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  • 1.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving: A toolbox of counter-measures2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be drawn concerning influence on crash rates. Better studies on this relationship is needed. Most countries in Europe and many countries elsewhere have introduced different types of bans for handheld devices. Sweden has, however, no such bans. VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to outline possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving as alternatives to banning. This task was a result of a previous VTI-state-of-the-art review of research on mobile phone and other communication device usage while driving. One of the findings in the review was that bans on handheld phones did not appear to reduce the number of crashes.

    Eighteen different countermeasures in three main areas were suggested. (1) Technical solutions such as countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. (2) Education and information, describing different ways to increase knowledge and understanding among stakeholders and different driver categories. (3) Different possibilities for how society, industry and organisations can influence the behaviour of individuals, via policies, rules, recommendations and incentives. Our conclusion is that a combination of different countermeasures is needed – where education and information to the drivers are combined with support and incentives for a safe usage of different communication devices.

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  • 2.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Eriksson, Linnea
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hermansson, Emma
    Lunds universitet; KTH.
    Är barn en del av det planerande kollektivet: En studie om inkludering av barn i planering av kollektivtrafik2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet i denna rapport är att undersöka om och hur barn involveras i den regionala kollektivtrafikplaneringen. De vägledande frågorna för rapporten är följande:

    • Hur har barnkonventionen påverkat arbetet i de regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheterna?
    • På vilka sätt och i vilka sammanhang inkluderas barn i kollektivtrafikplaneringen?
    • Vilka hinder och möjligheter finns för att involvera barn i kollektivtrafikplaneringen?

    Projektet inleddes med en litteraturstudie för att kartlägga det rådande internationella och nationella kunskapsläget i frågan om barn i kollektivtrafikplanering och, eftersom studier på specifikt det ämnet var ytterligt få, i samhällsplanering i stort. I ett andra skede av projektet genomfördes dels e-postenkäter och studier av 21 trafikförsörjningsprogram och andra relevanta dokument, dels sju semi-strukturerade intervjuer med tjänstepersoner på sex olika regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheter.

    Sammanfattningsvis illustrerar projektet att barnkonventionens implementering i den svenska lagstiftningen inte inneburit större förändringar hos svenska regionala kollektivtrafikmyndigheter i det korta perspektiv som vi studerat. Detta på grund av flertalet orsaker: bristande stöd och vägledning från nationella myndigheter, politiska mål för kollektivtrafiken som inte inkluderar barn, barnperspektiv i planeringen som inte utvecklas till att också inkludera barnen.

    Projektet har bidragit med ny kunskap om barns mobilitet i relation till kollektivtrafiken.En viktig slutsats är att skoltrafik och linjelagd trafik är tätt sammanbundna ur ett barnsmobilitetsperspektiv och att planeringen av dessa därför också bör vara sammankoppladeför att ett barnrättsperspektiv i kollektivtrafiken på allvar ska kunna uppnås. Detta kräverkommunal och regional samordning, inte bara av trafikplaneringen, utan ocksåsamhällsplanering, så att barnens målpunkter kan vara försörjda av kollektivtrafik,särskild eller linjelagd.

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  • 3.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hultén, John
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport.
    Avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik för alla: En forskningsöversikt med fokus på orsaker och konsekvenser2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport har till syfte att översiktligt presentera den vetenskapliga litteraturen om avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik utifrån konkreta fall i Europa där detta har införts. Fokus i rapporten är på fullskalig avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik och önskar belysa varför avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik införts samt vilka effekter och konsekvenser det medfört i fallen Hasselt, Belgien, Aubagne, Frankrike, Frýdek-Místek, Tjeckien, Tallinn, Estland samt Polen.

    Sammantaget har resandet med kollektivtrafiken ökat efter införandet av avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik i de studerade fallen. I alla studerade städer har det samtidigt med introduktionen gjorts satsningar på kollektivtrafik i stort genom bland annat fler linjer, större turtäthet och nya fordon, vilket innebär att det är problematiskt att härleda ökningen till endast införandet av avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik. I samtliga fall där det finns tillgängliga data går det att skönja en överflyttning från andra färdmedel till kollektivtrafik om än i olika utsträckning. 

    Alla kollektivtrafiksystem som analyserats i rapporten var redan innan införandet av avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik starkt beroende av offentliga medel eftersom biljetterna endast stod för en mycket liten del av de samlade intäkterna. Införandet av avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik innebar i samtliga fall ett inkomstbortfall som krävde ytterligare subventioner. I Aubagne och Tallinn infördes olika former av skatter för att finansiera inkomstbortfallet, medan övriga studerade städer täckte inkomstbortfallet genom den löpande budgeten. 

    Baserat på den vetenskapliga litteraturöversikten av de utvalda fallen är det möjligt att göra följande reflektioner. För det första är avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik en åtgärd som framför allt införts i mindre städer med begränsade kollektivtrafiksystem och där det redan innan införandet antingen varit låga biljettpriser eller förekommit gratisresande för stora grupper. För det andra har avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik genomförts ofta tillsammans med andra åtgärder, till exempel nya eller uppdaterade fordon, en utbyggnad av kollektivtrafiknätet samt restriktioner för biltrafiken. Att kombinera morötter och piskor i ett samlat paket kan vara ett sätt att kunna driva igenom impopulära åtgärder. Vidare är avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik inget mirakelmedel för ökat kollektivtrafikresande och minskat resande med bil. För att det ska ge effekt behövs ett i grunden väl fungerande kollektivtrafiksystem. Vilken effekt avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik har på resandet beror till stor del på hur situationen ser ut innan införandet. Slutligen, det finns en stor risk att merparten av det ökade resandet med kollektivtrafiken kommer från gång och cykel, vilket kan innebära ökade kostnader för det offentliga och negativa effekter för miljö och hälsa. 

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  • 4.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. K2, Sverige.
    Hultén, John
    K2, Sverige.
    Avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik: inget mirakelmedel för hållbart resande2020In: Dagens samhälle, ISSN 1652-6511, no 2020-05-08Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Avgiftsfri kollektivtrafik är inget mirakelmedel, men kan betraktas som en möjlig åtgärd i ett större paket av åtgärder som sammantaget kan bidra till ett mer hållbart transportsystem, skriver Jens Alm och John Hultén, Nationellt kunskapscentrum för kollektivtrafik.

  • 5.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. K2 – the Swedish National Centre for Research and Education on Public Transport, Sweden.
    Koglin, Till
    (In)capacity to implement measures for increased cycling?: Experiences and perspectives from cycling planners in Sweden2022In: Journal of Urban Mobility, ISSN 2667-0917, Vol. 2, article id 100029Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article seeks to explore and analyse the capacity of Swedish municipalities to implement measures for increased cycling. Through the concept of local capacity and against the backdrop of interviews with local cycle planners, the aim of the article is to gain deeper insights into cycle planners’ experiences and perspectives on what the possibilities, obstacles and challenges are as regards achieving the aims of increased cycling. Although the interviews reveal that all capacity dimensions are important, financial and political capacity seem to be the most crucial dimensions. These two dimensions are also the ones that differentiate most between included municipalities, and thus also influence the local capacity. High staffing, earmarked funding, and a shift from the car to a sustainable mode of transport norm are all capacity-building measures. There also seem to be overarching difficulties in developing vertical linkages with the Swedish

    Transport Administration to increase the municipal capacity. The authority's responsibility for funding, operating, and maintaining the national public cycle network, and a lack of will to find common solutions are perceived as challenging by many municipalities. Greater consensus and collaboration between municipalities and the Swedish Transport Administration must be achieved to fulfil national and local policy aims on cycling.

  • 6.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Koglin, Till
    Lunds universitet.
    Planering för strategisk cykelinfrastruktur: Resultat från en intervjustudie2020Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle med klimatförändringar och miljöproblem ses cykeln som ett allt viktigare transportmedel för att minska bilanvändning. Trafikverket konstaterade att ökad cykling medför stora vinster för samhället, inte minst för miljön. Således borde cykel prioriteras allt mer i planeringen, vilket inte alltid görs. Hur man planerar cykelinfrastruktur och vad som klassas som bra eller dålig cykelinfrastruktur kan skilja sig mellan olika kommuner, inte minst beroende på kommunens storlek, planeringstradition och liknande. Föreliggande rapport är slutprodukten av projektet som handlar om möjligheter och svårigheter för kommunerna att implementera strategisk cykelinfrastruktur i Sverige. Vidare syftar rapporten till att ge kommuner rekommendationer om hur de arbeta vidare med frågorna och förslag på hur de kan övervinna eventuella svårigheter.

    Syftet med denna rapport inom projektet ”Planering för strategisk cykelinfrastruktur” är att analysera hur kommunerna idag arbetar med planering av strategisk cykelinfrastruktur och vilka möjligheter och hinder planerare möter i deras arbete kring dessa frågor. Mer konkret handlar studien om vilka åtgärder som tjänsteman med ansvar och engagemang för cykling bedömer som viktigast för att öka cyklandet och deras erfarenheter av att få sådana åtgärder genomförda.

