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Tier 2 interventions within the RtI-model for developing students' word decoding – a systematic review and meta-analysis
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-1653-6120
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-6456-5735
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Pedagogy and Learning. Linnaeus University, Linnaeus Knowledge Environments, Education in Change. (Litteracitet & undervisning)ORCID iD: 0000-0001-7261-590X
Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.ORCID iD: 0000-0002-3829-4169
2021 (English)In: Cogent Education, E-ISSN 2331-186X, Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1994105Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Sustainable development
SDG 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and promote lifelong learning opportunities for all
Abstract [en]

This pre-registered systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to answer if K-2 students at risk (Population) for reading impairment benefited from a response to tier 2 reading intervention (Intervention) compared to teaching as usual, (Comparator), on word decoding outcomes (Outcome), based on randomized controlled trials (Study type). Eligibility criteria were adequately sized (N > 30 per group) randomized controlled trials of tier 2 reading interventions within response to intervention targeting K-2 at risk students (percentile 40) compared with teaching as usual (TAU). Reading interventions had to be at least 20 sessions and conducted in a school setting with at least 30 students in each group and containing reading activities. Comparator could not be another intervention. Only decoding tests from Woodcock Reading Mastery Test-Revised (WRMT) and Test of Word Reading Efficiency (TOWRE) were included.Information sources: Database search was conducted 2019–05-20 in ERIC, PsycINFO, LLBA, WOS, and additionally in Google Scholar as well as a hand search in previous reviews and meta-analyses. The searches were updated on 2021–03-21. Risk of bias: Studies were assessed with Cochrane’s Risk of Bias 2, R-index and funnel plots. A random-effects model was used to analyze the effect sizes (Hedges’ g). Seven studies met the eligibility criteria but only four had sufficient data to extract for the meta-analysis. The weighted mean effect size across the four included studies was Hedges’ g = 0.31, 95% CI [0.12, 0.50] which means that the intervention group improved their decoding ability more than students receiving TAU. A Leave-one-out analysis showed that the weighted effect did not depend on a single study. Students at risk of reading difficulties benefit from tier 2 reading intervention conducted within response to intervention regarding a small effect on the students decoding ability. Only four studies met inclusion criteria and all studies had at least some risk of bias. Tier 2 reading interventions, conducted in small groups within RtI, can to some extent support decoding development as a part of reading factors. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Taylor & Francis Group, 2021. Vol. 8, no 1, article id 1994105
Keywords [en]
Education
National Category
Pedagogy
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-108121DOI: 10.1080/2331186x.2021.1994105ISI: 000720095900001Scopus ID: 2-s2.0-85119621664Local ID: 2021OAI: oai:DiVA.org:lnu-108121DiVA, id: diva2:1612421
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-06039Swedish Research Council, 2020-03430Available from: 2021-11-18 Created: 2021-11-18 Last updated: 2024-01-29Bibliographically approved
In thesis
1. Response to Intervention - en specialdidaktisk modell för att förebygga lässvårigheter: Från samlat forskningsläge till tillämpning i svensk skolkontext
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Response to Intervention - en specialdidaktisk modell för att förebygga lässvårigheter: Från samlat forskningsläge till tillämpning i svensk skolkontext
2022 (Swedish)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

The Response to Intervention model originated in the United States. The model aims to prevent learning difficulties through early identification and thus early intervention. The goal is that no student should fall behind “No child left behind”. The purpose of the thesis is to investigate how RtI can function as a special didactic model in primary school. It seeks to systematically organize early identification and early intervention regarding students' reading development and thereby counteract reading difficulties. The thesis first study is a meta-analysis that examines the effects of tier 2 interventions on primary school students' word decoding development. A small to moderate effect was found g = .31. The second study examined the effects of RtI when identifying and intervening students in need of support in their reading development. The study was conducted as a quasi-experiment with grade 2 students (n = 11 + 11). The results showed effect sizes between g = .49 - 1.00 on word decoding and reading comprehension, however, the results were not significant. The teachers' perception of the model was also compiled. They found that RtI worked very well as the students received support and the teachers were given the opportunity to collaborate. They did however also find that the RtI model was inflexible and resource-intensive. The third study was longitudinal and followed students' (n = 113) reading development during grade 1 and 2 within RtI. A significant reduction in students in need of support was noted. In comparison with a reference group (n = 759), there were significantly fewer students who performed below the 25th percentile and fewer RtI students who did not maintain their reading ability. The results showed that RtI seems to function as a special didactic model in accordance with "No child left behind". Nevertheless, there are students who have received interventions within the model that do not reach age-appropriate levels. The fourth article discusses the possibilities of combining Response to Intervention and Lesson Study as the models seem to be able to complement each other.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Växjö: Linnaeus University Press, 2022. p. 114
Series
Linnaeus University Dissertations ; 452
Keywords
response to intervention (RtI); multitiered system of support (MTSS); reading; at risk; reading difficulties; primary education
National Category
Didactics
Research subject
Pedagogics and Educational Sciences, Education
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:lnu:diva-113005 (URN)9789189709065 (ISBN)9789189709058 (ISBN)
Public defence
2022-06-17, Weber, Universitetsplatsen 1, Växjö, 13:00 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Funder
Swedish Research Council, 2017-06039
Available from: 2022-05-25 Created: 2022-05-21 Last updated: 2024-03-12

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