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  • 1.
    Adolfsson, Jesper
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Automatisk maskinåterställning: Hur automatiserade hjälpmedel kan bidra till en bättre produktion2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common problem with production equipment at Eberspächer is downtime where the root cause is difficult to identify. The use of sophisticated systems that isolate the source of the error can reduce the remediation time and therefore be of great benefit to productivity. The following report examines how to automate the restoration of a machine focused on measurement and quality control, to an original mode where operating personnel can resume production after a downtime. Initially, work began on a literature study from which information was obtained about the various automated parts of the measuring cell. Furthermore, the machine's PLC program was also studied to try to understand what the code in the various programmed blocks does. The programming of the automated recovery was done in accordance with Eberspächer's guidelines and specification. Based on collected information about the machine's function, it has been possible to create a program with the desired functionality. The conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that there are great advantages to automating functions that can be difficult and require a lot of the user. The automated reset is a good example of a feature where there are economic, ecological and ergonomic benefits of making a complicated action manageable.

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  • 2. Ahamadzadeh, Ezat
    et al.
    Jaferzadeh, Keyvan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Park, Seonghwan
    Son, Seungwoo
    Moon, Inkyu
    Automated analysis of human cardiomyocytes dynamics with holographic image-based tracking for cardiotoxicity screening2022In: Biosensors & bioelectronics, ISSN 0956-5663, E-ISSN 1873-4235, Vol. 195, article id 113570Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper proposes a new non-invasive, low-cost, and fully automated platform to quantitatively analyze dynamics of human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes (hiPS-CMs) at the single-cell level by holographic image-based tracking for cardiotoxicity screening. A dense Farneback optical flow method and holographic imaging informatics were combined to characterize the contractile motion of a single CM, which obviates the need for costly equipment to monitor a CM's mechanical beat activity. The reliability of the proposed platform was tested by single-cell motion characterization, synchronization analysis, motion speed measurement of fixed CMs versus live CMs, and noise sensitivity. The applicability of the motion characterization method was tested to determine the pharmacological effects of two cardiovascular drugs, isoprenaline (166 nM) and E−4031 (500 μM). The experiments were done using single CMs and multiple cells, and the results were compared to control conditions. Cardiomyocytes responded to isoprenaline by increasing the action potential (AP) speed and shortening the resting period, thus increasing the beat frequency. In the presence of E−4031, the AP speed was decreased, and the resting period was prolonged, thus decreasing the beat frequency. The findings offer insights into single hiPS-CMs’ contractile motion and a deep understanding of their kinetics at the single-cell level for cardiotoxicity screening. 

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  • 3.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Development and Characterization of Large Area Pressure Sensors and Sitting Posture Monitoring Systems2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    With the emergence of the Internet and rapid development of science and technology over the past few decades, many individuals worldwide now rely on the Internet to conduct daily activities ranging from education, business and creativity to communication and shopping. As we tend to spend more and more time on the Internet and engage less in physical activities, this persistent behaviour could result in some health-related issues within a relatively short period of time. This behaviour, known as sedentary lifestyle, may be related to a higher risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, obesity, anxiety, pressure ulcers and many other illnesses. As a consequence, there has been great interest in developing non-invasive and unobtrusive measurement techniques for a variety of health care-monitoring applications, such as for blood oxygen saturation, stress levels, electrocardiograms and glucose monitoring. In such systems, wearable and flexible electronics technologies may enable monitoring of vital signs, offering significant potential for early screening as well as long-term behaviour modelling.

    In this thesis, large area pressure sensors based on non-conventional materials are proposed and realised by screen printing technique for monitoring sitting postures. The developed pressure sensing system measures distributed pressure when an individual sits on a chair equipped with a pressure sensor array. This technology could provide grounding for the advancement of health-related monitoring systems for both able-bodied and disabled individuals and inform them of their sitting time and sitting posture, and this could be used to establish a sitting pattern. To accomplish this, pressure sensors have been designed using non-conventional flexible electronics. A blend of non-conductive and low-resistance ink is used as pressure-sensitive material to enable the realization of screen-printed sensors. To characterise the performance of the suggested pressure sensor, several tests, such as repeatability, drift and flexibility, are conducted. The sensor has also been exposed to different humidity and temperature conditions in a climate chamber to examine its functionalities.

    A graphical user interface was developed for real-time demonstration of data from distributed pressure points in the form of a pressure map to display the pressure values. Four sitting postures are identified: forward, backward, left, and right leaning. Furthermore, a stretchable pressure sensor is proposed that could follow slight stretching with regard to changes in the shape of the human skin. Machine learning algorithms have been employed to further enhance the sitting posture identification, and accuracy of 99.03% is attained. A standalone embedded system capable of illustrating real-time pressure data has been developed with the potential to be used in portable health monitoring systems. In summary, this work provides a promising framework for measuring pressure distribution and identifying irregular sitting postures that may help to reduce the potential risks of developing health-related issues associated with prolonged sitting time.

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  • 4.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Screen Printed Large Area Sensors for Pressure Distribution Monitoring in Wheelchairs2019Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A sedentary lifestyle can induce health related problems including pressure ulcers. Pro­longed sitting inadequacies constitute a risk for pressure ulcer to many individuals, in particular people with disabilities and re­duced mobility. The measurement of distributed pressure and detection of irregular sitting postures are essential in prevention of the risk of developing pres­sure ulcers.

    In this thesis, a screen-printed pressure sensor for a large area is presented, with the objective of measuring the distributed pressure of a seated per­son in a wheelchair. The conductors and interdigital patterns are printed with silver-based ink. A blend of a non-conductive and a low resis­tive ink is used for customized resistance for an optimal sensing range of the pressure sensor. The effect of moisture and temper­ature are realized in an environment chamber. For characterization, other key performance tests such as repeatability, drift and flexibility are carried out. The surface morphology is carried out for structural analysis of printed samples. The sensor data is acquired and processed using an 8-bit ATmega-2560 micro­controller and wirelessly transmitted to a PC for post-processing, storage and analysis. For real-time data presentation of dis­tributed pressure points, a GUI has been developed to display the values ob­tained from the large area sensor. The detection of four sit­ting pos­tures; forward leaning, backward leaning, left leaning and right leaning along with a normal sitting posture is attained. An analysis for stretchable printed tracks has been conducted to investigate the changes in electrical resistance using elon­ga­tion tests, surface morphology and EDS. The optimal curing time and tem­per­ature were investigated to manufacture stretchable conductive tracks.

    In summary, the contributions in this thesis provides an effective approach regarding pressure distribution measurement and recognizing irregular sitting postures for wheelchair users.

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    JawadAhmad_licentiatethesis159
  • 5.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Screen Printed Piezoresistive Sensors for Monitoring Pressure Distribution in Wheelchair2019In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, no 6, p. 2055-2063Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Prolonged sitting inadequacies cause pressure ulcer to many individuals, especially to disadvantaged with reduced mobility. The measurement of distributed pressure and detection of irregular sitting postures is essential for preventing the risk of developing pressure ulcer. In this paper, a pressure sensing system capable of recognizing sitting postures by means of measuring interface pressure through printed pressure sensors is presented. A thin and flexible large area sensor is screen-printed using silver flake and carbon particle inks and comprises 16 sensing elements. For the evaluation of practical usability, the sensor characterization is carried out by conducting stability, repeatability, drift and bending tests. The performance of the sensor is checked under varying environmental conditions. Sitting posture detection accuracy above 80 % is achieved using a classification algorithm for four different sitting postures. Pressure distribution is monitored at a scanning rate of 10 Hz. A low power and small form factor of read-out electronics enables a compact packaging inside the seat cushion. The presented sensor design targets smart wheelchairs, but it is extendable to much larger areas, for example to be used in beds. The proposed sensing system would be of a great assistance for caregivers and health professionals.

  • 6.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    An Analysis of Screen-Printed Stretchable Conductive Tracks on Thermoplastic Polyurethane2019In: FLEPS 2019 - IEEE International Conference on Flexible and Printable Sensors and Systems, Proceedings, 2019, article id 8792266Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    An Analysis of Screen-Printed Stretchable Conductive Tracks on Thermoplastic Polyurethane2019Data set
    Abstract [en]

    The table is a result from cyclic strain test with 25 % and 50 % elongations of screen-printed stretchable conductive tracks on thermoplastic polyurethane.

