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Understanding the system-level for Mobility as a Service: A framework to evaluate full-scale impacts of MaaS
KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Machine Design (Dept.), Machine Design (Div.). (Integrated Transport Research Lab)ORCID iD: 0000-0002-4149-0005
2022 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Mobility as a Service (MaaS), as a concept, has been widely popularised and considered to hold promising potential in reducing travel-related environmental impacts and transforming our current transport system. MaaS enables intermodal travel by providing enhanced features for users to access multiple mobility services. The combination of mobility services in MaaS solutions promotes the use of public transport, active modes and shared mobility to reduce the dependency on private vehicles and provide optimal work and travel arrangements tailor-made to cater to an individual’s specific travel needs while promoting a better quality of life. While the MaaS based literature largely assumes that the service will have a positive impact on individuals and society, it is important to note that there could also be unintended rebound impacts. Additionally, the evidence regarding the same is limited to estimations based on either a small number of pilot studies or a few stated preference studies and expert speculation. While studies have been conducted on the individual, organisational and societal level aspects of MaaS variants such as user preferences, service design, business models, energy impacts, operation and management etc. there seem to be a lack of holistic understanding of the potential impacts of these services from a system-level perspective. MaaS, as a hybrid innovation with the potential to transform socio-technical systems, is a combination of several actors at the individual, organisational and societal levels interacting in a shared arena with the goal to “lock-in” this innovation into the larger society. Therefore, there is a need to not only evaluate MaaS at these three levels but also to take an integrated, holistic approach to understand the system-level impacts of MaaS. As MaaS systems are not currently operating at their full potential, this thesis evaluates two real- life small-scale trials of MaaS in Stockholm, Sweden at the individual, organisational and societal levels to explore the complexities of MaaS and its variant services. Using the knowledge gathered from the evaluations of the two small-scale MaaS trials, this thesis then develops a system-level framework to evaluate MaaS and its variant services by integrating the individual, organizational and societal levels using economic, environmental and social dimensions. For MaaS stakeholders involved in the development, implementation, operation and management of full-scale MaaS, this framework could act as a helpful tool in decision-making processes by highlighting the complex relationships between and within the individual, organisational and societal levels and how the decisions made at the individual, organisational and societal levels could impact each other.

Abstract [sv]

Mobility as a Service (MaaS), som koncept, har blivit allmänt populärt och anses ha potential att minska reserelaterad miljöpåverkan och förändra vårt nuvarande transportsystem. MaaS möjliggör intermodala resor genom att tillhandahålla förbättrade funktioner som ger användare tillgång till flera olika mobilitetstjänster. Kombinationen av mobilitetstjänster i MaaS-lösningar främjar användningen av kollektivtrafik, aktiva transportsätt och delad mobilitet. Detta föväntas leda till minskat beroende av privata bilar och gearbets- och researrangemang som är skräddarsydda för att tillgodose varje individs specifika resebehov och samtidigt främja en bättre livskvalitet. Även om den MaaS-baserade litteraturen till stor del antar att tjänsten kommer att ha en positiv inverkan på individer och samhälle, är det viktigt att notera att det också kan finnas oavsiktliga rekylseffekter. Dessutom är utvärderingen av MaaS önskade effekter begränsade till uppskattningar baserade på antingen ett litet antal pilotstudier eller ett fåtal preferensstudier samt expertspekulationer. Även om studier har genomförts för att undersöka individuella, organisatoriska och samhälleliga aspekter av MaaS-varianter, inklusive tex användarpreferenser, tjänstedesign, affärsmodeller, energipåverkan, drift och förvaltning etc., verkar det finnas en brist på holistisk förståelse för de potentiella effekterna av dessa tjänster ur ett systemnivåperspektiv.

