the road ahead and car interior. The recordings are from three settings: daily commuting, driving lessons, race-car coaching. The events occur on a variety of road types (motorways, country roads, city streets, a race track, etc.), in six languages (English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, and Swedish) and in seven countries (Australia, Finland, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK). From an exceptionally diverse collection of video data, the study of which is made possible thanks to the innovative collaboration of multiple researchers, the article exhibits the range of practical challenges and communicative skills involved in overtaking.

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  • 18.
    Deppermann, Arnulf
    et al.
    Institut für Deutsche Sprache, Mannheim, Germany.
    Laurier, Eric
    Institute of Geography and the Lived Environment Drummond Street, School of GeoSciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh,United Kingdom.
    Mondada, Lorenza
    Universität Basel Romanisches Seminar, Basel, Switzerland.
    Cromdal, Jakob (Contributor)
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    De Stefani, Elwys (Contributor)
    KU Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.
    Haddington, Pentti (Contributor)
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Levin, Lena (Contributor)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI).
    Nevile, Maurice (Contributor)
    University of Oulu, Oulu, Finland.
    Rauniomaa, Mirka (Contributor)
    University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.
    Overtaking as an interactional achievement: Video analyses of participants' practices in traffic2018In: Gesprächsforschung, ISSN 1617-1837, Vol. 19, p. 1-131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we pursue a systematic and extensive study of overtaking in traffic as an interactional event. Our focus is on the accountable organisation and accom-plishment of overtaking by road users in real-world traffic situations. Data and anal-ysis are drawn from multiple research groups studying driving from an ethnometh-odological and conversation analytic perspective. Building on multimodal and se-quential analyses of video recordings of overtaking events, the article describes the shared practices which overtakers and overtaken parties use in displaying, recog-nising and coordinating their manoeuvres. It examines the three sequential phases of an overtaking event: preparation and projection; the overtaking proper; the re-alignment post-phase including retrospective accounts and assessments. We iden-tify how during each of these phases drivers and passengers organise intra-vehicle and inter-vehicle practices: driving and non-driving related talk between vehicle-occupants, the emerging spatiotemporal ecology of the road, and the driving actions of other road users. The data is derived from a two camera set-up recording the road ahead and car interior. The recordings are from three settings: daily commuting, driving lessons, race-car coaching. The events occur on a variety of road types (mo-torways, country roads, city streets, a race track, etc.), in six languages (English, Finnish, French, German, Italian, and Swedish) and in seven countries (Australia, Finland, France, Germany, Sweden, Switzerland, and the UK). From an exception-ally diverse collection of video data, the study of which is made possible thanks to the innovative collaboration of multiple researchers, the article exhibits the range of practical challenges and communicative skills involved in overtaking.

  • 19.
    Dukic, Tania
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Elderly transportation and society: design, mobility and education2009In: Proceedings of the 4th Japanese-Nordic Symposium of Traffic Psychology, 2009Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Niska, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Karlström, Jones
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Johannesson, Mikael
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Alm, Jens
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lindgren, Samuel
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics. Scania.
    Utredning av mål för ökad cykling i Sverige: ett regeringsuppdrag2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Today, there is no defined national target level regarding increase in bicycling in Sweden. VTI received a governmental assignment to define that. The assignment includes a definition of a target structure and suggestion of indicators as well as a system for monitoring. We have gathered information through literature studies, a workshop, a survey as well as through own analyses of data from national travel surveys. We have limited the definition of cycling to include pedal cycle with or without electric assistance. Simply speaking, the rate of bicycling should double by 2035 and, more specifically, we suggest the following targets: 

    • Overall objectives: Cycling in Sweden should increase to improve accessibility, strengthen public health, and decrease the climate and environmental impact. 

    • Intermediate target 1: The bicycle share of the total number of travellers in Sweden should increase to 20 percent by 2030 and to 26 percent by 2035, without reducing the share of pedestrians or public passenger transports. 

    • Intermediate target 2: The bicycle share of the total transport system work in Sweden should increase to 3 percent by 2035, without reducing pedestrians or public passenger transports. 

    • Milestone 1: The total share of bicycle travel in Sweden, shorter than 10 km, should increase to 30 percent by 2030 and to 45 percent by 2035, without reducing the share of pedestrians or public passenger transports. 

    • Milestone 2: The total share of bicycle travel for primary school children in Sweden should increase to 40 percent by 2030 and to 50 percent by 2035, without reducing the share of pedestrians.

     In addition, we have suggested seven indicators with associated measures linked to the targets suggested above. The national travel survey could be used to monitor the targets and the annual report by the National Council of Bicycling could preferably be used for monitoring the indicators.

