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  • Eriksen, Kristin Gregers
    et al.
    University of South-Eastern Norway .
    Jore, Mari Kristine
    University of Agder, Norway .
    Loftsdóttir, Kristín
    University of Iceland .
    Mikander, Pia
    University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Sund, Louise
    Mälardalen University, School of Education, Culture and Communication, Educational Sciences and Mathematics. Örebro University, Sweden .
    Education and Coloniality in the Nordics2024In: Nordisk tidsskrift for pedagogikk og kritikk, E-ISSN 2387-5739, Vol. 10, no 3, p. 1-13Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • Karlsson, Magnus
    et al.
    Swedish Transport Administration.
    Gunnarsson, Agne
    Swedish Transport Administration.
    Riskanalys vald vägsträcka: handbok2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Mellan åren 2001-2005 utvecklade Vägverket en metodik för att översiktligt kunna inventera och analysera allvarliga fysiska händelser längs utvalda vägsträckor, Riskanalys vald vägsträcka (Vägverket publikation 2005:54). I en fördjupningsdel (Vägverket publikation 2005:55) gavs stöd för bedömning av sannolikheter för olika händelser och för värdering av konsekvenser.  

    Metodiken har använts vid inventeringar i hela landet. Erfarenheterna har varit goda när det gäller att identifiera riskutsatta platser, men skillnader vid tillämpning av metodiken och tillkomsten av nya digitala hjälpmedel har medfört att det finns ett revideringebehov. En reviderad metodik leder till bättre och mer enhetliga bedömningar. Metodiken kan också användas i arbetet med klimatanpassning av vägtransportsystemet i enlighet med Riksdagens förordning (2018:1428) om myndigheters klimatanpassningsarbete. 

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  • Ståhl, Jonatan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Sport Sciences.
    Larsson, Roland
    Division of Machine Elements, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87, Luleå, Sweden.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Department of Health Sciences, Luleå University of Technology, 971 87, Luleå, Sweden; CeRiSM, Sport Mountain and Health Research Centre, University of Verona, Rovereto, Italy.
    Ski-orienteering: a scientific perspective on a multi-dimensional challenge2024In: Sport Sciences for Health, ISSN 1824-7490, E-ISSN 1825-1234Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ski-orienteering, which combines cross-country skiing with orienteering, dates back to the late 1800s, with the first World Championships in 1975. While researchers have explored the physiological and biomechanical determinants of success in cross-country skiing and orienteering separately in detail, scientific knowledge concerning ski-orienteering remains limited. Based on the information that is presently available together with interviews with elite ski-orienteers, we explore here for the first time the historical development, physiological, biomechanical, and psychological demands, certain training strategies, and future prospects and challenges associated with this sport, including its potential to become an Olympic event. A demanding endurance sport (with racing times of 12–120 min), ski-orienteering requires both considerable aerobic and anaerobic capacity, as well as well-trained upper and lower body muscles. In addition, ski-orienteering demands advanced skiing technique on various types of terrain, with frequent changes between sub-techniques, on both wide and narrow tracks and with numerous turns on downhill terrain. Moreover, success in this sport requires accurate and rapid orienteering—the ability to navigate a complex network of ski tracks with numerous intersections/crossings in a manner designed to pass the multiple control points in the order indicated on the map as rapidly as possible, i.e., advanced spatial cognition and highly developed navigational skills. Thus, ski-orienteering requires training designed to improve both relevant physiological characteristics and orienteering skills, which should become the focus of future interdisciplinary research on this complex sport.

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  • Ekström, Magnus
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Respiratory Medicine, Allergology and Palliative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sundh, Josefin
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Andersson, Anders
    COPD Center, Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden; COPD Center, Department of Internal Medicine and Clinical Nutrition, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Angerås, Oskar
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Cardiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Department of Molecular and Clinical Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden; Center for Lifestyle Intervention, Department MGAÖ, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Caidahl, Kenneth
    Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, and Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, and Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Emilsson, Össur Ingi
    Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    CMIV, Centre of Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping, and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Frykholm, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Grote, Ludger
    Center for Sleep and Vigilance Disorders, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sleep Disorders Centre, Department of Respiratory Medicine, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedman, Kristofer
    Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping, and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Jernberg, Tomas
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Danderyd University Hospital, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lindberg, Eva
    Department of Medical Sciences, Respiratory, Allergy and Sleep Research, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nyberg, Andre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Section of Physiotherapy.
    Rullman, Eric
    Department of Laboratory Medicine, Section of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Clinical Physiology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Jacob
    Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Respiratory Medicine, Allergology and Palliative Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sköld, Magnus
    Respiratory Medicine Unit, Department of Medicine Solna and Center for Molecular Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Stenfors, Nikolai
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sundström, Johan
    Department of Medical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; George Institute for Global Health, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia.
    Tanash, Hanan
    Department of Respiratory Medicine, Skåne University Hospital, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Zaigham, Suneela
    Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden; Department of Clinical Sciences in Malmö, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Carlhäll, Carl-Johan
    Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping, and Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Exertional breathlessness related to medical conditions in middle-aged people: the population-based SCAPIS study of more than 25,000 men and women2024In: Respiratory Research, ISSN 1465-9921, E-ISSN 1465-993X, Vol. 25, no 1, article id 127Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breathlessness is common in the population and can be related to a range of medical conditions. We aimed to evaluate the burden of breathlessness related to different medical conditions in a middle-aged population.

    Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of the population-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study of adults aged 50–64 years. Breathlessness (modified Medical Research Council [mMRC] ≥ 2) was evaluated in relation to self-reported symptoms, stress, depression; physician-diagnosed conditions; measured body mass index (BMI), spirometry, venous haemoglobin concentration, coronary artery calcification and stenosis [computer tomography (CT) angiography], and pulmonary emphysema (high-resolution CT). For each condition, the prevalence and breathlessness population attributable fraction (PAF) were calculated, overall and by sex, smoking history, and presence/absence of self-reported cardiorespiratory disease.

    Results: We included 25,948 people aged 57.5 ± [SD] 4.4; 51% women; 37% former and 12% current smokers; 43% overweight (BMI 25.0–29.9), 21% obese (BMI ≥ 30); 25% with respiratory disease, 14% depression, 9% cardiac disease, and 3% anemia. Breathlessness was present in 3.7%. Medical conditions most strongly related to the breathlessness prevalence were (PAF 95%CI): overweight and obesity (59.6–66.0%), stress (31.6–76.8%), respiratory disease (20.1–37.1%), depression (17.1–26.6%), cardiac disease (6.3–12.7%), anemia (0.8–3.3%), and peripheral arterial disease (0.3–0.8%). Stress was the main factor in women and current smokers.

    Conclusion: Breathlessness mainly relates to overweight/obesity and stress and to a lesser extent to comorbidities like respiratory, depressive, and cardiac disorders among middle-aged people in a high-income setting—supporting the importance of lifestyle interventions to reduce the burden of breathlessness in the population.

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  • Karlsson, Magnus
    Marie Cederschiöld University, Institutionen för civilsamhälle och religion.
    Försvars- och krisinsatsvilja hos personer med utländsk bakgrund: En inledande deskription2024Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    I Sverige har medborgarna under långt tid haft en påfallande stark vilja att försvara det egna landet – den svenska försvarsviljan har varit hög. I projektet CivKris vid Centrum för civilsamhällesforskning studeras viljan att göra insatser vid större samhällskriser och ytterst vid krig. Vem är villig att hjälpa till när det behövs?

    I föreliggande rapport uppmärksammas särskilt krisinsats- och försvarsvilja hos personer med utländsk bakgrund som en följd av en diskussion kring temat som blossade upp under rikskonferensen Folk och Försvar 2024.

    Resultaten visar att även om det finns skillnader mellan personer med utländsk bakgrund och resten av populationen när det gäller variabler som kan ha betydelse för försvarsviljan, så finns det inga statistiskt signifikanta skillnader mellan grupperna när det gäller försvarsviljan i sig. Tvärtom är grupperna påfallande lika varandra. Detsamma gäller för krisinsatsvilja: det som är slående är snarast likheten mellan grupperna.

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  • Tissari, Heli
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    How emotions are made in talk2022In: Linguist List, E-ISSN 1068-4875, article id 33.1780Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of: Jessica S. Robles & Ann Weatherall (eds.), How Emotions Are Made in Talk. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2021

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  • Tissari, Heli
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Where words get their meaning2021In: Linguist List, E-ISSN 1068-4875, article id 32.2406Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of: Marianna Bolognesi, Where Words Get their Meaning: Cognitive processing and distributional modelling of word meaning in first and second language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2020

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  • Holmström, Mats
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics. Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Kiruna, Sweden.
    Lester, Mark
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Sanchez-Cano, Beatriz
    School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, United Kingdom.
    Future opportunities in solar system plasma science through ESA's exploration programme2024In: npj Microgravity, E-ISSN 2373-8065, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 29Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The solar wind interacts with all solar system bodies, inducing different types of dynamics depending on their atmospheric and magnetic environments. We here outline some key open scientific questions related to this interaction, with a focus on the Moon and Mars, that may be addressed by future Mars and Moon missions by the European Space Agency's Human and Robotic Exploration programme. We describe possible studies of plasma interactions with bodies with and without an atmosphere, using multi-point and remote measurements, and energetic particle observations, as well as recommend some actions to take.

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  • Tissari, Heli
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Figurative meaning construction in thought and language2021In: Linguist List, E-ISSN 1068-4875, article id 32.2266Article, book review (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Review of: Annalisa Baicchi (ed.) Figurative Meaning Construction in Thought and Language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2020

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  • Nord, Christoffer
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Jones, Iwan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Garcia-Maestre, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Hägglund, Anna-Carin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Carlsson, Leif
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Umeå Centre for Molecular Medicine (UCMM).
    Reduced mTORC1-signaling in progenitor cells leads to retinal lamination deficits2024In: Developmental Dynamics, ISSN 1058-8388, E-ISSN 1097-0177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Neuronal lamination is a hallmark of the mammalian central nervous system (CNS) and underlies connectivity and function. Initial formation of this tissue architecture involves the integration of various signaling pathways that regulate the differentiation and migration of neural progenitor cells.

    Results: Here, we demonstrate that mTORC1 mediates critical roles during neuronal lamination using the mouse retina as a model system. Down-regulation of mTORC1-signaling in retinal progenitor cells by conditional deletion of Rptor led to decreases in proliferation and increased apoptosis during embryogenesis. These developmental deficits preceded aberrant lamination in adult animals which was best exemplified by the fusion of the outer and inner nuclear layer and the absence of an outer plexiform layer. Moreover, ganglion cell axons originating from each Rptor-ablated retina appeared to segregate to an equal degree at the optic chiasm with both contralateral and ipsilateral projections displaying overlapping termination topographies within several retinorecipient nuclei. In combination, these visual pathway defects led to visually mediated behavioral deficits.

    Conclusions: This study establishes a critical role for mTORC1-signaling during retinal lamination and demonstrates that this pathway regulates diverse developmental mechanisms involved in driving the stratified arrangement of neurons during CNS development.

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  • Jonsson, Eythor Ö
    et al.
    epartment of Orthopaedics, Institute of Clinical Sciences, The Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Orthopaedics, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Wänström, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Björnsson, Hanna
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Surgery, Orthopedics and Oncology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Adolfsson, Lars
    Not Found:Division of Orthopaedic Surgery, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Linkoping University, Linkoping, Sweden.
    The Oxford Elbow Score demonstrated good measurement properties when used with a shortened 7-day recall period2023In: JSES international, ISSN 2666-6383, Vol. 7, no 3, p. 499-505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Oxford Elbow Score (OES) is a well-validated, elbow-specific, patient-reported outcome measure (PROM), originally assigned a 4-week recall period. For PROMs, short recall periods could have some advantages, such as optimizing validity by minimizing the negative effects of inaccurate recollection and temporal trends (increase or decrease) in symptoms over the course of the recall period. Temporal trends in elbow function can, for example, be expected to occur over 4 weeks in patients recovering from an injury or surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the measurement properties of the OES using a shortened, 7-day, recall period (OES-7d).

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  • Selvavinayagam, Sivaprakasam T
    et al.
    State Public Health Laboratory, Directorate of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, DMS Campus, Teynampet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Aswathy, Bijulal
    Department of Biotechnology, Infection and Inflammation, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, India.
    Yong, Yean K
    Laboratory Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Frederick, Asha
    National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Murali, Lakshmi
    National Tuberculosis Elimination Programme, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Kalaivani, Vasudevan
    State Public Health Laboratory, Directorate of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, DMS Campus, Teynampet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Karishma, Sree J
    Department of Biotechnology, Infection and Inflammation, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, India.
    Rajeshkumar, Manivannan
    State Public Health Laboratory, Directorate of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, DMS Campus, Teynampet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Anusree, Adukkadukkam
    Department of Life Sciences, Blood and Vascular Biology, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, India.
    Kannan, Meganathan
    Department of Life Sciences, Blood and Vascular Biology, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, India.
    Gopalan, Natarajan
    Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, India.
    Vignesh, Ramachandran
    Pre-clinical Department, Royal College of Medicine, Universiti Kuala Lumpur, Ipoh, Malaysia.
    Murugesan, Amudhan
    Department of Microbiology, The Government Theni Medical College and Hospital, Theni, India.
    Tan, Hong Yien
    Laboratory Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Zhang, Ying
    Laboratory Centre, Xiamen University Malaysia, Sepang, Selangor, Malaysia.
    Chandramathi, Samudi
    Department of Medical Microbiology, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
    Sivasankaran, Munusamy Ponnan
    Seattle Children's Research Institute, Seattle, WA, United States of America.
    Balakrishnan, Pachamuthu
    Department of Microbiology, Saveetha Institute of Medical and Technical Sciences (SIMATS), Centre for Infectious Diseases, Velappanchavadi, Chennai, India.
    Govindaraj, Sakthivel
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory National Primate Research Center, Emory Vaccine Center, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.
    Byrareddy, Siddappa N
    Department of Pharmacology and Experimental Neuroscience, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, Nebraska, United States of America.
    Velu, Vijayakumar
    Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Emory University School of Medicine, Emory National Primate Research Center, Emory Vaccine Center, Atlanta, GA, United States of America.
    Larsson, Marie
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Molecular Medicine and Virology.
    Shankar, Esaki M
    Department of Biotechnology, Infection and Inflammation, Central University of Tamil Nadu, Thiruvarur, India.
    Raju, Sivadoss
    State Public Health Laboratory, Directorate of Public Health and Preventive Medicine, DMS Campus, Teynampet, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India.
    Plasma CXCL8 and MCP-1 as surrogate plasma biomarkers of latent tuberculosis infection among household contacts-A cross-sectional study2023In: PLOS Global Public Health, E-ISSN 2767-3375, Vol. 3, no 11, article id e0002327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Early detection of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is critical to TB elimination in the current WHO vision of End Tuberculosis Strategy. The study investigates whether detecting plasma cytokines could aid in diagnosing LTBI across household contacts (HHCs) positive for IGRA, HHCs negative for IGRA, and healthy controls. The plasma cytokines were measured using a commercial Bio-Plex Pro Human Cytokine 17-plex assay. Increased plasma CXCL8 and decreased MCP-1, TNF-a, and IFN-? were associated with LTBI. Regression analysis showed that a combination of CXCL8 and MCP-1 increased the risk of LTBI among HHCs to 14-fold. Our study suggests that CXCL-8 and MCP-1 could serve as the surrogate biomarkers of LTBI, particularly in resource-limited settings. Further laboratory investigations are warranted before extrapolating CXCL8 and MCP-1 for their usefulness as surrogate biomarkers of LTBI in resource-limited settings.