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    Elongation Results
  • 8.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A Proposal of Implementation of Sitting Posture Monitoring System for Wheelchair Utilizing Machine Learning Methods2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, article id 6349Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a posture recognition system aimed at detecting sitting postures of a wheelchair user. The main goals of the proposed system are to identify and inform irregular and improper posture to prevent sitting-related health issues such as pressure ulcers, with the potential that it could also be used for individuals without mobility issues. In the proposed monitoring system, an array of 16 screen printed pressure sensor units was employed to obtain pressure data, which are sampled and processed in real-time using read-out electronics. The posture recognition was performed for four sitting positions: right-, left-, forward- and backward leaning based on k-nearest neighbors (k-NN), support vector machines (SVM), random forest (RF), decision tree (DT) and LightGBM machine learning algorithms. As a result, a posture classification accuracy of up to 99.03 percent can be achieved. Experimental studies illustrate that the system can provide real-time pressure distribution value in the form of a pressure map on a standard PC and also on a raspberry pi system equipped with a touchscreen monitor. The stored pressure distribution data can later be shared with healthcare professionals so that abnormalities in sitting patterns can be identified by employing a post-processing unit. The proposed system could be used for risk assessments related to pressure ulcers. It may be served as a benchmark by recording and identifying individuals’ sitting patterns and the possibility of being realized as a lightweight portable health monitoring device.

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  • 9.
    Ahmad, Jawad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Andersson, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Stretchable Pressure Sensor Using Thermoplastic Polyurethane and Conductive Inks2021In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, IEEE, 2021, article id 1310Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The development of wearable health devices is an emerging technology, and pressure sensors have been widely used in several of these applications. Plenty of research within pressure sensors is focused on tactile sensing and artificial skin. In this paper, a highly flexible and stretchable pressure sensor is presented. The sensor comprises stretchable thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) film as substrate and stretchable conductive inks as electrodes and sensing material. Screen printing is used to fabricate electrodes and pressure sensing components on TPU sheets. Electrical and mechanical properties of the fabricated sensors indicate good mechanical and electrical stability while retaining pressure sensing properties and marginal deterioration even after 100 elongation cycles. The findings show that the presented stretchable pressure sensor has a great potential for usage on surfaces where bending and stretching will occur while retaining nearly all of its electrical and mechanical capabilities. The proposed sensor may be employed as a wearable device to detect human movements.

  • 10.
    Akbari-Saatlu, Mehdi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Procek, Marcin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Silesian University of Technology, 2 Krzywoustego St., 44-100 Gliwice, Poland.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Nilsson, Hans-Erik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Xiong, Wenjuan
    Guangdong Greater Bay Area Institute of Integrated Circuit and System; Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Xu, Buqing
    Guangdong Greater Bay Area Institute of Integrated Circuit and System; Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Li, You
    Guangdong Greater Bay Area Institute of Integrated Circuit and System; Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Guangdong Greater Bay Area Institute of Integrated Circuit and System; Chinese Academy of Sciences; University of Chinese Academy of Sciences.
    Silicon Nanowires for Gas Sensing: A Review2020In: Nanomaterials, E-ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 10, no 11, article id 2215Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The unique electronic properties of semiconductor nanowires, in particular silicon nanowires (SiNWs), are attractive for the label-free, real-time, and sensitive detection of various gases. Therefore, over the past two decades, extensive efforts have been made to study the gas sensing function of NWs. This review article presents the recent developments related to the applications of SiNWs for gas sensing. The content begins with the two basic synthesis approaches (top-down and bottom-up) whereby the advantages and disadvantages of each approach have been discussed. Afterwards, the basic sensing mechanism of SiNWs for both resistor and field effect transistor designs have been briefly described whereby the sensitivity and selectivity to gases after different functionalization methods have been further presented. In the final words, the challenges and future opportunities of SiNWs for gas sensing have been discussed.

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  • 11.
    Akbari-Saatlu, Mehdi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Procek, Marcin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Törndahl, T.
    Li, B.
    Su, J.
    Xiong, W.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Guangdong Greater Bay Area Institute of Integrated Circuit and System, Guangzhou, China; Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, China .
    Nanometer-Thick ZnO/SnO2Heterostructures Grown on Alumina for H2S Sensing2022In: ACS Applied Nano Materials, E-ISSN 2574-0970, Vol. 5, no 5, p. 6954-6963Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Designing heterostructure materials at the nanoscale is a well-known method to enhance gas sensing performance. In this study, a mixed solution of zinc chloride and tin (II) chloride dihydrate, dissolved in ethanol solvent, was used as the initial precursor for depositing the sensing layer on alumina substrates using the ultrasonic spray pyrolysis (USP) method. Several ZnO/SnO2 heterostructures were grown by applying different ratios in the initial precursors. These heterostructures were used as active materials for the sensing of H2S gas molecules. The results revealed that an increase in the zinc chloride in the USP precursor alters the H2S sensitivity of the sensor. The optimal working temperature was found to be 450 °C. The sensor, containing 5:1 (ZnCl2: SnCl2·2H2O) ratio in the USP precursor, demonstrates a higher response than the pure SnO2 (∼95 times) sample and other heterostructures. Later, the selectivity of the ZnO/SnO2 heterostructures toward 5 ppm NO2, 200 ppm methanol, and 100 ppm of CH4, acetone, and ethanol was also examined. The gas sensing mechanism of the ZnO/SnO2 was analyzed and the remarkably enhanced gas-sensing performance was mainly attributed to the heterostructure formation between ZnO and SnO2. The synthesized materials were also analyzed by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectra to investigate the material distribution, grain size, and material quality of ZnO/SnO2 heterostructures. 

  • 12.
    Akbari-Saatlu, Mehdi
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Procek, Marcin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Silesian University of Technology, Poland.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Guangdong Greater Bay Area Institute of Integrated Circuit and System, Guangzhou, 510535, China.
    H2S gas sensing based on SnO2thin films deposited by ultrasonic spray pyrolysis on Al2O3substrate2021In: 2021 IEEE Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), 2021Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    H2S gas is harmful for human health and environment, therefore novel gas sensors for real time and fast detection with high precision have been sought. Metal oxides are already known as promising candidate for this purpose. This article presents the performance of a gas sensor consists of a microheater and active layer formed on single alumina substrate for operating at high temperature applications. Ultrasonic spray pyrolysis deposition method was used to make both thick layer of SnO2 for microheater and thin and porous crystalline layer of SnO2 as sensing layer. The prepared sensor showed suitable dynamic response towards 10 to 50 ppm of H2S gas both in humid and dry conditions at 450 °C. In these experiments, the cross sensitivity of the sensor was also checked for other interfering gases e.g. CH4 and NO2.

  • 13.
    Akram, Farhan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Gate driver solutions for high power density SMPS using Silicon Carbide MOSFETs2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Discrete silicon carbide (SiC) power devices have unique characteristics that outpace those of silicon (Si) counterparts. The improved physical features have provided better faster switching, greater current densities, lower on-resistance, and temperature performances. However, there is lack of suitable commercial gate drivers that are compatible for high-voltage, and high-speed devices. There has been a great research effort required for the advancement of gate drivers for high voltage SiC transistors. A drive circuit for a SiC MOSFET needs to be optimized in normal operation to give best efficiency and same drive circuit should secure the MOSFET under unsuitable conditions. To ensure the rapid switching of these advanced SiC MOSFETs, a gate driver capable of providing the high current capability is required. In this work, three different high-power-density, high-speed, and high-noise-immunity gate driver modules for 10 kV SiC MOSFET were built and optimized.  Double-pulse test was developed for the dynamic characterization of SiC MOSFETs and gate drivers. This setup provided clean measurements of DUT voltage and current under well-defined conditions and correlated to simulation results. Designed gate drivers have thoroughly investigated to test and compare it with our future design. The influential parameters such as dV/dt, dI/dt, and gate driving capability of gate driver were adjusted according to the requirements. The short circuit protection test was performed to check the reliability of driver modules in worst conditions. Furthermore, a DC-DC converter was designed and tested with the advanced gate drivers. The driver modules were tested in designed converter under different load conditions and influential parameters were successfully demonstrated. The driver modules effectively helped in reducing the EMI and switching losses. These designed gate drivers and prototype converter provide all the attractive features and can be widely implemented in industrial applications for energy efficient systems.