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  • 21.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jämställdhet och genus i infrastrukturplanering: en studie av tillämpningen inom järnvägsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present the results of the research project Gender equality in railway planning. Furthermore, the report aims to contribute with a suggestion of how different transport authorities can systematically work with gender mainstreaming in infrastructure planning. The research

    project was conducted on behalf of the Swedish Rail Administration (Banverket) which changed into the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) after the reorganisation of the Swedish transport authorities. The project relies on established gender theory and social science research methodology. The research project was implemented through three sub-studies that were carried out successively: 1) knowledge-building study based on case studies of existing practice in railway construction in Svealandsbanan and Mälarbanan and a literature review; 2) development of a proposed method for implementation of gender equality in railway planning, 3) implementation study in Simrishamnsbanan

    and Sydostlänken. Finally, an evaluation of methods and analyses was carried out. Three main themes were identified as key areas for the Swedish Transportation Administration's work with gender mainstreaming in infrastructure planning:

    • To work with gender equality objectives
    • •Tools and methods aimed at leading the organization's work on the basis of specific goals
    • •Tools and models for impact assessment of gender equality.

    One conclusion of the research project is that although the Swedish Transportation Administration has initiated work with gender equality in transport planning, the authority needs to work more on developing both policy and planning. Transport planning should have the means to do social impact assessment, which is a methodology that the present research project suggests for the area of gender equality and other social aspects in transport planning and which is also perceived absent of officials, politicians and planners. This report proposes a method with different steps from procurement to implementation and evaluation (different parts corresponding to the transport authorities' internal and external gender equality).

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  • 22.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Mobilitet, aktörer och planering, MAP.
    Jämställdhet och genus i infrastrukturplanering: en studie av tillämpningen inom järnvägsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this report is to present the results of the research project Gender equality in railway planning. Furthermore, the report aims to contribute with a suggestion of how different transport authorities can systematically work with gender mainstreaming in infrastructure planning. The research

    project was conducted on behalf of the Swedish Rail Administration (Banverket) which changed into the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) after the reorganisation of the Swedish transport authorities. The project relies on established gender theory and social science research methodology. The research project was implemented through three sub-studies that were carried out successively: 1) knowledge-building study based on case studies of existing practice in railway construction in Svealandsbanan and Mälarbanan and a literature review; 2) development of a proposed method for implementation of gender equality in railway planning, 3) implementation study in Simrishamnsbanan

    and Sydostlänken. Finally, an evaluation of methods and analyses was carried out. Three main themes were identified as key areas for the Swedish Transportation Administration's work with gender mainstreaming in infrastructure planning:

    • To work with gender equality objectives
    • •Tools and methods aimed at leading the organization's work on the basis of specific goals
    • •Tools and models for impact assessment of gender equality.

    One conclusion of the research project is that although the Swedish Transportation Administration has initiated work with gender equality in transport planning, the authority needs to work more on developing both policy and planning. Transport planning should have the means to do social impact assessment, which is a methodology that the present research project suggests for the area of gender equality and other social aspects in transport planning and which is also perceived absent of officials, politicians and planners. This report proposes a method with different steps from procurement to implementation and evaluation (different parts corresponding to the transport authorities' internal and external gender equality).

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    FULLTEXT01
  • 23.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP, Sweden.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kön i trafiken: jämställdhet i kommunal transportplanering2013Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Jämställdhetsintegrering ska ofta ses som en strategi i det vardagliga arbetet inom kommuner, landsting och regioner. Samtidigt finns det en osäkerhet hos många projektledare och planerare om vad jämställdhet egentligen handlar om och vad som förväntas av dem. Denna skrift är en vägledning och inspiration till arbete med jämställdhet i transportplaneringen på lokal och regional nivå. Den har tagits fram för att ge en vägledning till hur man systematiskt kan arbeta med att integrera jämställdhet i planeringen. Skriften vänder sig framförallt till tjänstemän och politiker i kommuner och regioner som arbetar med transportplanering.

  • 24.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    et al.
    WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Engelbrektsson, Elina
    WSP.
    Dahl, Emmy
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nilsson, Susanna
    WSP.
    Yazar, Mine
    Södertörns högskola.
    Jämställdhet i samrådsprocesser vid svenska vägprojekt: genusperspektiv på annonsering, deltagande och mötesinteraktion vid samråd med allmänheten2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Research on gender equality and transportation has to a small amount studied participation of women and men in public hearings concerning large infrastructure projects. Previous measures show that men dominate the hearings and that the average age among the participants is high. Public participation is a process that starts in the beginning of the planning of a road project and should run through the whole planning process.  Among the basic principles of public participation it is argued that public participation should be inclusive and equitable. The aim with the public hearings is also to take care of various arguments and ideas about the new road. The public hearings are often carried out as large information meetings or open house meetings.