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  • Sunesson, Alice
    et al.
    Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Qandeel, Mais
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Automated Administrative Decisions and the Principle of Legality2024In: Rule of Law in a Transitional Spectrum / [ed] Rigmor Argren, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2024, 1, p. 389-403Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Automated administrative decisions (AADs) have been deployed in the public sector to increase efficiency and accessibility. However, AADs challenge the principles of the rule of law, particularly, the principle of legality (PoL). This chapter examines whether AADs are in compliance with the PoL. In order to adequately answer the question at hand, this chapter first discusses the PoL and its legal force. Secondly, it discusses AADs, their benefits and legal implications in relation to public administration. The chapter, finally, studies the entangled relationship between AADs and the PoL in the public sector and argues for the importance of upholding the PoL in the process of automated decisions made by public authorities. 

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    Automated Administrative Decisions and the Principle of Legality
  • Qandeel, Mais
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Blockchain Technology: A Matter of Legal Certainty2024In: Rule of Law in a Transitional Spectrum / [ed] Rigmor Argren, Uppsala: Iustus förlag, 2024, 1, p. 353-368Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter seeks to examine the principle of legal certainty in connection with blockchain technology. It explores whether blockchain technology – featured core operational characteristics – fulfils the rule of law’s principle of legal certainty. The chapter discusses the principle of legal certainty and explores how blockchain technology has been designed to contest legal order and some regulatory norms. The chapter then draws on the notion of legal certainty and assesses the technology’s law/legal-compliance potentials. It finally concludes that blockchain technology theoretically falls short of satisfying the principle of legal certainty and proposes legal remedies to address such a shortcoming. 

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    Blockchain Technology: A Matter of Legal Certainty
  • Public defence: 2024-05-24 09:00 Önnesjösalen (K3), Norrköping
    Eriksson-Liebon, Magda
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Department of Acute Health Care in Norrköping.
    The effects and experiences of internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy: The perspectives of patients with non-cardiac chest pain and healthcare professionals in the emergency and cardiac care2024Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Non-cardiac chest pain (NCCP) is a common issue, accounting for roughly half of all emergency department visits related to chest pain. Patients afflicted with NCCP often endure cardiac anxiety, misinterpreting the pain as heart-related and fearing it, despite the absence of any life-threatening cardiac issues. This anxiety often leads to the avoidance of physical activities, negatively impacting their quality of life. Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) has been shown to be effective in managing psychological distress such as anxiety and depression. CBT is a structured process that helps patients identify and restructure their negative thoughts, get a corrected and more realistic perception of their symptoms, and learn to manage their thoughts about chest pain. Despite its effectiveness, CBT is resource-intensive, and therefore internet-delivered cognitive behavioural therapy (iCBT) may be an alternative as it increases accessibility and is more cost-effective compared to traditional therapy methods. However, there is a lack of re-search on the effectiveness of this treatment approach for patients with NCCP and cardiac anxiety. Moreover, digital care technologies are still relatively unfamiliar in clinical practice, particularly in emergency departments, and the successful implementation of iCBT relies on healthcare professionals' acceptance and integration of digital care into clinical practice.  

    Aim  

    The overall aim of this dissertation was to evaluate the short- and long-term effects of a nurse-led iCBT program on psychological distress in patients with NCCP, and to explore their experiences participating in the iCBT program. In addition, the study aimed to describe healthcare professionals' perceptions of digital care in the emergency and cardiac care for patients with NCCP.  

    Methods  

    This dissertation comprises two quantitative and two qualitative studies. A randomised clinical trial (RCT) (studies I, II, and III) was conducted to evaluate cardiac anxiety, measured with the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ); and secondary outcomes such as fear of body sensations, measured with The Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ); depressive symptoms, assessed with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9); health-related quality of life (HRQoL), measured using the EuroQol Visual Analog Scale (EQ-VAS); and chest pain frequency with a self-developed question. The RCT cohort consisted of 109 patients who had at least two healthcare consultations for NCCP in the past 6 months, experienced cardiac anxiety (CAQ score ≥24), and were randomised into a 5-week iCBT program (n=54) or psychoeducation (n=55). An intention-to-treat analysis was conducted, and linear mixed model analysis was used to assess between-group differences in primary and secondary outcomes. The iCBT program included psychoeducation, mindfulness, and exposure to physical activity, with weekly homework assignments and feedback, while the control (psychoeducation) group received readable psychoeducation program aimed to increase knowledge about their mental health, symptoms, and the strategies that can be used to manage chest pain and improve their well-being. Study I was a short-term follow-up with a three-month duration. Study III was a longitudinal study with a 12-month follow-up. Additionally, factors impacting the treatment effect of iCBT on cardiac anxiety were also explored. Study II was a semi-structured qualitative study utilising an inductive approach with content analysis following Patton (2015). Face-to-face interviews were conducted with 16 participants from the iCBT group. Study IV was a qualitative descriptive study involving individual, digital/face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 17 licensed healthcare professionals (physicians and nurses) working in emergency care or cardiology. Data were analysed using inductive thematic analysis based on Braun and Clarke (2006).  

    Result  

    In Study I, no significant differences were found between the iCBT and control (psychoeducation) groups regarding cardiac anxiety or any of the secondary outcomes in terms of the interaction effect of time and group over the 3-month follow-up. iCBT demonstrated a small effect size on cardiac anxiety (Cohen’s d=0.31). A positive change score (≥11 points on the CAQ) was reported by 16 patients in the iCBT group (36%) compared to 13 patients (27%) in the control (psychoeducation) group, indicating a slightly greater improvement in cardiac anxiety in the iCBT group. However, the difference between the groups was non-significant (p=.213). Within-group analysis showed significant improvement in cardiac anxiety (p=.037) at the 3-month follow-up compared to the 5-week follow-up in the iCBT group, but not in the control (psychoeducation) group. 

    In Study III, there was no statistically significant interaction effect of time and group between the iCBT and control (psychoeducation) groups regarding cardiac anxiety over the 12-month follow-up. However, there was a statistically significant interaction effect of time and group (p=.009) regarding chest pain frequency for the iCBT group and a group effect on health-related quality of life (p=.03) for the iCBT group. Furthermore, the regression analysis showed that higher scores of "avoidance" on the CAQ at baseline were associated with improvement in cardiac anxiety at the 12-month follow-up in both groups.   

    In Study II, participants described their experiences, leading to three main categories: "driving factors for participation in the iCBT program", "the program as a catalyst" and "learning to live with chest pain." Participants described how pain impacted their lives, the struggle that led them to participate in the program, and how they found the program helpful, trustworthy, and viewed it as a tool for gaining the strength and skills they needed to live a normal life despite chest pain.  

    In Study IV, healthcare professionals described their perception of digital care, resulting in four themes: "new ground to walk on”, "a challenge for the current healthcare system", "digital care has its potential" and "prerequisites for use in clinical practice". These themes describe healthcare professionals' knowledge and experience with digital care, the challenges associated with implementing digital care in the current healthcare system, the opportunities it presents, and identify facilitators for the implementation of digital care in clinical practice.