 

MaaS, som en hybridinnovation med potential att transformera sociotekniska system, är en kombination av flera aktörer på individ-, organisations- och samhällsnivå som interagerar på en delad arena med målet att ”låsa in” denna innovation i det större samhället. Därför finns det ett behov av att inte bara utvärdera MaaS på dessa tre nivåer utan också att anta ett integrerat, holistiskt tillvägagångssätt för att förstå effekterna av MaaS på systemnivå. Eftersom MaaS-system för närvarande inte fungerar på fullt uppskalad nivå, utvärderar denna avhandling två verkliga, men småskaliga, tester av MaaS i Stockholm, Sverige på individuell, organisatorisk och samhällelig nivå för att utforska komplexiteten hos MaaS och dess olika tjänster. Med hjälp av den kunskap som samlats in från utvärderingarna av de två småskaliga MaaS-försöken, utvecklar denna avhandling sedan ett ramverk på systemnivå för att utvärdera MaaS och dess olika tjänster genom att integrera de individuella, organisatoriska och samhälleliga nivåerna med hjälp av ekonomiska, miljömässiga och sociala dimensioner. För MaaS-intressenter som är involverade i utveckling, implementering, drift och förvaltning av fullskalig MaaS kan detta ramverk fungera som ett användbart verktyg i beslutsprocesser genom att lyfta fram de komplexa relationerna mellan och inom individ-, organisations- och samhälleliga nivåer och hur beslut som fattas på individ-, organisations- och samhällsnivå kan påverka varandra.

 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Stockholm: KTH Royal Institute of Technology, 2022. , p. 83
Series
TRITA-ITM-AVL ; 2022:30
Keywords [en]
Mobility as a Service, system-level, perspective, framework, experiments
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Machine Design
Identifiers
URN: urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-319495ISBN: 978-91-8040-371-9 (print)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:kth-319495DiVA, id: diva2:1700074
Public defence
2022-10-27, Zoom: https://kth-se.zoom.us/j/68091873830, F3, Lindstedsvägen 26, Stockholm, 10:00 (English)
Opponent
Supervisors
Available from: 2022-10-06 Created: 2022-09-29 Last updated: 2023-02-28Bibliographically approved
List of papers
1. Activity and time-use diary for a Neighbourhood Telecommuting Centre in Stockholm, Sweden
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Activity and time-use diary for a Neighbourhood Telecommuting Centre in Stockholm, Sweden
(English)Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Neighbourhood Telecommuting Centres (NTC), telecommuting centres located in residential areas have the potential to provide a professional workplace to individuals closer to home, reducing the need for long-distance commutes to the employer’s office. NTCs in combination with mobility services could not only have a potential positive impact on the environment but also solve issues related to the scarcity of space for companies and authorities. 

In this paper, we aim to explore the impacts of NTC usage on the individual’s day-to-day activity-travel decision-making processes over a longer-term period and systematically analyse the trade-offs between individuals’ decisions to use NTC and their travel behaviours. In order to do so, a mixed-method approach was adopted. 

We perform a panel multivariate analysis based on comprehensive panel data of 27 participants of a real-life NTC living lab in the south of Stockholm, Sweden collected via a three-week time-use diary maintained on both weekdays and weekends. Results indicate that demographic characteristics, daily habits of the participants, usual travel preferences and existing workplace norms, roles and preferences have a significant impact on the way participants utilized the NTC. 

Keywords
Time-use Diaries, Neighbourhood Telecommuting Centres, Living Lab, Multiday Analysis, Behavioural Change, Sustainable Mobility, Mobility Services, Accessibility, Commuting
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science, Transport Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-319494 (URN)
Note