    The aim of the current research project is to investigate how the hearings in Swedish road planning are practiced, who are attending the meetings and how do they express themselves at the meetings. The research project studied participation of women and men on totally 16 meetings arranged by the Swedish Road Administration during 2007 and 2008. The aim is also to increase gender equality in the public participation process. The project contains three different studies:

    1. An explorative study which shows that 26 per cent of the participants were women. The women who attended the meetings were more active than the men; they asked more questions in proportion to the number of attending women. Both women and men said they were confident with the information at the meetings. Counting the spoken time (of questions and answers) in seconds shows that men who talked at the meetings did longer speech turns and argued a lot more for their opinions.
    2. A separate study was created to investigate the announcements to the meetings. The announcement study showed that most of the announcements were created from a template that was rather technically oriented.
    3. In an intervention study that finished the project, the researchers interacted and changed the form of the announcements to a more dialogically oriented approach. Thus a few more women attended the meetings (32 per cent). Also, more middle aged and older people attended the meetings in the intervention study.
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  • 25.
    Forward, Sonja
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    A Detailed Approach to Qualitative Research Methods2021In: International Encyclopedia of Transportation: Volume 7 - Transport Psychology, Transport Sustainability and Health / [ed] Roger Vickerman, Imperial College, United Kingdom, Oxford: Elsevier , 2021, p. 39-45Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Qualitative methods in research have become increasingly popular since it can generate data which would be difficult, or sometimes impossible, using quantitative methods. In qualitative studies, the focus is very much on how somebody creates their own meaning of events, rather than applying a ready-made structure. The aim is not to generate results which can be analyzed statistically and then generalized to other contexts but to collect in-depth nonnumerical data from a smaller sample. To achieve this numerous skills are required including, having an open mind and being able to improvise on the spot. This article starts with a presentation of qualitative and quantitative methods, differences and similarities, and challenging the preconceived idea that one is subjective and the other objective. Following which the focus is on in-depth interviews explaining how it should be prepared and also how to design a protocol. Sample size is discussed and what to consider when recruiting participants. The interview itself is covered at some length including some important points which need to be considered. The ending of an interview is also crucial and therefore some thoughts about this are compiled. The article concludes with a short description of how to conduct focus group interviews.

  • 26.
    Hallin, Jon
    et al.
    Tyréns.
    Faith-Ell, Charlotta
    KTH/WSP.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. K2 - The Swedish Knowledge Centre for Public Transport.
    Transportplanering i förändring: En handbok om jämställdhetskonsekvensbedömning i transportplaneringen2016 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Efterfrågan på att belysa sociala konsekvenser i samband med trans­portplaneringen växer allt mer i Sverige (Trafikverket, 2014). Ett exempel är tunnelbaneutbyggnaden i Stockholm där sociala konsekvensbeskriv­ningar varit en del av processen vid sidan av järnvägsplan och miljökon­sekvensbeskrivning (MKB). Två andra exempel är miljöbedömningarna för Stockholm stads nya översiktsplan och för Regional Utvecklingsplan för Stockholmsregionen (RUFS) som görs i form av hållbarhetsbedöm­ningar där utgångspunkten är social hållbarhet. Göteborgs stad har också arbetat fram ett verktyg för social konsekvensanalys som används i många av kommunens stadsutvecklingsprojekt.

    Den sociala miljön består av många aspekter, exempelvis jämlikhet, och det är en relevant fråga varför handboken fokuserar på en delaspekt av jämlikhet, det vill säga mellan kvinnor och män, och inte tar ett hel­hetsgrepp. Svaret är inte att jämlikheten mellan män och kvinnor är vik­tigare än den mellan andra grupper. Anledningen är att det redan finns etablerade verktyg för exempelvis barnkonsekvensanalyser. Tillgänglig­hetskrav för personer med funktionsnedsättning och äldre är också väl etablerade. Däremot saknas ett etablerat verktyg för att analysera hur en förändring påverkar kvinnor och män. Vår uppfattning är också att me­toden för social konsekvensbeskrivning är en processorienterad paraply­metod, likt MKB, under vilken det ingår flera aspekter som vart och ett är att betrakta som ett expertområde med specifika analysmetoder. Jäm­ställdhet är ett sådant expertområde och JKB är den analysmetod som i dagsläget saknas i transportplaneringen.