    Conclusions

    In studies I and III, iCBT was not superior to psychoeducation in reducing cardiac anxiety in patients with NCCP. However, both iCBT and psychoeducation have demonstrated utility as interventions for reducing cardiac anxiety in these patients. Moreover, patients with an increased propensity to avoid activities or situations they believe may trigger cardiac -related symptoms, were found to have reduced cardiac anxiety. Patients generally perceived the iCBT program positively, viewing it as a tailored and effective tool for confronting fears and restoring normalcy in their lives. 

    Healthcare professionals express a mixture of caution and optimism towards digital care, emphasising the importance of clear leadership, education, technical competence, and positive attitudes to ensure successful implementation and maximise benefits for patients with NCCP. 

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  • Antonelli, Dario
    et al.
    Aliev, Khushid
    Soriano, Marco
    Samir, Kousay
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production engineering.
    Monetti, Fabio Marco
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production engineering.
    Maffei, Antonio
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production engineering, Industrial Production Systems.
    Exploring the limitations and potential of digital twins for mobile manipulators in industry2024In: 5th International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Smart Manufacturing (ISM 2023), Elsevier BV , 2024, Vol. 232, p. 1121-1130Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper explores the qualification of a digital twin (DT) for a mobile manipulator (MOMA) in industrial applications. We discuss the development of different DT models based on various industrial needs and highlight the dependence of model accuracy on online sensor precision. Limitations of DTs for MOMA are examined, including challenges in respecting qualifiers due to the inability to incorporate unstructured aspects of the factory environment. Through a case study and some examples, we show the latent potential and limitations of DTs for MOMA in industrial contexts. The challenges of fidelity, real-time operation, and environment modeling are discussed. It is emphasized that creating a true digital twin of a mobile manipulator is hindered by the inability to include the complete surrounding environment. Recommendations for future research focus on addressing these limitations to enhance the effectiveness of DTs for MOMA in Industry 4.0 and smart manufacturing.

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  • Monetti, Fabio Marco
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production engineering, Industrial Production Systems.
    Maffei, Antonio
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Production engineering, Industrial Production Systems.
    Towards the definition of assembly-oriented modular product architectures: a systematic review2024In: Research in Engineering Design, ISSN 0934-9839, E-ISSN 1435-6066, Vol. 35, no 2, p. 137-169Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The success of a product in the market is largely defined by the quality of design decisions made during the early stages of development. The product design requires designers to balance multiple objectives such as functionality, cost, and user satisfaction, while addressing the challenges posed by increasing product variants and customization demands. To tackle these challenges, one approach is to structure a comprehensive model that incorporates design for assembly (DFA) guidelines during the formulation of product architecture in the conceptual phase of development. While numerous strategies have been proposed in the literature, information is often scattered, making it difficult for readers to gain a comprehensive understanding of the topic. This paper systematically reviews the role and impact of DFA in product development, consolidating and presenting the information coherently. The review provides an overview of the methods developed, along with their potential benefits and limitations. A common framework is identified that defines the structure of the models, helping designers integrate assembly consideration into their design processes, thus reducing assembly time, cost, and complexity. The framework describes the operational setting, including the domain and context in which models operate, and offers a classification of possible methods and desired outputs. Additionally, the review identifies the industry in which case studies have been most frequently presented, and the software used to facilitate the process. By connecting with such a framework, future models can be created following a structured approach, and existing models can be classified and upgraded accordingly.

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  • Stenling, Andreas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Department of Sport Science and Physical Education, University of Agder, Kristiansand, Norway.
    Quensell, Jordan
    Department of Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Kaur, Navjyot
    Department of Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand.
    Machado, Liana
    Department of Psychology and Brain Health Research Centre, University of Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand; Brain Research New Zealand, Auckland, New Zealand.
    Stair climbing improves cognitive switching performance and mood in healthy young adults: a randomized controlled crossover trial2024In: Journal of Cognitive Enhancement, ISSN 2509-3290Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although stair-climbing intervals provide a simple mode of physical activity that can be easily carried out in naturalistic settings and incorporated into the daily lives of a significant proportion of the global population, addressing physical inactivity issues, very little research has focused on the psychological benefits of stair climbing. To address this, the current prospectively registered randomized controlled crossover trial tested whether brief bouts of stair climbing (6 × 1 min intervals) elicit immediate subsequent improvements in cognitive performance and mood in a sample of healthy young adults (final sample: n = 52, 50% female, age range 18–24 years), with consideration of sex, physical activity habits, and exercise intensity as potentially relevant variables. Compared to a no-exercise control session, following the stair climbing participants exhibited superior cognitive switching performance and reported feeling more energetic and happy. In addition, linear regression analyses linked higher stair-climbing intensity (indicated by heart-rate data) to faster response latencies. None of the effects depended on sex or physical activity habits, which implies that males and females can benefit irrespective of their current physical activity habits. Collectively, these results demonstrate that interval stair climbing can confer immediate psychological benefits, providing further evidence in support of stair climbing as a promising means to address physical inactivity issues. TRN: ACTRN12619000484145, Date of registration: 25/03/2019.

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  • Hedman, Linnea
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Andersson, Martin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Bjerg, Anders
    The OLIN studies, Norrbotten County Council, Luleå, Sweden.
    Backman, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    af Klinteberg, Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Winberg, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Rönmark, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Is asthma in children still increasing?: 20-year prevalence trends in northern Sweden2024In: Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, ISSN 0905-6157, E-ISSN 1399-3038, Vol. 35, no 4, article id e14120Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In the present study, we describe prevalence trends of asthma and investigate the association with asthma symptoms, use of asthma medication, and asthma severity among 8-year-old children in Norrbotten, Sweden in 1996, 2006, and 2017.

    Methods: Within the Obstructive Lung Disease in Northern Sweden (OLIN) studies, three pediatric cohorts were recruited in 1996, 2006, and 2017 respectively. Identical methods were used; all children in first and second grade (median age 8 years) in three municipalities were invited to a parental questionnaire survey, completed by n = 3430 in 1996 (97% participation), n = 2585 in 2006 (96%), and n = 2785 in 2017 (91%). The questionnaire included questions about respiratory symptoms and diagnosis, treatment, and severity of asthma.

    Results: The prevalence of wheezing was stable during the study, 10.1% in 1996; 10.8% in 2006; and 10.3% in 2017, p =.621, while physician-diagnosed asthma increased: 5.7%, 7.4%, and 12.2%, p <.001. The use of asthma medication in the last 12 months increased: 7.1%, 8.7%, and 11.5%, p <.001. Among children diagnosed with asthma, the prevalence of asthma symptoms, the impact on daily life, and severe asthma decreased, while the use of inhaled corticosteroids increased from 1996 until 2017.

    Conclusion: The prevalence of wheezing was stable among 8-year-old in this area from 1996 to 2017, while the prevalence of physician-diagnosed asthma doubled but without an increase in asthma morbidity. The increase of physician-diagnosed asthma without a coincident increase in asthma morbidity can partly be explained by more and earlier diagnosis among those with mild asthma.

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  • Public defence: 2024-05-23 13:15 OR:D138, Malmö
    Sebelius, Sofia
    Malmö University, Faculty of Education and Society (LS), Department of Sport Sciences (IDV).
    Idrottsläraryrkets strävan efter mål och status2024Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish school system has undergone a significant change and development during the last 180 years. The Physical Education Teacher Education (PETE) has made its own development journey, from training gymnastics directors with a particular focus on floor gymnastics and fencing, to becoming a university education with its foundation in sports science.

    Despite the significant changes in the school's governance and the development of PETE, the same development does not seem to have taken place for the professional practice of Physical Education (PE) teachers. The PE teachers seem to have difficulties formulating what the knowledge objective of the PE subject is. There also seem to be difficulties in formulating how learning in the PE subject should take place. A certain reproduction of traditional values takes place, and the PE teaching profession is described and experienced as marginalised. 

    Based on this, the dissertation's aim is to create an understanding of the PE teachers’ pursuit of purpose and status and what that pursuit entails. To achieve this aim, two studies have been conducted. Based on the perspective that PE teachers function as street-level bureaucrats, the first study aims to understand what governs their professional practice and how they manage it. The aim of the second study is to understand which continuities exist in the language used about the PE teaching profession and what it means for the professional claims of the PE teaching profession.

    By analysing the language within and about the PE teacher profession, the dissertation creates an understanding of PE teachers' pursuit of purpose and status and what that pursuit entails. The thesis shows that PE teachers in their professional practice are Problem Solvers, Comfort Creators and Organisers. It further identifies continuities in the language about the PE teacher profession gathered within the themes of Strength, Liveliness and Status. Finally, the dissertation describes how the PE teacher profession uses social closure in its professional claim.

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  • Rolla, Dorota Tomaszewska
    et al.
    Laser & Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electronics, Photonics and Microsystems, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Jaworski, Piotr
    Laser & Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electronics, Photonics and Microsystems, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Wu, Dakun
    Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China.
    Yu, Fei
    Hangzhou Institute for Advanced Study, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hangzhou, China; Key Laboratory of Materials for High Power Laser, Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, China.
    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Krzempek, Karol
    Laser & Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electronics, Photonics and Microsystems, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Sobon, Grzegorz
    Laser & Fiber Electronics Group, Faculty of Electronics, Photonics and Microsystems, Wrocław University of Science and Technology, Wybrzeze Wyspianskiego 27, Wroclaw, Poland.
    Mid-infrared optical frequency comb spectroscopy using an all-silica antiresonant hollow-core fiber2024In: Optics Express, E-ISSN 1094-4087, Vol. 32, no 6, p. 10679-10689Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present the first mid-infrared optical frequency comb spectrometer employing an absorption cell based on self-fabricated, all-silica antiresonant hollow-core fiber (ARHCF). The spectrometer is capable of measuring sub-mL sample volumes with 26 m interaction length and noise equivalent absorption sensitivity of 8.3 × 10−8 cm−1 Hz−1/2 per spectral element in the range of 2900 cm−1 to 3100 cm−1. Compared to a commercially available multipass cell, the ARHCF offers a similar interaction length in a 1000 times lower gas sample volume and a 2.8 dB lower transmission loss, resulting in better absorption sensitivity. The broad transmission windows of ARHCFs, in combination with a tunable optical frequency comb, make them ideal for multispecies detection, while the prospect of measuring samples in small volumes makes them a competitive technique to photoacoustic spectroscopy along with the robustness and prospect of coiling the ARHCFs open doors for miniaturization and out-of-laboratory applications.

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  • Ancillotti, Mirko
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Centre for Research Ethics and Bioethics.
    Huls, Samare P. I.
    Krockow, Eva M.
    Veldwijk, Jorien
    Erasmus School of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; Erasmus Choice Modelling Centre, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.
    Prosocial Behaviour and Antibiotic Resistance: Evidence from a Discrete Choice Experiment2023In: Patient, ISSN 1178-1653, E-ISSN 1178-1661, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 191-202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    The health of a community depends on the health of its individuals; therefore, individual health behaviour can implicitly affect the health of the entire community. This is particularly evident in the case of infectious diseases. Because the level of prosociality in a community might determine the effectiveness of health programmes, prosocial behaviour may be a crucial disease-control resource. This study aimed to extend the literature on prosociality and investigate the role of altruism in antibiotic decision making.

    Methods

    A discrete choice experiment was conducted to assess the influence of altruism on the general public’s preferences regarding antibiotic treatment options. The survey was completed by 378 Swedes. Latent class analysis models were used to estimate antibiotic treatment characteristics and preference heterogeneity. A three-class model resulted in the best model fit, and altruism significantly impacted preference heterogeneity.

    Results

    Our findings suggest that people with higher altruism levels had more pronounced preferences for treatment options with lower contributions to antibiotic resistance and a lower likelihood of treatment failure. Furthermore, altruism was statistically significantly associated with sex, education, and health literacy.

    Conclusions

    Antibiotic awareness, trust in healthcare systems, and non-discriminatory priority setting appear to be structural elements conducive to judicious and prosocial antibiotic behaviour. This study suggests that prosocial messages could help to decrease the demand for antibiotic treatments.

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  • Strömberg, Ulf
    et al.
    School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Research and Development, Region Kronoberg, Växjö, Sweden.
    Berglund, Anders
    EpiStat AB, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Carlsson, Stefan
    Department of Molecular Medicine and Surgery, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Urology, Karolinska University Hospital Solna, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Thellenberg-Karlsson, Camilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Diagnostics and Intervention. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Oncology.
    Lambe, Mats
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lissbrant, Ingela Franck
    Department of Oncology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Stattin, Pär
    Department of Surgical Sciences, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bratt, Ola
    Department of Urology, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Urology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Socioeconomic inequality in prostate cancer diagnostics, primary treatment, rehabilitation, and mortality in Sweden2024In: International Journal of Cancer, ISSN 0020-7136, E-ISSN 1097-0215Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We designed a nationwide study to investigate the association between socioeconomic factors (household income and education) and different aspects of prostate cancer care, considering both individual- and neighbourhood-level variables. Data were obtained from Prostate Cancer data Base Sweden (PCBaSe), a research database with data from several national health care registers including clinical characteristics and treatments for nearly all men diagnosed with prostate cancer in Sweden. Four outcomes were analysed: use of pre-biopsy magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 2018–2020 (n = 11,843), primary treatment of high-risk non-metastatic disease in 2016–2020 (n = 6633), rehabilitation (≥2 dispensed prescriptions for erectile dysfunction within 1 year from surgery in 2016–2020, n = 6505), and prostate cancer death in 7770 men with high-risk non-metastatic disease diagnosed in 2010–2016. Unadjusted and adjusted odds and hazard ratios (OR/HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Adjusted odds ratio (ORs) comparing low versus high individual education were 0.74 (95% CI 0.66–0.83) for pre-biopsy MRI, 0.66 (0.54–0.81) for primary treatment, and 0.82 (0.69–0.97) for rehabilitation. HR gradients for prostate cancer death were significant on unadjusted analysis only (low vs. high individual education HR 1.41, 95% CI 1.17–1.70); co-variate adjustments markedly attenuated the gradients (low vs. high individual education HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.90–1.35). Generally, neighbourhood-level analyses showed weaker gradients over the socioeconomic strata, except for pre-biopsy MRI. Socioeconomic factors influenced how men were diagnosed with prostate cancer in Sweden but had less influence on subsequent specialist care. Neighbourhood-level socioeconomic data are more useful for evaluating inequality in diagnostics than in later specialist care.

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  • Bartholomew, David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. School of Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom; Botanic Gardens Conservation International, Richmond, United Kingdom.
    Hayward, Robin
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom; School of Earth and Environment, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.
    Burslem, David F. R. P.
    School of Biological Sciences, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, United Kingdom.
    Bittencourt, Paulo R. L.
    School of Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Chapman, Daniel
    Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Stirling, Stirling, United Kingdom.
    Bin Suis, Mohd. Aminur Faiz
    Forest Research Centre Sepilok, Sandakan, Malaysia.
    Nilus, Reuben
    Forest Research Centre Sepilok, Sandakan, Malaysia.
    O'Brien, Michael J.
    Estación Experimental de Zonas Áridas, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas, Almería, Spain.
    Reynolds, Glen
    SE Asia Rainforest Research Partnership, Sabah, Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia.
    Rowland, Lucy
    School of Geography, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom.
    Banin, Lindsay F.
    UK Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh, United Kingdom.
    Dent, Daisy
    Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute, Balboa, Panama; Department of Environmental Systems Science, ETH, Zürich, Switzerland.
    Bornean tropical forests recovering from logging at risk of regeneration failure2024In: Global Change Biology, ISSN 1354-1013, E-ISSN 1365-2486, Vol. 30, no 3, article id e17209Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Active restoration through silvicultural treatments (enrichment planting, cutting climbers and liberation thinning) is considered an important intervention in logged forests. However, its ability to enhance regeneration is key for long-term recovery of logged forests, which remains poorly understood, particularly for the production and survival of seedlings in subsequent generations. To understand the long-term impacts of logging and restoration we tracked the diversity, survival and traits of seedlings that germinated immediately after a mast fruiting in North Borneo in unlogged and logged forests 30–35 years after logging. We monitored 5119 seedlings from germination for ~1.5 years across a mixed landscape of unlogged forests (ULs), naturally regenerating logged forests (NR) and actively restored logged forests via rehabilitative silvicultural treatments (AR), 15–27 years after restoration. We measured 14 leaf, root and biomass allocation traits on 399 seedlings from 15 species. Soon after fruiting, UL and AR forests had higher seedling densities than NR forest, but survival was the lowest in AR forests in the first 6 months. Community composition differed among forest types; AR and NR forests had lower species richness and lower evenness than UL forests by 5–6 months post-mast but did not differ between them. Differences in community composition altered community-weighted mean trait values across forest types, with higher root biomass allocation in NR relative to UL forest. Traits influenced mortality ~3 months post-mast, with more acquisitive traits and relative aboveground investment favoured in AR forests relative to UL forests. Our findings of reduced seedling survival and diversity suggest long time lags in post-logging recruitment, particularly for some taxa. Active restoration of logged forests recovers initial seedling production, but elevated mortality in AR forests lowers the efficacy of active restoration to enhance recruitment or diversity of seedling communities. This suggests current active restoration practices may fail to overcome barriers to regeneration in logged forests, which may drive long-term changes in future forest plant communities.

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  • Wurm, Matilda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Lundberg, Tove
    Lunds universitet, Lund, Sweden.
    Malmquist, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mikroaggressioner och hbtq – våld som blir vardag2024In: Texter om våld, ISSN 2004-3775, no 1, p. 57-68Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med den här texten är att beskriva olika former av mikroaggressioner och ge exempel på hur de kan ta sig uttryck. Vi kommer att gå igenom hur de hanteras av de som utsätts, samt diskutera varför yrkesverksamma som träffar människor i sitt arbete behöver ha kunskap om mikroaggressioner. I den här texten kommer vi framför allt att belysa situationen för hbtq-personer, alltså personer som är homosexuella, bisexuella, transpersoner eller queera. Liknande mekanismer är också verksamma för andra minoriteter, exempelvis tog forskning om mikroaggressioner sin början inom rasismforskning.

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    Mikroaggressioner och hbtq – våld som blir vardag
  • Vanhée, Loïs
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Danielsson, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Enqvist, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Law.
    Grill, Kalle
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Borit, Melania
    Norwegian College of Fisheries Science, UiT the Arctic University of Norway, Tromsø, Norway.
    Hack it with EDUCHIC! educational hackathons and interdisciplinary challenges: definitions, principles, and pedagogical guidelines2024In: European Journal of Education, ISSN 0141-8211, E-ISSN 1465-3435, article id e12658Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Whereas hackathons are widespread within and outside academia and have been argued to be a valid pedagogical method for teaching interdisciplinarity, no detailed frameworks or methods are available for conceptualizing and organizing educational hackathons, i.e., hackathons dedicated to best achieving pedagogic objectives. This paper is dedicated to introducing EDUCational Hackathons for learning how to solve Interdisciplinary Challenges (EDUCHIC) through: (1) defining the fundamental principles for framing an activity as an EDUCHIC, integrating principles from pedagogical methods, hackathon organization, and interdisciplinarity processes; (2) describing general properties that EDUCHIC possess as a consequence of the interaction of the fundamental principles; (3) developing operational guidelines for streamlining the practical organization of EDUCHIC, including an exhaustive end-to-end process covering all the steps for organizing EDUCHIC and practical frames for carrying the key decisions to be made in this process; and (4) a demonstration of these guidelines through illustrating their application for organizing a concrete EDUCHIC.

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  • Davis, Paul A.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Trotter, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Åström, Elisabeth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Rönnlund, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Balancing time for health behaviors: associations of time perspective with physical activity and weight management in older adults2024In: American Journal of Health Promotion, ISSN 0890-1171, E-ISSN 2168-6602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: To examine associations between time perspective and health promotion behaviors of physical activity and weight management.

    Design: Quantitative cross-sectional.

    Setting: This study is part of the Betula project on aging, memory, and dementia in Northern Sweden.

    Subjects: 417 older adults aged between 55 and 85 years.

    Measures: Swedish-Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory; Physical Activity in the past year, past week, and in comparison with others of similar age; Weight Management = Body Mass Index (BMI; kg/m2).

    Results: After controlling for age, sex, and years of education, hierarchical linear regression indicated a Balanced Time Perspective was significantly associated with more physical activity in the past year (P =.04), the past week (P <.001), and in comparison with others (P <.01). Past Negative time perspective was associated with less physical activity in the past year (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Present Fatalistic was associated with less physical activity during the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.01). Present Hedonistic was associated with more physical activity the past week (P =.03), and in comparison with others (P =.03). Past Negative was associated with higher BMI (P =.02), and Future Negative were associated with lower BMI (P =.01). Taken collectively, greater positivity and flexibility across time perspectives was associated with more physical activity, whereas negative oriented time perspectives related with less physical activity and poorer weight management.

    Conclusion: Time perspective can be associated with health behaviors in older adults and have implications for health across the lifespan. Health promotion interventions may target older adults’ enjoyment of exercise and weight management in the present, rather than highlight potential negative health outcomes in the future. 

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  • Jansson, Malin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Lindberg, Jessica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Rask, Gunilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Svensson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Billing, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Nazemroaya, Anoosheh
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Berglund, Anette
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Wärnberg, Fredrik
    Department of Surgery, Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sund, Malin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery. Department of Surgery, University of Helsinki and Helsinki University Hospital, Helsinki, Finland.
    Stromal type I collagen in breast cancer: correlation to prognostic biomarkers and prediction of chemotherapy response2024In: Clinical Breast Cancer, ISSN 1526-8209, E-ISSN 1938-0666Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Fibrillar collagens accumulate in the breast cancer stroma and appear as poorly defined spiculated masses in mammography imaging. The prognostic value of tissue type I collagen remains elusive in treatment-naïve and chemotherapy-treated breast cancer patients. Here, type I collagen mRNA and protein expression were analysed in 2 large independent breast cancer cohorts. Levels were related to clinicopathological parameters, prognostic biomarkers, and outcome.

    Method: COL1A1 mRNA expression was analysed in 2509 patients with breast cancer obtained from the cBioPortal database. Type I collagen protein expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in 1395 women diagnosed with early invasive breast cancer.

    Results: Low COL1A1 mRNA and protein levels correlated with poor prognosis features, such as hormone receptor negativity, high histological grade, triple-negative subtype, node positivity, and tumour size. In unadjusted analysis, high stromal type I collagen protein expression was associated with improved overall survival (OS) (HR = 0.78, 95% CI = 0.61-0.99, p = .043) and trended towards improved breast cancer–specific survival (BCSS) (HR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.42-1.01, P = 0.053), although these findings were lost after adjustment for other clinical variables. In unadjusted analysis, high expression of type I collagen was associated with better OS (HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.55-0.90, P = .006) and BCSS (HR = 0.55, 95% CI = 0.34-0.88, P = .014) among patients not receiving chemotherapy. Strikingly, the opposite was observed among patients receiving chemotherapy. There, high expression of type I collagen was instead associated with worse OS (HR = 1.83, 95% CI = 0.65-5.14, P = .25) and BCSS (HR = 1.72, 95% CI = 0.54-5.50, P = .357).

    Conclusion: Low stromal type I collagen mRNA and protein expression are associated with unfavourable tumour characteristics in breast cancer. Stromal type I collagen might predict chemotherapy response.

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  • Olsson, Max
    et al.
    Lund University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Respiratory Medicine, Allergology and Palliative Medicine, Lund, Sweden.
    Björkelund, Anders J.
    Lund University, Faculty of Science, Centre for Environmental and Climate Science, Lund, Sweden.
    Sandberg, Jacob
    Lund University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Respiratory Medicine, Allergology and Palliative Medicine, Lund, Sweden.
    Blomberg, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Börjesson, Mats
    Dept of Molecular and Cardiovascular Medicine, Center for Health and Performance, Sahlgrenska Academy, Gothenburg, Sweden; Dept MGAÖ, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Currow, David
    Faculty of Science, Medicine and Health, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, Australia.
    Malinovschi, Andrei
    Dept of Medical Sciences, Clinical Physiology, Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Sköld, Magnus
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Respiratory Medicine and Allergy, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Wollmer, Per
    Department of Translational Medicine, Lund University, Malmö, Sweden.
    Torén, Kjell
    Occupational and Environmental Medicine, School of Public Health and Community Medicine, Institute of Medicine, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Östgren, Carl Johan
    Centre of Medical Image Science and Visualization, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden; Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Engström, Gunnar
    Lund University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Malmö, Cardiovascular Epidemiology, Malmö, Sweden.
    Ekström, Magnus
    Lund University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences Lund, Respiratory Medicine, Allergology and Palliative Medicine, Lund, Sweden.
    Factors most strongly associated with breathlessness in a population aged 50–64 years2024In: ERJ Open Research, E-ISSN 2312-0541, Vol. 10, no 2, article id 00582-2023Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Breathlessness is a troublesome and prevalent symptom in the population, but knowledge of related factors is scarce. The aim of this study was to identify the factors most strongly associated with breathlessness in the general population and to describe the shapes of the associations between the main factors and breathlessness.

    Methods: A cross-sectional analysis was carried out of the multicentre population-based Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study (SCAPIS) of adults aged 50 to 64 years. Breathlessness was defined as a modified Medical Research Council breathlessness rating ⩾2. The machine learning algorithm extreme gradient boosting (XGBoost) was used to classify participants as either breathless or nonbreathless using 449 factors, including physiological measurements, blood samples, computed tomography cardiac and lung measurements, lifestyle, health conditions and socioeconomics. The strength of the associations between the factors and breathlessness were measured by SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP), with higher scores reflecting stronger associations.

    Results :A total of 28 730 participants (52% women) were included in the study. The strongest associated factors for breathlessness were (in order of magnitude): body mass index (SHAP score 0.39), forced expiratory volume in 1 s (0.32), physical activity measured by accelerometery (0.27), sleep apnoea (0.22), diffusing lung capacity for carbon monoxide (0.21), self-reported physical activity (0.17), chest pain when hurrying (0.17), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (0.17), recent weight change (0.14) and cough (0.13).

    Conclusion: This large population-based study of men and women aged 50–64 years identified the main factors related to breathlessness that may be prevented or amenable to public health interventions.

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  • Olsson, Josefin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Masculine enjoyment problematizing subjectification through norm critique as a response to climate change2024In: Subjectivity, ISSN 1755-6341, E-ISSN 1755-635XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article problematizes subjectification through the practice of norm critique. The study builds on interviews with some of the key initiators and participants in a project working norm critically with men and masculinity in relation to gender equality and climate change in Sweden. Through the psychoanalytical framework of enjoyment and fantasy, I develop a perspective on how and why a certain understanding of the norm-critical subject emerges. The analysis makes visible how the practice of norm critique, while challenging hegemonic masculine norms such as emotional stoicism, reinforces neoliberal ideals of individualized self-emancipation and the quest for authenticity and wholeness, which risks de-politicizing the issue of climate change.

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  • Ström, Kristina
    et al.
    Åbo Akademi University, Nord University, Finland, Norway.
    Pettersson, Gerd
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Wickman, Kim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Education.
    Remote special educational consultation in Swedish rural schools: experiences of special educators and class teachers2024In: Australian and International Journal of Rural Education, ISSN 1036-0026, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 108-121Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With advances in communication technologies, remote special educational consultation has become a promising strategy for indirect special education provision aiming to support students with special educational needs as well as their teachers in remote and rural areas. This study explores how special educators in a rural municipality in Sweden offer remote special educational consultation to teachers and how the two teacher categories experience remote special educational consultation. The empirical data of the study consist of special educators’ and teachers’ responses to an online questionnaire (N=11). The analysis revealed themes reflecting experienced challenges as well as opportunities. The challenges relate to lack of professional commitment and consensus, lack of school leaders’ trust, knowledge and support, and barriers associated with distance and technology, while opportunities relate to increased access to special educational competence, increased structure in consultation and increased professional development and collaboration. The results of this study highlight the potential value of remote special educational consultation as an acceptable, cost-effective, and efficient way of increasing access to special educational expertise and providing special educational support to teachers working in rural and underserved schools.

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  • Karlsson, Anna-Karin
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy and Health, Agriculture and Food.
    Abstract book of Nordic Wildberry Conference2023Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
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  • Stål, Per
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical and Translational Biology.
    Nord, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical and Translational Biology.
    von Hofsten, Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical and Translational Biology.
    Holmlund, Thorbjörn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Otorhinolaryngology.
    Shah, Farhan Khalid
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical and Translational Biology.
    Desmin gene expression is not ubiquitous in all upper airway myofibers and the pattern differs between healthy and sleep apnea subjects2024In: European Journal of Medical Research, ISSN 0949-2321, E-ISSN 2047-783X, Vol. 29, no 1, article id 216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Desmin is a major cytoskeletal protein considered ubiquitous in mature muscle fibers. However, we earlier reported that a subgroup of muscle fibers in the soft palate of healthy subjects and obstructive sleep apnea patients (OSA) lacked immunoexpression for desmin. This raised the question of whether these fibers also lack messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) for desmin and can be considered a novel fiber phenotype. Moreover, some fibers in the OSA patients had an abnormal distribution and aggregates of desmin. Thus, the aim of the study was to investigate if these desmin protein abnormalities are also reflected in the expression of desmin mRNA in an upper airway muscle of healthy subjects and OSA patients.