     

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  • 14.
    Akram, Shazad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Alam, Farhan Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Capacitive and optical sensing for automatic detection and characterization of cleaning sponges in fiber optic microduct installations2019In: Proceedings - 2019 8th International Workshop on Advances in Sensors and Interfaces, IWASI 2019, IEEE, 2019, p. 274-278, article id 8791315Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical fiber duct installation requires blowing of cleaning sponges for dirt and moisture removal before blowing the fiber cables. The traditional method requires one operator that blows the sponge and one operator in the receiving end that manually evaluate the sponges until a dry sponge is received. The proposed system eliminates the need of a second operator by introducing a solution for automatic sponge detection and characterization of moisture in sponges at the receiving end. An optical sensor is used for detection and a capacitive sensor is developed to measure the sponge's wetness. Sensor data is automatically transmitted back to the operator at the feeding end via a mobile phone. The system is characterized to work with sponges ranging from saturated with wetness to what is deemed as dry. 

  • 15.
    Akram, Shazad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    LTspice electro-thermal model of joule heating in high density polyethylene optical fiber microducts2019In: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, optical fiber microducts are joined together by mechanical type joints. Mechanical joints are bulky, require more space in multiple duct installations, and have poor water sealing capability. Optical fiber microducts are made of high-density polyethylene which is considered best for welding by remelting. Mechanical joints can be replaced with welded joints if the outer surface layer of the optical fiber microduct is remelted within one second and without thermal damage to the inner surface of the optical fiber duct. To fulfill these requirements, an electro-thermal model of Joule heat generation using a copper coil and heat propagation inside different layers of optical fiber microducts was developed and validated. The electro-thermal model is based on electro-thermal analogy that uses the electrical equivalent to thermal parameters. Depending upon the geometric shape and material properties of the high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, and copper coil, the thermal resistance and thermal capacitance values were calculated and connected to the Cauer RC-ladder configuration. The power input to Joule heating coil and thermal convection resistance to surrounding air were also calculated and modelled. The calculated thermal model was then simulated in LTspice, and real measurements with 50 µm K-type thermocouples were conducted to check the validity of the model. Due to the non-linear transient thermal behavior of polyethylene and variations in the convection resistance values, the calculated thermal model was then optimized for best curve fitting. Optimizations were conducted for convection resistance and the power input model only. The calculated thermal parameters of the polyethylene layers were kept intact to preserve the thermal model to physical structure relationship. Simulation of the optimized electro-thermal model and actual measurements showed to be in good agreement. 

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  • 16.
    Akram, Shazad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Battery powered inductive welding system for electrofusion joints in optical fiber microducts2021In: Electronics, E-ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 10, no 6, article id 743Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Optical fiber microducts are joined together by mechanical joints. These mechanical joints are bulky, require more space per joint, and are prone to air pressure leakage and water seepage during service. A battery powered electrofusion welding system with a resistive-type joint has been recently developed to replace mechanical joints. These resistive-type electrofusion joints require physical connectors for power input. Due to a different installation environment, the power input connectors of resistive optical fiber microduct joints may corrode over time. This corrosion of connectors will eventually cause water seepage or air pressure leakage in the long run. Moreover, due to connector corrosion, resistive-type optical fiber microduct joints cannot be re-heated in future if the need arises. In this study, an inductively coupled electrofusion-type joint was proposed and investigated. This inductive-type electrofusion joint is not prone to long-term corrosion risk, due to the absence of power connectors. Inductive-type electrofusion joints can be re-heated again for resealing or removal in the long run, as no metal part is exposed to the environment. The battery powered inductive welding system can be easily powered with a 38 volts 160 watt-hour battery. The inductive-type electrofusion joint was welded within one second, and passed a 300-newton pull strength test and a 10-bar air pressure leakage test. It was demonstrated that the power input requirement for inductive electrofusion joints is 64% higher than that of resistive electrofusion joints. However, these inductive joints are relatively easy to manufacture, inexpensive, have no air leakage, and no water seepage risk in highly corrosive environments. 

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  • 17.
    Akram, Shazad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Duan, Jiatong
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Alam, Farhan Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Design and Development of a Battery Powered Electrofusion Welding System for Optical Fiber Microducts2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 173024-173043Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, optical fiber microducts are coupled together by mechanical types of joints. Mechanical joints are thick, require a large space, and reduce the installation distance in multi-microduct installation. They may leak or explode in the blown fiber installation process. Mechanical joints are subjected to time dependent deterioration under long service times beneath the earth's surface. It may start with a small leakage, followed by damage due to water freezing inside the optical fiber microduct. Optical fiber microducts are made up of high-density polyethylene, which is considered most suitable for thermoelectric welding. For thermoelectric welding of two optical fiber microducts, the welding time should be one second, and should not cause any damage to the inner structure of the microducts that are being coupled. To fulfill these requirements, an LTspice simulation model for the welding system was developed and validated. The developed LTspice model has two parts. The first part models the power input to joule heating wire and the second part models the heat propagation inside the different layers of the optical fiber microduct and surrounding joint by using electro-thermal analogy. In order to validate the simulation results, a battery powered prototype welding system was developed and tested. The prototype welding system consists of a custom-built electrofusion joint and a controller board. A 40 volt 4 ampere-hour Li-Ion battery was used to power the complete system. The power drawn from the battery was controlled by charging and discharging of a capacitor bank, which makes sure that the battery is not overloaded. After successful welding, a pull strength test and an air pressure leakage test were performed to ensure that the welded joints met the requirements set by the mechanical joints. The results show that this new kind of joint and welding system can effectively replace mechanical joints in future optical fiber duct installations.

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  • 18.
    Ali M., Ahmed
    et al.
    University of Duisburg-Essen.
    Moulik, Bedatri
    Amity University.
    Beganovic, Nejra
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Söffker, Dirk
    University of Duisburg-Essen.
    A State-of-Health-Oriented Power Management Strategy for Multi-Source Electric Vehicles Considering Situation-Based Optimized Solutions in Real-Time2019In: Proceedings of the Annual Conference of the PHM Society 11 (1), Scottsdale, Arizona, USA: PHM Society , 2019, Vol. 11, p. 1-10, article id 783Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a novel situation-based power and battery health management strategy for fuel cell vehicles. In such hybrid powertrains, the synergy role of batteries is essential to minimize overall power consumption and maintain higher electrical efficiency of the fuel cell. On the other hand, lifetime degradation of the battery is associated with the recurrent charging / discharging cycles. The proposed power management strategy addresses the trade-off between these contradictory objectives. Vehicle states in each situation are defined in terms of driver-related identification parameters (power demand and speed) corporately with powertrain related ones (on-board battery's state of charge). Optimal power handling solution for each situation is searched offline considering different optimization criteria: range extension, lifetime maximization, or power consumption minimization. A weighted fusion of these optimized solutions can be implemented online based on desired driving strategy, leading to situation-based optimized solution. This contribution aims to provide flexible power handling options meeting performance requirements (energy efficiency and driveability) without scarifying battery life. Simulation tests using different driving cycles are conducted for evaluation purpose.

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  • 19.
    Alishah, Rasoul Shalchi
    et al.
    Univ Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Hasani, Mir Yahya
    Islamic Azad Univ Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Hosseini, Seyed Hossein
    Univ Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Babalou, Milad
    Univ Tabriz, Tabriz, Iran.
    Analysis and Design of a New Extendable Sepic Converter with High Voltage Gain and Reduced Components for Photovoltaic Applications2019In: 2019 10th International Power Electronics, Drive Systems and Technologies Conference (PEDSTC), IEEE, 2019, p. 492-497, article id 8697249Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a high step-up DC-DC converter which is appropriate for Photovoltaic systems. This topology has been combined from an extended switched-capacitor and a common SEPIC converter. Low components and high-voltage-gain are the main benefits of the introduced topology. Low rate current ripple, easy control and continuous input current are other advantages of the presented structure. Integrating the switched-capacitor with the SEPIC converter leads to increase the output voltage with variable conversion ratio which can be used for a wide range of loads. The switched-capacitor converter provides a constant dc output voltage while the SEPIC converter extracts maximum power of PV panels because it operates under control of duty cycle. Continuous input current is highly suitable for PV applications. The operating principles and steady-state analysis of the suggested topology are discussed in detail. In order to assess the effectiveness of the presented topology, it has been simulated on PSCAD/EMTDC software.