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  • 27.
    Hansson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Malmö University, Sweden.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Lopez Svensson, Gustav
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Månsson Lexell, Eva
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Stjernborg, Vanessa
    Lund University, Sweden.
    En kollektivtrafik för alla: En nulägesbeskrivning av forskning och utvecklingsprojekt inom funktionshinderområdet2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten syftar till att ge en översikt över arbetsområdet tillgänglighet i kollektivtrafiken och inkluderar exempel både från forskning och mer praktiskt arbete. Rapporten ska inte ses som en heltäckande översikt, utan ämnar snarare ge en överblick och nulägesbild över området. I rapporten presenteras en genomgång av vissa mål och regelverk som är relevanta utifrån tillgänglighet ur nationellt och europeiskt perspektiv. Därefter ges en nationell utblick som berör frågor om ansvar, information, och myndigheter som på olika sätt arbetar med frågor relaterade till tillgänglighet i kollektivtrafiken. En genomgång av forskning inom området görs ur ett mer övergripande perspektiv (en mer detaljerad genomgång kommer att publiceras i artikelformat framöver) och därefter med några exempel på forskningsrapporter som publicerats nationellt. Översikten ger även exempel på europeiska forskningsprojekt som på olika sätt berör frågor om tillgänglighet i kollektivtrafiken samt på andra pågående EU-initiativ inom området.

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  • 28.
    Hansson, Kristofer
    et al.
    Institutionen för socialt arbete, Fakulteten för hälsa och samhälle, Malmö universitet, Sverige; K2 – Sveriges nationella centrum för forskning och utbildning om kollektivtrafik, Lund, Sverige.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. K2 – Sveriges nationella centrum för forskning och utbildning om kollektivtrafik, Lund, Sverige.
    Lopez Svensson, Gustav
    Institutionen för teknik och samhälle, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lunds universitet, Sverige; K2 – Sveriges nationella centrum för forskning och utbildning om kollektivtrafik, Lund, Sverige.
    Månsson Lexell, Eva
    Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper, Medicinska fakulteten, Lunds universitet, Sverige; K2 – Sveriges nationella centrum för forskning och utbildning om kollektivtrafik, Lund, Sverige.
    Stjernborg, Vanessa
    Trafik och väg, Transportplanering och mobilitet, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Lunds universitet, Sverige; K2 – Sveriges nationella centrum för forskning och utbildning om kollektivtrafik, Lund, Sverige.
    Kollektivtrafik för alla!: En kunskapsöversikt inom funktionshinderområdet2024In: Sammanställning av postrar från Transportforum 2024 / [ed] Fredrik Hellman; Mattias Haraldsson, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut , 2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hur säkerställer vi att ingen blir lämnad bakom (Leave No One Behind, LNOB)? En av de mest centrala frågorna inom ramen för de globala målen.  

    Klimatarbetet handlar främst om att få fler att resa mer klimatanpassat och resurseffektivt. Här är kollektivtrafiken en viktig aktör. Lösningar fokuseras i stor utsträckning mot en snabb och effektiv kollektivtrafik, med genomgående inslag av digitalisering och andra tekniska lösningar (autonoma fordon, digitala biljettsystem, digitala lösningar) som ersätter personal både ombord på fordon och i kundtjänst mm. Detta skapar en oro bland olika grupper!  

    Trots brett arbete gällande tillgänglighet för alla i kollektivtrafiken, kvarstår många utmaningar, både ur ett internationellt och ett nationellt perspektiv. Detta framträder inte minst via de EU-finansierade projekt som hanterar frågor om digitalisering, samskapande och deltagande metoder om en tillgänglig kollektivtrafik för alla.  

  • 29.
    Henriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nuruzzaman, Robin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gadap: nytt metodverktyg för jämställdhet och jämlikhet i transportplaneringen2021In: På väg mot hållbar omställning?: Kunskap, makt och mening i nationell transportplanering, Boxholm: Linnefors förlag , 2021, 1, p. 84-94Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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  • 30.
    Henriksson, Per
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Willstrand, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Challenging situations, self-reported driving habits and capacity among older drivers (70+) in Sweden: a questionnaire study2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the survey study in Sweden was to investigate health issues, driving habits and use of a car. The researchers were also interested in which traffic situations were judged as difficult or dangerous, avoidance strategies adopted for such situations, type of car used, equipment (ADAS systems) and its frequency of use. Respondents were asked to report any accidents in the previous two years, and to self-estimate their cognitive functioning and driving ability. Target population: Persons born in 1941 or earlier (aged 70 years or more in the year 2011), living in the county of Västra Götaland in Sweden, holder of a driving licence for category B, passenger car and still driving. This resulted in a target group comprising 1,362 active drivers. The overall picture of an older driver emerging from this study is one who enjoys car driving, uses the car often and is not particularly occupied by thoughts about stopping driving. Possible bias in this picture of older drivers may be due to the fact that those most interested in car driving were also those most interested in the study and thus in answering the questionnaire. There are several “truths” about older drivers reported in the literature that are questionable in the light of the present study. It is sometimes said that older people drive old cars, but this phenomenon is not supported by the questionnaire data in our study. The changes in driving behaviour often attributed to ageing drivers, e.g. driving more slowly, less frequently and over shorter distances, are applicable in the case of about one-third of the drivers in the present study. Analyses of this study confirm that health status is not the only reason someone stops driving; being less confident/apprehensive in the context of car driving may result in driving cessation. Findings indicate that preventive action, such as retraining sessions or developing driver assistance systems, will have to be taken into account if the risk associated with certain situations is to be reduced.

