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Säkerhetsklimat i en militär organisation
University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Division of Psychology, Pedagogy and Sociology. (LINA)ORCID iD: 0000-0003-0394-9724
2022 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [sv]

Den militära organisationen inkluderar olika verksamheter vilket skiljer den fran civila organisationer. Den militära organisationen har sin motsvarighet i flera olika civila organisationer som sjöfart, luftfart, sjukvård och transport for att nämna några områden. Den allomfattande militära verksamheten regleras av samma lagar som övriga aktörer i samhället forhåller sig till. Det som är unikt med den militära organisationen är den kontinuerligt tränar och övar för krig. Organisationens personal exponeras för utmaningen att tankemässigt växla mellan individuell och kollektiv risktagning att tänka och träna (krig), Sveriges säkerhet. Samtidigt förvantas individen förebygga risker i de farliga situationer som påverkar den individuella säkerheten som individen möter i sitt arbete.

Säkerhetsklimat ar organisationsmedlemmarnas kollektiva uppfattning om området säkerhet (Neal & Griffin, 2002; Zohar, 1980). Uppfattningarna skapas genom att gruppen ser hur säkerhet uttrycks, prioriteras och hanteras i organisationen till exempel i organisationens regler, rutiner, instruktioner och dokument (Kines et al., 2011). Uppfattningar ar särskilt viktiga i organisationens säkerhetsarbete och bidrar till att vissa säkerhetsomraden uppfattas som mer eller mindre viktiga i det dagliga arbetet (Fahlbruch & Wilpert, 1999; Flin, 1998; Flin et al., 2000). Dessa uppfattningar påverkar aven förekomsten av olyckor och tillbud som kan orsaka skador pa människor, utrustning och miljö (Beus et al., 2010; Christian et al., 2009; Fugas et al., 2012; Kuenzi & Schminke, 2009; Nahrgang et al., 2011; Tholen et al., 2013). For att kartlägga säkerhetsklimatet används olika enkätinstrument. Det finns inga säkerhetsklimatinstrument som är anpassade  till  hela  den  militära  organisationens verksamhet. De säkerhetsklimatinstrument som finns mäter säkerhetsklimat utifrån en specifik verksamhet som till exempel sjöfart. I den föreliggande avhandlingen har en modifierad version av instrumentet Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire använts för att mäta säkerhetsklimat i flera olika delar av den militära organisationen. Ytterligare områden har adderats till instrumentet for att fånga de situationer som militär personal möter i den dagliga verksamheten dvs övning, etik, och fysikträning.

Avhandlingens syfte är att utveckla ett verktyg för att undersöka säkerhetsklimat i en militär organisation samt att undersöka relationen mellan säkerhet och lärande i det militära arbetet.

Resultaten visar att det anpassade instrumentet NOSACQ-50 diskriminerar mellan olika stridskrafter och nivåer i den militära organisationen. Resultaten visar att de nyskapade dimensionerna: Ledningens stöd, Kunskap om lagar, Etik, Prioritering av träning, Undvikande av träning, Rättvis utvärdering, Acceptans av vulnerabilitet mäter andra aspekter av säkerhet som har relevans for den miliära organisationen.

Vidare har säkerhet undersökts under en militär övning. Datainsamlingen designades efter  metoden  kritiska  incidenter.  Deltagande  observationer genomfördes av planeringen inför övningen Northern Wind 2019 (NW19). Skuggning användes for att följa övningsdeltagarna under övningen NW19. Resultaten visar att begäret att vinna övningen påverkar hur deltagarna arbetar med säkerhet. Deltagande enheter blir med sina beslut och aktioner omedvetet varandras lärare. Övningsdeltagarna påverkas av "gamer mode" vilket medför att säkerhetsreglerna upplevs hindrande for övningsvinsten. Övningsscenariot skapar en situation där verklighetsliknande situationer sammanblandas med autentiska. Konkreta uppgifter går att imitera (flytta den gröna lådan) medan abstrakta uppgifter inte kan imiteras (samarbeta med andra myndigheter som Polisen). Problematiken skapar ett underlag som kan vilseleda organisationen och skapa kunskap som inte fungerar utanför övningen. Problem och svårigheter synliggörs inte utan bildar organisatoriska svagheter som kan orsaka farliga situationer för individen och organisationen.

