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  • 1.
    Altuntas Vural, Ceren
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Gonzalez-Aregall, Marta
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woxenius, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Svanberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    International container shipping through the Covid-19 pandemic - Disruptions from a Swedish perspective2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the onset of the pandemic in spring 2020, the Swedish shipping sector was first affected by border closures preventing passengers to use RoPax shipping and cruise ferries. There were some blank sailings but in general they kept operating to foster intra-European trade by trucks despite the missing revenues from passengers. Shipping in general was affected by port disrup-tions and complicated crew changes. Eventually, however, it was clear that the most dramatic disruptions on a global scale where experienced in the container segment. General media reported on delayed goods, high freight rates and, however not related to the pandemic, the Ever Given blocking the Suez Canal for a week in March 2021. Currently, there are few reports of supply chains and shipping suffering from disruptions and capacity constraints related to the pandemic. The peak in freight rates was rather replaced by depressed rates and there is a certain risk that some logisticians and supply chain managers regard the pandemic as a once-in-a-lifetime event and just want to get back to a previous be-haviour seeing container shipping as a commodity with indefinite capacity at a reasonable price. Nevertheless, the war in Ukraine, the drought in the Panama Canal and the attacks by the Houthi rebels in the Red Sea create other problems for container shipping. Freight rates increase significantly, but from very low levels. The purpose of the report is to describe and analyse how international container shipping was affected by the Covid-19 pandemic and other disruptions. The analysis takes a Swedish perspective on disruptions and tries to go beyond the anecdotal reporting and capture what happened and why. Container shipping is put into a context of economy, consumption, world trade, supply chains and logistics. The pandemic and more current events affecting container shipping market are described together with how shipping lines responded. A series of interviews with Swedish actors revealed how they perceived the disruptions and what countermeasures the actors have applied to mitigate the effects, their organisational learning and how they prepare for future disruptions

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  • 2.
    Castrellon, Juan Pablo
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Colombia.
    Sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Roso, Violeta
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Altuntas-Vural, Ceren
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Kalahasthi, L. K.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Assessing the eco-efficiency benefits of empty container repositioning strategies via dry ports2023In: Transportation Research Part D: Transport and Environment, ISSN 1361-9209, E-ISSN 1879-2340, Vol. 120, article id 103778Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Trade imbalances and global disturbances generate mismatches in the supply and demand of empty containers (ECs) that elevate the need for empty container repositioning (ECR). This research investigated dry ports as a potential means to minimize EC movements, and thus reduce costs and emissions. We assessed the environmental and economic effects of two ECR strategies via dry ports—street turns and extended free temporary storage—considering different scenarios of collaboration between shipping lines with different levels of container substitution. A multi-paradigm simulation combined agent-based and discrete-event modelling to represent flows and estimate kilometers travelled, CO2 emissions, and costs resulting from combinations of ECR strategies and scenarios. Full ownership container substitution combined with extended free temporary storage at the dry port (FTDP) most improved ECR metrics, despite implementation challenges. Our results may be instrumental in increasing shipping lines’ collaboration while reducing environmental impacts in up to 32 % of the inland ECR emissions. © 2023 The Author(s)

  • 3.
    Costa, Nicole
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Williamsson, Jon
    Ekholm, Johan
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Borgh, Martin
    Connecting vessels to shoreside electricity in Sweden2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the KAJ-EL project was to offer decision support to ports and shipping companies about the implementation and use of shoreside electricity in Swedish ports. More specifically, this project investigated the following, among other questions related to shore power: • the driving forces and barriers among ports and shipping companies to offer or use shore power; • the decision making, steps and actors involved in the process of adopting shore power; • the costs and business arrangements for installing and operating shore power; • the challenges in the installation and operation of shore power; • the different shore power equipment used in Swedish ports and on board vessels; • the actions and condition to realise OPS adoption to a larger extent. The project group included researchers and experts in shipping, transport, logistics, economics, and human factors from SSPA and the University of Gothenburg, and included industry partners Svensk Sjöfart (Swedish Ship Owners’ Association) and Sveriges Hamnar (Ports of Sweden). In addition, industry and authorities were involved in a reference group with representatives from shipping companies, ports and electricity providers. Interviews were performed with various ports in Sweden, a port in Norway (Kristiansand) as well as the US ports of Long Beach and Seattle to compare the perspectives. Shipping companies were interviewed, as were a number of OPS equipment manufacturers, national grid operators and electricity providers. Two workshops and a final seminar were also conducted. This report presents an overview of the OPS situation in Sweden and provides principles for business models as well as recommendations for ports’ and shipping companies’ OPS work. It can be noted that Sweden is at the European forefront of OPS in the sense that it currently has nine cities offering OPS, with main focus so far on the ro-pax and ferry segment. Actors, in particular ports, perceive that the regulatory pressure to offer OPS is increasing and the knowledge about OPS, especially among non-experienced ports, is still limited. Further guidance on OPS installations and operations is therefore needed, in terms of the financial, business, technical and operational issues that the actors must deal with. One major question is how to secure the electricity supply to the ports. Collaboration between actors is key to successful OPS implementation and a higher level of standardisation can facilitate technical choices. Several areas in need of further research are highlighted in this report, such as investigating possible future power demand scenarios from using OPS, and supply strategies for ports. The project received funding from Trafikverket (The Swedish Transport Administration).