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  • 31.
    Hjorthol, Randi
    et al.
    TØI, Oslo.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Siren, Anu
    DTU, Copenhagen.
    Mobility in different generations of older persons: The development of daily travel in different cohorts in Denmark, Norway and Sweden2010In: Journal of Transport Geography, ISSN 0966-6923, E-ISSN 1873-1236, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 624-633Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the Scandinavian countries Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the proportion of older people in the total population is expected to reach about 25% in 2060. The ageing of the population has a variety of social implications. One aspect of population ageing that has relatively little attention in the Scandinavian countries is the question of everyday mobility. The purpose of this paper is to get a better understanding of the activity and travel patterns of different groups of older people, examine how travel- and activity patterns are developing during the life course, study the changes over time and how the "new" generations of older people behave compared to the older ones. The method used is cohort analysis of National Travel Surveys from the three countries in a 20 years perspective. Results show a significant period effect in car ownership and use among older people in Denmark. Norway and Sweden with a clear increase during the past 20 years. This is especially true for women. The increase in the number of driver's licence-holders and car availability is reflected in travel mode choice among older people: both men and women maintain their car-use habits at old age. Another clear finding is that older people today travel more than the comparable age groups 20-25 years ago: everyday trip rates are higher and activities outside home are more common. While commuting and work-related trips decline after retirement, shopping and leisure trips do not start to decline before high age. From the cohort analysis we see that leisure and shopping trips are maintained in the period after retirement, and the car is important to reach shopping malls, health service, leisure activities, visit relatives and other social company.

  • 32.
    Hjorthol, Randi
    et al.
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Nordbakke, Susanne
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Vågane, Liva
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, Oslo.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Siren, Anu
    Danmarks Tekniske Universitet, Institut for Transport.
    Ulleberg, Pål
    Universitetet i Oslo, Psykologisk institutt (PSI).
    Eldres mobilitet og velferd: utvikling, reisebehov og tiltak2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of older people state that access to transport is essential to their welfare and quality of life. Nevertheless many older people in Norway today are facing an unsatisfactory transport supply. Not all of them want to or are able to use a car, and many live in areas with low public transport quality. The knowledge of the Special Transport Service is low, and only one third of those who use it state that their transport need is met. With an increasing share of older people it is important to develop a transport policy adjusted to this change. It will mean greater independence for older people and help them to stay longer in their homes, contributing to improved welfare and quality of life.

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  • 33.
    Hjorthol, Randi
    et al.
    TØI, Oslo.
    Nordbakke, Susanne
    TØI, Oslo.
    Vågane, Liva
    TØI, Oslo.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute.
    Siren, Anu
    DTU, Copenhagen.
    Ulleberg, Pål
    University of Oslo.
    Eldres mobilitet og velferd: utvikling, reisebehov og tiltak2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A majority of older people state that access to transport is essential to their welfare and quality of life. Nevertheless many older people in Norway today are facing an unsatisfactory transport supply. Not all of them want to or are able to use a car, and many live in areas with low public transport quality. The knowledge of the Special Transport Service is low, and only one third of those who use it state that their transport need is met. With an increasing share of older people it is important to develop a transport policy adjusted to this change. It will mean greater independence for older people and help them to stay longer in their homes, contributing to improved welfare and qualityof life.