För att ytterligare förstå militar säkerhet behöver arbetet kompletteras med ytterligare studier riktade mot marina och flygvapenövningar. Vidare behöver instrumentet kompletteras med påståenden som fångar personalens uppfattning om säkerhetslösningens faktiska tillämpbarhet när den används i den militära verksamheten.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Trollhättan: Högskolan Väst , 2022. , p. 69
Series
PhD Thesis: University West ; 51
Keywords [sv]
Militär, Säkerhetsklimat, Lärande, Aktivitetsteori, Rutinarbete
National Category
Work Sciences Learning Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19061ISBN: 978-91-89325-33-3 (print)ISBN: 978-91-89325-32-6 (electronic)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:hv-19061DiVA, id: diva2:1688390
Public defence
2022-09-30, F211, Gustava Melins gata 2, Trollhättan, 13:15 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-08-31 Created: 2022-08-18 Last updated: 2022-12-07Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Safety Climate in Military Organizations: A Pilot Study of an Adjusted Multi-Domain Instrument
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Safety Climate in Military Organizations: A Pilot Study of an Adjusted Multi-Domain Instrument
2019 (English)In: Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society Annual Meeting, ISSN 21695067, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 1373-1377Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this pilot study is to adjust the NOSACQ-50 to the work environment of military organizations.NOSACQ-50 is a validated tool successfully used in several organizational domains to measure occupationalsafety climate (OSC). In general, few studies have been published investigating OSC in militaryorganizations. NOSACQ-50 consists of 50 items across 7 OSC dimensions, i.e. group members' sharedperceptions of: 1) management safety priority, commitment and competence; 2) management safetyempowerment; 3) management safety justice; 4) workers' safety commitment; 5) workers' safety priority andrisk non-acceptance; 6) safety communication, learning, and trust in co-workers' safety competence; 7)workers' trust in the efficacy of safety systems. To assess the relevance of the NOSACQ-50 items, a revisedversion of the instrument was sent to 11 military safety experts. In addition, 19 items pertaining to areas notcovered by NOSACQ-50 were validated by the same experts. After contents validation, data from 517participants from 4 garrisons were collected. The results showed that NOSACQ-50 had acceptable reliabilityscores (.70-.89.), and the factor structure was confirmed by confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Principalcomponent analyses (PCA) of the supplementary 19 items showed that 12 items grouped into threedimensions (alpha .74-.91): Management enabling safety performance, personnel's knowledge of andcompetence in national laws regulating safety and Unit ethics. In conclusion, preliminary results showed theadjusted NOSACQ-50 instrument could be used to measure OSC in military organizations. However,additional studies must be performed to improve and develop military specific dimensions not covered byNOSACQ-50.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
sage journals, 2019
Keywords
Military organizations; military personnel; management safety
National Category
Applied Psychology Health Sciences
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning; SOCIAL SCIENCE, Psychology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-15078 (URN)10.1177/1071181319631253 (DOI)
Conference
Proceedings of the Human Factors and Ergonomics Society 2019 Annual Meeting
Available from: 2020-03-19 Created: 2020-03-19 Last updated: 2022-08-18Bibliographically approved
2. A Multi-Domain instrument for safety Climate: Military safety climate questionnaire (MSCQ) and NOSACQ-50
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Multi-Domain instrument for safety Climate: Military safety climate questionnaire (MSCQ) and NOSACQ-50
2022 (English)In: Safety Science, ISSN 0925-7535, E-ISSN 1879-1042, Vol. 154, article id 105851Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The purpose of this study is to adjust and develop Nordic Safety Climate Questionnaire (NOSACQ-50) specifically for the military domain. Many safety climate instruments have been developed for complex organizations but few with a military perspective including military exercises and physical training. Data were collected during two separate occasions, experiment one (n = 956) and experiment two (n = 377). The questionnaire was distributed to civilian and military personnel working in the Swedish Armed Forces and to military cadets. The results of experiment one was then analyzed using principal component analyses and confirmatory factor analyses, the factor structure was reproduced in experiment two. The results from the study confirmed the reliability and validity of NOSACQ-50 as a safety climate instrument in the military organization. However, several new factors were identified with the military safety climate questionnaire (MSCQ). Physical fitness and exercises are important activities in the military but are less important in other organizations which could explain why it isn’t present in traditional safety climate instruments. This study identifies several limitations one being the design of questions suitable for both military and civilian personnel. Another limitation is combat operations, this data collection recognizes the field but was unable to capture data from actual combat operations. Further research is needed to fully develop more dimensions for both exercises and combat operations.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2022
Keywords
Safety climate, Military, Multi-domain, Vulnerability
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Work Sciences
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19068 (URN)10.1016/j.ssci.2022.105851 (DOI)
Available from: 2022-08-18 Created: 2022-08-18 Last updated: 2023-01-25Bibliographically approved
3. Planning for Safety when Preparing for War: Competition Brings Out the Wickedness of the Military
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Planning for Safety when Preparing for War: Competition Brings Out the Wickedness of the Military
2022 (English)In: 27th ICCRTS Proceedings: Theme: Collective C2: Working with Partners Track 7: Experimentation, Analysis, Assessment, and Metrics, International Command and Control Institute , 2022, p. 1-16Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The study investigates how two-sided military exercises affect learning and participating personnel's ability to perform tasks safely when confronted with an equally matched opponent. Data were collected from two separate events the Northern Wind 2019 Final Planning Conference and the Northern Wind 2019 exercise using participatory observations and shadowing. The outline of the critical incident technique was used as a guide when designing the data collection and the activity theory framework was used for coding and analyzing the data. The results indicate that a driven desire to win two-sided military exercises can create unsafe work practices by performing work tasks without regard for occupational-, electrical- or fire safety. The results also indicate a need for reshaping the conception of a two-sided military exercise by treating the exercise as a learning opportunity and recognizing the impact of the participating unit on each other’s learning. The study is based on the results of one army exercise and requires further research to understand the activities that take place and how they affect learning and safety. However, it gives some insight into the learning problems occurring during military field exercises.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
International Command and Control Institute, 2022
Series
ICCRTS Symposium, ISSN 2577-1604
Keywords
war, military, competition
National Category
Other Social Sciences not elsewhere specified Applied Psychology
Research subject
Work Integrated Learning
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:hv:diva-19448 (URN)
Conference
27 th International Command And Control Research & Technology Symposium 25-27 October 2022 – Quebec City, Canada. Theme: Collective C2: Working with Partners Track 3: Coping with Constraints, Complexity and Ambiguity
Available from: 2022-12-07 Created: 2022-12-07 Last updated: 2022-12-07

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