Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet

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  • 1.
    Abbas, Mohamed
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Småskaliga elproduktionskällor som bygger på förnyelsebar energi lämpliga för installation i städer eller tätorter2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study maps several different small-scale and renewable electricity generation plants that are suitable for installation in the urban environment such as solar panels, wind turbines and water reactors. The thesis is studying the conditions and potential for these power sources to be installed and operated in residential areas.

    The premise covers how these facilities work, the factors affecting different facilities and the number of uses in the urban environment. The premise also includes a couple of investment cost analyzes for solar and wind power. The profitability analysis contains an economic comparison between wind or solar power and ordinary electricity from electricity companies.

    The thesis shows how profitable it is for a medium-sized house with an annual consumption of about 16,000 kWh to install solar cells or a small wind turbine, where all revenues such as state aids and surplus sales are counted towards payments such as investment costs.

    The result from the profitability analysis indicates that it is more profitable to invest in renewable production plants than to buy ordinary electricity from electricity companies. Profitability is beneficial for private individuals and society.

  • 2.
    Abbas, Tabassom
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sandblom, Sofia
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Digitalisering av arbetsflöde för avvikelsehantering på inköpt material: En fallstudie utförd på Nolato Cerbo AB i Trollhättan2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A case study was performed at Nolato Cerbo AB in Trollhättan, with the objective to design a suggestion of a digital workflow for deviation handlingfor purchased material. The following questions were issued to fulfil the objective of the case study:

    • Is a workflow for deviation handling for purchased material possible to digitalize in order to facilitate documentation, traceability and information handling?

    • How should the workflow be designed in order to reach the involved personnel's requirements and needs?

    • Which advantages and disadvantages could emerge from the implementation of a digital workflow? To be able to map the current workflow and its issues, interviews with the involved departments were conducted. The interviews also brought up the employees' opinions of a digital workflow. A flowchart was created and waste in the workflow was identified. A benchmarking was performed at Varner Retail Logistics AB, to get an insight of how another company uses a digital workflow for deviation handling. A new flowchart for deviation handling for purchased material was created, where the manual parts of the flow were digitalized. After a test had been performed with concerned employees, it could be stated that the digital workflow will facilitate documentation, traceability and information handling. The requirements and needs for the involved personnel were also fulfilled. Advantages that the respondents consider can be achieved with the digital workflow was time save, no manual handling of paper, a faster distribution of information and that the correct information will be filled in from the beginning. Disadvantages that the respondents consider can emerge is that it will take some time for the employees to learn and adapt to the new way of working and the limitations of the mobileapplication. The conclusions that were drawn was that the digital workflow will be able to be used if it's designed according to the suggestion, although changes to the workflow might be performed in the future. There might also be employees at Nolato CerboAB which afraid of digitalization and changes. For the implementation to be successful, an education and information about the possibilities that digitalization brings will be required.

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  • 3.
    Abdallah, Ali
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Yosef, Janan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Elbilsladdning längs E62021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, there are about 220,000 electric cars and the goal is to have 2.5 million electric cars by 2030. To achieve the goal, the charging infrastructure in Sweden needs to increase, especially along the motorways. The task is to investigate the possibility of expanding the charging infrastructure on the E6 between Gothenburg and Malmö. The chosen location for installation of a charging station along the E6 between Gothenburg and Malmö is at Heberg outside Falkenberg. This locationis suitable since it has a large parking lot and a restaurant where potential customers can rest and eat food while their electric car is being charged. There are different types of electric cars, plug-in hybrids and pure electric cars. 71% of all electric vehicles are plug-in hybrids while 29% are pure electric cars. Plug-in hybrids have an electric motor and a fuel engine while pure electric cars only have an electric motor. About 25.000 cars travel on the E6 at Heberg daily and about 4% of these are electric cars, and therefore it is estimated that about 50 electric cars per day will be charged at the selected location. The installation consists of 6 charging stations at Laxbutiken in Heberg, two fast chargers and four semi-fast chargers. The fast chargers are Terra 184 CC with an output of 180 kW and can charge up to three cars simultaneously. The semi-fast chargers are Chargestorm Connected 2 with two charging points for each pole and a power of 22 kW. Fast chargers can charge a car in 20-30 minutes, while with a semi-fast charger it takes 1-2 hours. The charging time depends on the size of the battery and the power. The total power required for the charging posts is 448 kW. A substation will be installed with an 800 kVA transformer to ensure that expansion is possible in the future without replacing the transformer. The cables are also dimensioned so they can also handle a future power increase. The cost of the project will be approximately SEK 1.856.000 including materials, cables and charging stations. The expected income is approximately SEK 894.000 in the first year. Payment terminals will be rented and installed at each charging station at a cost of SEK 85.740 including rent and transaction fees. With 50 % financial support from klimatklivet, the investment will be paid back within 1.1 years.

  • 4.
    Abdallah, Hussein
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Elbilsladdning längs vägen Trollhättan-Sälen2021Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The number of electric cars has increased drastically in recent years and interest in renewable energy is growing. In addition, the need for good charging infrastructure on the roads, which is sufficient for all new electric cars, is also increasing. This thesis is about placing charging infrastructure along the road Trollhättan-Sälen. 

    The report contains information about the different types of electric cars that currently exist with different safety levels and contact types. Different methods are used to calculate the range of electric cars. The report also contains information about the rules and laws that apply when installing charging stations.

    To find out where new charging infrastructure is needed on the route, a study is made of how many electric cars that travel on the specific roads each day. This is done to produce an estimate of the need for charging stations. However, it is difficult to know how long the cars need to be charged as there are large differences in the capacity of electric cars depending on which model it is. Also, not everyone stays the same time or charges until the battery is full. 

    Other studies were also carried out before the work began to get a better understanding of the conditions that exist on the section Trollhättan to Sälen. It is important to place the charging stations where new charging infrastructure is actually needed. Åmål, Sunne and Limedforsen were chosen based on the investigation done before placement. 

    Several companies were contacted during the project, although it was only one company that could state the prices of the products. Therefore, ABB was chosen as the supplier and prices for charging stations come from ABB. EBRE's cost calculation is used to obtain the prices for the substation, transformer, shaft and cable, etc. 

  • 5.
    Abdo, Adel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Tesfai, Henon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Öka energieffektiviteten genom Industri 4.02021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis has been carried out in consultation with PTC in Trollhättan, Sweden. The report consists of a comprehensive literature study on the various aspects involved, Reduce electricity waste by Industry 4.0. The various aspects concerning “Reduce electricity waste by Industry 4.0” have been investigated and a decision was made by the authors that by understanding the various aspects within the relevant subject, a deeper understanding will exist when the result is demonstrated. The various aspects are basic information about Industry 4.0, preventive maintenance, general knowledge about ventilation, minimizing the temperature increase and reducing energy consumption in an industrial premises with the help of ventilation and an information section about the lithium ion battery. 

    Finally, a result has been produced for crushing and the separation room to reduce the energy consumption in the room. The result consists of two parts in the same solution. The two steps are by reusing the air in the room as much as they can reduce the energy consumption in having to heat or cool the new external air. The second step is that with the help of AI and Big data technology, the computer system that controls the ventilation system will learn and recognize patterns of the weather and temperature in the external environment outside the industrial premises. Once the computer system has learned this, it can implement the lesson of when it is time for new external air to replace the existing air in the room and when it is time to try to reuse the air in the room to reduce energy consumption in heating and cooling the air. 

    Through personal communication with the supervisor Johan Dahlström a result has been produced by the authors. Results are considered to achieve the goal of reducing energy consumption with the help of Industry 4.0.

  • 6.
    Abdulkareem, Haji  
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Javidan, Mustafa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nätutvecklingsplan för området Hälltorp i Trollhättan2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    After many long power failure occurrences on the overhead line that feeds the receiving substation Torsred, and because of the household expansion in nearby area, Trollhättan Energi Elnät AB has decided that a new receiving substation that replaces the existing one should be built at a new location. This thesis includes investigation and calculation of a new electricity network and suggestions on how the new electricity network can integrate with the existing one. Also, a new selective coordination plan and new backup power alternatives are investigated.

    The existing receiving substation Torsred is fed by Vattenfall Eldistribution AB:s 130/10 kV transformer OT00 by an 1 km long overhead line. The neutral point in Torsred is connected to the high voltage bar and consists of neutral grounding resistor and neutral point reactor. The total load current in Torsred is 925 A and during short-circuit in the busbar 154 MVA short-circuit power emerges. The substation Ängen with a short-circuit power 138 MVA is an underlying substation to Torsred that feeds the areas Öresjö, Edsäter and Hjärtum. All the outgoing electric lines in Torsred and Ängen are protected with relay protection and with different time- and current setting on these relays is selectivity installed for the underlying electrical network.

    The new receiving substation is planned to be built near the feeding point OT00. According to calculations the short-circuit power in the new receiving substations will be 227 MVA and in Ängen 200 MVA. The capacitive current increases because the over 1 km overhead line is demolished, and additional 7,5 km underground cable is added on in the new electrical network. A neutral point reactor needs to be upgraded to a 20 A bigger than the existing one because of the increasing capacitive generation in the electrical network. The price to build the receiving substation will be about 9 Mkr. The existing receiving substation Torsred will be demolished and replaced with a new 800 kVA network substation which will be used to feed a couple of the low voltage network in the area Strömslund. The distribution substation Ängen will be modernized. The total price for the whole project is calculated to 11,4 Mkr.

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  • 7.
    Abrahamsson, Amanda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Wilsson, Camilla
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av koncept för en ergonomisk materialhantering i en tillverkningsgrupp2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor´s thesis has been carried out at Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB in Trollhattan. The thesis presents concept development for a workspace in a manufacturing group that processes details with a maximum weight of 13 kg. The details are moved between trolleys and the milling machine center Heckert 4, all work is performed on a height-adjustable floor to give the operator the right conditions for working with the machine. The affected workspace is currently not ergonomically adapted for the operators when ergonomic risks in the form of manual lifting, rotations and bent working positions occur in the daily work. The purpose of this thesis is therefore to improve the workspace of the milling machine center Heckert 4 in such a way that it becomes more ergonomic and risk-free for the operators. The goal of this thesis was to generate a concept for a more ergonomic workspace and to prevent the risk of injuries forthe operators.