  • 34.
    Hrelja, Robert
    et al.
    Institutionen för urbana studier, Fakulteten för kultur och samhälle, Malmö universitet, Sverige; K2 – Sveriges nationella centrum för forskning och utbildning om kollektivtrafik, Lund, Sverige.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. K2 – Sveriges nationella centrum för forskning och utbildning om kollektivtrafik, Lund, Sverige.
    Camporeale, Rosalia
    Trafik och väg, Transportplanering och mobilitet, Institutionen för teknik och samhälle, Lunds Tekniska Högskola, Sverige; K2 – Sveriges nationella centrum för forskning och utbildning om kollektivtrafik, Lund, Sverige.
    New ways of dealing with social consequences and needs in public transport planning?: A review of methods and research gaps2024In: Sammanställning av referat från Transportforum 2024 / [ed] Fredrik Hellman; Mattias Haraldsson, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut , 2024, p. 152-153Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The planning of public transport systems has for a long time prioritised the so-called high demand- routes (routes that have the most passengers). This may have negative consequences for certain groups of users and their accessibility. The public transport industry sees, due to the traditional prioritisation of high demand-routes, a need for knowledge of, and greater consideration for, social aspects and the needs of different user groups. This presentation presents a review of the rich international research literature on public transport accessibility, covering methods to be used to be used when deciding if and when a greater emphasis should be given to meeting the mobility needs of disadvantaged passenger groups or providing geographical equity and how toconsider mitigation in situations with negative social impacts. It also identifies research gaps related to the above topic based on practical experiences of public transport planning in Swedish Public transport authorities.

    The literature searches were carried out in databases such as Scopus. A qualitative synthesis of the literature is presented. The results are discussed and compared with experience of actual knowledge needs in planning based on interviews with officers. 

    There are methods for estimating accessibility, and methods for determining the extent to which improved accessibility actually leads to groups taking part in more activities or not. For example, the literature often provides methods for assessing accessibility in time and space by analyzing accessibility in terms of reachability to jobs or services by public transport in a city, or by formulating a method that is first used to evaluate the supply side of public transport services in a city, which is then compared with demographic and spatial distributions of the population (for example divided by age, ethnicity, education, income or access to a car) in order to produce transit gap indexes. This means that research contribute knowledge about existing public transport systems and the effects of investments including how to direct them to places and groups in greatest need.

  • 35.
    Lallemand, Sylviane
    et al.
    IFSTTAR, Lyon.
    Paire-Ficout, Laurence
    IFSTTAR, Lyon.
    Chavoix, C
    Lafont, Sylviane
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Fabrigoule, Colette
    Université de Bordeaux.
    Identification of the potential discrepancies of challenging situations/scenarios according to crash studies and drivers themselves: Literature review2013Report (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Analys av integreringen av jämställdhet i regional transportplanering i Dalarna: Regional systemanalys Dalarna och Länsplan för regional transportinfrastruktur Dalarna 2018–20292019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study, which is reported in this publication, was to analyse the integration of the transport policy’s equality objective in the regional transport planning in Dalarna. The project was carried out based on qualitative content analysis of the two documents "Regional system analysis Dalarna - basis for transport infrastructure planning" and "County plan for regional transport infrastructure Dalarna 2018–2029" and interviews with eight key persons who participated in the work processes in developing the two documents. The documents show a good picture of the transport infrastructure in the region, but a quite general picture of the population – there is some statistics but no distribution between different population groups. The researchers suggest that the knowledge that exists about the transport infrastructure and the population regionally, should be used more systematically to analyse different groups (such as women and men, older and younger) as transport users, their power of the transport system and their opportunities to influence their own mobility. It appears from the interviews that both gender equality and diversity mainstreaming are perceived as difficult in regional transport planning and that more knowledge and experience are needed. It is pointed out that there is some knowledge but that there are no structures for how it can be incorporated into the planning process. Some statements indicate that pioneering work is ongoing. Gender equality and diversity are described by some as "new" elements in regional transport infrastructure planning, compared to issues such as accessibility, growth and the environment. Interviewees said they lacked developed routines for integrating gender equality and diversity into their work processes. Regarding gender equality a clearer focus is required – for example, to integrate gender-disaggregated statistics at regional level and analyses of the region linked to the target formulations at national level (the transport policy and the national gender equality goals). An example of a method could be gender equality impact assessment (GIA), but also a broader social impact assessment (SIA) where different groups are included based on the Discrimination Act.

