Digitala Vetenskapliga Arkivet

RefereraExporteraLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Steel Making Hunter-Gatherers in Ancient Arctic Europe
Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik, konst och samhälle, Samhällsvetenskap.ORCID-id: 0000-0002-4876-4232
2023 (engelsk)Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)Alternativ tittel
Ståltillverkande jakt- och fångstgrupper i det forntida arktiska Europa (svensk)
Abstract [en]

Based on findings made by Norrbotten County Museum around 2010 in the vicinity of Sangis in Arctic Sweden of advanced iron and steel production in a hunter-gatherer setting dated to the pre-Roman Iron Age (c. 200-50 BC), the aim of the present thesis is twofold. First, with a focus on know-how/established process stages, it investigates the possible wider geographical distribution of such production in the Arctic European area. The analysis is based on archaeometallurgical methods applied to materials from previously conducted and new surveys/excavations. Second, the aim is also to analyze the probable social/organizational conditions for the adaptation of iron and steel production among the ancient Arctic hunter-gatherer groups. The results are of breakthrough character, revealing an extensive spatial distribution of advanced iron and steel production at more than 40 sites in present-day northernmost Finland, Sweden, and Norway more than 2000 years ago (i.e., contemporary, and even partly prior to the Romans). The geographical spread of advanced and early iron technology which emerges through the results fundamentally challenges traditional perceptions of the emergence of ferrous metallurgy, especially when societies traditionally considered as less complex/highly mobile are addressed. Hence, iron- and steel production necessitated long-term organization/balancing with other subsistence activities in the collected rhythm of activities in the strongly seasonally influenced (climate-wise) landscape of the ancient Arctic hunter-gatherer communities. In addition to advanced knowledge, the new metal-related activities required significant supplies of raw materials (including their extraction, transportation, preparation, and storage) and thus (related) manpower. Overall, the results imply we ought to significantly broaden the perspectives of the ancient Arctic hunter-gatherer communities in terms of specialization and complex organization far beyond the traditional interpretative paradigm labeling prehistoric iron technology in the European Arctic as small-scale, dependent on imports, and underdeveloped or archaic. Also, because some parts of the process, like the necessary production of charcoal, required multi-year planning, the adaptation and investment of iron technology in the rhythm of activities in the landscape logistically bound the communities to specific locations in the landscape, thus implying reduced residential mobility, i.e.,  a higher degree of sedentism than previously recognized for these groups. The research process forming the basis of this thesis (conducted by a small group of archaeologists, archaeometallurgists, and historians of technology) was strongly characterized by the fact the results are completely at odds with both the larger international and Arctic European literature, implying both weak support for the interpretation of our results and perceived need for pin-pointing hidden assumptions in earlier research in order to “make room” for our results. In addition, the process was characterized by the fact that it took place in (and the ancient findings were made within) a region strongly marked by ethnopolitical forces and groups striving for identity building, where history (and particularly ancient findings) often gets to play a central role.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Luleå: Luleå University of Technology, 2023.
Serie
Doctoral thesis / Luleå University of Technology 1 jan 1997 → …, ISSN 1402-1544
Emneord [en]
Iron Metallurgy, Archaeometallurgy, Ancient Steel, Arctic Europe, Hunter-Gatherers, Landscape, Climate, Taskscape
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Historia
Identifikatorer
URN: urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101315ISBN: 978-91-8048-369-8 (tryckt)ISBN: 978-91-8048-370-4 (digital)OAI: oai:DiVA.org:ltu-101315DiVA, id: diva2:1796285
Disputas
2023-11-10, A1545, Luleå tekniska universitet, Luleå, 13:00 (engelsk)
Opponent
Veileder
Forskningsfinansiär
Berit Wallenberg FoundationSwedish Research CouncilTilgjengelig fra: 2023-09-12 Laget: 2023-09-12 Sist oppdatert: 2023-10-27bibliografisk kontrollert
Delarbeid
1. Hunter-gatherer metallurgy in the Early Iron Age of Northern Fennoscandia
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Hunter-gatherer metallurgy in the Early Iron Age of Northern Fennoscandia
Vise andre…
2021 (engelsk)Inngår i: Antiquity, ISSN 0003-598X, E-ISSN 1745-1744, Vol. 95, nr 384, s. 1511-1526Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The role of ferrous metallurgy in ancient communities of the Circumpolar North is poorly understood due, in part, to the widespread assumption that iron technology was a late introduction, passively received by local populations. Analyses of two recently excavated sites in northernmost Sweden, however, show that iron technology already formed an integral part of the hunter-gatherer subsistence economy in Northern Fennoscandia during the Iron Age (c. 200-50 BC). Such developed knowledge of steel production and complex smithing techniques finds parallels in contemporaneous continental Europe and Western Eurasia. The evidence presented raises broader questions concerning the presence of intricate metallurgical processes in societies considered less complex or highly mobile. 

