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Response to Intervention - en specialdidaktisk modell för att förebygga lässvårigheter: Från samlat forskningsläge till tillämpning i svensk skolkontext
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1653-6120
2022 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Sustainable development
SDG 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
Abstract [en]

The Response to Intervention model originated in the United States. The model aims to prevent learning difficulties through early identification and thus early intervention. The goal is that no student should fall behind “No child left behind”. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how RtI can function as a special didactic model in primary school. It seeks to systematically organize early identification and early intervention regarding students' reading development and thereby counteract reading difficulties. The thesis first study is a meta-analysis that examines the effects of tier 2 interventions on primary school students' word decoding development. A small to moderate effect was found g = .31. The second study examined the effects of RtI when identifying and intervening students in need of support in their reading development. The study was conducted as a quasi-experiment with grade 2 students (n = 11 + 11). The results showed effect sizes between g = .49 - 1.00 on word decoding and reading comprehension, however, the results were not significant. The teachers' perception of the model was also compiled. They found that RtI worked very well as the students received support and the teachers were given the opportunity to collaborate. They did however also find that the RtI model was inflexible and resource-intensive. The third study was longitudinal and followed students' (n = 113) reading development during grade 1 and 2 within RtI. A significant reduction in students in need of support was noted. In comparison with a reference group (n = 759), there were significantly fewer students who performed below the 25th percentile and fewer RtI students who did not maintain their reading ability. The results showed that RtI seems to function as a special didactic model in accordance with "No child left behind". Nevertheless, there are students who have received interventions within the model that do not reach age-appropriate levels. The fourth article discusses the possibilities of combining Response to Intervention and Lesson Study as the models seem to be able to complement each other.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2022. , p. 114
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 452
Keywords [en]
response to intervention (RtI); multitiered system of support (MTSS); reading; at risk; reading difficulties; primary education
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-113005ISBN: 9789189709065 (electronic)ISBN: 9789189709058 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-113005DiVA, id: diva2:1659786
Public defence
2022-06-17, Weber, Universitetsplatsen 1, Växjö, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-06039Available from: 2022-05-25 Created: 2022-05-21 Last updated: 2024-03-12
List of papers
1. Efficacy evaluation of a full-scale response to intervention program for enhancing student reading abilities in a Swedish school context
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Efficacy evaluation of a full-scale response to intervention program for enhancing student reading abilities in a Swedish school context
2022 (English)In: Reading and writing, ISSN 0922-4777, E-ISSN 1573-0905, Vol. 35, p. 1239-1264Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Reading abilities in Swedish students have declined in recent decades. The current study examined the effectiveness of a full-scale three-tier Response to Intervention (RtI) model designed to improve reading skills in Swedish students. Participants were grade 2 students in a primary school setting. A quasi-experimental between-group design was used to examine treatment effects. The RtI experimental group (n = 11) and comparison group (n = 11) were monitored longitudinally over 2.5 years. The interventions included specialized instruction on decoding and reading comprehension. The comparison group received treatment as usual. After the intervention, the number of students in need of support in the experimental RtI-group was reduced from six to one. Furthermore, decoding and reading comprehension improved in the experimental group relative to the comparison group; however, the results were not significant. The standard deviation in the experimental group was smaller than that in the comparison group for all follow-up measures. The intervention effect was sustained after one and a half year in most of the students who had responded to the intervention. In addition, the participating teachers mostly appreciated the RtI-model. These preliminary findings suggest that the RtI model possibly can enhance reading skills in Swedish students; however, more research is needed. Implications for using the RtI model are discussed.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Springer Nature, 2022
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education, Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-108702 (URN)10.1007/s11145-021-10237-3 (DOI)000731500400001 ()2-s2.0-85121507917 (Scopus ID)2021 (Local ID)2021 (Archive number)2021 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, VR UV Dnr 2017-06039
Available from: 2021-12-21 Created: 2021-12-21 Last updated: 2022-06-09Bibliographically approved
2. Tier 2 interventions within the RtI-model for developing students' word decoding – a systematic review and meta-analysis
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tier 2 interventions within the RtI-model for developing students' word decoding – a systematic review and meta-analysis
2021 (English)In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1994105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This pre-registered systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to answer if K-2 students at risk (Population) for reading impairment benefited from a response to tier 2 reading intervention (Intervention) compared to teaching as usual, (Comparator), on word decoding outcomes (Outcome), based on randomized controlled trials (Study type). Eligibility criteria were adequately sized (N > 30 per group) randomized controlled trials of tier 2 reading interventions within response to intervention targeting K-2 at risk students (percentile 40) compared with teaching as usual (TAU). Reading interventions had to be at least 20 sessions and conducted in a school setting with at least 30 students in each group and containing reading activities. Comparator could not be another intervention. Only decoding tests from Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised (WRMT) and Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) were included.Information sources: Database search was conducted 2019–05-20 in ERIC, PsycINFO, LLBA, WOS, and additionally in Google Scholar as well as a hand search in previous reviews and meta-analyses. The searches were updated on 2021–03-21. Risk of bias: Studies were assessed with Cochrane’s Risk of Bias 2, R-index and funnel plots. A random-effects model was used to analyze the effect sizes (Hedges’ g). Seven studies met the eligibility criteria but only four had sufficient data to extract for the meta-analysis. The weighted mean effect size across the four included studies was Hedges’ g = 0.31, 95% CI [0.12, 0.50] which means that the intervention group improved their decoding ability more than students receiving TAU. A Leave-one-out analysis showed that the weighted effect did not depend on a single study. Students at risk of reading difficulties benefit from tier 2 reading intervention conducted within response to intervention regarding a small effect on the students decoding ability. Only four studies met inclusion criteria and all studies had at least some risk of bias. Tier 2 reading interventions, conducted in small groups within RtI, can to some extent support decoding development as a part of reading factors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2021
Keywords
Education
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-108121 (URN)10.1080/2331186x.2021.1994105 (DOI)000720095900001 ()2-s2.0-85119621664 (Scopus ID)2021 (Local ID)2021 (Archive number)2021 (OAI)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-06039Swedish Research Council, 2020-03430
Available from: 2021-11-18 Created: 2021-11-18 Last updated: 2024-01-29Bibliographically approved
3. Examination of a three-tiered RtI-model for identifying and supporting students at risk of reading difficulties in primary schools in Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Examination of a three-tiered RtI-model for identifying and supporting students at risk of reading difficulties in primary schools in Sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Some Swedish schools do not identify and support students with reading difficulties efficiently enough during the first years at school. A longitudinal design was used to examine a three-tiered RtI-model for identifying and supporting students at risk of reading difficulties in a Swedish school context. The results demonstrated that the RtI-model could be successfully applied. The proportion of students in need of support (i.e., below the 25th percentile) was significantly reduced after two years. When comparing students receiving RtI-treatment (n =113) with a group of reference students (n =759), students at-risk of reading difficulties in the RtI-group reached the cut-off of the study (i.e., 25th percentile) to a significantly higher degree in word and non-word decoding and reading comprehension in a short text during the post-test at the end of Grade 2 than students in the reference group. The discussion highlights the RtI-model’s strength - “No Child Left Behind”. 