    The work began with information being collected in the form of observations and interviews. Through this, a description of the current situation could be established, and a list of needs and requirements was put together. A risk analysis was carried out on the current situation and contributed to additional requirements in the list. Subsequently, ideas were generated for solutions to the problems that were highlighted in the current situation description. These were then combined into concepts that contained solutions for the ergonomic risks that were earlier identified. With a concept screening matrix, the concepts were screened down and assessed against the current situation. The highest ranked concepts were further evaluated in a concept scoring matrix that ultimately resulted in a winning concept. The winning concept was further modeled and improved.

    The resulting concept that is presented to Parker for continued work is concept I+. Concept I+ consists of two movable surfaces located on the height-adjustable floor at each side of Heckert 4. Two counters are located on either side of the floor to ease the work for the operators. One counter is equipped with a tool stand with space for the tool kittingtrays to be used to kit the necessary tools.

    The concept I+ reduces ergonomic risks by allowing the parts to be pushed instead of manual lifting in combination with turning of the torso. As the details can be placed on the benches when the floor is raised, the bending act that the operators previously performed is eliminated. If Parker decides to continue developing this concept, they will have a more risk-free workspace with improved ergonomics and reduced risk of injuries.

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  • 8.
    Adamsson, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys och optimering av verktygsförslitning vid skärande bearbetning i superlegering2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the aerospace industry today, super alloys are used in components for jet engines. To increase the efficiency of these engines, through higher combustion temperatures, new materials are developed which maintain their strength at elevated temperatures. The increase in strength as well as the ability to maintain the strength at elevated temperatures, makes them more difficult to manufacture with metal cutting technology.

    The Sector Workshop at GKN Aerospace Sweden in Trollhättan produces a large number of products with a variety of cutting tools. Some of these tools, for a certain product, have been investigated in this work. The products are manufactured from a hard-wearing superalloy which results in extremely high tool wear and high tooling costs.

    To enable improvements in the metal cutting process, a literature study was first conducted. The study focus was to identify information about the various tool wears that occur in metal cutting process of super alloys. Thereafter, specifically selected tools were analyzed. The analysis consisted primarily of a classification of the different tool wear types. In parallel with the tools being classified, measurements were made of the size of wears using a digital microscope.

    The collected data was later used for a statistical analysis, which identified the tool wear type that was the most common. The analysis showed that most of the tools had chipping. Then, to identify where in the machining process the chipping occurred further analyzes were made where the tool wear curves for two cutting tools were plotted. During this analysis to produce the tool wear curves, it was found that the chipping appeared when the tools engaged the workpiece.

    In the later parts of the work, a list of proposal was generated about how the metal cutting process could change to reduce the identified tool wears. One suggestion was to optimize the tool engagement of the workpiece. Also, an optimization of cutting data and especially the spindle speed were also recommended to reduce chipping. This due to some of the chipping could be caused by chatter vibration. For the ceramic tools an increased cutting speed was recommended because machining today was carried out at a much lower cutting speed than research results indicate is necessary for ceramic cutting tools in super alloys. Finally, a checklist for manufacturing personnel was formulated, which could be used to optimize tool wear at GKN Aerospace Sweden.

  • 9.
    Agovic, Emil
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kaltak, Aldin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Effektivisering av packningsflöde för filter på Ultramare AB2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Nowadays companies must become more efficient with optimization of manufacturing processes and handling of goods, which often also includes the packaging process. This is when companies within the same industry compete with different strategies to become a leading company. Ultramare AB is a company that is constantly working to reduce waste to compete with others in the same industry. In order to maintain competitiveness, the company needs to improve the packaging process and as a result, the thesis work was carried out with the purpose to increase the efficiency of the packaging flow. The aim of the project was to reduce the throughput time in the packaging flow from 25 percent to 15 percent of the total factory flow. The study design used in this thesis was a case study. It is based on a data collection that was based on literature study, observations and interviews. In addition, quantitative methods were implemented, for example, time measurements of the operations in the packaging flow. The information gathered from the observations and interviews indicated that the company had two different methods of delivery with the same amount of operations. Prior to mapping the current process, time measurements were performed on all operations to increase the efficiency of the process. These time measurements were based on different customer orders for each delivery method, which made it possible to obtain all the information to streamline the current process. The method used in mapping and analyzing the flow was a value stream mapping process for each delivery method. The purpose of the value stream mapping, in this case, was to be able to distinguish the value-creating and nonvalue-creating activities clearly and easily in the current flow. By having an overview of the current state of the packaging process, various improvement suggestions could be generated. The generated improvement suggestion was screened based on the warehouse workers in the packaging department, were reduced to a number of final suggestions. These were analyzed to determine the impact and effect each suggestion had on the process. In addition, an estimated time reduction is reported when implementing the final suggestions on the current flow. To clearly visualize the estimate for each improvement suggestion, two new value stream analysis were conducted with new times and activities. The result when implementing all 14 final suggestions was that the total throughput time will be reduced by 10.25 percent.

  • 10.
    Ahlström, Wilma
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Svanling, Lovisa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Konkurrentanalys inom marknadsföring: Ett underlag för Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB:s strategiska beslut och åtgärder2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor's thesis was carried out on behalf of Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB in Trollhättan, manufacturer of hydraulic pumps and hydraulic motors. Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB currently has difficulties in understanding how competitios work with social media. Therefore, the company wanted to conduct a competitor analysis to identify the gap between the companies. The purpose is to provide Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB with an understanding of four selected competitors. The work started with information gathering to create knowledge about hydraulic motors and selected companies that make similar products. Observations of the companies' social media were made based on several parameters. Also, additional analysis tools have been used during the work, such as benchmarking and the marketing mix. The information resulted in similarities and differences that were identified, which is presented in chapter five. The marketing of Parker Hannifin Manufacturing Sweden AB's products takes place at the group level, which created problems with the work's boundaries. Difficulties in distinguishing the marketing changed the work of hydraulics piston engines to a general survey. Furthermore, strengths and weaknesses are investigated with companies' marketing on social media. The writers' views on Parker Hannifin Corporation's real competitors are discussed. The chapter Analysis and Discussion conclude with an account of three suggestions for improvement: • Create pages on social media for marketing products made in Trollhättan. • Create a Facebook group for products manufactured in Trollhättan that are linked to the Group's Facebook page. • Investigate what the customer has for expectations on the company's social media platforms. In summary, specific marketing for products manufacture by Parker in Trollhättan is difficult to identify. Furthermore, it was found that Parker Hannifin Corporation, from a marketing standpoint, mimics the competitors Bosch Rexroth AG and Danfoss Power Solutions AB. The report is an introduction to understanding the competitors and the work should continue with further development of the competitor analysis.

  • 11.
    Ahrnfeldt, Olof
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Användning av reservelverk för att minska avbrottstiden på grund av fel på mellanspänningskablar2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Every Network operator strives to have as few and short outages as possible. Network operators therefore work continuously to convert the overhead lines to cables. Therefore, there is a need to gather knowledge about outages on cables and look into methods to decrease the outage time. There are laws and guidelines that need to be taken in consideration that limit the allowed maximum outage time and that is why backup generators could be a method to prevent breaking them.

    Problems that can arise regarding cable outages are to locate the flaw. Visual troubleshooting is often not a viable option which requires that the prerequisites are good enough to be able to use other fault detection methods. Factors that could affect the possibilities to use other measurement methods are the length, number of joints and the surrounding environment of the cable.

    Backup generators are most commonly used for maintenance and to reduce the outage time. The generators are mainly connected at the low voltage busbars but with additional equipment as portable transformers it can also be connected to the high voltage busbars.

    The result of the work performed shows that there are different factors that affect the outage time and frequency. One contributing factor that leads to increased outage time is the length of the cable. It may be due to difficulties to locate the flaw or that the cable pass inaccessibility areas increases when the length of the cable increases. During the winter period the average outage time is longer as compared with summertime, but during the summertime the outage frequency is higher.

    Vattenfall have backup generators, portable transformers and diesel containers available for booking on the internal website. The most common time before a backup generator is connected is between three and four hours. By using backup generators, it would be possible to reduce the outage time on about 100 outages during the analyzed time period. The potential decrease of SAIDI by using backup generators has not been able to be calculated because of lack of data.

    Available data is based on what is documented and there have probably been more situations when backup generators have been used but not been documented. With access to higher quality documentation the analyzes could be done more accurate.

  • 12.
    Akram, Yasser
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mirzad, Elias
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Studie av övertoners inverkan på relätripptiden hos ett elektromekaniskt överströmsrelä2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A problem that has been noticed in the electricity grid is the increase in level of harmonics. In some cases, there may also be currents or voltages with frequencies that differ from the fundamental tone and this leads to the grid having harmonics meaning that when loads and components in the electricity grid are not sinusoidal, harmonics occur. For example, an increase in these types of loads e.g. charging an electric car or computers, in the electricity grid gives rise to an increasing harmonic content.

    In view of the aforementioned, this thesis has been carried out in collaboration with the Megger Sweden AB, Stockholm, as the official client for this study. The purpose here is to study the effect of harmonics on the relay trip time of an electromechanical overcurrent relay that is installed in the power grid's control facilities.

    The tests are performed with the test instrument Sverker 900 and an electromechanical overcurrent relay, ASEA RI. For testing the RI relay, a Swedish standard, an upcoming international standard as well as instructions from the client have been thoroughly followed and applied. The results of the tests shows the difference between the trip time with harmonics and the trip time for the fundamental tone.