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  • 37.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Elderly, Transportation and Society: Mobility, Design, Education 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Elderly women and men in public transport: Comparative study on mobility and transport mode choice for elderly people in different areas2008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gender equality and safety, a challenge for transport planning: Moving away from stereotypes and stereotypical attitudes and habits2015In: Safety and Security in Transit Environments: An interdisciplinary Approach / [ed] V. Ceccato and A. Newton, London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015, p. 309-327Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    How may public transport influence the practice of everyday life among younger and older people and how may their practices influence public transport?2019In: Social Sciences, E-ISSN 2076-0760, Vol. 8, no 3, article id 96Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper examines public transport use through the lens of practice to understand the perspectives of two categories of public transport users: Younger and older people. In taking this approach, we assume that the forms of mobility in a society are dependent on citizens' everyday practices and on the structures of the cities, landscapes, etc. Transport needs and accessibility may vary depending on contexts (i.e., where and how we live) and on the various resources of groups of citizens. Results indicated that younger people are repeatedly referred to public transport to meet their mobility needs, while older people are more often car-dependent. Local variations, among both younger and older people, indicate higher confidence in public transport in big and medium-sized cities and a greater desire for car ownership in small cities. For the transition to sustainable mobility, e.g., public transport, transport associations and local governments should be responsive to the practice of everyday life among citizens: e.g., younger people's leisure activities in afternoons and weekends, and older people's wish for accessible transport service outside the dominant flow of passengers and their daily commuting practice. The data come from Sweden, specifically from focus groups with teenagers aged 14-16 years and retired people aged 63-97 years.

  • 41.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    How to Integrate Gender Equality in the Future of “Smart” Mobility: A Matter for a Changing Planning Practice2019In: HCI in Mobility, Transport, and Automotive Systems. HCII 2019, Springer, 2019, p. 393-412Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainable transport is one of the key challenges of the UN and EU to ensure to meet society’s economic, social and environmental needs whilst minimising undesirable impacts.  From the perspectives of the sustainability, we may assume that the emphasis should move in direction to changing the practice: but exactly what practice and who’s practices are to be changed? One way is to investigate gendered mobilities. The main differences in mobility patterns between women and men at a general level, are found in modal choice and travel distance. Women’s practices tend to be related to the most sustainable means of transport, while men’s practices are related to more un-sustainable transport. Relying on studies on transport planning including focus groups, interviews and workshops in Sweden, this paper ties the concepts of gender equality, to contemporary planning and sustainable “smart” mobility, and investigates in what way knowledge about gender equality is elaborated in regional planning practice. It appeared from the interviews that both gender equality and diversity were perceived as difficult in regional transport planning and that more knowledge and experience were needed. It was pointed out that there existed some knowledge but that there were no structures for how it could be incorporated into the planning process. Noticeable are conflicting practices, while policy on gender equality are attached to the planning there are still beliefs that transport planning can be gender neutral and free from social impacts. The smart mobility approach promises improvements of mobility and access opportunities for all.

  • 42.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Massmedialkategorisering av äldre i arbetslivet: Den som blir arbetslös vid 50 års ålder får räkna med att gå arbetslös fram till pensionen2009In: Åldrande, åldersordning, ålderism / [ed] Håkan Jönson, Linköping: Linköping University Electronic Press, 2009, 1, p. 105-120Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta kapitel kommer att handla om kategorisering av ålder i arbetslivet med fokus på den "äldre" arbetskraften och hur den skildras av massmedier. Utgångspunkten är att åldersdiskriminering handlar om negativ särbehandling på grund av ålder. Om exempelvis tjänster eller arbetsuppgifter på en arbetsplats fördelas mot bakgrund av antaganden om att ålder och kompetens hör samman då har det tydliga ålderistiska inslag. Jag vill även hävda att beskrivningar av individer och grupper av individer kan omfattas av ålderismbegreppet och ha ålderistiska inslag, exempelvis massmediers skildringar av äldre personers prestationer eller tillkortakommanden i olika sammanhang. Omorganisation av arbetsplatser är tydliga exempel där ålder har använts (som en kategori) för att definiera människor som ska få tillgång till eller bör avvecklas från vissa tjänster/arbeten och när det har ansetts att personalen behövt föryngras har man exempelvis satt ett ålderstak och erbjudit tidig avgång med pension för dem som hamnat över ålderstaket (t.ex. 50, 55, 60 år). Vid försvarsomvandlingen 1999–2000 infördes så kallad särskild pension (SP) för officerare 55+ och för civilanställda 58+. Även om ålder inte får utgöra grunden för uppsägning kan åldern ha betydelse för hur man resonerar på ledningsnivå, fackligt och i olika arbetsgrupper. Vissa kategoriseringar kan få ålderistiska inslag och kan genom sådana särskilda pensionsåtgärder få fäste i en organisation och även sippra ut i en så kallad "offentlig diskurs". Inte minst i massmedier av olika slag kan kategorierna få fäste.