    För att uppnå det ovannämnda syftet genomfördes en intervjustudie bland städer, kommuner och regioner som deltar i organisationen Svenska Cykelstäder – en organisation bestående av 31 kommuner samt fyra regioner och som framhåller att de målmedvetet arbetar för ökad och säkrare cykling. 

    En slutsats i rapporten är att bilnormen fortfarande är stark. En illustration av detta är att det är problematiskt att förbättra och utveckla infrastrukturen för cykel på bekostnad av bilen. Dock är möjligheterna betydligt större att prioritera cykel vid nybyggnation där förutbestämda vanor och rutiner som är svåra att förändra ännu inte är fastlagda. Detta kan ses som en möjlighet att åtminstone vid nya utvecklingsprojekt förbättra cykelinfrastrukturen i svenska kommuner. Ytterligare en slutsats är att vissa kommuner, trots svårigheter, är långt framme i arbetet med att främja cykel och att de på en förhållandevis bred front arbetar aktivt med åtgärder för ökad cykling såsom förbättrad och mer cykelinfrastruktur i form av cykelvägar- och parkeringar, åtgärder för att prioritera cykel framför bil samt beteendepåverkande åtgärder. En tredje slutsats är att det finns kommuner som är medlemmar i organisationen Svenska Cykelstäder där prioriteringen av cykel trots medlemskapet inte verkar stå högst upp på den trafikpolitiska agendan.

    Rapporten avslutas med en rad rekommendationer som grundar sig på forskningen som genomfördes i detta projekt och inte enbart på intervjustudien som genomfördes inför denna rapport. Dessa behandlar samverkan mellan kommunerna, mellan kommunerna och regionerna och mellan kommunerna och Trafikverket. Vidare rekommenderas nationella standarder för utformningen av cykelinfrastruktur som grundar sig på aktuell forskning. Utöver detta rekommenderas att cykelns betydelse i olika dokument borde öka och bilens betydelse borde minska. 

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  • 7.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Cykling – en integrerad del i ett framtida transportsystem som bidrar till en hållbar samhällsutveckling: resultat från enkätstudie och workshop2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I denna rapport redogörs för resultat från en genomförbarhetsstudie, innefattande dels en enkätstudie, dels en workshop. Syftet har varit att identifiera vilka frågor som i ett svenskt utvecklingsarbete behöver prioriteras, integreras och samordnas av olika aktörer ur ett hållbarhetsperspektiv, för att skapa underlag och förslag på strategiskt initiativ kring det utvecklingsarbete som Trafikverket och Cykelcentrum gemensamt koordinerar. 

    Enkäten riktade sig till olika svenska aktörer, i form av experter som representerar olika nyckelområden rörande främjande av cykling, så som forskare, planerare på kommunal och regional nivå, statliga myndigheter samt intressenter från bland annat Svenska Turistföreningen, Nationella cykelrådet, Cykelfrämjandet, Svenska Cykelstäder och Svensk Cykling. Analysen baseras dels på de fasta svarsalternativen, dels på de öppna kommentarerna som följde frågorna. 

    Resultaten visar på en rad olika aspekter där arbetet med att främja cykling kan och bör förbättras och utvecklas mot det gemensamma målet för en hållbar samhällsutveckling. Övergripande visar resultaten på en diskrepans mellan mål och utförande. Det kan till exempel handla om upplevda brister för samordning och samverkan på och mellan olika nivåer (nationell, regional och lokal), finansiering och kunskap. Respondenter uttrycker också att bilen fortfarande är norm, vilket försvårar arbetet med främjandet av cykling. För främjande av cykling behöver förändringar ske med ökad prioritering av cykel genom exempelvis förändringar i regler/föreskrifter och i infrastrukturen. För detta krävs dock, enligt respondenterna, ökad finansiering samt förbättringar avseende statistik och mätmetoder. En ytterligare relaterad faktor är bättre samordning och samverkan mellan olika aktörer, på nationell, regional och kommunal nivå. 

    Fem områden har identifierats som särskilt viktiga för fortsatt forskning: 

    • nationell samordning och den nationella cykelstrategin 

    • data, samhällsekonomiska analyser och mätmetoder 

    • arbete och ansvar för barn och ungas cykling till och från skolan 

    • kombinerat resande mellan cykel och kollektivtrafik 

    • cykling och innovation.

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  • 8.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Paulsson, Alexander
    Lunds universitet, Sweden.
    Bussförarnas framtid efter covid-192021In: Omstart för kollektivtrafiken: idéer för en hållbar framtid, Lund: K2 , 2021, p. 147-154Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Covid-19 är en extraordinär händelse som har fått och kommer att få konsekvenser för bussföraryrket. Bussförare lyfts tillsammans med arbetstagare inom vård och omsorg fram av Arbetsmiljöverket som en särskilt utsatt yrkesgrupp då de i sitt dagliga arbete kommer i kontakt med många resenärer och många potentiella smittspridare. Trots smittorisken måste bussförare fortsätta arbeta för att kollektivtrafiken ska fungera och bidra till att upprätthålla kritiska samhällsfunktioner. Olika åtgärder som direkt eller indirekt syftat till att skydda bussförare från att bli smittade kan, menar vi, få följder för bussförarna på längre sikt. 

  • 9.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Paulsson, Alexander
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Uncommon commons: civic participation and the localised maintenance of road infrastructure in Sweden2023In: Public Participation in Transport in Times of Change / [ed] Lisa Hansson, Claus Hedegaard Sørensen and Tom Rye, Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2023, 1, p. 97-116Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Transport infrastructure in most countries is owned and maintained either by public authorities, private organisations, or individuals. However, in Sweden, about 50 per cent of the road network is owned and maintained by civic road associations. By using the analytic notion of commoning, this chapter seeks to explore how road maintenance is organised and in what ways civic participation is contributing to infrastructure maintenance. Through interviews with representatives of civic road associations in Vellinge municipality and municipal representatives, we conclude that property owners are being commoned, that is, they are obliged to be a member of the civic road association in the neighbourhood where they own property. This means that property owners are given the opportunity to collectively decide on matters of road infrastructure, including maintenance and investments. Each civic road association is also acting as an organisational collective, demanding or pressuring the municipality and its politicians to reform subsidies and the organisation of ownership of roads and responsibility for their maintenance. As a single property owner, this is difficult, but as an organisational collective, in a civic road association, they have a voice. As a citizen, local municipal election offers opportunities to push for change, but at these institutionalised moments of democracy, road infrastructure issues compete with other issues. Election campaigns rarely target road maintenance, although Vellinge seems to be an exception here. Nevertheless, as citizenship is built around the provision of universal and evenly distributed infrastructure, crumbling infrastructure in different parts of the municipality tends to raise concerns over equal access and opportunities – and also differentiated citizenships.

  • 10.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Paulsson, Alexander
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Robert
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Capacity in municipalities: Infrastructures, maintenance debts and ways of overcoming a run-to-failure mentality2021In: Local Economy, ISSN 0269-0942, E-ISSN 1470-9325, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 81-97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a growing maintenance debt of ageing and critical infrastructures in many municipalities in European welfare states. In this article, we use the multidimensional concept of local capacity as a point of departure to analyse how and in what ways Swedish municipalities work with the routine maintenance of infrastructures, including municipal road networks as well as water and sewage systems. For the road networks, maintenance is generally outsourced to contractors and there is also a large degree of tolerance for various standards on different road segments within and between the municipalities. Less used road segments are not as prioritised as those with heavy traffic. For the water and sewage systems, in-house technical capacity is needed as differences in water quality are not tolerated. Economies of scale mean that in-house capacity is translated into the creation of inter-municipal bodies. As different forms of capacities tend to reinforce each other, municipal capacity builds up over time in circular movements. These results add knowledge to current research by pointing to the ways municipalities are overcoming a run-to-failure mentality by building capacity to pay off the infrastructural maintenance debt. © The Author(s) 2021.

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  • 11.
    Alm, Jens
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Thoresson, Karin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Koglin, Till
    Lunds universitet.
    Kombinerad mobilitet mellan cykel och kollektivtrafik2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande rapport syftar till att översiktligt rapportera resultaten från forsknings-projektet CYNKA: Kombinerad mobilitet mellan cykel och kollektivtrafik för regional Arbetspendling. Rapporten sammanfattar de olika delar som utgjort projektet som pågått under perioden 2019–2022.

    Tidigt i projektet genomfördes en litteraturstudie. I ett andra skede i forskningsprocessen genomfördes dels studier av policydokument, dels intervjuer med planerare, strateger och politiker. I ett avslutande skede av projektet arrangerades en workshop.

    En slutsats av studien var att både behovet av koordinering mellan olika aktörer och planeringsnivåer och behovet av ändrad inriktning gör det svårt att gå från mål och strategi till praktik och genomslag i planeringen. Trots det är det nödvändigt att försöka hitta sätt att överkomma dessa barriärer om mål om kombinerat och hållbart resande ska kunna nås. En nyckelfråga handlar om ansvarsfördelningen mellan aktörer och att få till stånd ett tydligare helhetsperspektiv på kombinerade resor.

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  • 12.
    Andersson, Alfred
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Hiselius, Lena Winslott
    Lund University.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Arnfalk, Peter
    Lund University.
    Evaluating a mobility service application for business travel: Lessons learnt from a demonstration project2020In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 3, article id 783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Business travel contributes to significant greenhouse gas emissions, and there is a need for measures that reduce the demand for trips made with energy-intensive means of transport. In this study, a mobility service application (MSA) introduced in 13 Swedish organisations was tested and evaluated to facilitate booking and handling of business trips, in particular public transport. A before and after study consisting of surveys and interviews with employees at the organisations were conducted. The results show that the MSA was mostly used for regional and local public transport trips, and the users stated that the MSA made it easier to travel by public transport, although this particular result should be seen as tentative due to the small sample size. Three factors that influence the success of a new MSA as a means to increase sustainable business trips were identified: management control and proactiveness; perceived improvement of intervention; functions and technical suffciency. The results also highlight the need to establish organisational conditions that facilitate sustainable business travel, such as coherent travel policy, accessibility to sustainable modes of transport, and a culture that encourages environmentally friendly behaviour. The study suggests improvements that can be made to similar interventions and strategies that can be introduced to promote sustainable business travel.

  • 13.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Andersson, Jeanette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Swärdh, Jan-Erik
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Bondemark, Anders
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sörensen, Gunilla
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Traffic Safety and Traffic System.
    Peters, Björn
    Ekblad, Johan
    Jpe Konsult AB.
    Regeringsuppdrag synfält: utredning om förutsättningar för undantag från de medicinska kraven för individer med synfältsbortfall2022Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I regeringsuppdraget (I2021/ 02412) framgår att VTI, i samarbete med Trafikverket och Transportstyrelsen, ska utreda förutsättningarna för undantagshantering från de medicinska föreskrifterna med avseende på synfältsbortfall (B-körkort). Vidare ska tre aspekter beaktas: hur andra länder gör, konsekvenser för den enskilde samt samhällsekonomiska konsekvenser. Slutrapporten påvisar att Sverige med gällande rättsligt ramverk inte kan genomföra de förslag som slutrapporten föreslår. Det innebär att det kommer att krävas juridiska förändringar. Givet att dessa förändringar genomförs och att ett nytt förfaringssätt nyttjas visar slutrapporten på att a) positiva effekter för den enskilde individen uppstår, b) samhällsekonomiska vinster uppstår och c) en rättssäker och rättvis prövning är möjlig. 

    Slutrapporten redovisar dessutom hur ett urval av andra länder har hanterat handläggningen av individer med synfältsbortfall givet samma EU-direktiv som Sverige regleras av. Det framgår också av undersökningen att samtliga länder, som en förutsättning för undantag från de föreskrivna kraven avseende synfält, tillämpar krav eller rekommendationer om att ett praktiskt körprov ska utgöra del i underlaget för bedömning av körförmågan. 

    Kunskapsläget med avseende på körförmågebedömningar för individer med synfältsbortfall redovisas och där framgår med tydlighet att perimetrin som Sverige utnyttjar som underlag för återkallelse av körkort inte kan predicera individers körförmåga. Perimetrin är dock viktig eftersom individer med synfältsbortfall som grupp kan vara olämpliga förare. Slutsatsen som forskningslitteraturen enstämmigt lyfter är att det behövs förarprov (på väg eller i en simulator) för att kunna genomföra en valid bedömning. 

    Slutligen innehåller slutrapporten vilka problem (aktiviteter) som kvarstår för att skapa en lämplig och kvalitetssäkrad process. Dessutom presenteras den kronologiska ordning på aktiviteter som behöver genomföras. Kronologin krävs eftersom resultatet av lämplig metod och aktör påverkar det vidare arbetet med avseende på utformning av körprov och rättsligt ramverk. 

    Slutrapportens slutsats är att Sverige har möjligheten att genomföra en förändring med avsevärda nyttor. Detta eftersom de valda aktörerna och de valda metoderna existerar idag och därför endast behöver utvecklas i viss mån för att säkerställa att individer med synfältsbortfall erbjuds en kvalitetssäkrad, rättssäker och rättvis process som dessutom bedöms vara samhällsekonomiskt lönsam.

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  • 14.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Andrén, Peter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Stave, Christina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Driver and vehicle.
    Varför sker en cykelolycka egentligen: analys av händelser då Hövdingar har löst ut2023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In collaboration with Hövding, data has been collected to highlight how different aspects can explain events where the helmet is deployed. The helmet records accelerations, and when a helmet is deployed, this information is sent to Hövding. They then invited the cyclist to participate in a web- survey and an interview. Thus, to increase our understanding of why bicycle accidents occur, data have been collected from the helmets, from a web-survey and from interviews. A total of 196 participants completed the web-survey while 50 participants were interviewed. In addition, data from the helmets were collected from 355 cyclists, of which 264 have had the helmet deployed.

    One main result is that it is on an ordinary day, during an ordinary journey to or from work, by experienced cyclists that are highly educated. Cyclist were aware of traffic rules and what is happening around them – when "it suddenly happens" and it is not until then the cyclists realize how vulnerable they are. The study shows how a complex pattern emerge from the data sources used to understand why a bicycle accident actually occurs. For example, slippery conditions increase the risk of an event, and if "slippery" is combined with darkness the risk increases even further. The data from the helmets could confirm the results from the web-survey and the interviews, but also demonstrate that the helmet, on journeys which ended with the helmet being deployed, had higher levels of activation compared to journeys where it was not deployed. Furthermore, on trips made after the deployment, the helmet also had lower levels of activation which can be understood as the cyclists adapting their behaviour by, for example, cycling more carefully (but not slower). Finally, the results show differences between conventional and electric bicycles in terms of involvement in events where Hövding was deployed.

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  • 15.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Johnsson, Carl
    Dept. of Technology & Society, Faculty of Engineering, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Laureshyn, Aliaksei
    Dept. of Technology & Society, Faculty of Engineering, LTH, Lund University, Sweden.
    Two minus one road equals improved quality of life2024In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 26, article id 101144Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Sundbyberg municipality (part of greater Stockholm) has reconstructed a traditional two-lane road, with an allowed speed limit of 30 km/h, into a road with one car lane and two bicycle lanes, one on either side of the car lane (a “two minus one road”). The aim was to increase traffic safety and accessibility, especially for bicyclists and pedestrians

    Method: The design used was a before- an after-study including both subjective and objective measures. To collect subjective data a survey measuring quality of life was used by asking residents and travellers how they experienced the road and their neighbourhood. The collection of objective data was done with the help of video cameras recording traffic conflicts, vehicle speed and position on the road

    Results: The reconstruction of the road had positive effects on quality of life in general, specifically safety, security, and accessibility for bicyclists and pedestrians. Something which was achieved without reducing car drivers’ experience of accessibility. Subsequent analyses were conducted to increase the understanding of different ‘sub-groups’. Specifically, analyses assessed: if responses could be linked to modal choice; whether the reconstruction of the road resulted in a modal shift; and whether it was any differences between respondents who had or had not a child attending any of the local schools. Overall, the responses from the ‘sub-groups’ were not significantly different from each other (except for respondents with children). The video analyses on traffic safety showed no differences in conflicts before and after the reconstruction. The only negative result was that car drivers’ speed increased by 3 km/h

    Conclusion: The reconstruction of roads with a traffic intensity, equivalent to the selected road is suitable for a two minus one road. Traffic safety, security, and accessibility will increase, but not at the expense of car drivers’ accessibility.

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  • 16.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Johnsson, Carl
    Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    Laureshyn, Aliaksei
    Lunds tekniska högskola, Lunds universitet.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Bygdeväg: När 2 filer blir 12023Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sundbyberg municipality has carried out a reconstruction of one section of Ursviksvägen. A traditional two-lane road with an allowed speed limit of 30 kph was converted into a road with one lane for cars and two for bikes, one lane on either side of the car lane. Before and after reconstruction, residents and passing individuals by all modes of transport were asked about their experiences of Ursviksvägen from a safety and accessibility perspective. Safety, security, and accessibility has been shown to be related to quality of life. In addition, cameras were set up at the same time as the collection of individuals' experiences took place. The results of the survey were very clear. The reconstruction of the section on Ursviksvägen resulted in very positive effects. Safety, security, and accessibility had improved, especially for cyclists and pedestrians. Bus travelers also experienced a positive effect of the reconstruction, but not as strong. These results were obtained without reducing car drivers’ experience of accessibility.

    A series of analyses were conducted after this main result with the purpose of increasing the understanding of the variation in the responses given. In particular the answers to the questions in the survey was investigated in three ways. Were the answers influenced by the mode of transport respondent used whilst travelling along Ursviksvägen? Had the reconstruction of the road an impact on modal choice? And finally, was the experience of respondents who have children in the schools located along Ursviksvägen different from the respondents who did not have children in the same schools?

    The results showed that both pedestrians and cyclists’ perceived safety and accessibility had improved. Something which was achieved without reducing car drivers’ accessibility. The reconstruction had not resulted in an increase in people cycling nor reducing the number of cars along this specific road. Finally, regardless of having a child in any of the schools or not respondents became significantly more satisfied with all aspects of the traffic environment after the reconstruction.

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  • 17.
    Andersson, Jan
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Andersérs, Caroline
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Jakobsson, Liza
    Trafikverket.
    Ceci, Ruggero
    Trafikverket.
    Cykling under alkoholpåverkan: hur påverkas stabiliteten, kognitiva funktioner och självskattningar av berusning2021Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet dödsfall på cykel var 19 450 mellan 2010 och 2018 i Europa. Antalet cyklister som dödats när de var berusade av alkohol är svårare att fastställa med tanke på bristen på tillförlitliga uppgifter. I Sverige är det socialt acceptabelt och lagligt att cykla om du har druckit alkohol så länge du inte uppträder vårdslöst.

    Syftet med experimentet var att undersöka hur olika nivåer av berusning påverkade cykelprestationen (stabilitet), kognitiva funktioner och självskattad cykelförmåga. I experimentet studerade vi även hur dessa tre mått var relaterade till attityder och intentionen att cykla när de var berusade.

    Experimentet genomfördes på ett brett rullband med möjlighet att kontrollera flera påverkande faktorer såsom hastighet och fysisk ansträngning. Berusade och nyktra deltagare cyklade på rullbandet fem gånger á 10 minuter och BrAC-nivåerna mättes 5 gånger. Deltagarna försågs med alkohol till dess att de nådde en alkoholnivå på 0,8 ‰.

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  • 18.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Public participation and written submissions: A transport infrastructure planning case study2014In: Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, ISSN 0965-8564, E-ISSN 1879-2375, Vol. 70, p. 59-66Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Written submissions or comments as a response on an EIS (Environmental Impact Statement) rank as one of the most common forms of public participation. Within public participation research there appears to be an international dearth of knowledge concerning such written submissions. The possible impact of such responses on an EIS is - with few exceptions - seldom put in focus. The aim in the present brief communication is to study one aspect of public participation within transport infrastructure planning, namely the role of written submissions sent to the applicant by individuals, Non-governmental organisations, companies and authorities. By comparing 34 written submissions with road planning documents (including EIS) the impact of the public views has been analysed in a south Swedish case study. At a time when the new Environmental Code only had been in force for less than one year, it does not appear as if the Road Administration's regional office accepted most of the written submissions just to show that the new regulation concerning participation had a direct impact on the planning. Sweden's long tradition of public access to official documents may explain why written submissions as one aspect of public participation worked well in the E18 highway planning process, because civil servants have long been taught to promptly furnish information and guidance, as well as to giving advice and other assistance to individuals in matters concerning an authority's activity. This study shows, then, that - if properly managed by the developer's street-level staff - the use of written submissions may improve the EIS from a stakeholder perspective and also make the stakeholders feel they are being taken seriously.

  • 19.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Retrospection of medieval landscape change in mid-Sweden Historical maps analysed using a retrogressive approach2014In: NEW FOCUS ON RETROSPECTIVE METHODS: RESUMING METHODOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONS - CASE STUDIES FROM NORTHERN EUROPE, 2014, no 307, p. 163-185Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scholars from different historical disciplines use the word 'retrospective in different ways which might sometimes be confusing. In historical geography, 'retrogressive methodology' is the term for what in history is known as retrospective methodology: using later sources to shed light upon earlier times. In this field, retrospective methodology is the opposite: making earlier sources throw light upon later times. The aim of this article is to present the retrogressive method as I know it from historical geography and in two case studies show how it works and highlight its potential for medieval landscape studies by the use of (post-medieval) maps from the provinces of Halsingland and Jamtland, mid-Sweden (fig. 1). The cases discuss medieval hamlet and village formation as well as late medieval farm desertion.

  • 20.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Trafikanalys .
    Landscape heritage objects' effect on driving: a combined driving simulator and questionnaire study.2014In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 62, p. 168-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to the literature, landscape (panoramas, heritage objects e.g. landmarks) affects people in various ways. Data are primarily developed by asking people (interviews, photo sessions, focus groups) about their preferences, but to a lesser degree by measuring how the body reacts to such objects. Personal experience while driving a car through a landscape is even more rare.

    In this paper we study how different types of objects in the landscape affect drivers during their drive. A high-fidelity moving-base driving simulator was used to measure choice of speed and lateral position in combination with stress (heart rate measure) and eye tracking. The data were supplemented with questionnaires. Eighteen test drivers (8 men and 10 women) with a mean age of 37 were recruited. The test drivers were exposed to different new and old types of landscape objects such as 19th century church, wind turbine, 17th century milestone and bus stop, placed at different distances from the road driven.

    The findings are in some respect contradictory, but it was concluded that that 33% of the test drivers felt stressed during the drive. All test drivers said that they had felt calm at times during the drive but the reason for this was only to a minor degree connected with old and modern objects. The open landscape was experienced as conducive to acceleration. No significant differences could be observed concerning the test drivers' gaze between old or modern objects, but a significant difference was observed between the test drivers' gaze between road stretches with faraway objects and stretches without objects.

  • 21.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wiklund, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Blomqvist, Göran
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Mårdh, Selina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Crash Barriers and Driver Behavior: A Simulator Study2013In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 14, no 8, p. 874-880Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The study examines how drivers experience a conventional W-beam guardrail (metal crash barrier) along both sides of narrow versus wider roads (single carriageway with 2 lanes) in terms of stress, feelings, and driving patterns and whether subjective experience concurs with the actual driving patterns captured by the quantitative data.

    Methods: The study used different methods to capture data, including the VTI Driving Simulator III (speed and lateral vehicle position) in conjunction with electrocardiogram (ECG) data on heart rate variability (HRV) and questionnaires (oral during driving and written after driving). Eighteen participants-8 men and 10 women-were recruited for the simulator study and the simulator road section was 10 km long.

    Results: Driving speeds increased slightly on the wider road and on the road with a crash barrier, and the lateral driving position was nearer to the road center on the narrower road and on the road with a crash barrier. The HRV data did not indicate that participants experienced greater stress due to road width or due to the presence of a crash barrier. Participant experience captured in the oral questionnaires suggested that road width did not affect driver stress or driving patterns; however, the written questionnaire results supported the simulator data, indicating that a wider road led to increased speed. None of the participants felt that crash barriers made them feel calmer.

    Conclusions: We believe that there is a possibility that the increased speed on roads with crash barriers may be explained by drivers’ sense of increased security. This study demonstrates that an experimental design including experience-based data captured using both a simulator and questionnaires is productive. It also demonstrates that driving simulators can be used to study road features such as crash barriers. It seems more than likely that features such as street lamps, signs, and landscape objects could be tested in this way. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

  • 22.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hrelja, Robert
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    People and parking requirements: Residential attitudes and day-to-day consequences of a land use policy shift towards sustainable mobility2017In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, no 62, p. 213-222Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A land use policy shift is taking place in a growing number of cities regarding parking, whereby a conventional supply management approach is being replaced with a parking management approach. As part of this policy shift, many cities are lowering their parking requirements.

    This study analysed changes in car use, car ownership, spatial parking patterns and the consequences for the everyday life of residents in a housing area with a relatively restrictive parking requirement in Gothenburg, the second largest city in Sweden. The housing area, a concrete example of how lowering parking requirements can be used to achieve targets on reduced car use and sustainable urban development, is used to discuss how parking policy should be applied to achieve the desired effect.

    The results show that the consequences of the restrictive requirement was paradoxically small in the study area. In practice, the requirement did not result in a decrease in the number of parking spaces, because e.g. of access to parking in neighbouring residential areas. This shows how important it is to adopt a holistic approach in parking policy, by e.g.introducing more restrictive parking requirements in parallel with other measures, such as raising parking charges and decreasing the number of public parking spaces. It also shows that planning of parking must be coordinated with other urban planning functions. Otherwise, the actual contribution of a shift in parking policy to the development of a more environmentally friendly transport system and city risks being small, despite lower parking requirements

  • 23.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Isaksson, Karolina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Storbjörk, Sofie
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Negotiating climate change responses: Regional and local perspectives on transport and coastal zone planning in South Sweden2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 52, p. 297-305Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Putting climate change policy-integration into practice is challenged by problems of institutional misfit, due to, inter alia, deficient vertical administrative interplay. While most focus within the field of climate change research has targeted the national-local interplay, less is known about the interface of regional and local perspectives.

    Here, the aim is to study that interface with a specific focus on the relation between regional and local spatial planning actors, through a case-study of transport and coastal zone management in a Swedish municipality. The article is based on interviews (focus group and single in-depth) and official planning documents.

    The material reveals a tricky planning situation, replete with conflict. In practice, various institutional frameworks, claims and ambitions collide. The attempts to steer the local spatial planning initiatives from the regional level led to conflicts, which in turn seems to have hampered the overall work for climate change management through spatial planning. Furthermore, there are few traces of prospects of a smooth vertical institutional interplay able to support the overall aims related to integrating climate change mitigation and adaptation in spatial planning.

  • 24.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jacobsen, Jens Kr. Steem
    University of Stavanger.
    Tourism development strategy or just brown signage?: Comparing road administration policies and designation procedures for official tourism routes in two Scandinavian countries2014In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 36, p. 342-350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This comparative study maps and explores planning and designation of official tourism, routes in two countries with quite similar planning traditions, responding to a deficiency in research, on tourism route planning and development.

    Based on personal semi-structured interviews with, public road planners and managers in Norway and Sweden, the paper illuminates establishment and, management of official tourism routes, with an emphasis on overall strategies, funding, and, stakeholder involvement.

    Results show that public road administration route planning procedures in, the two countries are quite different. In Norway, a top-down principle is basically employed, concerning initiatives and designation of routes.

    In Sweden, the principle is one of muddling through, giving street-level planners more opportunities for individual influence on route planning. Funding for, road stretches included in the Norwegian national route programme is earmarked, whereas Swedish, routes are financed from ordinary appropriations to the regional road administrations.

    In Norway, regular follow-up studies such as road user surveys are conducted. In Sweden, a dearth of, documentation of tourist interests and route assessments seemingly makes route development, susceptible in relation to regional road administrations' economic priorities.

  • 25.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Experiencing moose and landscape while driving: a simulator and questionnaire study2014In: Journal of Environmental Psychology, ISSN 0272-4944, E-ISSN 1522-9610, Vol. 41, p. 91-100Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Animal vehicle collisions (AVC's) have large economic, medical and ecological consequences but have rarely been studied with respect to driver behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate different AVC-relevant landscape settings (vegetation cover), with and without game fencing and in combination with encountering moose. Twenty-five participants took part in an advanced driving simulator experiment. The results show that neither the presence of a game fence nor vegetation was found to affect driving speed, speed variability, lateral position or visual scanning in general. When a moose appeared at the side of the road, the drivers reacted by slowing down earlier and reducing their speed more when no game fence was present. Furthermore, the speed reduction when a moose was present was significantly larger when the vegetation was sparse. Game fencing made drivers feel at ease whereas dense vegetation was experienced as more stressful.

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  • 26.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    KMV Forum AB.
    Levin, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    A crack in the Swedish welfare façade?: A review of assessing social impacts in transport infrastructure planning2018In: Progress in Planning, ISSN 0305-9006, E-ISSN 1873-4510, Vol. 138, article id 100428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A comparison of social impact categorisation in strategic planning across European Union Member States shows that Sweden neither categorises nor breaks down categories of social impact in areas such as transport infrastructure development. This article accordingly studies how social issues are handled during transport infrastructure planning. An analysis of different source materials will answer four research questions:

    1. To what extent are social impacts integrated into environmental impact assessment (EIA) reports?
    2. Are social impacts sufficiently integrated and/or does this treatment simply amount to ‘good practice’?
    3. Can any trend be detected over time in terms of addressing social issues in impact assessments?
    4. What key measures could increase the influence of social impact issues on transport infrastructure planning practice?

    The study involved a content analysis of six EIA handbooks and EIA statements (EISs) for 18 large transport infrastructure projects. The concepts searched for in these documents largely apply to issues of vulnerability, health, social problems, perceived safety, and alienation. Our data were interpreted through the theoretical lens of institutional interplay. We found that though social aspects are not new considerations in EIA research, they are included in only a small proportion of the 18 Swedish EISs, mostly in connection with health and accessibility. We also found that the more recent documents allotted less space to social issues. It is unlikely that most individuals in the organisations that order EISs, or the consultancies that write them, are unaware of the broader interpretation of ‘human beings’ which includes social aspects.

    The conclusion is that in the absence of a government initiative to clarify how social impacts can be addressed in transport infrastructure planning, there is a need for an external network for organisations involved in transport infrastructure EISs.

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  • 27.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    SLU.
    Landskapsanalys och upphandling: en intervjustudie med aktörer i väg- och järnvägsplaneringen2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report builds on interviews with twelve key individuals concerning issues surrounding landscape analysis (LA) during the planning and procurement process for roads and railways. The background to the study is the long-established use of LA to support broad-scale planning and large projects such as new trunk roads and mainline rail routes.

    In its strategic plan the then Swedish Road Administration (Vägverket) decided that from 2010 onwards all public road-building projects must include a formal landscape analysis and design programme. However, there is no regulatory framework to say what should be analysed, or how the analysis should be conducted.

    There is considerable variation in the experiences and opinions of those interviewed, from which it can be concluded that project leaders at the Swedish Transport Administration (Trafikverket) adopt different styles of working depending on which geographic region or individual project they are associated with. For example, a common understanding of what ‘landscape’ might mean is largely missing, while the way that the respondents describe the landscape does not correspond to the official landscape terminology as set down in the European Landscape Convention (ELC). The term design programme presents a similar case, whereas the concept of an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is well established and goes unquestioned by the interviewees, because it is used both in legislation and in the literature.

    Another conclusion is that there is little in the way of consensus concerning LA except for a common perception that there is a lack of guidelines or assistance from the responsible authority (Trafikverket) in the form of a handbook or a dedicated chapter in the existing EIA handbooks. The importance of a handbook or similar document to the respondents is striking. There is uncertainty as to how to assure the quality of a given LA, and often a review of the EIA is regarded as sufficing for the LA as well.

    There are two schools of thought among the respondents as to when an LA should be carried out: either early in the planning process, or continuously throughout the entire planning process. In reality, though, there is a third school of thought evident in the existing planning system: that an LA is a part of the EIA, and as such should first take place during the consultation process.

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  • 28.
    Antonson, Hans
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Lunds Universitet.
    Åkerskog, Ann
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet .
    "This is what we did last time". Uncertainty over landscape analysis and its procurement in the Swedish road planning process2015In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 42, p. 48-57Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In some European countries, landscape analysis has long been used in support of large-scale planning or major projects such as new trunk roads and mainline rail routes, in line with both the UN's Convention on Environmental Impact Assessment and the European Landscape Convention. Some countries, however, lack a regulatory framework for what should be analysed, how a landscape analysis should be conducted, or even how it should be procured. Sweden is one such country.

    The research project on which this article is based, uses in-depth interviews with twelve key Swedish officials to consider landscape analysis issues in the planning and procurement of road and railway infrastructure. The findings point to the fact that skilled transport planners are not entirely comfortable with the current situation, and the way landscape analysis is handled in daily planning practice varies enormously. For example, nearly all the respondents believe that the way formal landscape analyses are procured is important, not least to ensure quality, yet at the same time they are rarely commissioned separately, even when this is explicitly stipulated by the regulations. There is no generally accepted notion of what 'landscape' might be, and the terms in which respondents describe the landscape do not correspond to the official landscape terminology as set down in the ELC.

  • 29.
    Antov, Dago
    et al.
    Tallinn University of Technology.
    Banet, Aurélie
    Barbier, Cécile
    Bellet, Thierry
    Bimpeh, Yaw
    Boulanger, Ankatrien
    Brandstätter, Christian
    Britschgi, Virpi
    Brosnan, Michael
    Buttler, Ilona
    Cestac, Julien
    De Craen, Saskia
    Delhomme, Patrice
    Dogan, Ebru
    Drápela, Emil
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Freeman, R
    Furian, Gerald
    Gábor, Miklós
    Goldenbeld, Charles
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Holte, Hardy
    Kraïem, Sami
    Papadimitriou, Eleonora
    Podlesek, Anja
    Polič, Marko
    Sánchez-Martín, Fermina
    Sardi, Gian-Marco
    Schmidt, Eike-Andreas
    Silverans, Peter
    Siska, Tamas
    Skládaná, Pavlina
    Theofilatos, Athanasios
    Von Below, Ariande
    Yannis, George
    Zaidel, David
    Zavrides, Neophytos
    Delhomme, Patricia (Editor)
    IFSTTAR.
    European road users' risk perception and mobility: the SARTRE 4 survey2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The SARTRE (Social Attitudes to Road Traffic Risk in Europe) project started in 1991. It consists of a European wide survey about knowledge of road traffic laws and road traffic risks, attitudes regarding road safety issues, reported road traffic behaviours, transport habits and needs in several European countries. Various topics related to road safety are in the focus of the project such as alcohol, drugs, or phone use while driving, speeding, use of advanced driver assistance systems and the transport infrastructure and environment.

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  • 30.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nyberg, Jonna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Räfflor i mitten av körfältet: ett försök i Skaulo2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with the study was to evaluate the effects on road user behavior when using milled rumble strips in the centre of the lane on a road 6.5 meters wide. The evaluation included measurements of speed and lateral position. Measurements were done before and after milling, and focus group interviews were perfomed with motorcyclists and truck drivers after realisation. The results of the measurements of speed and lateral position showed that milled rumble strips in the middle of the lane do not affect car drivers. A slight increase in the standard deviation of the lateral position for passenger cars may be noted. Truck drivers were affected slightly more: significantly lower speed was detected as well as that trucks moved closer to the road centre, and the standard deviation of lateral position increased. This is not what the drivers themselves report to experience. They say that their choice of speed is unchanged. All in all truck drivers were negative to the rumble strips in the centre of the lane. One argument was that they disturbe the "line" during the drive and make it difficult to choose the placement they want to have. Truck drivers do not believe that they, in case of falling asleep, (in contrary to expectations) would have time enough to act in order to aviod a crash, since the roads are too narrow. Also the motorcyclists are negative to the centre lane location of rumble strips. They agree, however, that rumble strips in the centre of the road and in the roadside are postitive in terms of traffic safety.

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  • 31.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Antonson, Hans
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Stakeholders’ opinions on a future in-vehicle alcohol detection system for prevention of drunk driving2015In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, E-ISSN 1538-957X, Vol. 16, no 4, p. 336-344Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as the outcome. Various countermeasures have therefore from time to time been taken by the authorities to prevent drunk driving. One of them has been the alcohol interlock. Up to now, interlocks have mainly been used by previously convicted drunk drivers and in the commercial road transport sector, but not in private cars.

    Objective and Method: New technology has today reached a level where broader implementation might be possible. To our knowledge, however, little is known about different stakeholders' opinions of a broader implementation of such systems. In order to increase that knowledge, we conducted a focus group study to collect in-depth thoughts from different stakeholders on this topic. Eight focus groups representing a broad societal span were recruited and conducted for the purpose.

    Results and Conclusions: The results show that most stakeholders thought that an integrated system for alcohol detection in vehicles might be beneficial in lowering the number of drunk driving crashes. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution to the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system.

    Concerns were raised about the risk of increased sleepy driving and driving just under the legal blood alcohol concentration (BAC) limit. The results also indicate that stakeholders preferred a system that provides information on the BAC up to the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit; for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Acceptance of the system depended on the reliability of the system, on its ability to perform fast sampling, and on the analytical process, as well as the system's more or less inconspicuous placement and user-friendliness. The stakeholders thought that drivers would probably not voluntarily demand the system. So if broad implementation was desired, it would have to be made compulsory by legislation. As an incentive to increase demand, lower taxes and insurance premiums were suggested.

  • 32.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Boende, pendlare och lastbilsförare tycker till om riksväg 23 och riksväg 402012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    It is obvious that those who live near a road like to be involved during the planning phase of a road reconstruction. The Swedish Transport Administration would most likely benefit from making residents more involved in the planning process and from providing clear information about the road safety potential of the implemented measures. A better understanding of the measures’ potential contribution to increase safety is likely to give a greater acceptance.

    The aim of this study performed by VTI was to learn more about what residents, commuters and truck drivers think of the measures taken along two Swedish country roads.

    Concerning one of the roads the truck drivers were positive to the reconstruction even though their fears concerning lack of respect for the continuous centerline had come true. They were also negative regarding the short distance of the gradient field. They would have appreciated if it had been longer. In addition, they argued for deeper milled rumble strips in order to make vibration and sound more easily felt in heavy vehicles. As it is now the truck drivers hardly notice the rumble strips when passing them with a truck.

    Even though the roads previously had had a high traffic density with many dangerous overtakings and a lot of accidents with wild animals, there was little understanding of the reasons behind the reconstructions. The acceptance for fences to protect from wild animals was high, but the other measures implemented to improve road safety were more difficult to substantiate.

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  • 33.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Nykterhetsstödjande system: diskussioner i fokusgrupper2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is a common understanding that driving under the influence of alcohol is associated with higher risk of being involved in crashes with injuries and possible fatalities as outcome. The aim with this study was to understand drivers’ vision of a future vehicle integrated system for alcohol detection. Eight focus groups with in total 47 participants representing different stakeholders were recruited and conducted for the purpose. The groups represented young drivers (18–19 years old), males (30–60 years old), females (30–60 years old), elderly (70–90 years old), former alcohol addicts, one group represented authorities and finally one represented retailors and rental car companies. The analysis was based solely on the transcriptions and the analysis was performed using inductive content analysis. The results show a clear view that such future vehicle integrated system will benefit a large group of drivers. They said that the system would probably mainly prevent driving by people who unintentionally and unknowingly drive under the influence of alcohol. The groups did, however, not regard the system as a final solution for the drunk driving problem, and believed that certain groups, such as criminals and alcoholics, would most likely find a way around the system. From the drivers point of view the system most truly should be invisible for the drivers. Feedback to the driver was seen as justified at levels below the legal limit, but not for levels above the limit: for those, the system should simply prevent the car from starting. Feedback should be given through sound or as a visual feedback. Reliability and trust to the system was rated as very important, and it was underlined that it was important that it was the drivers BAC that was detected not the passengers.

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  • 34.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forsberg, Inger
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Larsson, Lina
    Linköpings universitet.
    Varför skjutsar föräldrarna barnen till skolan?2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Många kommuner upplever problem i samband med att barnen skjutsas till skolan med bil av föräldrarna i stället för att gå, cykla eller åka buss eller skolskjuts. Detta leder i sin tur till minskad trafiksäkerhet i området kring skolorna. Den här skriften förklarar varför föräldrar skjutsar barnen till skolan genom att redovisa forskningsrapporter och redogöra för en studie som författarna gjort på några utvalda skolor. Sveriges Kommuner och Landsting har tagit fram skriften för att inspirera och stödja kommunerna i arbetet med att hitta lösningar som kan minska skjutsandet.

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  • 35.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sjörs Dahlman, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Chalmers, Sweden.
    Seat belt usage in buses: An observation study of usage and travellers’ perspectives2022In: Road Safety on Five Continents – RS5C. Proceedings / [ed] Anna Vadeby and Stephen P. Mattingly, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2022, p. 94-95Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Travelling by bus is one of the safest modes of transport. However, crashes still happen and studies have found that the most severe crashes are related to rollovers, mainly on rural roads. The most severe injuries occur when unbuckled passengers are thrown out through the windows or get stuck under the bus. In Sweden the use of a seat belt and information about seat belt use when traveling by bus is regulated in Traffic Ordinance (1998: 1276) Chapter 4 §10a. In short, all bus passengers three years or older should be seated in a place with a seat belt, if there is such a place, and should use the belt. If there is no seat belt available, it is allowed to stand in the bus (if the bus is approved for standing places). The legal responsibility to inform and make sure passengers under 15 use the belt are on the bus driver. Despite existing regulations there is no clear view on the usage rate of seat belt in buses, or on the travellers’ view of their own usage and the reasons to not buckle up. This study aims to evaluate seat belt usage in buses and to understand travellers’ incentives of seatbelt usage.

  • 36.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. Department of Rehabilitation Medicine, Linköping University, Sweden.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Sjörs Dahlman, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system.. SAFER Vehicle and Traffic Safety Centre, Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden.
    Seat belt usage in buses: An observation study of usage and travellers' perspectives2023In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 190, article id 107138Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to evaluate seat belt usage in buses and to understand travellers' incentives of seat belt usage. Methods used are observational studies (10 cities, with 328 bus observations), focus group discussion (7 groups with a total of 32 participants) and a web survey (n = 1737 respondents). The results show that the seat belt use among bus passengers can be improved especially in regional and commercial bus traffic. It is more common to buckle up on long trips than on short trips. However, even though observations show high usage during long trips, travellers report that they remove the seat belt after a while if they want to sleep or for comfort reasons. For the bus drivers it is not possible to control passengers' usage. Dirty seat belts and technical malfunction might deter some passengers from using them and therefore systematic cleaning and control of seats and belts are recommended. On short trips one reason for not using the belt is related to worries about getting stuck and not being ready to get off in time. In general, it is most important to increase the usage on high-speed roads (>60 km/ h), in lower speed it might be more important to provide a seat for each passenger. Based on the results a list of recommendations is presented.

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  • 37.
    Anund, Anna
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Weidel, My
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Brolin, Karin
    Lightness by Design, Stockholm, Sverige.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, The Human in the Transport system..
    Hantverkares och omsorgspersonals resor i tjänsten: Fokus på arbetsmiljö och säkerhet2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to increase the knowledge of work environment, health and road safety for craftsmen and caregivers (home care and home health care) in connection with work-related travel, to and from assignments.

    In the study, their daily activities were described with objective measurements of driving distances, time of day, driving times, speeds, load securing, and etcetera (study A). Additional data was collected on subjective experiences (surveys and in-depth interviews; studies B and C, respectively).

    The results show that craftsmen and caregivers had different situations regarding safe travel in connection with work assignments. Craftsmen traveled longer but had fewer trips per day and more occasions of speeding compared to caregivers. The caregivers had higher subjective sleepiness and stress upon awakening than the craftsmen. However, there was no difference in the number of people who reported high values of sleepiness and stress during the working day. For craftsmen, 30 percent reported that they suffered from moderate or severe pain and muscle tension, and 30 percent had lower back pain. For caregivers, 49 percent suffered from pain and muscle tension and 46 percent suffered from pain in the lower back. Furthermore, 37 percent of the craftsmen reported that they got insufficient sleep, the corresponding figure for the caregivers was 58 percent. Set-ups for safe anchoring existed in 64 percent of the craftsmen's cars. The bicycles that were used by caregivers had shortcomings regarding reflexes, brakes, etcetera. Only 30 percent of those who cycled agreed that they often or very often used a helmet. 

    Based on the results from the three sub-studies, we have formulated a number of recommendations. These include areas: Strengthened competence, Bicycles/electric bicycles; purchase and maintenance, Motor vehicles; purchase and equipment, Loading/anchoring and Clarified work environment responsibility. In addition, areas for further research were identified. 

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  • 38.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Malin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human Factors in the Transport System.
    Janhäll, Sara
    RISE.
    Sjögren, Eric
    Cykelpoolen i Sverige AB.
    Silvander, Therese
    Energikontor Norra Småland.
    GoMate – Diversifierad elfordonspool för den förtätade staden: slutrapport2019Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the GoMate project, EV sharing services has been tested in two residential areas located in the central city of Jönköping; services consisting of e-bikes, e-cargo bikes and e-cars. The aim of the project has been to investigate whether and to what extent EV sharing services can contribute to reduced car use in favor of the use of more sustainable mobility solutions. The results show that a diversified EV club has the potential to reduce car use. It is mainly the e-bike that replaces car trips for everyday travel, which in the long term can reduce car holdings in favor of the use of e-car services for occasional travel.

    However, if the potential is to be realized, price and business models are required for these services that stimulate reduced car use, considered as a process that can be expected to occur gradually over time. Such a process also needs to be supported by policy instruments and measures that limit car use in central city areas.

    If the potential is to be realized, the services also need to be scaled up considerably with respect to the number of vehicles per apartment. Although there was a relatively large EV club with a total of 17 (of which 15 were bicycles) vehicles for 160 households, which were tested in the project, it only had the capacity to supply a very small proportion of the residents' total travel, and with very little effects regarding reduction in energy use and carbon emissions.

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  • 39.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hansson, Lisa
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Ekonomiska styrmedel för en hållbar personbilstrafik: konsekvenser för tillgänglighet: en kunskapsöversikt2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to provide knowledge on how economic instruments for the greening of private car traffic have been addressed in accessibility research with an equity and distribution perspective. The focus is on instruments that are designed to give economic incentives for environmental adjustments and are in operation in Sweden and Norway. The report begins with a review of economic instruments for the greening of private car traffic in force in Sweden and Norway. The instruments have been classified into three groups: those linked to vehicle characteristics, those linked to fuel, and tolls and congestion charges. This review is followed by a presentation of international accessibility research; how equity and distribution are conceptualized and researched within this field and the central empirical findings. The report continues with a review of how these instruments have been discussed and assessed to date in accessibility research with a focus on equity and distribution-related consequences. The report ends with a number of thematic areas of relevance for upcoming research in Sweden and Norway The literature review indicates that an intensified emphasis on economic instruments targeting private car traffic for the transition to an environmentally sustainable transport system in the transport policy of many Western countries has led to increased interest in these instruments in accessibility research. Characteristic of the literature under review is that the expected consequences of these instruments are discussed in relation to empirical results from accessibility research studies, but the instruments as such have not yet been the object of empirical research within this field to any large extent. Throughout the literature the economic instruments are regarded as increasing inequities in transport in terms of accessibility. Essentially, the explanation offered is that the context in which these economic instruments operate, and which controls their outcomes, is a society that is car-oriented in respect of land use patterns and transport infrastructure. This means that groups whose finances are under strain face severe barriers in accessing society’s goods and services and in reaching a reasonable standard of living and quality of life without using a car to get around. Accessibility research does not reject the economic instruments as such. What it criticizes is that these instruments do not seem to be accompanied by wide-ranging changes in land use planning and investment in alternative transport infrastructure.

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  • 40.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Kolbenstvedt, Marika
    Transportøkonomisk institutt, TØI, Oslo.
    Policy för spridning av elbilar: några aktuella perspektiv och forskningsbehov: en förstudie2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on a preliminary study that focuses in particular on exploring policy for the accelerated adoption of electric cars in Norway and Sweden. Electric cars are one of the central vehicle technologies when it comes to the targets for a fossil-independent vehicle fleet that have been set by countries such as Sweden and Norway. The overall purpose of the preliminary study has been to highlight what steers policy formulation in each country and how policy relates to research into and knowledge of the way green technology innovations are adopted. The aim is to pin down future knowledge and research needs regarding the accelerated adoption of electric cars specifically and green technology innovations in the transport field more generally. The preliminary study comprises one Swedish and one Norwegian sub-study of national transport and environmental policy with a bearing on the adoption of electric cars, plus R&D policy linked to this vehicle technology. Both these sub-studies have, in various ways, used and referred to international research and theorising on the adoption of green technology innovations in the analyses that have been conducted. The sub-studies have led to the identification of knowledge gaps in policy-making, research needs and three thematic areas for further studies: Increased multi- and cross-disciplinary research into the adoption of green technology innovations in vehicles and transport; Knowledge based policy research for “knowledge policies”, Policy as political process and the role of key players.

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  • 41.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Nordbakke, Susanne
    TØI, Oslo.
    Developments in driver’s licence holding among young people: potential explanations, implications and trends2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This literature review examines the factors that influence the development in the driver’s licence rate among young people in different age groups, socioeconomic groups and geographical contexts, as well as the impact on the welfare of young people of holding or not holding a driver’s licence. The review also includes research on trends, prognoses and evaluations of developments in driver’s licence holding, and knowledge on any links between changes in driver licensing and falling car usage among young people. The review shows that several factors appear to explain and influence the driver licensing trend among young people, while, at the same time, there is a great difference in driver’s licence holding among different groups. More research is needed to investigate the extent to which the declining driver licensing rates is a general trend and/or opposite trends between different groups of young people, and with different welfare impacts.

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  • 42.
    Aretun, Åsa
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Robertson, Kerstin
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Ökad cykling: professionella utmaningar och hinder i den lokala transportplaneringen2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The report aims to highlight reasons why not policy objective of an increased proportion of cycling is achieved in practical planning at the municipal level, and contribute to knowledge about how this “implementation gap” can be reduced. The report is based on research on the implementation of policy to increase cycling in four swedish municipalities. The results show that the implementation gap is partly a consequence of pathdependency. The target of increased cycling is handled within an implementation structure, organizationknowledge- action, where professional groups are characterized by knowledge and skills aiming at optimizing the flow of traffic. This approach serves as a model for operational set of problems and solutions in planning for increased cycling. The substantial work has consisted of building a functional cycling network, improving lane design and other cycling infrastructure measures. Mobility for cycling has increased over the years, but the effects in the form of an increased share of cycling have not materialized. Lack of goal-achievement has not led to a reconsideration of exciting approaches and methods. Officials are instead oriented toward maintaining professional boundaries regarding competencies and choice of action. Concretely this means that accessibility conditions for cycling are not ensured, which further endangers the effects of mobility measures, and other measures of a complementary nature. To change this situation the traffic professions have to develop. The report outline three possible approaches to how this can be done: the development of planning support on accessibility conditions for cycling by national authorities with the role of assisting municipalities in their planning, greater focus and systematics around the investigation of local problems for increased cycling, which the selection of actions should be based on; greater governance in order to establish cross-sectoral work in planning.

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  • 43.
    Bagdadi, Omar
    et al.
    Transportstyrelsen.
    Wallen Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Fyrhjulingars köregenskaper och förarnas kunskap om dessa egenskaper2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Riding quad bikes differs in many ways from driving passenger cars and the rider is not always aware of the differences required to maintain control of a vehicle that they are not trained to ride. One of the major differences with quad bikes compared to driving a car is that a quad bike has a tendency to roll over during sharp cornering. The purpose of this study was to compare both static vehicle characteristics and driving dynamics of motorcycle-registered quad bikes of different models to identify any difficulties that may arise when using quad bikes in road traffic. The aim was also to study how driving style affects the quad bike’s driving dynamics and identify the riders' knowledge of these.

    The study consists of three parts of which the first two concerns vehicle handling characteristics studied by performing a series of 1) static and 2) dynamic performance tests. The static tests consisted of measuring the angle at which the vehicle rolled over sideways by means of a hydraulic tilting table. The dynamic test consisted of performing a series of test runs on different test tracks in order to study the dynamic behaviour of the quad bike. The third part addressed the question whether riders have the necessary knowledge to drive quad bikes safely by conducting focus group interviews with persons with different driving license categories and driving experience.

    The results of the static test showed that the rollover threshold of the quad bikes is affected by the weight of the rider due to the relative lightweight of the quad bike. The dynamic tests verified that the rider could, by using his/her own body weight, compensate for the physical forces acting upon the vehicles’ tendency to roll over by using an active driving style. The focus group interviews showed that most of the interviewed persons believe that an active driving style is needed to drive safely and that the current training for the driving license lacks necessary training for driving a quad bike.