  • 4.
    Eriksson, Jenny
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Silvano, Ary P.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector.
    Wahl, Charlotte
    Sweco.
    Ullberg, Martin
    Sweco.
    Adell, Emelie
    Trivector.
    Intressent- och behovsanalys för resvaneundersökningar: resultat från intervjuer och enkätundersökning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, national travel surveys are regularly carried out by Transport Analysis, a governmental agency. However, in the last decade travel survey studies have suffered with problems such as high rate of non-response, coverage, costs and reporting burden. Therefore, this project is underway aimed at investigating and proposing new methods for data collection on people’s mobility. The project is divided into five deliverables (work packages – WP), of which this report is the second one (WP2). The purpose is to carry out an analysis of stakeholders’ needs regarding future requirements of travel surveys. This includes identifying the questions that travel surveys can answer.

    Telephone interviews have been conducted with 20 stakeholder representatives and internet-based questionnaires were sent to 142 respondents (response 81 persons, response rate 57 percent). The stakeholders’ representatives were classified into three types of organizations: public sector, research organizations and other actors. Based on their own experience, an analysis has been conducted regarding what is requested from the national travel survey. The analysis show that key aspects of today’s and tomorrow’s travel survey users include (i) mode choice, (ii) trip purpose, (iii) how travel behavior changes over time, and (iv) how different groups travel. To be able to answer these questions, both individual and travel information are required.

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  • 5.
    Henriksson, Malin
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Karlsson, Jenny
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics.
    Rogerson, Sara
    SSPA.
    Winslott Hiselius, Lena
    LTH.
    Köpa mat online?: effekter av ökad e-handel för person- och godstransporter i ett växande e-handelssamhälle2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In recent years, e-commerce of food has increased substantially. Today, calculations of e-commerce’s energy efficiency potential build on estimates and assumptions rather than knowledge of the industry and its customers. This study generates in-depth knowledge of what it means from a transport perspective that companies instead of individuals are responsible for transporting food to the home. The main purpose of this project is to analyze effects as a result of increased online food shopping and to identify factors that enable realization of potential energy savings potential. This is done from a regional perspective and in a Swedish context. The purpose has been achieved through a review of the prerequisites for energy-efficient distribution solutions for e-commerce offers, and through interviews with existing and potential e-commerce customers’ preferences, experiences and behaviors.

    The results indicate that e-commerce has a significant theoretical potential. However, this require that effective routes replace purchase trips with private cars. Today, due to continued frequent car trips to food stores, e-commerce does not replace purchase trips sufficiently enough. In order for the potential to be achieved, there is a need for an expanded customer base and urban planning that prioritizes walking, biking and public transport, and that raises city logistics as a strategic issue and finally that locates food stores close to people’s homes.

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  • 6. Liljestrand, Kristina
    et al.
    Fager, Patrik
    Finnsgård, Christian
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Santén, Vendela
    Svanberg, Martin
    Providing explicit descriptions of studied systems: more than a necessary evil?2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeExplicit descriptions of studied systems can support researchers in clarifying objects of study and motives of research as well as in structuring research design. However, since many scholars of systems approaches operate outside the field of logistics, applying systems approaches in logistics can be challenging. The purpose of this paper is therefore to describe how a systems approach can be applied in logistics so as to provide guidance for logistics researchers in their descriptions of studied systems.Design/methodology/approachTwo systems approaches were used to describe the systems studied in six doctoral theses. A series of workshops was conducted to compare the descriptions and share challenges.FindingsKey aspects for adapting the selected systems approaches corresponded to four areas of logistics—activities, flow, performance, and actors—all of which can be included in the selected systems approaches. Advice for doctoral students on applying these frameworks is provided.Research limitations/implicationsThis research can provide support to other logistics researchers when applying systems approaches and developing explicit descriptions of studied systems.Original/valueSystems approaches are central to logistics research, a field in which scholars are encouraged to apply well-known systems approaches. This paper contributes value by providing explicit examples of how such approaches were applied in six logistics research projects.