  • 43.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Measures to promote older people’s mobility: A critical review from Sweden, Denmark and Norway2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobile older citizens: with or without a car2014In: Proceedings from Fit-to-drive, Conference 8-9 May 2014 in Warsaw Poland, 2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport and mobility for older people are important both from an individual and a societal perspective. Being mobile enables older people to participate in activities outside home and promotes health, functional capacity and autonomy. This paper focuses on older drivers' assessment of their driving and questions about what measures would be needed in the future to enhance mobility among older people. The present study is based on about 2,000 drivers over 70 years old in Sweden who answered a questionnaire in autumn 2012. It identifies how older people (70+) assess their own health status and skills as drivers and map their reported driving trajectories. For example, situations/scenarios challenging for older drivers and which may increase driving regulation. The participants stated themselves as healthy persons who drive frequently and safely. Only 6 % had considered to stop driving. However, driving during adverse weather conditions (rain, fog, snowfall), in an unfamiliar town or on slippery roads was avoided by about half of the respondents.

    Large gender differences were found: female drivers avoided these and other situations to a much higher degree. A few of the respondents reported that they temporarily suspended their car driving for shorter periods due to sickness, surgery or medication. From other studies it is known that some older drivers quit driving because they cannot afford to own a car. Therefore, more knowledge is needed about variations among the older citizens, according to e.g. gender, age, living conditions and financial resources. It would be necessary to develop further measures to maintain and enhance older people's mobility. For example, an affordable technical support system in the cars with recommendations for older drivers how to use it and when older people cannot or do not want to drive, there is a need for models for better understanding of the whole journey and the traffic environment, e.g. the possibility to combine various transport modes.

  • 45.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility in Later Life: Time, Choice and Action2010In: The Cultures of Alternative Mobilities: Routes Less Travelled. / [ed] Vannini, Phillip, London & New York: Routledge, 2010, p. 141-158Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Anna recently ceased driving and sold her car. She is 91 years old and says that “everybody” teased her for her driving: “Are you driving at your age? I get tired of the comments. But in addition, I also found how my eye sight diminished. Well, I could still see the road but not all the road signs.” She continues telling about her mobility options, before and after the day she sold the car. Going by bus is not a completely convenient option for her, given where she lives, in the outskirts of a middle-sized Swedish town. “Of course I miss my car. Now, I prefer walking to the shops and to the library, instead of going by bus. It is about five kilometres and I can manage it with my walker. I also feel good when I am out and about”—she says.1 At the same time, as she complains about the loss of freedom that automobility gave her, she explains how she draws freedom from her newly found ways of movement. Although she walks a few kilometres to the shops and services, she does not have to travel far from home every day. She always could, given her age, choose immobility instead of mobility, if she wanted.

  • 46.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility patterns among older people in Sweden: a study of women's and men's experiences and modal choices from a life course perspective2012In: TRANSED 2012: 13th international conference on mobility and transport for elderly and disabled persons, New Delhi: Svayam , 2012, , p. 10p. 1-10Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    In Europe people in urban areas, generally have access to some sort of public transport (PT). Sweden is one of the European countries with high level of ambition trying to increase the proportion of the older and impaired travelling with PT. Since a few years ago there is a programme about to increase accessibility and user-friendliness, and the program declares PT should be accessible for all older and impaired persons. However, this is not yet the case. Still many older persons (65+) do not use ordinary PT at all. The purpose of the present study is to investigate older people’s visions of their opportunities to use various transportation modes for daily travel and especially their experiences of PT.

    Methods and materials: in total 30 individual in depth interviews and 9 focus groups with older people. The youngest is about 62 and the oldest is 93 years.

    The study shows there are pertinent gendered variations in the use of transportation modes. The differences are not always due to issues of accessibility, but rather to habits and life course trajectories. According to the stories told by older informants from both urban and rural areas, it is concluded that habits and experiences during the life course influence the travel mode choice and options in later life. Previous mobility patterns have an effect on mobility patterns today. It was also found that the informants in this study travelled a lot more than expected from the researchers in the beginning of the study.

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  • 47.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility patterns among older people in Sweden: A study of women’s and men’s experiences and modal choices from a life course perspective2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Older car drivers in Norway and Sweden: studies of accident involvement, visual search behaviour, attention and hazard perception2010Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Snöröjning är också jämställdhetspolitik: Exempel från svenska kommuners arbete med jämställdhet och jämlikhet i transportplaneringen2023In: Grøn transport teknologi og diversitet: Inspirationskatalog til danske kommuner / [ed] Hilda Rømer Christensen; Michala Hvidt Breengaard, Koordinationen for kønsforskning, Københavns Universitet , 2023, , p. 39p. 54-60Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Transit crime and sexual violence in cities: international evidence and prevention2022In: Security Journal, ISSN 0955-1662, E-ISSN 1743-4645, Vol. 36, no 3, p. 589-591Article, book review (Refereed)
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