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  • 20.
    Allahgholi, Aschkan
    et al.
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, Julian
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, Annette
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, Roberto
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Goettlicher, Peter
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, Dominic
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Henrich, Beat
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Kuhn, Manuela
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klanner, Robert
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, Alexander
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Krueger, Hans
    Univ Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Lange, Sabine
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Laurus, Torsten
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, Alessandro
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, Davide
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, Aldo
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Niemann, Magdalena
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Poehlsen, Jennifer
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schwandt, Joern
    Univ Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, Igor
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, Xintian
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Smoljanin, Sergej
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Steffen, Lothar
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sztuk-Dambietz, Jolanta
    European XFEL, Schenefeld, Germany.
    Trunk, Ulrich
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Xia, Qingqing
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zeribi, Mourad
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, Jiaguo
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Zimmer, Manfred
    Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, Bernd
    Paul Scherrer Inst, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsch Elekt Synchrotron, Hamburg, Germany.
    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector at the European XFEL2019In: Journal of Synchrotron Radiation, ISSN 0909-0495, E-ISSN 1600-5775, Vol. 26, p. 74-82Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) is an X-ray imager, custom designed for the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (XFEL). It is a fast, low-noise integrating detector, with an adaptive gain amplifier per pixel. This has an equivalent noise of less than 1keV when detecting single photons and, when switched into another gain state, a dynamic range of more than 10(4)photons of 12keV. In burst mode the system is able to store 352 images while running at up to 6.5MHz, which is compatible with the 4.5MHz frame rate at the European XFEL. The AGIPD system was installed and commissioned in August 2017, and successfully used for the first experiments at the Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules (SPB) experimental station at the European XFEL since September 2017. This paper describes the principal components and performance parameters of the system.

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  • 21.
    Allahgholi, Aschkan
    et al.
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Becker, Julian
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Delfs, Annette
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Dinapoli, Roberto
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Göttlicher, Peter
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Graafsma, Heinz
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Greiffenberg, Dominic
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Hirsemann, Helmut
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Jack, Stefanie
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Klyuev, Alexander
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Krüger, Hans
    Universität Bonn, Bonn, Germany.
    Kuhn, Manuela
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Laurus, Torsten
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Marras, Alessandro
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Mezza, Davide
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Mozzanica, Aldo
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Poehlsen, Jennifer
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shefer Shalev, Ofir
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Sheviakov, Igor
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Schmitt, Bernd
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Schwandt, Jörn
    Universität Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany.
    Shi, Xintian
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Smoljanin, Sergej
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Trunk, Ulrich
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Zhang, Jiaguo
    Paul Scherrer Institut - PSI, Villigen, Switzerland.
    Zimmer, Manfred
    Deutsches Elektronensynchrotron - DESY, Hamburg, Germany.
    Megapixels @ Megahertz – The AGIPD high-speed cameras for the European XFEL2019In: Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, ISSN 0168-9002, E-ISSN 1872-9576, Vol. 942, article id 162324Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The European XFEL is an extremely brilliant Free Electron Laser Source with a very demanding pulse structure: trains of 2700 X-ray pulses are repeated at 10Hz. The pulses inside the train are spaced by 220ns and each one contains up to 1012photons of 12.4keV, while being ≤100fs in length. AGIPD, the Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector, is a hybrid pixel detector developed by DESY, PSI, and the Universities of Bonn and Hamburg to cope with these properties. It is a fast, low noise integrating detector, with single photon sensitivity (for Eγ⪆6keV) and a large dynamic range, up to 104 photons at 12.4keV. This is achieved with a charge sensitive amplifier with 3 adaptively selected gains per pixel. 352 images can be recorded at up to 6.5MHz and stored in the in-pixel analogue memory and read out between pulse trains. The core component of this detector is the AGIPD ASIC, which consists of 64 × 64 pixels of 200µm×200µm. Control of the ASIC's image acquisition and analogue readout is via a command based interface. FPGA based electronic boards, controlling ASIC operation, image digitisation and 10GE data transmission interface AGIPD detectors to DAQ and control systems. An AGIPD 1Mpixel detector has been installed at the SPB1 experimental station in August 2017, while a second one is currently commissioned for the MID 2 endstation. A larger (4Mpixel) AGIPD detector and one to employ Hi-Z sensor material to efficiently register photons up to Eγ≈25keV are currently under construction. 

  • 22.
    Alqaysi, Hiba
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Cost Optimization of Volumetric Surveillance for Sky Monitoring: Towards Flying Object Detection and Positioning2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Unlike surface surveillance, volumetric monitoring deals with three-dimensional target space and moving objects within it. In sky monitoring, objects fly within outdoor and often remote volumes, such as wind farms and airport runways. Therefore, multiple cameras should be implemented to monitor these volumes and analyze flying activities.

    Due to that, challenges in designing and deploying volumetric surveillance systems for these applications arise. These include configuring the multi-camera node placement, coverage, cost, and the system's ability to detect and position flying objects.

    The research in this dissertation focuses on three aspects to optimize volumetric surveillance systems in sky monitoring applications. First, the node placement and coverage should be considered in accordance with the monitoring constraints. Also, the node architecture should be configured to minimize the design cost and maximize the coverage. Last, the system should detect small flying objects with good accuracy.

    Placing the multi-camera nodes in a hexagonal pattern while allowing overlap between adjacent nodes optimizes the placement. The inclusion of monitoring constraints like monitoring altitude and detection pixel resolution influences the node design. Furthermore, presented results show that modeling the multi-camera nodes as a cylinder rather than a hemisphere minimizes the cost of each node. The design exploration in this thesis provides a method to minimize the node cost based on defined design constraints. It also maximizes the coverage in terms of the number of square meters per dollar. 

    Surveillance systems for sky monitoring should be able to detect and position flying objects. Therefore, two new annotated datasets were introduced that can be used for developing in-flight birds detection methods. The datasets were collected by Mid Sweden University at two locations in Denmark. A YOLOv4-based model for birds detection in 4k grayscale videos captured in wind farms is developed. The model overcomes the problem of detecting small objects in dynamic background, and it improves detection accuracy through tiling and temporal information incorporation, compared to the standard YOLOv4 and background subtraction.

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  • 23.
    Alqaysi, Hiba
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fedorov, Igor
    Qureshi, Faisal. Z.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A temporal boosted yolo-based model for birds detection around wind farms2021In: Journal of Imaging, ISSN 2313-433X, Vol. 7, no 11, article id 227Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Object detection for sky surveillance is a challenging problem due to having small objects in a large volume and a constantly changing background which requires high resolution frames. For example, detecting flying birds in wind farms to prevent their collision with the wind turbines. This paper proposes a YOLOv4-based ensemble model for bird detection in grayscale videos captured around wind turbines in wind farms. In order to tackle this problem, we introduce two datasets—(1) Klim and (2) Skagen—collected at two locations in Denmark. We use Klim training set to train three increasingly capable YOLOv4 based models. Model 1 uses YOLOv4 trained on the Klim dataset, Model 2 introduces tiling to improve small bird detection, and the last model uses tiling and temporal stacking and achieves the best mAP values on both Klim and Skagen datasets. We used this model to set up an ensemble detector, which further improves mAP values on both datasets. The three models achieve testing mAP values of 82%, 88%, and 90% on the Klim dataset. mAP values for Model 1 and Model 3 on the Skagen dataset are 60% and 92%. Improving object detection accuracy could mitigate birds’ mortality rate by choosing the locations for such establishment and the turbines location. It can also be used to improve the collision avoidance systems used in wind energy facilities. 

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  • 24.
    Alqaysi, Hiba
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fedorov, Igor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Cost Optimized Design of Multi-Camera Domefor Volumetric Surveillance2021In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 21, no 3, p. 3730-3737Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A multi-camera dome consists of number ofcameras arranged in layers to monitor a hemisphere aroundits center. In volumetric surveillance,a 3D space is required tobemonitoredwhich can be achievedby implementing numberof multi-camera domes. A monitoring height is consideredas a constraint to ensure full coverage of the space belowit. Accordingly, the multi-camera dome can be redesignedinto a cylinder such that each of its multiple layers hasdifferent coverage radius. Minimum monitoring constraintsshould be met at all layers. This work is presenting a costoptimized design for the multi-camera dome that maximizesits coverage. The cost per node and number of squaremetersper dollar of multiple configurations are calculated using asearch space of cameras and considering a set of monitoring and coverage constraints. The proposed design is costoptimized per node and provides more coverage as compared to the hemispherical multi-camera dome.