    Conclusions based on the results are partly that the overcurrent relay is slower at weak currents, that is 2.8A and 3A respectively, as well as for long trip times in relation to the behavior without harmonics. According to the findings conducted herein, there is no significant correlation between the presence of harmonics and the influence of the relay trip time on medium and strong currents, between 4A-8A, or on shorter trip times.

    By reason of the time constraint experienced in conducting this study, the results and findings reached leaves a sound potential and promise for future tests conducted at different harmonic levels. A future recommendation for similar studies will be to test only at low currents, long trip times and slow disk speeds as this would facilitate the possibility of fulfilling a more robust result analysis.

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  • 13.
    Alagic, Almira
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Balint, Norbert
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Marknadsanpassning av kabelskopa2017Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Excavating buckets are tools that construction machines use for excavation, demolition or moving different sorts of soils. Buckets are exposed to harsh environments there for ex-ample weather and the soil material that wears and strains the tool. To minimize wear and increase the tool's efficiency, can the material for the bucket be suited for the environment in which the tool is used.

    The aim of the project is to help the company to increase their exports to the EU. The goal is to produce a cable bucket adapted for the Dutch market, which is based on the product's current weight, material composition, performance and cost.

    Based on the company's needs the focus of this project is to adapt a cable bucket to the conditions and the market in the Netherlands. In order to implement a market expansion the company also needs to get information about market conditions, circumstances and customer requirements.

    In the end of the project a cable bucket considered to be adapted for the Dutch market were proposed. The comparison between the new bucket and the existing bucket resulted in a lighter and cheaper bucket where the material choices are based on the most common in the Netherlands and the bucket performs as its competitors.

  • 14.
    Albayat, Mohammed
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förebyggande Underhåll för en batteriåtervinnningsfabrik2022Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten som redovisas här är ett examensarbete med uppdrag att genomföra förebyggande underhåll i kross- och separationsavdelningen på en batteriåtervinning fabrik. Fabriken återvinner litiumjonbatterier som används i elbilar. I kross- och separationsavdelningen är det mycket buller och damm som en följd av skakande och krossande processerna i den mekaniska separationen. Det är tunga maskiner som genom olika operationer sliter isär metallkomponenterna i batteriet till mindre delar för att slutligen mala dem och separera beståndsdelarna i materialet åt med avseende på deras magnetiska egenskaper. Förutsättningar i kross och separationsavdelningen medför ohälsosam miljö för människor, vilket leder till att avdelningen måste styras automatiskt utan att medarbetare behöver befinna sig i avdelningen. Det föreslagna förebyggande underhållssystemet som behandlas i rapporten stöds av teknik från Industri 4.0. Industri 4.0 är benämningen på en rad moderna teknologier och koncept som används inom automation. Maskin-till-Maskin kommunikation och Internet of things(IoT) är integrerade för högre grad av automation. Förebyggande underhållsarbetet som presenteras baseras på en förstudie analys som nischar sig inom förebyggande underhåll och industri 4.0. Förebyggande Underhållsarbetet som redovisas i denna rapport kommer inkludera ett signalflödesschema som ska visualisera kommunikationen mellan enheterna i avdelningen,en schematisk design för övervakningssystem, ventilationen och ett underhållsschema för maskinerna i avdelningen

  • 15.
    Alfredsson, Jonas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av kravspecifikation och affärsmodell för fjärrdiagnostisering av lyftlösning2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In collaboration with Binar Quick-Lift Systems AB, a product development project has been carried out at the University West in Trollhättan. Binar Quick-Lift Systems AB manufactures and develops lifting solutions for loads up to 300 kg and is an affiliate of the Binary Group, where operations are conducted in two primary areas: Industrial Solutions and First Responder Technology.

    The vision for most companies is to develop and given the current trend of the Internet of Things, Binar wanted to see how a wireless communication solution can integrate with the company's existing lifting solutions. The goal of this mission was to establish a requirement specification and a business model for wireless diagnostics of their lifting solution, based on customer needs and the company's basic requirements.

    The introduction of the project consisted of a preliminary study which included information gathering and interviews with stakeholders and experts. A market investigation was performed in parallel with the interviews where a function and competitor analysis were conducted to obtain relevant customer data as well as an understanding of the market. The requirement specification was established using collected information in the preliminary study and the business model was generated from the preliminary study as well as the customer and base requirements.

    The result was a requirement specification with mainly subjective requirements as well as a business model with a basic contract offer for the sale of the wireless solution.

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  • 16.
    Alléus, Jonas
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Dalin, Patrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Vass, Sebastian
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Planering av laddstationer vid flerbostadshus2018Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sales of electric vehicles grow annually which increases the need for charging stations on parking lots at apartment houses. This report explore both the technical and the economical aspects of electric car charging for Stenungsundshem. The types of electric cars available on the market that can be charged by energy from the electric power network is the Plug-in hybrid and the electric car. The most common type on the market is the Plug-in hybrid which is driven by an electric motor and an internal combustion engine. The electric car is only driven by an electric motor. Charging times for electric cars depend on if the charging station is designed with normal charging or fast charging. For home charging, normal charging is the most common type of charging where the car is fully charged after six to ten hours. The connection between charging stations and cars can be made by different types of connectors. The European standard is the Type 2 connector. Safety is very important when charging electric cars, Therefore, charging stations have been divided into four different safety modes. Safety modes differ depending on the type of communication available between the charging station and the car. Mode 3 is the standardized mode in the Nordic countries. Charging of electric cars can result in power peaks which the main fuse must be dimensioned for. Power peaks can be reduced by using some type of load balancing system where available power during the day is distributed between charging stations to keep the power consumption below rated power. Terms of how charging is done and installation of charging station must be in compliance with Ellagen. For easier compliance and clarification of Ellagen standards and regulations should be used. In this project cable dimensioning by power requirements for different amounts of charging stations has been made, PEX insulated aluminum cable is exclusively used within the project. The market of charging stations is explored to look at different solutions and costs for charging stations and routing of cables. The best option for Stenungsundshem is currently to install two charging station for charging outlets to four parking spaces. Contributions like “Klimatklivet” can reduce total costs of investments for charging stations and cable routing with up to 50%.

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  • 17.
    Almhage, Tim
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nyström, Robin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utmaningar samt förbättringsförslag vid implementering av ett simuleringsverktyg2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the degree project was to develop and map challenges and improvement proposals in the implementation of a simulation tool. The simulation tool that was to be implemented is used to reduce costs in logistics and is already available in other factories in the Group. The simulation tool was not directly transferable as the information base used to build the tool differs from the base of other factories. The difference was, among other things that different articles were used and the layout of the factories was not the same. Even though the data could not be used directly, the work was facilitated by the opportunity to consult how other factories went about implementation. This case study describes what an implementation of a simulation tool can look like. To help with the work, several methods and theory for continuous improvement will be presented. Much of the information gathered has been gathered trough meetings, interviews and tours of the factory to be able to understand how it is structured and how different elementsworked. The case study further describes that previous implementation attempts have failed and why the possibilities are greater in this implementation attempt. The work resulted in several challenges as well as improvement proposals that are analyzed in the case study. It was concluded that the opportunities to be able to improve operations when implementing a simulation tool were great and that these conclusions can be used inthe next implementation work. The three improvement proposals presented in the case study are to create a library, a living flow chart with a responsible improvement team and to sell improvement proposals before start-up.

  • 18.
    Alsing, Linda
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson Storm, Sandra
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Sustainability of Additive Manufacturing: Electron Beam Melting of IN7182019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this thesis is to examine and describe the process of Additive Manufacturing (AM) and the energy use in the production of parts manufactured with the Electron Beam Melting (EBM) technology in particular IN718, which is a Nickel-based superalloy with specification according to UNS n07718 that is used in the aerospace industry. The objectives also include a brief overview of powder bed AM methods and a sustainability analysis. Consequently, this thesis will examine both energy use and the CO2-footprint for the EBM with IN718. The result of this thesis will be used in the SuMan-Next project at the Centre for Production Research, PTC, in Trollhättan where University West conducts research in materials for the Aerospace industry. AM is currently a rapidly expanding area of manufacturing. This process adds the material layer-by-layer, which results in a design freedom and flexibility that is almost impossible for traditional subtracting manufacturing. To examine the energy use, measurements with an electrical network analyzer was performed on the EBM while two different geometries was manufactured. After these measurements, the data was collected and the energy use for the build could be calculated. By doing that, the CO2 footprint for the build could be estimated. A study visit to the AM division of Sandvik Machining Solutions in Sandviken was conducted to observe, investigate and learn more about atomization of metal powder. A small Life-Cycle-Inventory was conducted and the production process could be assessed, to establish the CO2 footprint from material extraction to product. When it comes to CO2 footprint, it is definitely the production of the material before atomization that gives the most CO2 footprint, this thesis can establish that the geometry does matter for the build part and that in these conducted studies it is with a factor 2. However, compared to manufacturing of the powder or/and the build, the bulk material production gives 5-50 times more CO2footprint than the rest of the process. If using more recycled material in the metallurgy instead of virgin, the CO2 footprint will decrease significantly. Recycled material is good to decrease the energy use and CO2 footprint, but also to decrease the mining of the critical elements that are included in the alloys.

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  • 19.
    Alwahami, Ali
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ibrahim, Gabriella
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Livscykelanalys av cykelmodell BCF Gravel2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Borås Cykelfabrik is a Swedish company that assembles and sells bicycles. The company offer both customized and prebuilt bikes such as mountain bikes, gravel/cross and road bikes made of carbon fiber composite and aluminum alloy.

    Bicycle sales have increased by 30 % during 2019–2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic and increased environmental awareness in the society. Thus, Borås Cykelfabrik sees potential to increase its sales of bicycles. In line with increasing environmental awareness in society, the demand for sustainably produced bicycles increases. The company therefore has an interest in comparing three different bicycle models with carbon fiber, aluminum, and steel frames regarding their environmental impact.