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  • 44.
    Bakhtiary, Mohammadreza
    et al.
    Transportation Department, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
    Behnood, Hamid Reza
    Transportation Department, Faculty of Engineering, Imam Khomeini International University, Qazvin, Iran.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Andersson, Jan
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    A tree-based extended model to predict intention to speed for taxi drivers2024In: Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, ISSN 1369-8478, E-ISSN 1873-5517, Vol. 103, p. 190-200Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to predict and understand drivers’ intention to violate emphasizes the importance of developing a model based on the motives behind the action. This study aims to develop a model to predict a taxi driver’s intention to speed in an urban area using variables including psychological factors, demographic information, and exposure. Aggregate (factor-based) and disaggregate (item-based) models of input variables will also be compared. In this study, the self-reported data on Tehran taxi drivers was collected in the form of a scenario-based questionnaire which is inspired by the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB). The intention to commit violations was predicted and modelled using stepwise regression and decision tree regression models. The results, based on the stepwise regression model showed a higher value of fitting score for an item-based linear model (R2 = 0.695), but the final model using the tree-based regression presented a better fit for the factored model (R2 = 0.746) considering the cross-validated model with the lowest deviation criteria (RMSD = 0.26). Furthermore, in this model attitude made the greatest contribution to the prediction of intention. The results obtained from the two different modelling approaches showed that exposure and age did not have much effect on the models. A main advantage of the current study is that the variables were compared and refined in two stages of exploratory factor analysis and stepwise regression before being entered into the tree regression model. In addition, the results of the factor-based model were compared with the item-based model.

    The full text will be freely available from 2026-04-22 09:00
  • 45.
    Balkmar, Dag
    et al.
    Örebro Universitet.
    Summerton, Jane
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Contested mobilities: politics, strategies and visions in Swedish bicycle activism2017In: Applied Mobilities, ISSN 2380-0127, Vol. 2, no 2, p. 151-165Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cycling is currently the focus of considerable political and public attention in many urban areas. As more and more cyclists claim space on the roads, new forms of political engagement in cycling issues beyond traditional bicycle advocacy have also emerged. Beyond focusing on cyclists' perspectives and rights, these expressions of bicycle activism show the ways in which bicycles - as potential vehicles for sociopolitical change - are contested political and cultural symbols.

    The purpose of this paper is to describe and analyse the ways in which bicycle activists and advocates in Sweden construct their politics and practices. Empirically the paper addresses three expressions of contemporary bicycling activism and advocacy: the well-established Swedish national cycling advocacy organization Cykelfrämjandet (Cycling Sweden), the ad-hoc Ghost Bike Sweden, and the online-based Bike Maffia-initiative. The empirical material of the paper consists of qualitative interviews with the leading representatives from each organization or initiative, as well as written and video materials. As arenas for cultural politics, the organizations or initiatives are diverse, exemplifying highly different views concerning conflicts in urban space, strategies for addressing these conflicts, and views of cyclists as subjects of bicycle politics.

    The paper addresses these issues in a specific Swedish context, also exploring the implications for understanding how political activism is shaped more generally. It is argued that bicycle activism can be viewed as a way of practising cycling citizenship, a perspective that provides a conceptual linkage between new social movement theory and activism more generally.

  • 46.
    Barfod, Michael Bruhn
    et al.
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Leleur, Steen
    Technical University of Denmark.
    Gudmundsson, Henrik
    CONCITO.
    Hedegaard Sørensen, Claus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Greve, Carsten
    Copenhagen Business School.
    Promoting sustainability through national transport planning2018In: European Journal of Transport and Infrastructure Research, ISSN 1567-7133, E-ISSN 1567-7141, Vol. 18, no 3, p. 250-261Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This following special issue of the European Journal of Transport Infrastructure Research (EJTIR) containing 4 scientific papers is the result of the work conducted under the research project 'National Transport Planning - Sustainability, Institutions and Tools' (SUSTAIN) (20122017) financed by the Danish Innovation Fund. SUSTAIN was coordinated by first the Department of Transport of the Technical University of Denmark (DTU Transport) and later as the result of a reorganisation of the transport research at DTU by the Department of Management Engineering (DTU Management Engineering). The project was carried out in cooperation with several Danish and international partners. In SUSTAIN the following definition of national sustainable transport planning (NSTP) was adopted: deliberate, knowledge-based, and strategic endeavours to integrate sustainability principles, criteria and goals in the development, management, regulation and assessment of nationally significant transport systems and services. This paper presents the research outcome by reviewing some of the major findings and seeing these collectively as a basis for promoting sustainability through the formulated research topic of NSTP. This basis includes defining criteria and indicators for use in NSTP combining evidence-based and performance oriented planning approaches. Furthermore, it contains a flexible evaluation framework that includes a decision support model that when informed by criteria and indicators can structure and assist an NSTP practice. This practice can support a planning process aiming at realising a sustainable transport development. Finally, the basis comprises a review of the complex political and administrative fabric in which NSTP is embedded, and thereby it can condition the ability to promote sustainability in practice.

  • 47.
    Barnard, Yvonne
    et al.
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Lai, Frank
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Carsten, Oliver
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Merat, Natasha
    ITS, University of Leeds.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Wallén Warner, Henriette
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Enjalbert, Simon
    UNIVAL.
    Pichon, Marianne
    UNIVAL.
    Vanderhaegen, Frederic
    UNIVAL.
    Specification of test procedures for the simulator experiments2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In Deliverable 3.1 of Workpackage 3, we discuss the methodology developed and applied in the European ITERATEproject (IT for Error Remediation And Trapping Emergencies). This methodology has as its objective to design experiments that will provide data to seed the ITERATE model. In the ITERATE project a high-level theoretical model of vehicle operator behaviour has been developed in Workpackage 1, specifying the factors that play a role in the influence of innovative support systems on vehicle operation in potentially dangerous situations. Themodel isapplicable for different surface transport modes: road vehicles, rail transport and ships. Themodel will be calibrated by experiments investigating how the different factors interact. One hundred and sixty car drivers and 160 train drivers in five countries will drive with a static driving simulator, and 64 drivers (both train and car) with full motion simulators. Finally an executable simulation model will be constructed with the aim to predict the effects of support systems on operator behaviour and risk.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 48.
    Bell, Daniel
    et al.
    FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OHG .
    Pokriefke, Eike
    FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OHG .
    Risser, Ralf
    FACTUM Chaloupka & Risser OHG .
    Biler, Stanislav
    CDV Centrum Dopravního Výzkumu (Transport Research Centre).
    Šenk, Petr
    CDV Centrum Dopravního Výzkumu (Transport Research Centre).
    Parkes, Andrew
    TRL Limited Transport Research Laboratory.
    Stannard, Jenny
    TRL Limited Transport Research Laboratory.
    Armoogum, Jimmy
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Marin-Lamellet, Claude
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Gabaude, Cathrine
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Madre, Jean-Loupe
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Alauzet, Aline
    IFSTTAR - French institute of science and technology for transport, development and networks.
    Monterde-i-Bort, Hector
    Universitat de Valencia- Estudi General.
    Henriksson, Per
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Mobility Patterns in the Ageing Populations: Work package 2 - Summary Report2013Report (Other academic)
    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 49.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    En studie om effektiva och innovativa lösningar för kollektivtrafik på landsbygd: slutrapport av regeringsuppdrag2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the budget proposal for 2016, Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI) was tasked with implementing a study on effective and innovative solutions that can enhance people’s willingness and ability to use public transport in rural areas in Sweden. The commission should implement an environmental analysis and describe the present situation. This includes highlighting good examples of efficient and innovative solutions within the public transport area, both national and international. The commission will also consider how conditions differ between various rural areas, as well as women’s and men’s opportunities to travel by public transport. Furthermore, new opportunities for managing open data and digitalisation should be highlighted.

    The commission is reported in November 2017. The results are based on four different studies that are documented in four publications. The present final report presents a summary of important conclusions from the commission.

    Download full text (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 50.
    Berg, Jessica
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes. Linköpings Universitet.
    Everyday mobility and travel activities during the first years of retirement2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mobility is central to living an independent life, to participating in society, and to maintaining well-being in later life. The point of departure in this thesis is that retirement implies changes in time-space use and interruption in routines, which influence demands and preconditions for mobility in different ways.  The aim of this thesis is to explore mobility strategies and changes in mobility upon retirement and how mobility develops during the first years of retirement. A further aim is to provide knowledge of the extent to which newly retired people maintain a desired mobility based on their needs and preconditions. The thesis is empirically based on travel diaries kept by newly retired people, and qualitative interviews with the same persons, and follow-up interviews three and a half years later. The results show that mobility is a way of forming a structure in the new everyday life as retirees by getting out of the house, either just for a walk or to do errands. Many patterns of everyday life remain the same upon retirement, but the informants also merge new responsibilities and seek new social arenas and activities. As a result, the importance of the car have not changed, but it is used for other reasons than before. After leaving paid work, new space-time constraints are created which influences demands for mobility. The study further shows that “third places” become important, especially among those who live alone, as they give an opportunity to being part of a social context and a reason for getting out of the house. The follow-up interviews revealed that declining health changes the preconditions for mobility. Daily walks had to be made shorter, and the car had to be used for most errands to where they previously could walk or cycle. However, mobility can also be maintained despite a serious illness and a long period of rehabilitation.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Kappa
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