  • 25.
    Alqaysi, Hiba
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Lawal, Najeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fedorov, Igor
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thörnberg, Benny
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    O'Nils, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Design Exploration of Multi-Camera Dome2019In: ICDSC 2019 Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Distributed Smart Cameras, New York, NY: ACM Digital Library, 2019, article id Article No. 7aConference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Visual monitoring systems employ distributed smart cameras toeffectively cover a given area satisfying specific objectives. Thechoice of camera sensors and lenses and their deployment affectsdesign cost, accuracy of the monitoring system and the ability toposition objects within the monitored area. Design cost can bereduced by investigating deployment topology such as groupingcameras together to form a dome at a node and optimize it formonitoring constraints. The constraints may include coverage area,number of cameras that can be integrated in a node and pixelresolution at a given distance. This paper presents a method foroptimizing the design cost of multi-camera dome by analyzing tradeoffsbetween monitoring constraints. The proposed method can beused to reduce monitoring cost while fulfilling design objectives.Results show how to increase coverage area for a given cost byrelaxing requirements on design constraints. Multi-camera domescan be used in sky monitoring applications such as monitoring windparks and remote air-traffic control of airports where all-round fieldof view about a point is required to monitor.

  • 26.
    An, Qi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Construction of Control system for syringe dispenser based on Printrbot 3D printer2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    3D printers require a reliable and robust control system to provide the proper quality for printed parts. Dispenser 3D printers are widely used in various fields of scientific research. The goal of this project is to build a disperser 3D printer based on Printrbot 3D printer, design and implement the control system and software. This system was able to control the dispenser, performed the correct operation according to the instructions. The operating system was built by LabVIEW for file reading and printer control.

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  • 27.
    An, Siwen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Spectroscopic and Microscopic X-ray Fluorescence Analysis for Environmental and Industrial Applications2022Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metals are well-known environmental pollutants due to its potential impact on associated ecosystems and human health. Thus, it is important to monitor the levels of heavy metals in the environment. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a powerful and effective screening tool in measuring the concentration of multi-elements simultaneously.

    This thesis provides insight into development and implementation of XRF instruments for environmental monitoring and industrial process control. The XRF method was compared with a commercial scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) for fly ash samples. Qualitative analysis and semi-quantitative analysis of Na, S, Cl, K and Cd in incineration fly ash were performed with these two similar techniques. One of the challenges of using XRF is the scattering background noise from the primary beam, which decreases the detection limit and the sensitivity of the measurement system. Hence, an X-ray beam filter was chosen to suppress the background noise for a specific element, Cr, in leachate. Numerical simulations and experiments were developed to find the proper filter material and thickness by calculating the X-ray fluorescence intensities and the signal-to-noise ratio. The developed system is capable of online monitoring of Cr levels, to certify that the concentration is below the threshold level in leachate. An XRF prototype was built and calibrated for underwater Hg analysis in maritime wet sediment using a radioisotope source. The presented results show that it is possible to detect Hg by K-shell emission thus enabling XRF analysis for sediment underwater.

    For non-homogeneous samples, an image revealing the elemental distribution can be achieved by micro-XRF (µ-XRF). XRF mapping of element distributions on a microscopic level was obtained by using scanning XRF microscopy and full-field XRF projection microscopy (FF-XRF). The spatial resolution of the scanning XRF imaging setup using an X-ray tube is in the order of 100 µm, but need to be further improved to measure the homogeneity of S on individual fiber level in pulp and paper industry. For the scanning technique, it is a tradeoff between resolution and measurement time. Another technique is FF-XRF imaging, and a setup was implemented using an energy resolving pixel detector and X-ray optics. The capabilities and limitations of using X-ray optics in XRF imaging systems have been identified. These microscopy measurements can guide further comprehensive environmental and industrial monitoring missions, utilizing elemental distribution information.

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  • 28.
    An, Siwen
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for Environmental Applications2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Heavy metal contamination in environmental applications is particularly important because of its potential impact on associated ecosystems and human health. At present, monitoring of heavy metals is usually done by taking and preparing samples for off-line laboratory measurements. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is a powerful and widely used tool for determining the elemental composition and concentration of chemical species in materials. This project is a feasibility study for the possibility of on-line XRF systems for continuousand direct analysis of industrial processes and environmental emissions.

    The feasibility of such measurements depends on the accuracy with which the concentration can be measured within a given response time. Therefore, this project is focused on investigating possible background suppression of the XRF spectrum. First, an XRF setup has been built, and its capability has been compared to a commercial scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The qualitative analysis and semi-quantitative analysis of heavy metal contamination in fly ash was performed and compared. Due to minimal sample preparation, the developed XRF system is suitable for in-situ measurements. A series of experiments was performed to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio of the spectra achieved from chromium contaminated liquid samples. The most significant factor turned out to be the primary X-ray source filter. Numerical simulation models have been developed in the Monte Carlo N-particle radiation transport code (MCNP), to calculate the X-ray fluorescence intensities and the detection limit for chromium in liquid samples. The experimental results agree with the results predicted by the simulation model, hence the model is used for optimization of the XRF system. Further, XRF mapping of chemical element distributions on a microscopic level has been obtained by using both X-ray scanning microscopy and full-field projection microscopy. The resultingdata from these microscopy measurements can guide further comprehensive environmental and industrial monitoring missions by providing additional spatial distribution information.

    In conclusion, the first research contribution presented in this thesis is the demonstration of the possibility to perform in-situ XRF measurements of chromium contamination in leachate with a limit of detection below the legal environmental limits. The second is the demonstration of XRF mapping on amicroscopy level, where a polycapillary X-ray optics setup achieves a similar intensity as a geometrically corresponding pinhole optics setup.

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  • 29.
    An, Siwen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Krapohl, David
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Full-field X-ray fluorescence imaging with a straight polycapillary X-ray collimator2020In: Journal of Instrumentation, ISSN 1748-0221, E-ISSN 1748-0221, Vol. 15, no 12, article id P12033Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the availability of X-ray imaging detectors, full-field X-ray fluorescence (FF-XRF) imaging technique has become achievable, which provides an alternative to scanning X-ray fluorescence imaging with a micro-focus X-ray beamline. In this paper, we present a setup based on straight capillary optics and an energy-dispersive hybrid pixel detector, which can perform simultaneous mapping of several chemical elements. The photon transmission efficiency and spatial resolution are compared between two X-ray collimation setups: one using pinhole optics and one using straight polycapillary optics. There is a tradeoff between the spatial resolution and transmission efficiency when considering X-ray optics. When optimizing the spatial resolution, using straight capillary optics achieved a higher intensity gain when comparing with the pinhole setup. Characterization of the polycapillary imaging setup is performed through analyzing various samples in order to investigate the spatial frequency response and the energy sensitivity. This developed setup is capable of FF-XRF imaging in characteristic energies below 20 keV, while for higher energies the spatial resolution is affected by photon transmission through the collimator. This work shows the potential of the FF-XRF instrument in the monitoring of toxic metal distributions in environmental mapping measurements.

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  • 30.
    An, Siwen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Comparison of Elemental Analysis Techniques for Fly Ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration using X-rays and Electron Beams2019In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, Vol. 337, no 1, article id 012007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid expansion of the waste incineration business both in Europe and globally, there is a growing need for the elemental analysis for fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. In this work, samples of washed and unwashed ash from municipal solid waste incineration in Sundsvall are evaluated. Qualitative analysis and semi-quantitative analysis are used to compare two elemental analysis methods, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement. Both methods are used to retrieve the difference in elemental composition between washed and unwashed fly ash. SEM-EDS accurately detects light elements from well-prepared samples in a vacuum environment, while, for online measurements, XRF is a potential method that analyses hazardous metal content in the fly ash. 

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  • 31.
    An, Siwen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Reza, Salim
    Högskolan i Gävle.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fröjdh, Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Signal-to-Noise Ratio Optimization in X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometry for Chromium Contamination Analysis2021In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 230, article id 122236Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In most cases, direct X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis of solutions entails technical difficulties due to a high X-ray scattering background resulting in a spectrum with a poor signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Key factors that determine the sensitivity of the method are the energy resolution of the detector and the amount of scattered radiation in the energy range of interest. Limiting the width of the primary spectrum by the use of secondary targets, or filters, can greatly improve the sensitivity for specific portions of the spectrum. This paper demonstrates a potential method for SNR optimization in direct XRF analysis of chromium (Cr) contamination. The suggested method requires minimal sample preparation and achieves higher sensitivity compared to existing direct XRF analysis. Two states of samples, fly ash and leachate from municipal solid waste incineration, were investigated. The effects of filter material, its absorption edge and filter thickness were analyzed using the combination of Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code and energy-dispersive XRF spectrometry. The applied filter removes primary photons with energies interfering with fluorescence photons from the element of interest, thus results in lower background scattering in the spectrum. The SNR of Cr peak increases with filter thickness and reaches a saturation value when further increased thickness only increases the measurement time. Measurements and simulations show that a Cu filter with a thickness between 100 μm and 140 μm is optimal for detecting Cr by taking into account both the SNR and the exposure time. With direct XRF analysis for solutions, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) of the achieved system was 0.32 mg/L for Cr, which is well below the allowed standard limitation for landfills in Sweden. This work shows that XRF can gain enough sensitivity for direct monitoring to certify that the Cr content in leachate is below environmental limits.

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  • 32.
    An, Siwen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Zeeshan, Faisal
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Effects of Water Absorption on Mercury Contamination in Fiberbank Sediments using X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer2021In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2021, Vol. 690, article id 012031Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A large amount of contaminated cellulose and wood fibers were emitted directly onto the seabed by the pulp and paper industry before the year of 1970. This fiber-rich sediment contains concentrations of hazardous substances that cause environmental problems. Mercury (Hg) in the fiber sediment is a worldwide threat because it can bioaccumulate in the aquatic ecosystem and eventually affect human health. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis is anelemental analysis method for earth materials, which is rapid and requires minimal sample preparation. However, for in-situ XRF analyses, constraints in the measurement conditions will strongly affect the measurement sensitivity and accuracy, such as the scattered background and the water content surrounding the sample. In this work, we showed that applying an X-ray beam filter foil, optimized by using the material absorption edge, can improve the sensitivity of the XRF spectrometer system for Hg determination. Furthermore, the influence of water content in XRF measurement for Hg contamination analysis was investigated. The attenuation coefficient in water was determined by simulation of water layer with varying thickness using a Monte Carlo simulation code. The measured intensity for Hg was decreased exponentially asthe water thickness increase, as expected. We propose a method to correct the attenuation in water with XRF analysis and we expect that these findings can contribute to an accurate in-situ Hg detection experiment.

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  • 33.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Örtegren, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Grauers, Markus
    Nouryon Pulp and Performance Chemicals, Box 13000, 850 13 Sundsvall, Sweden.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Variable low-density polylactic acid and microsphere composite material for additive manufacturing2021In: Additive Manufacturing, ISSN 2214-8604, E-ISSN 2214-7810, Vol. 40, article id 101925Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermally expandable microspheres are extensively used in industry as a lightweight filler for many products. The spheres can expand up to 60 times the initial size and are used for different purposes, including material reduction and surface modification. In fused filament fabrication (FFF), a material is deposited in a layer-by-layer process. Typically, FFF objects need not be solid because such objects are typically used for applications with low mechanical stress. Low material infill percentages are commonly used inside a solid outer shell to reduce material usage, weight, and manufacturing time. This paper proposes a new composite filament for FFF consisting of polylactic acid (PLA) and thermally expandable Expancel microspheres in the form of masterbatch granules. These filaments contain unexpanded microspheres that can be expanded during printing by heating. Two types of filaments containing 2 wt% and 5 wt% of masterbatch granules were manufactured and tested. The filaments were successfully used with a commercial 3D printer to manufacture objects with a density of 45% compared to objects manufactured using standard PLA. The tensile strength of these objects changed linearly with density and was comparable to that of PLA objects of the same density prepared using infill patterns. The composite filaments are advantageous in that they can reduce the amount of material used, as is currently done by using different amounts of infill in a pattern. Further, by varying the nozzle temperature, their density can be adjusted directly during printing as well as during fabrication to produce layers of different densities in the same object. 

  • 34.
    Andersson, Henrik
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Šuly, Pavol
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Zlin, Czech Republic.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Engholm, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Zhang, Renyun
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Mašlík, Jan
    Tomas Bata University in Zlin, Zlin, Czech Republic.
    Olin, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    PEDOT: PSS thermoelectric generators printed on paper substrates2019In: Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications, ISSN 2079-9268, Vol. 9, no 2, article id 14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible electronics is a field gathering a growing interest among researchers and companies with widely varying applications, such as organic light emitting diodes, transistors as well as many different sensors. If the circuit should be portable or off-grid, the power sources available are batteries, supercapacitors or some type of power generator. Thermoelectric generators produce electrical energy by the diffusion of charge carriers in response to heat flux caused by a temperature gradient between junctions of dissimilar materials. As wearables, flexible electronics and intelligent packaging applications increase, there is a need for low-cost, recyclable and printable power sources. For such applications, printed thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are an interesting power source, which can also be combined with printable energy storage, such as supercapacitors. Poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-poly(styrenesulfonate), or PEDOT:PSS, is a conductive polymer that has gathered interest as a thermoelectric material. Plastic substrates are commonly used for printed electronics, but an interesting and emerging alternative is to use paper. In this article, a printed thermoelectric generator consisting of PEDOT:PSS and silver inks was printed on two common types of paper substrates, which could be used to power electronic circuits on paper. 

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  • 35.
    Andersson, Jacob
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Analys av kapacitetsbrist i ett mellanspänningsnät samt dimensioneringskriterier i kabelnätet inför energiomställningen2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Given the roaring energy transition, both people and companies want to be ahead of the curve and change to more energy efficient and green energy con- sumption. In most cases these renewable energy have to use the electrical grid, which is why this study focuses on the distribution network in a local electrical grid regarding its capacity. The goal is to estimate and investigate the amount of charging points for electrical vehicles in regards to the available capacity in the network. This is to be done in three different network configurations, which is then to conclude in dimensioning criterias. The three methods used to estimate the increase in top load in the local electrical grid are different. Two of the assumes a linear increase in the top load of every transformer, while the other one is based on the area which the sub- station is placed and estimates according to households, businesses and parking places. Where the top load increase differes between the different scenarios. With the estimations at hand, the different network configurations were simulated and subsquently calculated the load in the cables for the different scenarios. These simulations pointed out that there are cables in every scenario that are not up to par with the companys goal of limiting the load in the network configuration that is normally used. Aswell as not up to par with the cable data sheet in the reserve configuration. As the top load increase the amount of cable above the threshold increased, especially in scenario 1 for the normal configura- tion mode. In most cases in the normal configuration mode changing the cable to a 240mm2 cable would solve the problem. For the reserve configuration mode it was not always that simple, mostly because one trail of cable sometimes back up several other trails. Resulting in a bottle neck between the trails, some of these are not fully up to par, and some of them even have a higher maximum current than what the cables that are used can handle. Which meant that so- mething other than changing cable would be prefered, the best option seems to be increasing the amount of trail that can back up in the reserve configuration

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  • 36.
    Andresen, Jonas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Skillnader i upphandling mellan EBR och AMA2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Today's Swedish power grid has a major need for renovation and upgrading, which gives a big investment requirement over the next few years. This makes it important to find new entrepreneurs in addition to those already available today. Find a way to become more attractive and interesting for these entrepreneurs. This report highlights two methods that outsourcer have to relate to. First method is Electrical Building Rationalization (EBR) and the other method is general material and work description (AMA). The system of EBR is a secure system based on long-term statistics from installations, renovations and maintenance. There the advantages of standardized components are that they are cost-effective and create a quality of work performed. AMA is a reference tool for building projects from scratch. It's freer in its structure when planning a facility. One does not need relate to more strict approach. This report looks at the differences in EBR / AMA and looks at what are good changes to attract new actors in the market. What can be changed in the future and at the same time affecting projecting design and procurement documentation.

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  • 37.
    Aranda, Jesus Javier
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Self-powered wireless sensor using a pressure fluctuation energy harvester2021In: Sensors, E-ISSN 1424-8220, Vol. 21, no 4, article id 1546Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Condition monitoring devices in hydraulic systems that use batteries or require wired infrastructure have drawbacks that affect their installation, maintenance costs, and deployment flexibility. Energy harvesting technologies can serve as an alternative power supply for system loads, eliminating batteries and wiring requirements. Despite the interest in pressure fluctuation energy harvesters, few studies consider end-to-end implementations, especially for cases with lowamplitude pressure fluctuations. This generates a research gap regarding the practical amount of energy available to the load under these conditions, as well as interface circuit requirements and techniques for efficient energy conversion. In this paper, we present a self-powered sensor that integrates an energy harvester and a wireless sensing system. The energy harvester converts pressure fluctuations in hydraulic systems into electrical energy using an acoustic resonator, a piezoelectric stack, and an interface circuit. The prototype wireless sensor consists of an industrial pressure sensor and a low-power Bluetooth System-on-chip that samples and wirelessly transmits pressure data. We present a subsystem analysis and a full system implementation that considers hydraulic systems with pressure fluctuation amplitudes of less than 1 bar and frequencies of less than 300 Hz. The study examines the frequency response of the energy harvester, the performance of the interface circuit, and the advantages of using an active power improvement unit adapted for piezoelectric stacks. We show that the interface circuit used improves the performance of the energy harvester compared to previous similar studies, showing more power generation compared to the standard interface. Experimental measurements show that the self-powered sensor system can start up by harvesting energy from pressure fluctuations with amplitudes starting at 0.2 bar at 200 Hz. It can also sample and transmit sensor data at a rate of 100 Hz at 0.7 bar at 200 Hz. The system is implemented with off-the-shelf circuits. 

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  • 38.
    Aranda, Jesus Javier Lechuga
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Towards Self-Powered Devices Via Pressure Fluctuation Energy Harvesters2021Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The growing interest in the Internet of Things has created a need for wireless sensing systems for industrial and consumer applications. In hydraulic systems, a widely used method of power transmission in industry, wireless condition monitoring can lead to reduced maintenance costs and increase the capacity for sensor deployment. A major problem with the adoption of wireless sensors is the battery dependence of current technologies. Energy harvesting from pressure fluctuations in hydraulic systems can serve as an alternative power supply and enable self-powered devices. Energy harvesting from pressure fluctuations is the process of converting small pressure fluctuations in hydraulic fluid into a regulated energy supply to power low power electronics. Previous studies have shown the feasibility of pressure fluctuation harvesting. However, for the development of self-powered sensor systems, the methods and techniques for converting pressure fluctuations into electrical energy should be further investigated.

    This thesis explores the methods, limitations, opportunities and trade-offs involved in the development of pressure fluctuation energy harvesters in the context of self-powered wireless devices. The focus is on exploring and characterizing the various mechanisms required to convert pressure fluctuations into electrical energy. In this work, an energy harvesting device consisting of a fluid-to-mechanical interface, an acoustic resonator, a piezoelectric stack, and an interface circuit is proposed and evaluated. Simulations and experimental analysis were used to analyse these different components for excitation relevant to hydraulic motors.

    The results of this work provide new insights into the development of power supplies for self-powered sensors for hydraulic systems using pressure fluctuation energy harvesters. It is shown that with the introduction of the space coiling resonator for pressure fluctuation amplification and a detailed analysis of the fluid interface and power conditioning circuits, the understanding of the design and optimization of efficient pressure fluctuation energy harvesters is further advanced.

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  • 39.
    Aranda, Jesus Javier Lechuga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A space-coiling resonator for improved energy harvesting in fluid power systems2019In: Sensors and Actuators A-Physical, ISSN 0924-4247, E-ISSN 1873-3069, Vol. 291, p. 58-67Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Pressure fluctuation energy harvesting devices are promising alternatives to power up wireless sensors in fluid power systems. In past studies, classical Helmholtz resonators have been used to enhance the energy harvesting capabilities of these harvesters. Nevertheless, for fluctuations with frequency components in the range of less than 1000 Hz, the design of compact resonators is difficult, mostly for their poor acoustic gain. This paper introduces a space-coiling resonator fabricated using 3D printing techniques. The proposed resonator can achieve a better acoustic gain bounded by a small bulk volume compared to a classic Helmholtz resonator, improving the energy harvesting capabilities of pressure fluctuation energy harvesters. The resonator is designed and evaluated using finite-element-method techniques and examined experimentally. Three space-coiling-resonators are designed, manufactured and compared to classic Helmholtz resonators for three frequencies: 280 Hz, 480 Hz and 920 Hz. This work displays the possibility of compact, high-performance pressure fluctuation energy harvesters and the advantages of the space-coiling printed resonators to enhance the harvesting performance.

  • 40.
    Aranda, Jesus Javier Lechuga
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bader, Sebastian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Power conditioning for pressure fluctuation energy harvesters using piezoelectric stacks under low excitationManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Ashraf, Shakeel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Forsberg, Viviane
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. KTH, Wallenberg Wood Science Center, Stockholm.
    Mattsson, Claes G.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thermoelectric properties of n-type molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) thin film by using a simple measurement method2019In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 12, no 21, article id 3521Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a micrometre thin film of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) is characterized for thermoelectric properties. The sample was prepared through mechanical exfoliation of a molybdenite crystal. The Seebeck coefficient measurement was performed by generating a temperature gradient across the sample and recording the induced electrical voltage, and for this purpose a simple measurement setup was developed. In the measurement, platinum was utilized as reference material in the electrodes. The Seebeck value of MoS2 was estimated to be approximately -600 μV/K at a temperature difference of 40 °C. The negative sign indicates that the polarity of the material is n-type. For measurement of the thermal conductivity, the sample was sandwiched between the heat source and the heat sink, and a steady-state power of 1.42Wwas provided while monitoring the temperature difference across the sample. Based on Fourier's law of conduction, the thermal conductivity of the sample was estimated to be approximately 0.26 Wm-1 K-. The electrical resistivity was estimated to be 29 W cm. The figure of merit of MoS2 was estimated to be 1.99 × 10-4. 

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  • 42.
    Ashraf, Shakeel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Fabrication and characterization of a SU8-epoxy membrane based thermopile detector with an integrated multilayered absorber structure for the mid-IR region2019In: IEEE Sensors Journal, ISSN 1530-437X, E-ISSN 1558-1748, Vol. 19, no 11, p. 4000-4007Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper reports on the fabrication and characterization of a thermopile detector with an integrated mid-infrared absorber structure. The fabricated absorber structure has shown an absorption of more than 95% in the wavelength range of 3.2 – 5.47 μm. The detector was fabricated with standard cleanroom process techniques and equipment. The serial resistance was measured at about 315 kΩ at room temperature. The photosensitivity of the detector was characterized for a signle wavelength (4.26 µm) and a band of wavelength ranging from 2.5 –5.5 µm through two different measurement setups. In the first measurement setup, the photosensitivity was estimated at 57.5 V·mm2·W-1 through a MEMS-based infrared radiation source and with an optical band-pass filter of wavelength 4.26µm. The following characterization was performed to characterise the photosensitivity of the detector in a broader wavelength range. This measurement was taken using a monochromator setup utilizing a reference photodetector for calculations of the optical power of the infrared source. The photosensitivity and the specific detectivity (D*) of the fabricated detector were measured to values of 30-92 V·W-1 and 8.0×107-2.4×108 cm·Hz1/2·W-1, respectively, in the wavelength range of 2.8 – 5 µm. The time constant was estimated to around 21 ms

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  • 43.
    Ashraf, Shakeel
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Niskanen, Ilpo
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. University of Oulu, Finland.
    Kanyathare, Boniphace
    Electronics and Telecommunications Department, Dar es salaam Institute of Technology, Tanzania.
    Vartiainen, Erik
    LUT School of Engineering Science, Lappeenranta University of Technology, Finland.
    Mattsson, Claes
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Heikkilä, Rauno
    Faculty of Technology, Structures and Construction Technology, University of Oulu, Finland.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Determination of complex refractive index of SU-8 by Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation method at the wavelength range 2.5 – 22.0 μm2019In: Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy and Radiative Transfer, ISSN 0022-4073, E-ISSN 1879-1352, Vol. 224, p. 309-311Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate determination of the complex refractive index of SU-8 epoxy has significant for the wide variety of applications in optical sensor technology at IR range. The complex refractive index of SU-8 is determined by recording the transmission of light spectra for the wavelength range of 2.5 – 22.0 μm.  The data analysis is based on the Kramers-Kronig dispersion relation method. The method has several merits, such as ease of operation, non-contact technique, measurement accuracy, and rapid measurement. The present method is not restricted to the case of SU-8 but it is also proposed to be applicable across a broad range of applications, such as assessment of the optical properties of paints and biomedical samples.