    The purpose of the following life cycle study is to provide a theoretical basis for the environmental impact of the three bicycle models during each phase. The phases examined in the study are material production, manufacturing, use, transport, and end-of-life. For data collection concerning energy use and carbon footprint, Granta EduPack 2020 database was used.

    The results show that the bicycle model with a steel frame has the least environmental impact in comparison with the models with carbon fiber- and aluminum frames. On the other hand, it appears that the model with carbon fiber frame has the greatest potential for improvement. The largest share of energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions occurs during the production of materials for all bicycles.

    To achieve a bicycle with a circular flow, there are three significant factors. These factors are the choice of material, how the product is disposed of and the transportations.

  • 20.
    Ameh, Augustine Omale
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Upscaling of Textile Sorting / Recycling Facility: At Wargön Innovation Demo Facility2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sustainability in consumer generated textile waste and disposal practices is a concern due to the raw materials requirements and its impact to the environment. With the Swedish government set to implement the 'Extended Producer Responsibility' legislation for textiles due to these concerns, textile sorting / recycling facilities are critical to achieve improved end-of-life consumer textile recycling. For profitability, the textile sorting / recycling operations have to be done at a scale that optimizes the opportunities. This thesis work investigates the current state and challenges of textile sorting in Sweden and researches solutions towards the scaling-up or capacity expansion of the existing textile sorting facility at Wargön Innovation from 500 tons/year to 1000 tons/year as well as application of lean manufacturing methodologies in optimisation while creating value within the supply chain. To fully grasp the situationat Wargön Innovation, detailed interviews, observations, process and equipment trails were conducted. Based on the current state, a layout was developed and sorting process flow created as well as a spaghetti diagram. Also, 3D modelling and process simulation of the sorting was carried out using Visual Components software to develop simple and yet visually powerful designs that validated the proffered solutions. To scale-up, it was established that air-throwers will need to be installed for sorted textile diversion to allow for higher sorting rates. Solutions towards improving the sorting process and value chain at Wargön Innovation was also proffered and recommendations included post-consumer textiles segregation at source, customer/suppliers diversification etc. For recommended further works, the area of automation of the manual pre-sorting process to eliminate manual handling will be another area of interest for which continued work is suggested.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Anette
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Bojort, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nätplan för fördelningsstation M5 Hålta2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the area of Tjuvkil on the west coast, about 16 kilometers west of Kungälv city, a new residential area is about to be planned for about 140 new houses and holiday houses turned into permanent houses. A grid plan will therefore be made to investigate if there are any flaws to consider for the 10 kV-net, before and after the introduction which the new load will cause on behalf of the houses, plus extra space for the installation of an amount of charging posts.

    The purpose of this thesis is to compile the grid plan which will make the groundwork for the power distribution grid under the M5 transformer Hålta, which contains the areas for the new settlement. Backed up by the software dpPower this work will point out the flaws such as thin cables where large load currents and voltage drop occur, and also the statistics for interruption for the five outgoing lines from M5. This work also shows the status for the transformer in Hålta and how the surrounding grids status will be affected during their backup of emergency power for the M5. This work shows the grid status in the 4 steps as present status, with new load, emergency power and solutions.

    The thesis's evaluation of M5 Hålta will result in a suggested change of cable for the line L501 to Tjuvkil, which will decrease voltage drop and lower load current to avoid interruptions on the grid. Emergency power is lacking for a large-scale consumer and can be fixed with a looped feeding instead of a single line feeding on line L503. The transformer M5 in Hålta is already heavy loaded and in need to be replaced by a larger transformer later on. The thesis gives a suggestion on how to connect the adjacent transformers M1, M4 and M6 for emergency power.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Metodutveckling för analys av driftstörningar relaterade till planerade arbeten i Vattenfalls distributionsnät2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor's thesis was performed on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB as a continuation of a previous thesis (reference thesis) covering the same subject. The project intended to expand on that thesis by developing a replicable method aimed for analysis of incidents with direct association to planned work; in this project defined as a "consequential incident". During assessment of a likely consequential incident, two additional filter criteria were also included in this project: Incidents originating from tests performed on protective relays and incidents registered for sole substations.

    The method is mainly conceptual and is composed of an analytic tool programmed with VBA through Microsoft Excel, intended to be demonstrated only for 2017. The workflow begins with importing relevant raw data from Vattenfall's database systems, including 2 292 out of 2 501 switching schedules and 4 607 out of 11 263 incidents. The function for generating "preliminary matches" is designed to compare each switching schedule to each incident. A matching event is triggered if an incident's start time coincides within a switching schedule's time frame; in conjunction with occurring on the same primary feeder station as the planned work. Each match is assigned an ID and one out of seven categories; each reflecting a match's likelihood of being a consequential incident; partly based on parameters gleaned from a switching schedule's work description, partly by certain keywords sometimes located in an incident's fault report comment.

    534 preliminary matches were assessed through a designated analysis user form resulting in a span of 51 to 82 consequential incidents; constituting an increase of 59–256 % compared to the reference thesis' 32, year 2017. The reference value of SAIDI amounted to 0,82 minutes whereas the new SAIDI amounts to 1,71–4,43 minutes (+109–540 %), of which one minute was due to faults during relay tests. Extrapolation based on these ratios, and reference values from 2015–2018, resulted in a yearly average of 68 incidents and 4,76 SAIDI-minutes; an approximate cost of 262 Mkr (55 Mkr per SAIDI-minute).

    The project's intentions are considered reached and the tool has proved a high user friendliness, functionality, and future development flexibility. A lack of quality assured data was the project's main challenge, which has resulted in rather unreliable results. This could be amended by furthermore only allowing data from reliable sources like NetBas DarWin. Vattenfall could also assist future analysis by internally defining tangible intentions and ambitions concerning this subject; mainly by determining its relevance to the company's exponentially decreasing goals regarding their quality and continuity of supply.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Back, William
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvärdering för att främja AMS i relation till planerat SAIDI i Vattenfalls distributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Eldistribution AB is striving towards maintaining high service reliability for customers in their distribution grid. This ideally implicates that power outages cannot occur from neither unpredictable disturbances, nor as a direct result of planned work. The supervisory authority for the energy markets, The Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (Ei) regulates and limits Vattenfall’s revenue based on the key performance indicator (KPI) System Average Interruption Duration Index (SAIDI). To improve SAIDI it is preferential using working methods causing no power outages, where the method of Live Working (AMS) is included.

    Vattenfall’s distribution grid is divided into ten contract areas where one entrepreneur, after leaving a suitable proposal, wins the solicitation process for either of these contract areas’ service agreement. A single entrepreneur (Entrepreneur A) holds all service agreements during this study’s interval (year 2016–2018). There is a high prevalence of compactly built substations today, usually built with fully insulated switchgear, which due to a lack of working clearance and cramped working spaces inhibit the prospect for AMS. A high prevalence of underground cable also inhibits AMS due to difficulties connecting bypassing units.

    A statistical evaluation and compilation of switching orders was conducted and used to determine how AMS is affected by prerequisites and limitations in relation to entrepreneurs, contract areas and substations. The number of established switching orders was 2969 during the year of 2018, of which 17,48 % were established as AMS; which is a decline since year 2016 where 22,86 % of 2616 swiching orders were established as AMS. An increase in investment projects may be a cause for this decline, due to their lower amount of AMS compared to maintenance work. Lowest SAIDI was found in Contract Area 5, 6 and 9, where further studies regarding prerequisites for AMS could be considered, with intention to implement eventual findings in areas with high SAIDI, for instance Contract Area 1 and 4.

    Vattenfall should increase cooperation and diaglogue between and themselves and solicited entrepreneurs with the aim of increasing the number of switching orders established as AMS. Entrepreneurs posess highly valuable knowledge and experience regarding risk identification and future construction possibilities. Goal cards in the service agreement could also contain KPI’s where a certain quota of AMS may entail a suitable bonus. Only 13,75 % av all unique entreprenurs conducted work using AMS year 2018. Vattenfall should research the cause for this decline and evaluate the profitability of substantially subsidizing AMS education and equipment for entrepreneurs, which could be compared to increased costs due to power interruptions from dead working (AUS), like customer notifcations and compensation.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Ida
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analysis and Process improvements of Volvo Penta's process for supplier related warranty issues: with focus on the Purchasing department2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Volvo Penta is a worldwide company that provides power solutions all over the world. They aim to be the most forward thinking and customer focused supplier of sustainable power solutions. The company's core values are Quality, Safety and Environmental care.

    Volvo Penta works with quality issues found by customers in the field. The current Quality Journal (QJ) process is perceived to be slow and inefficient. For Volvo Group customer focus is important and field complaints are both expensive and damaging to the brand. The approach method to solve a QJ is the eight discipline of problem solving.

    This thesis aimed to find where in the process time is wasted and reduce the throughput time for the QJ process. To achieve this the thesis, a Case Study has been the approached methodology. A Case Study's purpose is to gain a deeper knowledge of a subject. The methods that were used to gain deeper knowledge for the subject were semi- and open interviews, workshop and internal documents and data. To secure validity and reliability of the thesis different perspectives have been taken into consideration for each method.

    The theoretical framework for this thesis has also been used to ensure validity for the study. The choice of theoretical framework for this study has been founded on Lean manufacturing tools, Agile project methods, flow within processes and group dynamics.

    DMAIC has been the structure for this thesis. DMAIC is a method that can be used to improve upon a process. It stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. The method states that to improve a process there must first be a process.

    The workshops purpose was to conduct a process- and value stream map as well as to find potential causes to why the process was perceived to be too slow. It was conducted with a cross-functional team that previously had worked in a QJ case.

    The interviews conducted for this thesis were approached in a semi-structured and opened way. This generated a lot of information that needed to be reviewed. 

    The data was to be used to find statistical and measurable conditions for the thesis. This was however not possible. The obtained data was deemed unreliable to make any conclusion from.