  • 7.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Influence of freight transport purchasing processes on logistical variables related to CO2 emissions: a case study in Sweden2017In: International Journal of Logistics, ISSN 1367-5567, E-ISSN 1469-848X, p. 1-20Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emissions from freight transport stem from logistical variables such as vehicle utilisation, fuel efficiency, and distance. The purpose is to determine how shippers’ freight transport purchasing processes influence logistical variables. A multiple case study of freight transport purchasing processes was conducted, based on interviews with transport purchasers and providers. Three causes of influence of shippers’ purchasing processes on logistical variables were found: specific requirements, network structure of transport providers, and scope of contract. Specifications by purchasers, especially time requirements, influence several logistical variables (‘mode used’, ‘length of haul’, ‘load factor’, ‘empty running’, and ‘fuel efficiency’). This paper clarifies the implications of transport purchasing on CO2 emissions in terms of logistical variables, which are understood in transportation research and practice. It describes the effects of shippers’ requirements on transport providers’ execution of transport. The results provide a foundation for shippers to discuss their influence on logistical variables with transport providers.

  • 8.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Costa, Nicole
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Ekholm, Johan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Besker, Terese
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Mobility and Systems.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Built Environment, Energy and Resources.
    Linders, Torsten
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Anderberg, Patrick
    E-sea, Sweden.
    SeaCharging - Investigating the Need for Standardised Charging Infrastructure for Maritime Electrified Vessels2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transport sector, including maritime transport, is facing accelerating electrification, where it is important that charging infrastructure is developed in parallel with electrified vessels. In today's few examples, charging technology is adapted to specific vessels and conditions. The possibility of using standards and standardisation to increase the efficiency of introducing electrified vessels has been the focus of the SeaCharging project. The middle segment of ships, such as waterborne public transport, is facing a rapid increase in electrification.

    The project begins with an exploratory analysis of the current situation with charging stations in Sweden. This analysis covers the obstacles, needs and opportunities in different shipping segments and geographical areas. This results in an informative review providing input to standardisation committees, but also ports and shipping companies. Dissemination of the project’s results was achieved via a workshop, a number of seminars and this final report directed at the maritime, energy, technology, and standardisation communities. Together with Lighthouse, we will in early 2023, do a broad workshop for the whole sector, presenting the final project results and putting them into a wider context.

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  • 9.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; VTI, Sweden.
    Santén, Vendela
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Shippers’ opportunities to increase load factor: managing imbalances between required and available capacity2017In: International Journal of Logistics, ISSN 1367-5567, E-ISSN 1469-848X, Vol. 20, no 6, p. 581-603Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving load factor is relevant for shippers due to its potential in reducing both transport costs and emissions. The purpose is to structure shippers’ opportunities to increase load factor according to required and available capacity. A framework is developed from literature, and in-depth understanding is provided by three cases, with data mainly collected through semi-structured interviews. Shippers’ opportunities to increase load factor are structured per decreasing, increasing, or reallocating required or available capacity. Required capacity can be changed by adjusting number of items, item characteristics, and how items are combined. Available capacity can be changed by adjusting number and type of units. Changes that improved load factor are described in detail for each case. Load factor is calculated for the packaging and shipping levels. An approach that logistics managers can apply to identify opportunities relevant to their situations is presented. Findings are relevant to researchers within transport efficiency and green logistics.

  • 10.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Traffic analysis and logistics. Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Santén, Vendela
    Chalmers Tekniska Högskola.
    Shippers’ opportunities to increase load factor: managing imbalances between required and available capacity2017In: International Journal of Logistics, ISSN 1367-5567, E-ISSN 1469-848X, p. 1-23Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Improving load factor is relevant for shippers due to its potential in reducing both transport costs and emissions. The purpose is to structure shippers’ opportunities to increase load factor according to required and available capacity. A framework is developed from literature, and in-depth understanding is provided by three cases, with data mainly collected through semi-structured interviews. Shippers’ opportunities to increase load factor are structured per decreasing, increasing, or reallocating required or available capacity. Required capacity can be changed by adjusting number of items, item characteristics, and how items are combined. Available capacity can be changed by adjusting number and type of units. Changes that improved load factor are described in detail for each case. Load factor is calculated for the packaging and shipping levels. An approach that logistics managers can apply to identify opportunities relevant to their situations is presented. Findings are relevant to researchers within transport efficiency and green logistics.

  • 11.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Sallnäs, Uni
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    The influence of power and trust on the initiation and duration of modal shift solutions2021In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 13, no 7, article id 3757Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modal shift to more energy-efficient alternatives, such as from road to rail or sea, is one path to reduce negative environmental effects. Transport providers and shippers have crucial roles in modal choice decisions, and a better understanding of the influence of interorganisational factors on modal shift is needed. The purpose is to increase the understanding of opportunities for modal shifts by exploring the influence of power and trust at the interface between transport providers and shippers. Aspects of power (coercive, reward, legitimate, expert and referent) and trust (con-tractual, competence and goodwill) influencing modal shifts were identified from interviews with shippers and transport providers in Sweden. During the initiation phase of modal shift, power ap-pears more important, while trust is shown essential for the duration. By proactively suggesting modal shift, transport providers can use expert power to create rewards and referent power, through recognition of their expertise. Building trust, particularly goodwill trust, such as time in-vested in understanding the other party, transparency about challenges and jointly seeking solu-tions, is key to establish long-term modal shifts. This paper contributes to modal shift literature with insights on power balances and trust between transport providers and shippers. © 2021 by the authors. 