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Cambridge University Press, 2021
Emneord
Circumpolar North, Fennoscandia, Iron Age, iron technology, hunter-gatherer subsistence
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Historia
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-86983 (URN)10.15184/aqy.2020.248 (DOI)000724242900017 ()2-s2.0-85113455498 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council, 2016-02076
Merknad

Validerad;2021;Nivå 2;2021-12-03 (johcin)

Tilgjengelig fra: 2021-09-06 Laget: 2021-09-06 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-12bibliografisk kontrollert
2. Towards a Broader Understanding of the Emergence of Iron Technology in Prehistoric Arctic Fennoscandia
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Towards a Broader Understanding of the Emergence of Iron Technology in Prehistoric Arctic Fennoscandia
2023 (engelsk)Inngår i: Cambridge Archaeological Journal, ISSN 0959-7743, E-ISSN 1474-0540, Vol. 33, nr 2, s. 265-279Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert) Published
Abstract [en]

The article critically examines interpretations of Old World ferrous metallurgical developments with reference to their consequences for Arctic Fennoscandian iron research. The traditional paradigm of technological innovations recurrently links the emergence of iron technology to increasing social complexity and a sedentary agricultural lifestyle, typically downplaying ‘peripheral’ areas such as Arctic Fennoscandia and its hunter-gatherer communities. Even in postcolonial research of recent years, the archaeometallurgical record of Arctic Fennoscandia is interpreted and organized within the traditional frameworks on the time, course, and cultural context of the introduction of iron technology in Europe, where Arctic Fennoscandia is not considered to have any noteworthy role. However, current archaeological research with new data in Arctic Fennoscandia disputes prevailing ideas in European iron research and shows substantial evidence that iron technology was an integrated part of hunter-gatherer subsistence already during the Early Iron Age (c. 200 BC). Archaeometallurgical analyses reveal advanced knowledge in all the operational sequences of iron technology, including bloomery steel production and the mastering of advanced smithing techniques. Therefore, we urge dispensing with traditional ideas and call for an increased interest in the underlying mechanisms for the transfer of iron.

sted, utgiver, år, opplag, sider
Cambridge University Press, 2023
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Historia
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-94257 (URN)10.1017/s0959774322000294 (DOI)000881340500001 ()2-s2.0-85152738569 (Scopus ID)
Forskningsfinansiär
Swedish Research Council, 2016-02076
Merknad

Validerad;2023;Nivå 2;2023-04-13 (sofila);

Tilgjengelig fra: 2022-11-24 Laget: 2022-11-24 Sist oppdatert: 2023-10-11bibliografisk kontrollert
3. Ancient Arctic European Hunter-Gatherer Steelmakers in the Limelight
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Ancient Arctic European Hunter-Gatherer Steelmakers in the Limelight
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

The article presents results seriously challenging conventional frameworks on the time, course, and cultural context for the introduction of iron and steel in Europe, these for the major narrative of the development of civilizations indeed important metals. It concerns 2000-year-old finds from as many as 42 different sites across the national borders of present-day northernmost Norway, Finland, and Sweden in Arctic Europe, of advanced iron and steel production (i.e., contemporary with Roman steel production) within the hitherto unthinkable cultural context of hunter-gatherers. Due to insufficient frameworks for the undersigned as historian and archaeologist to interpret these findings through, we used archeometric analyses in combination with an arctic climate- and landscape/taskscape lens to reach new insights into the ancient arctic iron- and steel-making hunter-gatherers. These turned out to be particularly fruitful perspectives for gaining insights into the previously overall weakly explored social/organizational aspects of early ironmaking, as well as for the overall inadequately explored ancient arctic hunter-gatherers. We urge other historians and archaeologists to use similar methods to possibly uncover additional (“unthinkable”) locations/regions with advanced and early metalworking.