    The internal documents provided to this thesis have helped to get a general knowledge of how the QJ process is supposed to work. However, a lot of self-made documents have been received. They have been deemed to be unusable for this thesis since they are conducted on subjective facts. No documentation obtaining work instructions for each department has been received for this thesis.

    All methods generated potential causes to why the process did not achieve its purpose. They have been conducted in an Ishikawa cause-and-effect chart. With each approach method potential causes listed could be discarded. Eventually there were four causes left that were identified as the root causes to the problem. There was no standardized approach to QJs, lack of well formulated Key Performance Index (KPI), lack of communication tools and inefficient teams.  

    The result of the thesis is that the fundamental preconditions for improving a process were missing. It was found that there was no use to improve upon the existing QJ process, since no evident facts could be obtained that assure that the improvements would make the process more efficient.

    This thesis suggests assigning a cross-functional pilot QJ team. They will put all their focus on solving QJs and start to establish a standardized process. Making a structural change within the organization, which this thesis proposes, takes time. Full support in the entire organization is needed for this improvement to succeed. 

  • 25.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Johansson, Matilda
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av standardiserat arbetssätt och kitlådor för montering av lågtrycksturbiner2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis has been executed at GKN Aerospace at the manufacturing department Low Pressure Turbine (LPT), also known as LPT. The thesis presents the creation of standardized working methods for the assembly of the LPTs, that are manufactured for the aircraft engines Leap 1B and Leap A/C. The standardized work has been compiled in Job Training Documents, also known as JTD. A kit box for the material that will be assembled has been designed for each model. Due to a nonexistent standard it has led to assembly failures and quality defects in the production. The existing assembly box has been inadequate for the operators and the controllers that pack the boxes which has led to longer assembly time. The purpose of this project has been to assure the quality of the work through creating standardized work instructions. The design of the kit box has been executed in order to organize the details of the assembly in a certain structure to facilitate for the operators and controllers. An operation description with course of action was provided and used as a basis for the design of the JTDs in order not to risk deviating from the existing method. Interviews and observations of operators and controllers have also been used for the JTDs and the design of the kit boxes. Kit boxes was reused from another department and assortment boxes was sorted and structured inside in two different sizes. These were coded with different colors, marked and fitted to the size and quantity of the material so that every piece that is being assembled has its own place. The JTDs and the kit boxes was made in two versions to adapt to the assembly of both Leap 1B and Leap A/C. The boxes were tested in the production and the JTDs was reviewed of the operators before signature was made. All of the operators were not interviewed and observed as planned because of the unplanned stops in the production. The shape of the kit box was limited because the existing boxes were reused. From the results that has been developed the goals for this thesis including creating standardized work instructions and design of a kit box to organize all the pieces has been achieved.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Kristian
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jason, Evelina
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beskrivning och vidareutveckling av en modell för beräkning av övertoners fördelning i distributionsnät2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this report is to describe and develop a model used to determine demand permissions regarding power quality on behalf of Vattenfall Distribution. The purpose of the model is to calculate the level of current harmonics allowed for different types of energy subscriptions by studying how harmonics spread in a power grid and how subscribers affect each other. This model needs to be described seeing that the documentation of the original model was lacking. The model also needs to be further developed to increase the flexibility and its ease of use.

    Harmonics are a phenomenon that occurs on the power grid and are generated by non-linear loads like EV-chargers and photovoltaic systems. If the harmonic distortion level is too high, grid connected electronics can experience issues or stop working.

    There are a number of standards, reports and regulations regarding emission rights considering harmonics. This report summarizes three of these as a background to how emissions are regulated today (2018). Two of these papers focus on voltage harmonics levels which is also the case for Vattenfall Distributions governing documents. Vattenfall Distribution needs to develop a new method to determine these current harmonics emission levels, and the model is a part of that process.

    A thorough analysis and mapping of the model were made to produce the documentation for the model. The model was then further developed to allow for more flexibility and could be simplified compared to the original model.

    The original model is considered to fulfil its purpose and therefore no structural changes have been made. The changes that have been made have been implemented to make the model as flexible and user friendly as possible. To help the user to understand the model, a flowchart was made to describe the structure and internal workings of the model.

    The authors believe that a thorough and detailed documentation of the model has been produced and that the model fulfills the purpose of producing representative values to determine demand permissions regarding power quality. The model has been restructured and is now perspicuous and easy to use. However the result from the model is highly dependent of the input data and it's important that it is of good quality.

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  • 27.
    Andersson, Marielle
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Localisation and improvement of production processes2021Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Company X develops innovative machines mostly for the pharmaceutical and healthcare industry, where they assemble and test the machines in their production department. When a machine is sold a certain amount of hours for mechanical and electrical assembly is offeredand Company X has seen a trend of these hours are being exceeded. Company X is then forced to bear the cost of the exceeded hours which decreases the financial profit.

    The purpose of this study is to locate activities within the production department regarding mechanical and electrical assembly processes that add no value to the final product, define the root causes of why these problems exist and find a way to improve them. The following questions this study is to answer are: 

    • How are the processes currently executed?

    • Which factors work less well in the processes?

    • What can be done to increase the performance of the processes and make them more effective?

    Data from these processes have been collected through interviews, observations and reading deviations reports. The processes are analysed to locate the greatest issues regarding the assembly process, the root causes are then found and examined. The issues selected for improvements are those that affect the employees in the production department way of working.

    A brainstorming session was executed and suggestions for improvement were presented for the employees working in the process, where they could come with inputs to form the best possible solution. The final solutions are presented more in detail and were chosen because of their impact to solve the problem and prioritised due to their simplicity to implement.

    The conclusions that were made is that if the suggested solutions are implemented it will take time for the employees to adjust to the change and it is of great importance the employees are open and devoted to making the change happen. It is also important to constantly improve the solutions and find new solutions on how to improve the employee's way of working. To accomplish this it is suggested the employees have continuous improvement meetings.

  • 28.
    Andersson, Markus
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jonsson, Fredrik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Säkerhetsanalys av interna IT-säkerheten på ett mellanstort företag2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is about a security analysis of a company's use of IT and their internal network security. The company is a midsized with about 100 employees and half of them use IT in their daily work. The company is active within industrial manufacturing and is located in western Swe-den. They want to develop in IT and are curious about how secure their network is today.

    A review of the layer 2 network security and computers used in the daily work was performed and evaluated. Anonymous interview of employees were made to find out how IT is used at work. A risk analysis was filled in by the responsible employees at the company to get an overview of how they think about risks and vulnerabilities in the use of IT. All this was done to bring recommendations to the company about how they can improve their security compared to what it is today.

    The results from the analysis of the network indicates weaknesses in the layer 2 security and that no security features are currently used to stop attacks from the inside of the net-work. The company has no high demands on the network or the security on the in-side but has given priority to flexibility and physical security.

  • 29.
    Andersson, Per
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Automated Surface Inspection of Cross Laminated Timber2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The use of wood, such as Cross Laminated Timber (CLT), has increased over the last years in the construction of buildings. CLT is primarily considered a structural component inside walls, floors, and ceilings. But, when the design specifies an exposed surface of the CLT, where the wood surface will be visible in the finished building, there are requirements on the visual appearance of the CLT. To fulfil the requirements visual inspections of wood defects of the surface are conducted, before the CLT-panel is shipped to the construction site. Human inspectors are not consistent evaluators of products, and their accuracy depends on factors such as expertise, motivation, and fatigue. This study proposes a solution to automate the inspection, where captured images are analysed by an object detection model, based on deep learning. The model Faster R-CNN has proven to be successful in medical image processing and for object detection. A challenge with deep learning models, such as Faster R-CNN, is the number of test images needed to train the model. Also, there are a limited number of suitable test images of wood defects available. By using a pre-trained Faster R-CNN model and adapt the model's skill to detect wood defects, instead of the model's intended objects, the model can be trained with a relatively small number of test images. This study relies on images of planks, similar to the ones used in CLT, and the number of test images in the study is very limited. To improve the results, the model needs to be trained with more test images of CLT-panels. Nevertheless, the model can locate the defects in the CLT-panel and identify the type of defect to a high degree. The results indicate that the proposed model can be used to automate the inspection of wood defects on the CLT surface.

  • 30.
    Andersson, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning av styrdokument för elanläggningsinnehavare2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A control plan is a document that makes the maintenance work more efficient. These documents can for instance be used on a power plant to maintain routines and inspections on the electrical equipment. It is the plant owner's responsibility to ensure that the plant and its associated equipment is checked continuously to ensure the safety of the plant. The frequency of the inspections and what needs to be checked is not mentioned in any laws or regulations. It is thereby up to the owner to decide the ranges and the need of which inspections that are implemented on the plant. This study has been made to simplify the decisions that the owner must take when developing the routine and inspection plans.

    The developed control plan is taken from literary studies and two interviews from two separate companies. Through a comparative study data has been produced that describes what should be performed during a visual inspection and functional controls on a power plant. The study is limited to equipment that is generally occurring in a restricted access area. The produced result is two control documents – one for patrols and one for functional controls. The documents show what type of inspection that should be performed during a control, while the report describes how often these routines should be implemented. The time intervals are produced from a comparison of four companies' routines. Two of the companies has been interviewed while intern documents at two other companies have been reviewed.

    The study has given insight into the inspections that are implemented in a restricted access area and the responsibility that power plant owners have on the plant. The sources are considered relevant to the study and the interviews have been made with persons that possess knowledge in the field of study.

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  • 31.
    Andreassen, Håkon
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Fallstudie av tidsförluster inom kemisk industri2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis has been carried out with the purpose of streamlining production at Nouryons EMU factory in Stenungsund. The goal has been to map and identify the root causes to nonvalue-creating time in the production. The work began with a literature study where relevant theory and information was taken from books, articles and websites. Subsequently, a case study was conducted which is partly based on observations and unstructured interviews, but also on data from Nouryons internal reporting system OAM portal. The work has been able to establish that there are five categories that together account for 54% of the lost production time in the factory. An analysis of these revealed, however, that data should be treated with some caution. During the work, it has been established that 12% of the events under the category Quality analysis in reactor stage two are probably incorrectly categorized. A suggestion for improvement is for Nouryon to map these events, which can possibly be turned into two separate categories. Here, this project can form the basis forfurther development of the OAM portal.