  • 44.
    Ates, Rifat
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Ersättningstransformator vid lägre effektuttag samt ekonomiska aspekter2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport utreder på uppdrag av Norrmontage AB hur kostnader som orsakas av belastningsförluster(Pb) och tomgångsförluster(Po) för en transformator som är ansluten till en fjällby vilket har en ganska extrem skillnad mellan effektuttag vid hög och lågsäsong. Det befintliga transformatorn är märkt 800kVA 22/0,420kV.

    En teori från Norrmontage AB är att installera ytterligare en transformator som har lägre tomgångsförluster(P0) och belastningsförluster(Pb) jämfört med befintliga transformatorn och att en skiftning mellan dessa kommer att ske beroende på effektuttaget.

    Mätdata innehåller effektuttag från den befintliga 800kVA transformatorn under perioden 2013-11-14 och 2016-02-29 för dygnets alla timmar. En utredning på mätdata via Excels stapeldiagram ger som resultat att effekt uttaget är väldig lite under perioden 4 april och 31 oktober(Lågsäsong). Det finns också mindre effektuttag under vissa dagar utöver lågsäsongen. Men förstahand har det tagits hänsyn till förhållandena under lågsäsong.

    De transformatorer som är kandidater för det mindre effektuttag under lågsäsong är CTS 315kVA 22/0,42kV och CTS 500kVA 22/0,42kV vilket båda har betydligt lägre tomgångsförluster(P0) och belastningsförluster(Pb) än den befintliga transformatorn.

    Investeringskalkylen använder pay-off modellen och denna rapport påvisar att det inte är lönsamt att investera i att installera någon av de kandiderade transformatorer parallellt till den befintliga transformatorn.

    Tekniklösning har varit utmaning på detta projekt, vilken gjordes åtanke att

    säkra avbrottfri elleverans till konsumenterna.

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  • 45.
    Bader, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Grandien, Christina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Jaldemark, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    A tentative model for sustainable pedagogical digital competence development: Exploring networked learning in an educational development project2022In: Proceedings for the Thirteenth International Conference on Networked Learning 2022 / [ed] Jaldemark, J., Håkansson Lindqvist, M., Mozelius, P., Öberg, L-M., De Laat, M., Dohn, N.B., Ryberg, T., Aalborg, 2022, p. 1-7Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses one large university initiative for educational development aimed at further developing educations and teacher competence with a focus on technology-enhanced and lifelong learning. The aim of the paper is to describe and problematize the design of an ongoing project for educational development, Higher Education and Digitalisation (HEaD). It focuses on identifying key components of an educational development project for technology enhanced learning as well as how such a project can be organized to sustain in regular university operations. The article discusses how a project for educational development can create over-time durable infrastructures, organization, policy and motivation for maintaining a continual educational development. In the first phase of the project, a model was developed for how competence development can be conducted sustainably. This model contains two perspectives: (1) an organizational perspective that focuses on the key partners to be involved; and (2) a process perspective that focuses on activities and aims in strategic competence development projects. The tentative model with its two perspectives is described and discussed in this article as a preliminary result. The model includes four identified key entities and their roles in pedagogical digital competence development; academic departments and their faculty, educational developers, infrastructure and IT-department and the pedagogical research unit. Further, a process model based on existing support structures, complemented with activities that can be sustained after the HEaD project ends is presented.

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  • 46.
    Bader, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Ma, Xinyu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A Comparison of One- and Two-Diode Model Parameters at Indoor Illumination Levels2020In: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536, Vol. 8, p. 172057-172064Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indoor photovoltaic (PV) application gains in attraction for low-power electronic systems, which requires accurate methods for performance predictions in indoor environments. Despite this, the knowledge on the performance of commonly used photovoltaic device models and their parameter estimation techniques in these scenarios is very limited. Accurate models are an essential tool for conducting feasibility analyses and component dimensioning for indoor photovoltaic systems. In this paper, we therefore conduct a comparison of the one- and two-diode models with parameters estimated based on two well-known methods. We evaluate the models' performance on datasets of photovoltaic panels intended for indoor use, and illumination conditions to be expected in indoor environments lit by artificial light sources. The results demonstrate that the one-diode model outperforms the two-diode model with respect to the estimation of the overall I-V characteristics. The two-diode model results instead in lower maximum power point errors. Both models show a sensitivity to initial conditions, such as the selection of the diode ideality factor, as well as the curve form of the photovoltaic panel to be modeled, which has not been acknowledged in previous research.

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  • 47.
    Bader, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Ma, Xinyu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Distributed Measurement of Light Conditions for Indoor Photovoltaic Applications2020In: Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, 2020Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ambient light measurements and an understanding of light conditions are essential for the accurate estimation of available energy in indoor photovoltaic applications. Light conditions may vary with respect to illumination intensity, duration, and spectral composition. Although the importance of the light spectrum has been documented in laboratory studies, previous distributed measurement methods are limited to intensity as a measure for output power. In this paper, we propose and implement a system for distributed measurement of light conditions that includes spectral information with low overhead. Based on a prototype implementation, we demonstrate that the illumination intensity and spectrum varies considerably over time and space, which confirms the demand for the proposed solution. We, moreover, characterize the energy consumption of the prototype, demonstrating that long-term, unattended characterization of light conditions can be achieved. 

  • 48.
    Bader, Sebastian
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Ma, Xinyu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Oelmann, Bengt
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    One-diode photovoltaic model parameters at indoor illumination levels – A comparison2019In: Solar Energy, ISSN 0038-092X, E-ISSN 1471-1257, Vol. 180, p. 707-716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Models of photovoltaic devices are used to compare the properties of photovoltaic cells and panels, and to predict their I-V characteristics. To a large extent, modeling methods are based on the one-diode equivalent circuit. Although much research exists on the implementation and evaluation of these methods for typical outdoor conditions, their performance at indoor illumination levels is largely unknown. Consequently, this work performs a systematic study of methods for the parameter extraction of one-diode models under indoor conditions. We selected, reviewed and implemented commonly used methods, and compared their performance at different illumination levels. We have shown that most methods can achieve good accuracies with extracted parameters regardless of the illumination condition, but their accuracies vary significantly when the parameters are scaled to other conditions. We conclude that the physical interpretation of extracted parameters at low illumination is to a large extent questionable, which explains errors based on standard scaling approaches. 

  • 49.
    Bakar, Muhammad Abu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Wide Range Isolated Power Converters2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power electronics technology is rapidly growing in most industrialapplications. There is an increasing demand for efficient and low profilepower converters in the industry like automotive, power grids, renewableenergy systems, electric rail systems, home appliances, and informationtechnology. In some applications, there is an increasing demand for powerconverters showing a stable performance over a wide variation in inputvoltage, whereas in others the demand is for converters showing a stableperformance over a wide variation of output voltage. In this regard, not somuch work has been done to combine both requirements into one solution;this is the primary focus of the dissertation. It presents a unique solution tothe industry, which addresses both requirements. The technique can beapplied in a one size fits all solution which not only extends the range of theline voltage and the output voltage but also provides the flexibility to adjustthe required set of line/output voltage. The variation in line voltage severelydegrades the performance of power converters because of the extendedfreewheeling interval, more circulating current, narrow range of zero voltageswitching and increased EMI. To overcome this, the converter consists of tworeconfigurable modes on the input side that can be configured following thevariation in line voltage to maintain a stable performance. In addition, itproposes three reconfigurable steps for the output voltage, which can be usedto adjust the output voltage from base level X to 2X and 4X in discrete stepsand/or from X - 4X volt while showing stable performance. This makes theproposal a 2x3 reconfigurable modes power converter, which means that thegain of the proposed converter can be raised to 4 or 8. Furthermore, theflexibility in the reconfigurable structure simplifies the implementation of theproposed single solution in a range of applications. Each concept proposed inthe thesis is verified analytically, experimentally and modelling it into aSPICE simulation. Then the whole concept is confined into a single entity,which is applied in an example application of a phase shifted full bridgeconverter. The full converter is characterized for input voltage 100-400Vdc, theoutput voltage 24-96Vdc, and up to the load power of 1kW.

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  • 50.
    Bakar, Muhammad Abu
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Alam, Farhan Muhammad
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Barg, S
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A 2x3 Reconfigurable Modes Wide Input Wide Output Range dcdc Power ConverterIn: IEEE Access, E-ISSN 2169-3536Article in journal (Refereed)
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