Emneord
Ancient iron and steelmaking, Hunter-gatherers, Arctic Europe, Arctic climate, Landscape
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Historia
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-100720 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-09-12 Laget: 2023-09-12 Sist oppdatert: 2023-09-12
4. Reflections Over an Arctic Research Process and the Importance of the Local Place
Åpne denne publikasjonen i ny fane eller vindu >>Reflections Over an Arctic Research Process and the Importance of the Local Place
(engelsk)Manuskript (preprint) (Annet vitenskapelig)
Abstract [en]

While reflecting over a defined research process, the place for our scholarly deed and focusarea, Arctic Sweden, emerge as an influencing factor so strong it made us deviate in a majorway from our planned research path at several times. It was partly about us having to relate toliterature dealing with our place/region marked by persistent center/periphery perspectives,where our 2200-year-old findings of advanced iron technology in the hands of ancient arctichunter-gatherers were totally at odds. The research process was also influenced by the place interms of its legacies of (and partly continued) marginalization (in relation to the rest of Sweden)and large-scale and long-term national (to part also international) exploitation of its naturalresources, which not least affect/ed the indigenous Sami and other minorities of the region.Today, the minorities’ quest for recognition is expressed in strong ethnopolitical currentsincluding, not least, ambitions to re-write history/fill the gaps in history writing, meaningchallenging expectations can emerge of historians/archaeologists. Groups striving forrecognition is a global postcolonial phenomenon, and we discuss consequences arising fromthis for the individual historian and for history writing. We also give examples of fruitfulinterdisciplinary ways out when literature has (too) little to contribute to the interpretation ofyour findings.

Emneord
Arctic Sweden, Place, Ancient hunter-gatherers, Research process, Iron and steel production, Postcolonialism, The Sami, Minorities, History writing, Center/periphery, Exploitation, Revitalization movements
HSV kategori
Forskningsprogram
Historia
Identifikatorer
urn:nbn:se:ltu:diva-101314 (URN)
Tilgjengelig fra: 2023-09-12 Laget: 2023-09-12 Sist oppdatert: 2023-10-14

Open Access i DiVA

fulltext(14215 kB)2019 nedlastinger
Filinformasjon
Fil FULLTEXT02.pdfFilstørrelse 14215 kBChecksum SHA-512
ce6afe34f0772509284d445470c99db5d8aaa454a4e97ad0d49a92a232edd432b0ac63320fe158054c23bb8de6b6f8a2f649ac5e8dd93d10579011ac8ea739f5
Type fulltextMimetype application/pdf
Svensk sammanfattning(212 kB)879 nedlastinger
Filinformasjon
Fil SUMMARY01.pdfFilstørrelse 212 kBChecksum SHA-512
44b26f1c923c7abf28cb312640cb30871d99c53f8affcbf6e84b74aa2a43e8bdc05845fcbaed91576c0c2f6f2a260bf5b478742eb4bf28e5a54aede7961037da
Type summaryMimetype application/pdf

Søk i DiVA

Av forfatter/redaktør
Bennerhag, Carina
Av organisasjonen

Søk utenfor DiVA

GoogleGoogle Scholar
Totalt: 2020 nedlastinger
Antall nedlastinger er summen av alle nedlastinger av alle fulltekster. Det kan for eksempel være tidligere versjoner som er ikke lenger tilgjengelige

isbn
urn-nbn

Altmetric

isbn
urn-nbn
Totalt: 14721 treff
RefereraExporteraLink to record
Permanent link

Direct link
Referera
Referensformat
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Annet format
Fler format
Språk
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Annet språk
Fler språk
Utmatningsformat
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf