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The effect of exercising in different environments on heart rate and power output among older adults–a randomized crossover study
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sport Science. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. (DISA;DISA-IDP)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-8684-608X
Linnaeus University, School of Business and Economics, Department of Economics and Statistics. (DISA;DISA-IDP)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3623-5034
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Medicine and Optometry. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Sustainable Health. (Ehälsoinstitutet;eHealth Institute;DISA;DISA-IDP)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-4934-8684
2022 (English)In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 17, no 11, article id e0275886Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Sustainable development
SDG 3: Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages
Abstract [en]

BackgroundA growing body of evidence suggests that exposure to nature is beneficial for human health. However, the observed health effect of nature may be mediated by physical activity and that humans are physically active at a higher intensity outdoors compared to when they are physical active indoors.ObjectiveThis study examines the variation of heart rate and power output for a fixed rating of perceived exertion in a group of healthy older adults in three different environments representing three levels of exposure to nature.MethodsTo this randomized, 3-by-3 crossover design study, healthy older adults (≥65 years) were recruited from local gyms. All participants participated in three experimental conditions; indoors, simulated outdoors and outdoor environments, in a randomized order. The participants exercised for 20 minutes at an intensity equivalent to a rating of 11–13 on the Borg scale for perceived exertion (RPE). Measurements of heart rate, power output (Watt) and ratings of perceived exertion were taken at minutes 1 to 6 and at minute 20. To examine the effect of the environment on heart rate and power, linear mixed models were used.ResultsIn all, 48 participants (56% females) were included in the analysis. No significant main effects on the outcomes were observed for power output (p = 0.073, η2 = 0.04) or heart rate (p = 0.067, η2 = 0.04)ConclusionNo significant effect on the outcomes was observed. However, borderline significant outcomes for power output or heart rate outdoors in nature, along with previous studies in the field, indicates that such an effect cannot be completely ruled out, but any effect is likely to be small. Future research examining health benefits of the independent exposure to nature are encouraged to adjust for the dose of physical activity.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Public Library of Science , 2022. Vol. 17, no 11, article id e0275886
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Sport and Fitness Sciences
Research subject
Natural Science, Medicine; Social Sciences, Sport Science
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-117245DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0275886ISI: 000925209600018PubMedID: 36322536Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85141889536OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-117245DiVA, id: diva2:1708181
Funder
The Kamprad Family Foundation, 20132082 and 20180238Available from: 2022-11-03 Created: 2022-11-03 Last updated: 2023-05-17Bibliographically approved

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Ahnesjö, JonasKarlsson, Peter S.Bergman, Patrick
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