  • 12.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Santén, Vendela
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Martin
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Williamsson, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woxenius, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Modal shift to inland waterways: dealing with barriers in two Swedish cases2020In: International Journal of Logistics, ISSN 1367-5567, E-ISSN 1469-848X, Vol. 23, no 2, p. 195-210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper analyses strategies to overcome barriers to a modal shift to inland waterway transport (IWT). Barriers identified in research literature have been categorised as regulatory, financial, service quality and market characteristics. Using two cases involving Swedish entrepreneurs initiating IWT, this paper has shown how barriers to the modal shift to IWT can be managed where markets are limited. Modal shift involves multiple actors, and the entrepreneurs interacted with ports, shippers, shipping companies, regulatory actors, forwarders and hauliers, depending on the barrier. Strategies to manage barriers included negotiating, educating stakeholders, securing volumes, conducting a proof-of-concept run and identifying business opportunities for stakeholders. The findings can increase stakeholders’ knowledge of IWT. Policy makers aiming to promote modal shift must understand that fees and legislation act as barriers. 

  • 13.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Svanberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Altuntas Vural, Ceren
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Woxenius, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Comparing flexibility-based measures during different disruptions: evidence from maritime supply chains2024In: International Journal of Physical Distribution & Logistics Management, ISSN 0960-0035, E-ISSN 1758-664X, Vol. 54, no 2, p. 163-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Severe disruptions to maritime supply chains, including port closures, congestion and shortages in shipping capacity, have occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper’s purpose is to explore flexibility-based countermeasures that enable actors in maritime supply chains to mitigate the effects of disruptions with different characteristics. Design/methodology/approach: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with shipping lines, shippers, forwarders and ports. Data on the COVID-19 pandemic's effects and countermeasures were collected and compared with data regarding the 2016–2017 Gothenburg port conflict. Findings: Spatial, capacity, service and temporal flexibility emerged as the primary countermeasures, whilst important characteristics of disruptions were geographical spread, duration, uncertainty, criticality, the element of surprise and intensity. Spatial flexibility was exercised in both disruptions by switching to alternative ports. During the COVID-19 pandemic, ensuring capacity flexibility included first removing and then adding vessels. Shipping lines exercising service flexibility prioritised certain cargo, which made the spot market uncertain and reduced flexibility for forwarders, importers and exporters that changed carriers or traffic modes. Experience with disruptions meant less surprise and better preparation for spatial flexibility. Practical implications: Understanding how actors in maritime supply chains exercise flexibility-based countermeasures amid disruptions with different characteristics can support preparedness for coming disruptions. Originality/value: Comparing flexibility-based measures in a pandemic versus port conflict provides insights into the important characteristics of disruptions and the relevance of mitigation strategies. The resilience of maritime supply chains, although underexamined compared with manufacturing supply chains, is essential for maintaining global supply chain flows.

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  • 14.
    Rogerson, Sara
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Svanberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Supply chain disruptions: flexibility measures when encountering capacity problems in a port conflict2022In: The International Journal of Logistics Management, ISSN 0957-4093, Vol. 33, no 2, p. 567-589Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: There can be many negative effects from a disruption in a central node of companies' supply chains, such as a port conflict that reduces capacity. Strategies for disruption management include flexibility and redundancy. This paper aims to analyse a supply chain disruption from flexibility and capacity perspectives. Design/methodology/approach: A case study was conducted of the supply chain disruption caused by the port conflict in 2016–2017 in Gothenburg, in which the port operated at a reduced capacity. Companies importing and exporting goods, freight forwarders, hauliers, train operators, ports, shipping companies and their agents were interviewed. Findings: Various capacity problems (ports, links, container chassis, empty containers) were encountered due to the port conflict. Flexibility measures such as node, mode and fleet flexibility can be used in response to changes in capacity. Difficulties with applying flexibility are discussed. Research limitations/implications: Although based on a Swedish case, findings are relevant for disruptions or other types of disturbances in ports elsewhere and also in other important nodes in companies' supply chains. Practical implications: Actors influenced by disturbances in a port can increase their understanding of potential capacity problems and flexibility measures. Readiness and timely action are important due to competition regarding capacity. Originality/value: The implications on the transport network surrounding a port, including many actors, are explained, illustrating how capacity problems propagate, but there is some flexibility to manage the problems. 

  • 15.
    Roso, Violeta
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Vural, C. A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Abrahamsson, A.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Engström, M.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Santén, Vendela
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Drivers and barriers for inland waterway transportation2020In: Operations and Supply Chain Management, ISSN 1979-3561, Vol. 13, no 4, p. 406-417Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Inland waterway transportation (IWT) in Sweden could be a substitute for road transports with the prospects of improving the environmental performance. Sweden currently has no systematic strategies or policies for transports on inland waterways (IWW), and despite available capacity the waterways are barely utilized. In the Netherlands, for example, the IWW capacity is embedded in the transport system and utilized to a large extent. For a successful modal shift it is important to understand the drivers and barriers for the shift and develop strategies to leverage the drivers and mitigate the barriers. This study aims to identify drivers and barriers for IWT based on successful benchmark cases in the Netherlands. Furthermore, based on the learning from these benchmarks the study aims to point out strategic actions for Sweden regarding IWT. The data for this study was collected from IWT organizations, shippers and local administrations in the Netherlands. The results showed that main drivers for IWT are congestion relief, cost reduction and lower environmental impact. On the other hand, main barriers are slow pace of development, high investment costs and poor hinterland connectivity. For a successful modal shift in Sweden, it is crucial to prepare governmental support, a change in stakeholders' mindset, decisive attitude to modal shift process and a strong long-term perspective.

  • 16.
    Sallnäs, U.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Trusting the power: Facilitating a modal shift in relationships between shippers and logistics service providers2022In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409, article id 100864Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shifting freight transport from roads to more energy-efficient modes of sea and rail, i.e., a modal shift, is essential to reducing emissions from transport. Two actors influencing the rate of transition to such modes are logistics service providers (LSPs) and shippers. In their relationships, power and trust are vital interorganisational factors that need to be managed. The purpose of this paper is to examine how the existence and use of power and trust and their interplay can facilitate a modal shift in the ongoing relationships between shippers and LSPs. The research is based on an in-depth qualitative case-study of two cases, each consisting of the relationship between a retailer and an LSP. Empirical data was collected through semi-structured interviews, and the analysis was guided by three dimensions of power (resources, processes and meaning) and three types of trust (contractual, competence and goodwill). The results show that power and trust do, indeed, exist and influence modal shift solutions in shipper–LSP relationships. Alignment between shippers and LSPs is found to be vital in terms of the perceptions and values needed to strengthen the power of meaning, and in terms of the processes and participation needed to strengthen the power of processes. Trust is a facilitating factor in both instances, and it also works as a mediating factor in any asymmetry between the power of shippers' resources and LSPs. © 2022 The Authors

  • 17.
    Santén, Vendela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Altuntas-Vural, Ceren
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Castrellon, Juan Pablo
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Roso, Violeta
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Sanchez-Diaz, Ivan
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Empty Container Repositioning2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Although some movements of empty containers are needed due to imbalances between inbound and outbound goods flows in specific geographical areas, the transport of empty containers could be performed more efficiently. This report outlines results from the project “Increasing transport efficiency through reducing positioning of empty containers” performed during 2020-2023 by RISE and Chalmers, and financed by the Swedish Energy Agency. The purpose of the project was to contribute to increasing transport efficiency by understanding how empty container repositioning can be reduced and made more efficient in the Swedish transport system. To provide increased understanding regarding current practices and possible improvement areas, the report describes empty repositioning of containers in the inland container transport, and highlights drivers and barriers to minimize and make empty repositioning more efficient. Data on empty container movements in ports and by truck provide increased understanding of the current state. However, available data only offer partial views of empty container movements. Therefore, an empty trip model was constructed to help understand the proportion of containers that are transported empty between various origin-destination pairs, drawing on the Swedish road goods transport data from Trafikanalys. Several recommendations are made for how to improve data on empty container movements, for example differentiating between 20 and 40 feet containers. Also, this report details strategies for either reducing the empty container repositioning or making it more efficient within the national transport system, with a focus on: a) increased reutilization of containers and b) an increased share of rail compared to truck transport. Reutilization involves matching import and export containers to a larger degree, for example facilitated by extended storage of containers, and also how demands in various regions can be matched more efficiently, where some geographical areas are import dominated and others export dominated. The improvement potential in terms of cost and emissions have been calculated, simulating transport data in specific case studies. One simulation concerned reducing empty container repositioning locally, comparing the current situation with improvements in terms of street turns and extended storage given different collaboration levels. The extended storage scenario delivered the best results, as it significantly increased the likelihood of finding export cargo for an emptied import container. Another simulation considered empty container movements between Swedish inland terminals, identifying a large potential for both reutilization locally and triangulation between terminals compared to the current situation. The report further outlines the outcome of a Multi-Actor-Multi-Criteria-Analysis, where opportunities to reduce empty container repositioning in the hinterland of a port were considered from several stakeholders’ perspectives: shipping lines, transport operators, inland terminals, forwarders, ports and cargo owners. The scenarios evaluated were a) Time Flexibility, where additional days were allowed to find matching export cargo for an emptied import container, b) Container Sharing, where implications of allowing matching of containers of shipping lines in the same alliance were explored, and c) Data Sharing, where increased transparency regarding containers available for export in the inland was explored. The stakeholders preferred different scenarios, and details explaining their reasoning is provided. Drawing on the insights regarding current practices and possible improvement areas, recommendations to industry and authorities are provided. Widespread collaboration between stakeholders is needed, even so, all stakeholders can take action to create better conditions for empty container repositioning. Smarter tools for planning is one example.

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  • 18.
    Santén, Vendela
    et al.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden; SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Shippers’ transport efficiency: An approach for measuring load factor2018In: Logistics Research, ISSN 1865-035X, Vol. 11, no 1, article id 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One key aspect of efficient transport is load factor: the load carried compared to the maximum load that could be carried in a load unit (e.g. a vehicle). The purpose of this study is to develop an approach that will clarify and describe ways in which shippers can measure load factor. Drawing on existing literature and understanding gained from empirical data the proposed approach uses the load factor model, which structures measurement of load factor overall and at several levels (packaging, shipping, vehicle, fleet) as the ratio of required to available capacity. Shipping level includes utilization of purchased capacity, which is of special interest to shippers. For applying the model in practice, calculation methods linked to availability of data are presented. Calculations of volumetric load factor from two cases illustrate the methods. This paper’s detailed descriptions of how shippers can measure load factor provide calculation structure as well as transparency. Measuring load factor is of interest to evaluate efficiency, particularly since load factor is related to transport costs and environmental performance. 

  • 19.
    Santén, Vendela
    et al.
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    Williamsson, Jon
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    Svanberg, Martin
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Finnsgård, Christian
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    A modal shift to inland waterways: Actor perspectives on alternative business concepts2020In: international journal of logistics research and applications, Vol. 23, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Road haulage causes undisputed negative environmental impact in terms of CO2-emissions, noise, infrastructure damage, congestion, road accidents and is energy intensive. At longer transport distance (e.g. trans-ocean) maritime transport is preferable as it is more cost efficient. At shorter distances, there are financial, operational, market-related and regulatory issues that make waterway transport less attractive. Meanwhile, as waterway transport is favorable from an environmental perspective, the support for modal shift from road to sea has become an integral part of transport policy both at EU-level and in several countries across Europe. Among the different types of shipping (trans-ocean, short-sea, coastal), inland shipping is of particular importance when it comes to reduce congestion on roads. Ports are most often located in or near large cities, which in particular causes congestion on access roads to ports and the cities, and also in the countries in general. Hence, whereas cost is a barrier that must be overcome, using inland waterway transportation (IWT) is preferable from an environmental perspective, and a modal shift is a highly prioritized issue by governments. In some central European countries, IWT is well developed, while in countries such as Sweden, the share of inland shipping is very low, < 1%, and with no or little container traffic. With well-functioning fairways in inland waterways in Sweden, there is a large potential for increasing its utilization.

  • 20.
    Santén, Vendela
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Williamsson, Jon
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Woxenius, Johan
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Modal shift to inland waterway transport: Five case studies in the North Sea Region2021In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 21, no 4, p. 43-61Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modal shift from road to water is a strategy prioritised by both the European Union and many of its member states. However, inland waterways remain underutilised in most member states, and even the small number of countries in which inland waterway transport is well established, the sector faces fierce competition from road-based solutions. There is potential to develop tools and strategies for expanding the use of inland waterways by better understanding what activities key actors can rely on to facilitate modal shift. In this multiple-case study, we identify activities that actors perform to realise modal shift to inland waterways in five cases from the North Sea Region, by conducting interviews, workshops, and field observations. In each case, the process of modal shift varied depending upon which actor initiated specific activities, the order of performing activities and the number of iterations required to advance. Activities revolved around understanding the current situation, identifying potential solutions, testing solutions and promoting solutions. Getting stakeholders on board and identifying goods flows were integrated in all themes. The structured and emergent approach were outlined, highlighting varying starting points (mature or immature market) and actor engagement (facilitating or initiating roles). Different actors could assume leading roles. Authorities can target initiatives and policies to form relevant alliances and support modal shift by approach, while practitioners can relate and be inspired by the described activities in the varying contexts and adhere to entrepreneurial roles. Realising large-scale modal shift requires multi-actor engagement, openness to emergent solutions and long-term endurance. © 2021 Vendela Santén, Sara Rogerson, Jon Williamsson, Johan Woxenius.