  • 32.
    Antonsen, Cristoffer
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Asplund, Oscar
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Guide för projektering inom högspänning2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is written with the purpose of forming a guide in the area of high voltage project planning, requested by Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. Another purpose with the guide is too introduce new employees to project planning. The material will be available at the company's shared servers. The thesis also contains profound theory about phase to ground capacitance and the fault current to earth through the previous mentioned capacitance.

    Literature studies and interviews was used to complete the creation of this guide. The guide was tested using fictitious powerlines in the calculation program Netbas for the purpose to ensure that the guide was user-friendly and worked as intended. The software program used for calculations is Netbas which is a master data system where the power grid companies store their net image and future buildouts. The interviews were used to give a picture of how the work structure of the department is today and what challenges exist within project planning.

    The work is done for the grid connection department and the roles that exist is connection- engineers and – technicians. The most commonly tasks at the department are customer initiated new connections, reconnections and extension of existing costumer subscription.

    The developed guide consists of ten steps which has its own chapter with instructions to perform a high voltage project planning. To give the user an overview of the guide and save time, a flow chart was made where the necessary steps are shown to make the work smoother. Some of the steps are more theory based to give the user a deeper understanding about the subject and some of the steps consist of instructions for the user to follow. The design of the guide was made in PowerPoint and zoom functions were used to enable a e-learning feeling.

    Another conclusion from the work is that is deals mostly with normal cases and could in the future be extended in areas such as parallel cables and connections of production facilities such as solar parks.

  • 33.
    Augustsson, Filip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Processkartläggning vid nätanslutning för ökad kundnöjdhet2022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In 2022 a study was performed looking at the possibility to increase customer satisfaction at Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. Dissatisfied customer occur in several businesses and Vattenfall Eldistribution AB is the company that the author has studied to develop improvement. The study has been focusing on the areas first hand connections, change of contract, temporary change of contracts and network connections without long term obligations which constitute the most errands for the Company yearly. Another problem is that the numbers of errands regarding new network connections have increased in a pace with which the staffs are not able to cope.

    In order to accomplish the purpose of this survey it has followed the DMAIC-principle in order to define, measure, analyze and to identify areas of improvement. By using observations and interviews, flow charts depicting the areas of improvements have been developed to illustrate the present situation. From the previous data collected quantitative data has been collected and analyzed to finalize probable areas of improvement. As a comparison a process analysis has been performed against the travel leisure group TUI in order to find if there are processes which could be applicable in Vattenfall EldistributionAB. The study also showed there is a large discrepancy regarding the timeframe a connection should take and the time it really takes. According to the interviews this is due to lack of resources to deal with each errand. In the interviews it was also disclosed that in handing an errand over to this is done all but efficient. It has also been found that customer satisfactions not always have been and it’s best due to lack of communication from the Company as promised. This has ended up in Installation Support being preoccupied with customer complaints which could have been avoided earlier in the chain of communication.

    In lieu of this study several areas of improvements have been explained in order to improve customer satisfaction. By enhancing procedures in the day to day operations resources will be freed to be redistributed to other areas of business which today are short on resources. By implementing Customer Satisfaction Management systems which helps the employee to keep track of the customers and in which the customer can see where his/her project is would free employee time and also increase customer satisfaction since the customer would in real time see where the project is. Vattenfall Eldistribution AB should analyse and evaluate the pros and cons from implementing a FMEA based process.

  • 34.
    Augustsson,, Jimmy
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Printz, Kristoffer
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Svensson, Erik
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Larmanalys för Vattenfall Vattenkrafts produktionsanläggningar längs Göta Älv2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Vattenkraft AB owns 57 large scale hydro power plants in Sweden with installed power exceeding 10 MW. The study relates to four of the plants located along Göta river. This report analyzes incidents and the related remedial actions that have occurred during the period 2014 – 2017 as well as the alarm and control systems with the aim to identify potential improvements. The incidents are categorized by error, what actions have been undertaken to correct the issue, plant and season. The incidents have predominately originated in the turbine and generator facilities and have been caused by abnormal levels or temperatures. During summer and winter time, this is mainly due to variation in temperature and flow in the river. The four plants have caused a similar amount of alarms, which is interesting as there is a large variation in age. The analysis does not identify any reoccurring issues which were previously unknown to the company, but the authors recommends that an investigation is conducted to assess if eel screens should be installed for the cooling pumps of Lilla Edet. The alarms are generated in the plants and are sent to the control facility in Bispgården near Sundsvall, where the operator calls the local engineer on duty in Trollhättan. The engineer subsequently goes to the plant to access detailed information on the incidents from the local computers. This report examines the possibility to provide the engineer on duty with detailed information from the plant computer via VPN. This would be possible to implement but would require a detailed assessment of the security implications. The status of the alarm system have also been assessed as it have been modified and extended retroactively, and there is currently no comprehensive overview. The conclusion is that a review of the list of incident codes and their priority is recommended.

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  • 35.
    Augustsson, Per
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Mansori, Farsad
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Skapande av dynamiskt modellnät för analys av lasters beteenden vid nätstörningar2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis is carried out on behalf of Vattenfall Eldistribution AB in Trollhättan. This work aims to make modelling of power grids for simulations, of load behaviour during perturbations, in PSS/E more effective. Modelling will be made more effective by means of programming, using the programming language Python, and also by allowing certain assumptions to be made about the grid. The idea for this work arose from a certain case, during which Vattenfall was tasked with investigating why voltage levels near an industry would not recover after a short circuit, on the transmission line feeding the industry, was cleared. Investigations demanded simulations of the disturbance to be carried out in PSS/E, to describe what had happened. To enable simulation and to make it representative, the grid and its components must be adequately modelled. Svenska kraftnät has the data nessecary for such modelling, but it is inaccessible due to confidentiality. Due to the data being confidential extensive work with modelling was nessecary. Early simulations were based on the idea that some parts of the grid can be modelled using only simplified models, and with typical, or default, values. This thesis uses that hypothesis in the programming code. The low voltage after these perturbations were caused by motors, more specifically induction motors, drawing high currents from the grid during reacceleration when the voltage starts to recover after the perturbation. This high, and mostly reactive, current causes significant voltage drops across the lines and transformers, in turn causing other motors to draw more current and further lowering voltage. The programming code, called a script, developed during this work allows the user to quickly create dynamic model data to use when conducting simulations of the dynamic behaviour of this type of loads. Modelling of the generators is done quickly thanks to the assumption that generators are located far enough away that they are barely affected by the studied disturbance. They are, for this reason, modelled using typical values. Through a graphical interface, the user then select which loads to model. For each load model, the distribution across different types of loads is specified by the user. Finally, protection relays are modelled to enable current monitoring. The script has been tested by comparisons to a reference network model created by Vattenfall. The comparisons show minor deviation between the script and the reference. This could be because the script uses default values and models less components than the reference.

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  • 36.
    Axelsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, Daniel
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Computer, Electrical and Surveying Engineering.
    Utvärdering av olika dynamiska lastmodeller i PSS/E2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis has been performed for Vattenfall Eldistribution AB. The purpose of this work has been to create understanding of dynamic load models and clarify how they function and how they can be used. The aim has been to perform simulations on short circuits and motor starts for two different load models. A part of the work is also to describe the basic principles of the induction motor to create a connection between simulation and theory. The theory of the induction motor contains information about the electric induction that is the basic principle of the induction machine. It also contains the correlations between torque, speed, current and voltage and also a description of the equivalent electric circuit. The IMD program is a program connected to PSS/E and it has been used to create the model for the induction motor that has been used for the simulations. The simulations have been based on instructions from the advisor and instructions from the PSS/E manuals. Simulations have been run with two of the built-in load models in PSS/E, one general load model and one model for induction motors. Short circuits have been simulated on both models and motor starts on the induction motor model. Short circuits have been simulated with two different fault durations 0.15 and 0.4 seconds. Motor starts have been simulated with two different transformer sizes 1.5 and 3.0 MVA and three different values of the inertia time constant 0.7, 1.0 and 1.5 MWs/MVA. At short circuit the fault duration causes larger currents and longer recovery times for both load models. At motor start the size of the transformer, in MVA, and the inertia time constant affects the motors starting time. Larger transformer means shorter time because of lesser drop in voltage. A larger inertia time constant means longer time.  If only the size of the voltage drop is of interest and not the course of the event, the motors start admittance can be used instead.

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  • 37.
    Aydin, Faruk
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Jasem, Anas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Batterier som reservkraft i lågspänningsnät med solceller2021Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis is written as a case study where the intended purpose is to reduce emissions of fossil fuels from a diesel generator and to ensure that Trollhättan Energi AB's customers receive an uninterrupted electricity supply during island operation. This is done by replacing diesel generators with chargeable batteries. 

    The identified problem occurs when Trollhättan Energi AB uses a diesel generator in a substation where solar cells are also connected, and the solar cells produce more power thanthe costumers consume. This surplus power from solar cells will result in a disconnection of the diesel generator due to reverse power protection.

    The battery capacity would need to be relatively large to cope with all the possible scenarios. For the use of battery only, the study limits the time intervals between sunrise and sunset to reduce the need for larger battery capacity. However, outside this time interval, an ordinary generator with environmental fuel HVO 100 is assumed to be used in parallel and therefore two different battery capacities were examined. Capacity for the batteries are 245 kWh and 490 kWh, respectively.

    The method is to find a charging level for the batteries that can adapt to different seasons. Since the power consumption is not the same in June as in February, the battery charging level is different for the different months. The results of the study show that with a battery capacity of 245 kWh, Trollhättan Energi AB must contact the solar cell owner during island operation to avoid interruptions. The battery capacity 490 kWh can handle island operation at all time intervals for the risk of back power throughout the year without having to contact the solar cell owner.

    Buying a 490 kWh battery costs approximately 400 kSEK / year over 15 years. It is expensive and not profitable to solve the problem with the reverse power. In the future, however, if the battery price is lowered and the number of solar cell systems increases, it may become more profitable. The easiest and cheapest solution today is to order the owners of the solar cell systems to switch of the power production and then use a diesel generator, as today. In Trollhättan, the number of solar cell installations is increasing, and this means that in the future it might be a more significant problem for Trollhättan Energi AB. If several customers install solar cells and a spontaneous interruption occurs, it will be more challenging to contact and organize a solar cell switch-off with all costumers. Therefore, buying a battery might be a solution in the future.

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  • 38.
    Bader, Mirjam
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nuur, Ilham
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    En logistikstudie med fokus på faktorer inför implementering av produktionsflödessimulering: Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    During a ten-week period, in the spring term of 2020, a thesis project was carried out with the aim of creating an understanding of how production flow simulation can be used as a sustainable activity to plan production and achieve more efficient planning at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Trollhättan. The aim of the study was to examine the differences between planned production times in the enterprise resource planning system and the reported production time and to propose a flow simulation model that can be reused to achieve a more balanced production flow.

    The problem situation that formed the basis of the study was that there is uncertainty as to whether the reported time corresponds to the times planned in the enterprise resource planning system. The company has also lifted aspects such as long waiting times, high buffer and storage levels between operations, long transport distances and a large number of work in progress (WIP). With a more accurate production planning, these problem areas can be highlighted and with time, reduce waiting times and WIP.

    The data that formed the basis for the thesis work was provided by the company and production times and logistical aspects were calculated and analyzes. After the analyzes, results showed that there are differences between the planned and the reported production times. Thus, it can be concluded that regular follow-up of the reported data should be initiated at the company to improve understanding of why there are discrepancies between planned and reported times, and to work towards reducing the gap between planned and reporting production times. The results also showed more trends regarding production times and logistics aspects, such as increased production times during the year, a bottleneck in production was discovered and how much of the total lead time that is value-creating in the internal process was highlighted.

    Based on the results that focused on outlining the production flow, a conceptual simulation model was built that visualizes the production, which is a starting point for further development and use of production flow simulations. It was concluded that the data collection aspects and its analysis were of large importance for preparation of building the model. It is of great value to have good insight into the production flow of the company and the conclusion stresses the importance of a detailed study of the production flow and to understand the production data before deciding on whether a simulation model should be built and the scoop of that model.

  • 39.
    Baga, Moustafa
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Demeter, Janos
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Undersökning av hårdhet på pulverbäddtillverkad superlegering 247 LC2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Alloy 247 LC is a material that is used in manufacturing for making gas turbine blades and is made of nickel. Due to that the material in the blade has a high strength at high temperatures and a melting point higher than 1200 °C, is the blade can be used in the warmest/hottest sections of jet engines and turbines. The efficaciousness of the motors depends on the temperatures, and the higher temperature the more efficiency. This induces a cut/saving of fuel. Nowadays the blades are made of casting which brings a big effort in both time, labor, and material. To make the production of Alloy 247 LC more effective the research is in progress and focuses on how the product can be performed with different methods. One of these methods is called additive manufacturing which is also called 3D print. This method includes laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) and implies laser-based melting in powder bed. Laser powder bed fusion is a process that simplifies the production of very complex shapes of blades which can be problematic during the manufacturing in casting. The most important characteristics of Alloy 247 LC is the strength and hardness. Hence, it is important that these features are preserved also during laser powder bed fusion. The purpose of this study is to measure the hardness at Alloy 247 LC which is manufactured through laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) in additive manufacturing and subsequently compare the result of hardness values with the given hardness values that the casting has. This to investigate if these features are preserved through laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) due to that the most important characteristics of Alloy 247 LC are strength and severity. We used 36 test cubes with the dimensions of 15x15x15 mm. The cubes were produced with/through laser powder bed fusion with varying process parameters on power and speed to and arrive at the most suitable for the hardness of the material. The cubes were divided into three pieces each which implicated that we had 108 pieces for the test. Thereafter the result from the hardness values was compared with the hardness values from the casting. To get a deeper understanding of the results of hardness values, all of the pieces from the test were analyzed with the help of optical microscope. Further four pieces from the test were chosen and also observed in a scanning electron microscope in order to examine the microstructure. The conclusion in the study was that laser powder bed fusion (L-PBF) can be a suitable method if used with the right process parameters.

  • 40.
    Bahtiri, Besnik
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Olsson, Philip
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Automatisering av lågvolymsproduktion: en fallstudie2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A common perception is that it can be difficult to reach a profit margin when automating low volume production. To reach a profit margin, it is required to have a high utilisation rate while still producing profitable products. Vänersborgs Svets & Mekaniska Verkstad manufactures a lot of different low volume products and has recently invested in a robot welding machine. Vänersborgs Svets & Mekaniska Verkstad wants to explore if it will be cost effective to automate four of their low volume products. The robot welding machine has yet to be delivered, hence all calculations will be theoretical.

    The results show that the total cost for the chosen products will be lower if automated, compared to their current method. The cost per part has also been reduced.

    Thus, it is possible for Vänersborgs Svets & Mekaniska Verkstad to increase their cost efficiency by automating the chosen products. The low utilisation rate makes it possible for the company to expand by entering one or more high volume contracts, alternatively entering low volume contracts where the OEM is responsible for the fixture- and programming costs. Vänersborgs Svets & Mekaniska Verkstad should explore the possibility of automating other parts of their products as well.

  • 41.
    Basaran, Hüsnücan
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    El Labaki, Jonathan
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Byggprojektledning: att strukturera upp projektledares tillvägagångssätt2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The bachelor's thesis of 15 credits was carried out in Vara municipality after the property manager stated a need. The task was to standardize the project managers' approach in terms of management and structure, and to improve the possibility of new recruitments and takeovers of existing projects. With the help of interviews, it was identified that the project managers worked in different ways without tools to support structuring and managing their projects.

    In order to be able to answer how the problem image could be sorted out, the writers designed a content for a manual that the project managers could use. By following the contents of the manual, the project managers are expected to be able to more easily manage and structure their projects. As a result of a standardized work method, new recruitments and takeover of projects are also expected to be simplified.

    The introductory chapter of the bachelor's thesis describes how the background to the work looked, as well as the purpose, goal and delimitation.

    The second chapter describes the writers' method for designing the work that followed a scientific starting point.

    The third chapter consists of the writers' theory sections that were needed to create an understanding of how the actual construction process and the project management process could look. This chapter was used as a knowledge base to be able to make decisions about the contents of the manual.

    With the help of interviews and meetings at the municipality, a current situation analysis was formed, which is presented in chapter four. The current situation analysis was used as a basis for designing the contents of the manual.

    In the fifth chapter, the contents of the manual are described using a presented result as well as discussion and analysis of why the content was necessary for the project managers to follow.

    Finally, in the sixth chapter, a conclusion is drawn about how the purpose of the degree project should be fulfilled and a future recommendation for continued work in the subject area.

  • 42.
    Bassem Yehia, Khaled
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Abdowod,, Vahab
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Analys av indikatorerna AIT, AIF, SAIDI och SAIFI i lokalnätet2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Swedish Energy Markets Inspectorate (EI) is a regulatory authority for electricity, district heating and natural gas, where one of their tasks is to control the company's power distribution quality. A good electrical delivery reliability is determined on the basis of EI:s regulations and general advice in the publication EIFS 2013:1.

    Every year, the power distribution companies reports data to EI of the disturbances they have had in their networks, which is used to measure and analyse the electrical delivery reliability in the Swedish electricity grid. EI uses established indicators that describe the electrical delivery reliability of the distribution networks in Sweden. The indicators used today are named SAIDI and SAIFI, which are customer-weighted indices that describe the average interruption duration and the average interruption frequency for a specific network.

    In the beginning of 2019, EI will consider introducing two indicators to replace the current SAIDI and SAIFI indices, the indicators are being defined as AIT and AIF. According to EI, these indicators will be better than SAIDI and SAIFI as they take into consideration the customer's expected power consumption during the power outage.

    The purpose of this report is to investigate how the new indicators AIT and AIF affects the delivery reliability indicators in GENAB:s network, where these indicators are exercised on different types of networks and then compared. How the network can be made more efficient in the future by means of automation in the network is investigated based on the results on the indicators.

    From the results and investigations, it can be concluded that the transition to AIT and AIF will result in an increase of the indicator´s interruption time and the number of interruptions for customers per year in GENAB:s network.

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  • 43.
    Bates, William
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Casting repair and Surface Modification of Aluminum Alloys using Friction Stir Processing (FSP)2021Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates using friction stir welding to repair common surface defects found in aluminum-silicon sand castings. Wherein, the effect of welding parameters: weld RPM, weld speed, and number of weld passes, were evaluated using hardness, porosity density, welding temperature, microstructure refinement as metrics. Therefrom, the results strongly suggest friction stir welding: reduces porosity size, reduces porosity density in a specific area, increases average hardness, improves hardness uniformity, increases surface roughness, redistributes microstructure features in a manner that theoretically improves strength, and maintains a welding temperature less than 660 degrees Celsius.

  • 44.
    Beissinger Bart, Andres
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Selektivplan för 40/20/10 kV transformatorstation2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This project has been conducted on the behalf of Grästorp Energi with the main purpose of inspecting, controlling, and updating protection settings for a 40-kV station. Data has primarily been collected from Grästorp Energi ek.f´s GIS-system, MICKEL. Data has also been collected from the relay settings. Short-circuit current calculations in the network have been made in accordance with SS-EN 60909–0. Time current curves were created and proved by Excel charting tool. The project also details calculations that must be performed using Excel to calculate maximum and minimum short-circuit currents for transformer station. Using these currents as well as data collected over the network, a proposal for new relay protection settings has been developed. The results show that the existing settings exhibit some deficiencies and the appointed relay protection settings need to be reviewed before new settings can be implemented.

  • 45.
    Beissinger Bart, Andres
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Soto Vallejos, Nicolas
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Beredning av kabelnät i området Sjöhaga - Lerdala Gård2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis describes a preparation work for Ellevio AB. The preparation work is supposed to rebuild the power grid in Sjöhaga - Lerdala in Skövde municipality with the aim to weatherproofing the local area network and increase the reliability. The project concerns all work on preparation such as contact with authorities and landowners involved in the project, in order to agree on where the new cables can be built. Field visits were conducted continuously during the project for an overview of the area and to plan possible cable stretches, as well as the best possible location for the network stations in agreement with the landowners. The preparation of the underground cable is carried out in four parts, part one is Sjöhaga - Melldala, part two is Melldala - Karlsfors, part three is Karlsfors - Dämman and part four is Dämman – Lerdala Farm. Part one will have a serial satellite network station with a 200kVA transformer and no local network preparation will take place at this stage. In part two Karlsfors will keep its current local distribution network and network station, part three will have an ELIT3 network station fitted with a 100kVA transformer. For part four, there will be an ELIT3 network station with 100kVA transformer and three cable cabinets. In addition to these parts, the possibility for a redundancy feeding between Karlsfors - Yttersöra was investigated. However, when this was perceived as not possible due to the environmental conditions, it was decided, on the recommendation of a supervisor at PSN Kraftkonsult, to be placed between Dämman - Björnsäter with a overhead cable on existing poles. The cost of the renewal amounts to 2.6 million SEK and 449 thousand SEK for the redundancy from Dämman to Björnsäter. Network stations are positioned in Melldala, Dämman and Lerdala Farm which also has three cable cabinets. The total cable length of the HV-system is 6.5 km and the LV-system is 1.70 km.

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  • 46.
    Ben Mabrouk, Amina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Maalallah, Mustafa
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utvecklingsarbete gällande metoder för beräkning av bortkopplad last vid automatisk förbrukningsfrånkoppling2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Vattenfall Eldistribution wishes to compile in real time which load that is available for disconnection via AFK (Load shedding) to avoid network collapse. This is done by implementing methods on Vattenfall's operating system to get an estimation of the load available for disconnection when AFK is activated.

    The purpose of the work is to create a summarized measurement value which, in real time, indicates how much load is available for disconnection with AFK in Vattenfall's network. This is to ensure that Vattenfall Eldistribution meets the requirements of SvKFS 2012: 1 during all hours of the year.

    The work is divided into two parts; one part to produce useful methods for obtaining the desired measurement values and another part for the implementation that has taken place in Vattenfall's operating system. These goals have been achieved by carrying out analyses and calculations of approximately one hundred stations containing AFK equipment that are located in three different zones in the electricity area SE3.

    Results are presented through a final overview, which is a fictitious picture of how it looks after implementation based on the methods developed in Vattenfall's operating system. In the resulting overview image, each station containing the AFK equipment is presented with a sum of the available active power for disconnection and each station is located under respective disconnection step.

  • 47.
    Bengtsson, Carl
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Franklin, Jesper
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utväxlingssystem för testanordning2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    New electric motors and drivelines are constantly being developed to progress with faster and more efficient electric cars. To match the growing industry it may be necessary to use existing equipment in new ways. NEVS have been requested to test electric motors with speeds up to 20 000 rpm, which they are currently not able to perform. The goal of the thesis work is to produce the foundation for an adapter system that will use the existing equipment in NEVS test cell TR6 to test directly driven electric machines with speeds up to 20 000 rpm.

    In the methods section the limitations and demands are presented in which customer needs and relevant components are depicted to serve as a foundation for the development process. Included in the development method is for example a literature study, internal and external idea generation and concept selection matrices.

    The result section describes the result of each section in the method and details the specifications of the suggested adapter system. The result section depicts the theoretical maximal load and performance of the dimensioning components and presents a concept for a complete system.

    In the discussion section relevant components, aspects of the development process and the result of the thesis work are discussed. The conclusion is that the system concept satisfies the customer needs and is a possible option to expand on TR6's test range.

  • 48.
    Bengtsson, Daniel
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Karin
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kvalitetsarbete inom mätteknik med FARO-arm2019Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis has been performed at Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB in Trollhättan. The company manufactures combustors for gas turbines. The purpose of the work has been to investigate whether qualified measurements can be performed with Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB's measuring instruments. This study has been performed through a measurement system analysis. The purpose has also been to investigate whether it is possible to introduce statistical process control for a detail.

    To carry out this study, the study designs case study and action research have been used. The case study has been for the measurement system analysis because it concerned a specific case that has been analyzed. Action research has been used to investigate statistical process management since the survey has been part of planning work for the introduction of an improvement. Measurements on a gauge block with known dimensions have also been made. The measurements were compiled in an Excel sheet and analyzed in Minitab. Then a VMEA was performed.

    Analysis of the measurements made it clear that the operators vary in both repeatability and reproducibility. The measuring instrument has proved to be stable and not a basis for variation. The study on implementation of statistical process control has shown that it is not possible to be introduced because the measurement results are too unstable. This leads to the company having to review its measurement methods to achieve a reduced spread of the measurement results. That the study has not used enough measuring objects for a statistically correct result should be emphasized. Consideration should therefore be taken that the result of the study is not entirely reliable, but rather indicate that it is a probable result that has emerged. Suggestions that have emerged during the study is:

    • The details are placed indoors long enough before they are measured.

    • The company introduces a separate, customized room for measuring the details.

    • The company reviews the work methodology for the measurements.

    • The company updates work instructions for measurements.

    • The company introduces measurement training for operators.

    What has not been made is the actual introduction and making of user data for statistical process control. This is because the measurement results have a too great variation for the use of SPS.

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  • 49.
    Bengtsson, Rebecka
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Förbättringsförslag till tejpenhet i slutpackare TS8102022Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor’s thesis was carried out in the spring of 2022 at Graniten Engineering in Uddevalla, a company that mainly offers machine solutions for pharmaceutical manufacturing and healthcare automation. With the vision of being one of the world's most innovative automation companies that helps its customers increase their productivity and reduce their impact on the environment, Graniten's machine solutions are mainly characterized by a high flexibility, short changeover time and a low footprint. 

    One of Graniten's machine solutions is an End of Line packer, TS810, whose task is to package medical packages in a larger box, seal it and then place it on an European pallet. The sealing of the carton is carried out by the tape sealing unit, which today there are some problems with which leads to unnecessary time of downtime. Therefore, the focus of this thesis is to develop a proposal to improve today's tape sealing unit with the intention of minimizing today's problems and decrease the downtime. The project begins with a current situation analysis where the tape dispenser, its function, installation dimensions and documentation are studied physically with the design engineers, assembly and service personnel who has experience with the tape sealing unit that is used inTS810 to get a comprehensive picture of today's problems. Then the survey begins and with parts from the seven quality control tools, the root of today's problems has been identified. In order to generate an improvement proposal, relevant parts of the generic product development process are applied, but also methods from quality function deployment and risk analyzes.

    The first part of the result is a comprehensive picture of the problems that can be linked to the tape unit and why these problems arise. The second part of the result is a complete documentation in terms of assembly-drawings, detail-drawings and a simpler cost calculation of the improvement proposal. All in all, the work is considered successful because the goal has been achieved. The improvement proposal eliminates a number of problems that can be linked to the tape unit, but not all.

    The improvement proposal could have eliminated more problems and satisfied more customer needs in order to generate a better result for Graniten. The improvement proposal can be ordered and assembled if desired.

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  • 50.
    Bengtsson, Victor
    et al.
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Svantesson, David
    University West, Department of Engineering Science, Division of Industrial Engineering and Management, Electrical- and Mechanical Engineering.
    Teknisk och ekonomisk analys av svetsmetoden HF-TIG i Ti-6Al-4V2018Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    GKN Aerospace Sweden AB belongs to one of the four divisions within GKN and has most of its operations in Trollhättan, where development, manufacturing and maintenance are performed on components for jet engines. GKN is more than 250 years old and has nearly 60 000 employees, of whom approximately 2 200 works in Trollhättan.

    The aim of the thesis was to evaluate the high frequency tungsten inert gas (HF-TIG) welding method technically and economically for potential future implementation in GKN's production. The hope is that the welding method can contribute to a more stable manufacturing process with fewer delays and reduced quality deficiency costs on the product XWB-ICC (Xtra Wide Body – Intermediate Compressor Case), where today conventional TIG welding is applied. The existing welding method creates deviations in the quality of certain weld joints due to high thermal impact, and according to previous studies, HF-TIG should have a lower thermal impact on the material compared to conventional TIG welding. The project group, in consultation with the supervisors at GKN and University West, has delineated the work to titanium plates with 1.5mm thickness which has been welded "bead-on-plate" without filler material during the experiments.

    Literature studies in HF-TIG, design of experiments, investment assessment and quality deficiency costs have combined with welding experiments, data collection, measurement of results and meetings with staff at GKN contributed to good knowledge of HF-TIG technical and economic impact on GKN. This has been evaluated and compiled to be able to report a technical and financial result for a potential future implementation.

    In the study's design of experiment, the tip angle of the electrode, frequency, balance and the relationship between background current and peak current have been selected as factors to be investigated. The result shows that all factors affect the measured welding results in one way or another. This provides an understanding of the welding process and indicates which factors can reduce costs, caused by lack of quality.

    In conclusion, project participants together with GKN supervisors estimated a 25% reduction of quality deficiency costs for five specific welds on XWB-ICC. The result shows that an implementation of HF-TIG is economically profitable for GKN.

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