QC 20220930

Available from: 2022-09-29 Created: 2022-09-29 Last updated: 2022-09-30Bibliographically approved
2. Towards a conceptual framework of direct and indirect environmental effects of co-working
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Towards a conceptual framework of direct and indirect environmental effects of co-working
2020 (English)In: Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on ICT for Sustainability - ICT4S2020, Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) , 2020, p. 27-35Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Through virtual presence, information and communication technology (ICT) allows employees to work from places other than their employer’s office and reduce commuting- related environmental effects (telecommuting). Co-working, as a form of telecommuting, has the potential to significantly reduce commuting and is not associated with deficits of working from home (e.g. isolation, lack of focus). However, environmental burden might increase through co-working due to the infrastructure required to set-up and operate the co-working space and potential rebound effects. In this paper, we (1) develop a framework of direct and indirect environmental effects of co- working based on a well-known conceptual framework of environmental effects of ICT and, (2) apply the framework to investigate the case of a co-working living lab established in Stockholm. Based on actual data of the co-working space and interviews conducted with participants, we roughly estimate associated energy impacts. Results show that energy requirements associated with operating the co-working space can counterbalance commute-related energy savings. Thus, in order to realize energy savings co-working should be accompanied with additional energy saving measures such as a net reduction of (heated) floor space (at the CW space, at the employer's office and the co-workers home) and use of energy-efficient transport modes.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), 2020
Keywords
ICT, co-working, telecommuting, energy consumption, commuting, flexible workplace I.
National Category
Information Systems, Social aspects Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Planning and Decision Analysis, Strategies for sustainable development; Information and Communication Technology; Telecommunication; Transport Science, Transport Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-282820 (URN)10.1145/3401335.3401619 (DOI)2-s2.0-85090502868 (Scopus ID)
Conference
ICT4S 2020: 7th International Conference on ICT for Sustainability, Bristol, United Kingdom, June 21-27, 2020
Note

QC 20211006

Available from: 2020-09-30 Created: 2020-09-30 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
3. Impacts of telecommuting on time use and travel: A case study of a neighborhood telecommuting center in Stockholm
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Impacts of telecommuting on time use and travel: A case study of a neighborhood telecommuting center in Stockholm
Show others...
2021 (English)In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 23, p. 157-165Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

While telecommuting (TC) research heavily discusses travel impacts of home-based TC, little is known about impacts of working from a neighborhood TC center on travel and non-travel activities and their energy requirements. We conduct a case study on the impacts of the work location (employer's office, TC center, home) on time use and travel using data collected in a neighborhood TC center in Stockholm. Our results show that telecommuters more frequently replaced working from the TC center for working from the more distant employer's office than for working from home. On TC center and home office days, diarists spent less time traveling, and on home office days more time on chores and leisure than on employer office days. When working from the TC center instead of the employer's office, telecommuters frequently used the same or more energy-efficient commute modes, e.g. biking instead of the car, which was feasible because the TC center is in the local neighborhood. However, when working from home, diarists mainly used the car for private travel. Thus, energy savings of TC can be increased by providing energy-efficient transport options or local access to non-work destinations to telecommuters. TC energy impacts depend also on changes to energy requirements for nontravel activities, for space heating/cooling/lighting at all work locations, and systemic TC effects (e.g. residential relocation), which can only be observed in the long term. Thus, future TC assessments should take an even broader perspective in terms of travel and non-travel activities, their energy requirements, and systemic effects.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2021
Keywords
Telecommuting, Neighborhood telecommuting center, Time use, Living lab, Energy consumption, Information and communication technology
National Category
Civil Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-293087 (URN)10.1016/j.tbs.2020.12.001 (DOI)000632059300007 ()2-s2.0-85099700993 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20210420

Available from: 2021-04-20 Created: 2021-04-20 Last updated: 2022-09-29Bibliographically approved
4. Key barriers in MaaS development and implementation: Lessons learned from testing Corporate MaaS (CMaaS)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Key barriers in MaaS development and implementation: Lessons learned from testing Corporate MaaS (CMaaS)
Show others...
2020 (English)In: Transportation Research Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ISSN 2590-1982, Vol. 8, article id 100227Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To reach the full potential of Mobility as a Service (MaaS), especially its projected positive environmental impacts, the barriers to development and implementation processes must be identified. However, studies identifying such MaaS barriers are rare. Following an interdisciplinary approach, this paper aims to bridge this gap by adding knowledge on barriers to MaaS development and implementation using four perspectives (service design, business model, user travel attitude and behavior, and system impacts). Following a systems thinking approach, the barriers are investigated at three levels (individual, organizational and societal) to show their relationships. This paper investigates a specific type of MaaS, namely Corporate Mobility as a Service (CMaaS). The results obtained by investigating a large-scale CMaaS pilot provide implications of general barriers to MaaS development and implementation. The findings presented in this paper provide knowledge and guidance to MaaS stakeholders.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier, 2020
Keywords
Mobility as a Service (MaaS), Corporate MaaS (CMaaS), Barrier, Interdisciplinary, Systems thinking
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science; Transport Science, Transport Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-286263 (URN)10.1016/j.trip.2020.100227 (DOI)2-s2.0-85096523277 (Scopus ID)
Projects
SMSS-Smart Mobility Services Södertälje
Funder
Vinnova, 2017-01976
Note

QC 20201124

Available from: 2020-11-23 Created: 2020-11-23 Last updated: 2024-03-18Bibliographically approved
5. Measuring System-Level Impacts of Corporate Mobility as a Service (CMaaS) Based on Empirical Evidence
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Measuring System-Level Impacts of Corporate Mobility as a Service (CMaaS) Based on Empirical Evidence
2020 (English)In: Sustainability, E-ISSN 2071-1050, Vol. 12, no 17, p. 7051-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Corporate Mobility as a Service (CMaaS) is a type of MaaS that enables mobility within as well as to and from a worksite for employees. The expected benefits of CMaaS are to support a shift towards more sustainable and more effective work-related transport activities. There is a lack of knowledge regarding the impacts of CMaaS and how its performance should be measured. This paper proposes an evaluation framework to measure CMaaS impacts at a system level. The proposed evaluation framework is then applied to evaluate a real CMaaS deployment in Sweden. This paper contributes to knowledge building and guidance to support policy and decision making for CMaaS development and implementation in the future.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
MDPI AG, 2020
Keywords
corporate mobility as a service; system level; impact; framework 1.
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Research subject
Transport Science, Transport Systems
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-282801 (URN)10.3390/su12177051 (DOI)000570124700001 ()2-s2.0-85090406836 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20201001

Available from: 2020-09-30 Created: 2020-09-30 Last updated: 2024-01-18Bibliographically approved
6. Do they work? Exploring possible potentials of neighbourhood Telecommuting centres in supporting sustainable travel
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Do they work? Exploring possible potentials of neighbourhood Telecommuting centres in supporting sustainable travel
Show others...
2022 (English)In: Travel Behaviour & Society, ISSN 2214-367X, E-ISSN 2214-3688, Vol. 29, p. 34-41Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Digitally enabled neighbourhood telecommuting centres (NTCs) in residential areas may have the potential to reduce the environmental burdens of transport by shortening work trips and enabling modal shifts. This paper presents the results of a Living Lab where 67 participants were given access to an NTC. Through this Living Lab, this study identifies several conditions required for an NTC to substantially reduce commuting and overall have a positive impact on sustainable travel. The results indicate that while a small group of participants who lived very close to the NTC made significant lifestyle changes and adopted more sustainable travel practices, the overall changes in the sustainability aspects of travel for most participants were minimal. The majority of the participants merely exchanged a day spent working from home for a day at the NTC, as they were only allowed to be absent from the employer’s office one day per week. Further, some participants found it difficult to work remotely due to organisational roles and workplace norms. Another factor that limited the sustainability effect of the NTC was that most participants normally commuted by train, but in a few cases travelled to the NTC by car. With the arrival of the COVID-19 pandemic, most participants were required to work exclusively from home, which proved to have both positive and negative effects on the participants’ everyday lives and well-being. The participants reported a radical shift in attitudes towards remote working during this period, which they believed could lead to remote working becoming more common after the pandemic. In this case, NTCs could possibly play an important role in enabling this shift, by remedying some of the identified drawbacks of working from home. This could in turn enable a larger reduction in commuting. In areas where more people commute by car, sustainability effects would likely be greater.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Elsevier BV, 2022
National Category
Transport Systems and Logistics
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:kth:diva-312936 (URN)10.1016/j.tbs.2022.05.003 (DOI)001025649400004 ()2-s2.0-85131065531 (Scopus ID)
Note

QC 20220530

Available from: 2022-05-25 Created: 2022-05-25 Last updated: 2023-08-30Bibliographically approved

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