  • 21.
    Strokirk, Cecilia
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Klintenberg, Henrik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Bach, Andreas
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Raza, Zeeshan
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Nyttan med svenskflaggade fartyg och betydelsen av en ökad inflaggning för Sverige2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Shipping transport plays a crucial role in supporting the domestic and global trade and economic growth by handling nearly 90% of Sweden’s import and export, transporting millions of passengers. The Swedish shipping industry provides employment directly to more than thirty thousand people and in addition, significantly contributes to the total GDP of Sweden by generating over 85 billion SEK annually (NRIA Shipping 2021). Over the past few decades despite shipping’s substantial importance for Swedish economy, Swedish ship-owners have largely adopted a “flagging out” model by placing vessels under alternative flags, which provides cost savings by reducing tax payments as well as more flexible standards related to ship operations. Existing literature and industry reports suggest that a reduced national flagged fleet has disturbing long-term implications for Sweden, and there is a need to increase the size of Swedish-flagged fleet. However, there is a lack of clear evidence regarding the benefits and importance of an increased national fleet for Sweden. Hence, relying on the existing literature and interviews with experts from Swedish Maritime and Transport Agencies, Swedish Shipowners’ Association, ship-owners, and Swedish Navy this feasibility study aims to shed light on the benefits of Swedish-flagged ships and how increased flagging would affect Sweden as a nation and society from a broad perspective. The findings of this study show that the existence of a strong Swedish shipping sector is important from several perspectives. In a complex world with humanitarian crises, natural disasters, piracy, supply chain disruptions and wars, Sweden has an obligation to protect and assist both its own citizens, industries, and economy as well as its international partners all over the globe within its limited means. In addition, the Swedish fleet provides an infrastructure link between Sweden and the rest of the world, promotes maritime cluster formation in the country, boosts tax revenues and GDP, increases employment opportunities, and contributes to Swedish industry’s globalized supply chains. Moreover, a competitive and sustainable Swedish fleet can assist Sweden in achieving national and global sustainable development goals (SDG). The SDGs are a global call for action to protect the planet, ensure better lives for all people and ascertain economic growth, peace, and prosperity. Similarly, one of the main goals set by the government of Sweden is to become world’s first fossil free welfare nation. A sustainable Swedish-flagged fleet is an important enabler to achieve the government’s business policy goal of strengthening Swedish competitiveness and creating conditions for more jobs and growing Swedish companies and economy. For Sweden to achieve an efficient and climate-smart transport system, all modes of transport need to be used in the best way. Sweden has also stated a clear goal in the national freight transport strategy to move goods from road transport to rail and sea. Shipping is an energy efficient transport mode. A shift from road haulage to shipping can relieve the heavily loaded road infrastructure to a greater extent and can thus reduce congestion, traffic accidents, longer wait times, noise, and emissions. A modal shift to shipping as a result can support the national and European policy of moving goods from road to sea. A positive outcome of using more shipping compared to trucking is that society does not have to spend as many resources on construction and maintenance of the road infrastructure. The findings of this study indicate that the Swedish government can play an important role to attract more vessels to use Swedish flag by providing a long term and consistent business conditions for the maritime industry. In our research Tax “Stämpelskatt” appears to be one of the key factors which makes Swedish flag unattractive for ship-owners who want to register their vessels in Sweden. Several scientific articles, reports and examples from other EU member states emphasize that tax exemptions and state subsidies for maritime transport are pivotal to form maritime clusters that in turn outweigh the reduction in tax revenues from shipping following tax relaxation, offering various socio-economic benefits in form of more jobs and a strong economic growth. Among other measures, the establishment of second ship registers is one of the most effective ways to increase the Swedish-flagged fleet, as shown by the success of Norwegian and Danish international ship registers. The Swedish state must understand that a Swedish-flagged fleet is a market issue and that the terms and conditions offered by the state both affect and determine who can do business in the market.

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  • 22.
    Svanberg, Martin
    et al.
    RISE Research institutes of Sweden, Sverige.
    Lundquist, Therese
    Sea Technology, Sverige.
    Ulfvarson, Anders
    Sea Technology, Sverige.
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research institutes of Sweden, Sverige.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research institutes of Sweden, Sverige.
    Finnsgård, Christian
    RISE Research institutes of Sweden, Sverige.
    Flytande hamnar: en hållbar innovation till havs för hantering av container och förnyelsebar energi2024In: Sammanställning av referat från Transportforum 2024 / [ed] Fredrik Hellman; Mattias Haraldsson, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut , 2024, p. 382-383Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskning och utveckling av flytande hamnar har tagit fart utifrån världshandelns behov av välfungerande effektiva hamnar som centrala logistiknoder. Containerfartygen växer i storlek och mer volymer behöver tas om hand i hamnarna samtidigt som högre krav ställs på service och effektivitet. I den gröna omställningen behöver hamnarna inte bara agera logistiknod, utan även energinod. I ett pågående forskningsprojekt undersöker en svensk entreprenör, Sea technology, möjligheterna med att utveckla konceptet och utvärderar hur en sådan flytande terminal skulle kunna användas ett par mil ut från kusten i svenska vatten. Affärsmodellen bygger på att terminalen ska hantera upp till 5 miljoner TEU årligen och även kunna fungera som energihubb. Detta innebär både en stor investering, och för en fungerande affärsmodell krävs att terminalens verksamhet anpassas till övriga aktörer i systemet, såsom rederier som ska anlöpa hamnen och mindre hamnar till vilka feeder-fartyg ska transportera containers. Syftet med denna studie är därför kartlägga hur en effektiv flytande hamn kan fungera i ett systemperspektiv i svenska farvatten.  