Keywords
response to intervention (RtI); multitiered system of support (MTSS); reading; at risk; reading difficulties; primary education
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Education, Special Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-112997 (URN)
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-06039
Available from: 2022-05-20 Created: 2022-05-20 Last updated: 2022-06-08Bibliographically approved
4. Merging lesson study and response to intervention
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Merging lesson study and response to intervention
2020 (English)In: International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies, ISSN 2046-8253, E-ISSN 2046-8261, Vol. 9, no 3, p. 277-288Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose This article theoretically analyzes how response to intervention (RTI) can be used as a tool in lesson study (LS) to enhance student learning and how RTI can be made more user-friendly by teachers in LS. The focus is on how RTI can be adapted to teachers' daily work by including it in the LS model and how LS can benefit by introducing a scientific approach in analyzing student learning outcomes through RTI. The article also highlights how this approach can contribute to learning for children with special educational needs (SEN). Design/methodology/approach This theoretical paper describes and compares the characteristics of the LS model with the RTI framework. The comparison highlights the design of models related to teachers' development and learning outcomes. The benefits and challenges with the models are described. A previous research study related to the models is also briefly reviewed. Findings There are benefits and challenges with both the RTI and LS models but parts of the models appear to complement one another to some extent. Teachers' professional development and a better control of learning outcomes could be gained by combining the models. This could also lead to educational improvement. Originality/value There has been almost no research about a combined LS and RTI model.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Emerald Group Publishing Limited, 2020
Keywords
Comparative study, Response to intervention, Lesson study, Professional development, Interventions, Learning outcomes
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-97282 (URN)10.1108/IJLLS-02-2020-0005 (DOI)000546942900001 ()2-s2.0-85087186294 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-07-23 Created: 2020-07-23 Last updated: 2022-05-21Bibliographically approved

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