    Presentationen bygger på de preliminära resultat som är finns i studien. En strukturerad omvärldsanalys är gjord, både med avseende på vetenskaplig litteratur och grå litteratur. Projektet har karaktäriserat de industriella initiativ som funnits det senaste årtiondet kring flyta containerterminaler och energi-öar runt om i världen, och kartlagt barriärer och drivkrafter. Presentationen innehåller även en preliminära resultat av system-ekonomin för en flytande hamn. En systematisk kartläggning har även gjorts kring de funktioner en flytande hamn ska ha. Baserat på intervjuer beskrivs aktörskraven på den flytande hamnen.  

    Det finns tydliga drivkrafter för flytande hamnar. För container är det främst miljövinster, god system-ekonomi under rätt förutsättningar och säkerhetsfördelar. För energi kan en flytande hamn ge ökad hållbarhet och energisäkerhet, och myndigheter är tydligt pådrivande i att konceptet ska realiseras i exempelvis Nordsjön. Samtidigt finns det många barriärer mot att använda sig av flytande hamnar, både för container och energi, då det kräver stora investeringar och är en stor systemomställning som måste möjliggöras genom att flera olika typer av aktörer ställer om sina verksamheter delvis.  

  • 23. Svanberg, Martin
    et al.
    Santén, Vendela
    Finnsgård, Christian
    SSPA SWEDEN AB, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    Demonstrating the use of urban waterway transport of goods and waste2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 24.
    von Wieding, Sönke
    et al.
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Svanberg, Martin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Wide, Per
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Framtidens moderna intermodala logistiknoder - kunskaps- och utvecklingsbehov2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern intermodal nodes of the future – Requirements on knowledge and development

    The purpose of the project was to compile existing knowledge to analyze the function, design, and organization of intermodal nodes, as well as identify gaps for future research within Trafikverket’s research program and serve as a basis for Trafikverket's strategic work. The project uses both literature reviews and empirical studies through workshops with experts. The project has five main results:

    1. Criteria are proposed to define sustainable intermodal nodes aimed at promoting economic, social, and environmental goals for authorities, cargo owners, and carriers. The aim is to identify challenges and areas where nodes can improve their sustainability to avoid sub-optimization.

    2. A two-dimensional matrix is proposed to categorize intermodal nodes according to their role in society's goods supply, as well as the local economy and environment.

    3. Various organizational forms for nodes are described, including terminals and associated logistics areas that can be owned and managed by public, private, or combined entities.

    4. A discussion on how technological innovations such as electrification, digitization, and automation can affect intermodal nodes in the future.

    5. Opportunities and needs for further work and research in the field are presented

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  • 25.
    Williamsson, J.
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Rogerson, Sara
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Santén, Vendela
    SSPA Sweden AB, Sweden.
    Business models for dedicated container freight on Swedish inland waterways2020In: Research in Transportation Business and Management (RTBM), ISSN 2210-5395, E-ISSN 2210-5409, Vol. 35, article id 100466Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Modal shift from land to water is prioritized in transport policies throughout Europe. As indicated in earlier research on intermodal shift, new business models are needed for intermodal services to get a foothold in challenging markets. The purpose of the paper is to analyze business model development for inland waterway transport (IWT) in order to identify principal characteristics that support the switch from land to water. This paper reports on the development, and testing, of new business models for IWT services targeting containerized goods in West Sweden. The research is based on case studies of two recent entrepreneurial attempts to establish such services. From the case studies three business models were developed for stakeholders to evaluate. The tests were conducted through a stakeholder oriented multi-actor multi-criteria analysis (MAMCA). The results revealed strengths and weaknesses with the business models that have implications for the Swedish setting as well as general support for intermodal shift. The paper ends by discussing how stakeholders can support the development of viable business models for IWT.

  • 26.
    Williamsson, Jon
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Costa, Nicole
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Santén, Vendela
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Rogerson, Sara
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Safety and Transport, Maritime department.
    Barriers and Drivers to the Implementation of Onshore Power Supply—A Literature Review2022In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 14, no 10, article id 6072Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Onshore power supply (OPS) reduces emissions from vessels docked in port. Historically, the uptake of OPS has been low, and research indicates that potential OPS adopters face multiple complex barriers. Based on a systematic literature review, this paper presents a framework for categorizing barriers and drivers to the implementation of OPS and identifies potential areas for future research. The review indicates that research on barriers to OPS was limited until 2019, when interest increased considerably, coinciding with mounting stakeholder concerns and regulatory pressure. The suggested framework divides barriers and drivers divided into four key categories: (i) technology and operations, (ii) institutional elements, (iii) economic elements, and (iv) stakeholder elements. The framework then superimposes those categories on three main areas of concern: port, transmission, and vessel. Research has identified potential solutions to specific barriers, but the complexity of OPS highlights the need for a collaborative approach to OPS. Additionally, as regulatory pressure is rising, more research is needed on the systemic implications of OPS as well as the potential use of incentives, pricing, and business models to tackle the high cost of implementation. © 2022 by the authors. 

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