    Methods: Muscle biopsies from the musculus uvulae in the soft palate were obtained from ten healthy male subjects and six male patients with OSA. Overnight sleep apnea registrations were done for all participants. Immunohistochemistry, in-situ hybridization, and reverse transcription–quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT–qPCR) techniques were used to evaluate the presence of desmin protein and its mRNA.

    Results: Our findings demonstrated that a group of muscle fibers lacked expression for desmin mRNA and desmin protein in healthy individuals and OSA patients (12.0 ± 5.6% vs. 23.1 ± 10.8%, p = 0.03). A subpopulation of these fibers displayed a weak subsarcolemmal rim of desmin accompanied by a few scattered mRNA dots in the cytoplasm. The muscles of OSA patients also differed from healthy subjects by exhibiting muscle fibers with reorganized or accumulated aggregates of desmin protein (14.5 ± 6.5%). In these abnormal fibers, the density of mRNA was generally low or concentrated in specific regions. The overall quantification of desmin mRNA by RT–qPCR was significantly upregulated in OSA patients compared to healthy subjects (p = 0.01).

    Conclusions: Our study shows evidence that muscle fibers in the human soft palate lack both mRNA and protein for desmin. This indicates a novel cytoskeletal structure and challenges the ubiquity of desmin in muscle fibers. Moreover, the observation of reorganized or accumulated aggregates of desmin mRNA and desmin protein in OSA patients suggests a disturbance in the transcription and translation process in the fibers of the patients.

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  • Zahid, Nida
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Enam, S. Ather
    Mårtensson, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition.
    Azam, Iqbal
    Mushtaq, Naureen
    Moochhala, Mariya
    Javed, Farrukh
    Kausar, Faiza
    Hasan, Aneesa
    Rehman, Lal
    Mughal, M. Nouman
    Altaf, Sadaf
    Kirmani, Salman
    Brown, Nick
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Child Health and Nutrition. Department of Pediatrics, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan.
    Predictors of neurocognition outcomes in children and young people with primary brain tumor presenting to tertiary care hospitals of Karachi, Pakistan: a prospective cohort study2024In: Child's Nervous System, ISSN 0256-7040, E-ISSN 1433-0350Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction

    Primary brain tumors are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in children and young people (CYP) globally. Impaired neurocognitive function is a potential severe consequence in primary brain tumor (PBT) survivors. There are no in-depth studies from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to inform management and follow-up. The research questions of this study were as follows: Are the sociodemographic factors (lower age of CYP, female gender, low socioeconomic status, low parental education), disease-related factors (high grade of tumor, presence of seizures, presence of hydrocephalous), and treatment-related factors (adjuvant therapy, no surgical intervention, post-treatment seizures, placement of shunts) associated with decline in neurcognition outcomes 12 months post-treatment in CYP with PBTs?

    Methods

    A prospective cohort study was conducted from November 2020 to July 2023 at the Aga Khan University Hospital and Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, tertiary care hospitals in Karachi, Pakistan. All CYP aged 5 to 21 years with a newly diagnosed PBTs were eligible. The neurocognition assessment was undertaken by a psychologist at two points, i.e., pre-treatment and at 12 months post-treatment using validated tools. The verbal intelligence was assessed by Slosson Intelligence tool, revised 3rd edition (SIT-R3), perceptual reasoning by Raven’s Progressive Matrices (RPM), and the Processing Speed Index by Wechsler Intelligence Scale (WISC V) and Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS-IV). The data were analyzed by STATA version 12 software. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) was used to determine the factors associated with the mean change in 12 months post-treatment verbal and non-verbal neurocognition scores. Unadjusted and adjusted beta coefficients with their 95% confidence intervals were reported.

    Results

    A total of 48 CYPs with PBTs were enrolled, 23 (48%) of them were lost to follow-up and 10 (21%) died. The remaining 25 (52%) were reassessed 12 months after treatment. On multivariable analysis, a significant decline in verbal intelligence scores at 12 months was predicted by post-treatment seizures beta =  − 20.8 (95% CI, − 38.2, − 3.4), mothers having no formal educational status and lower household monthly income. Similarly, a significant decline in perceptual reasoning scores was also predicted by post-treatment seizures beta =  − 10.7 (95% CI, − 20.6, − 0.8), mothers having no formal education and having lower household monthly income. Worsening of processing speed scores at 12 months post-treatment were predicted by tumor histology, post-treatment seizures beta =  − 33.9 (95% CI, − 47.7, − 20.0), lower educational status of the mother, and having lower household monthly. However, an improvement was seen in processing speed scores after surgical tumor resection.

    Conclusion

    In this novel study, the post-treatment mean change in verbal and non-verbal neurocognition scores was associated with sociodemographic, tumor, and treatment factors. These findings may have potential implications for targeted early psychological screening of higher risk CYP with PBTs. Identification of these predictors may serve as a foundation for developing more cost-effective treatment thereby alleviating the burden of neurocognitive morbidity. However to establish generalizability, future research should prioritize larger-scale, multicountry studies. (Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT05709522)

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  • Nabizadeh, Armin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Zackrisson, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy. Swedish Coll Adv Study, Linneanum Thunbergsvagen 2, S-75238 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Pacucci, Fabio
    Harvard & Smithsonian, Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Maksym, Walter Peter
    Harvard & Smithsonian, Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA.;NASA, Marshall Space Flight Ctr, Huntsville, AL 35812 USA..
    Li, Weihui
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Observational Astronomy.
    Civano, Francesca
    Harvard & Smithsonian, Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Cohen, Seth H.
    Arizona State Univ, Sch Earth & Space Explorat, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    D'Silva, Jordan C. J.
    Univ Western Australia, Int Ctr Radio Astron Res ICRAR, M468,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.;Univ Western Australia, Int Space Ctr ISC, M468,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.;ARC Ctr Excellence All Sky Astrophys 3 Dimens ASTR, Preston, Australia..
    Koekemoer, Anton M.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Summers, Jake
    Arizona State Univ, Sch Earth & Space Explorat, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Windhorst, Rogier A.
    Arizona State Univ, Sch Earth & Space Explorat, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Adams, Nathan
    Univ Manchester, Jodrell Bank, Ctr Astrophys, Alan Turing Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, England..
    Conselice, Christopher J.
    Univ Manchester, Jodrell Bank, Ctr Astrophys, Alan Turing Bldg,Oxford Rd, Manchester M13 9PL, England..
    Coe, Dan
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.;European Space Agcy ESA, Assoc Univ Res Astron AURA, STScI, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA.;Univ Calif Berkeley, Dept Phys, 366 Phys North MC 7300, Berkeley, CA 94720 USA..
    Driver, Simon P.
    Univ Western Australia, Int Ctr Radio Astron Res ICRAR, M468,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.;Univ Western Australia, Int Space Ctr ISC, M468,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia..
    Frye, Brenda
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Dept Astron, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Grogin, Norman A.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Jansen, Rolf A.
    Arizona State Univ, Sch Earth & Space Explorat, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Marshall, Madeline A.
    ARC Ctr Excellence All Sky Astrophys 3 Dimens ASTR, Preston, Australia.;Natl Res Council Canada, Herzberg Astron & Astrophys Res Ctr, 5071 West Saanich Rd, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7, Canada..
    Nonino, Mario
    INAF, Osservatorio Astron Trieste, Via Bazzoni 2, I-34124 Trieste, Italy..
    Pirzkal, Nor
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Robotham, Aaron
    Univ Western Australia, Int Ctr Radio Astron Res ICRAR, M468,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia.;Univ Western Australia, Int Space Ctr ISC, M468,35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009, Australia..
    Rutkowski, Michael J.
    Minnesota State Univ Mankato, Telescope Sci Inst, TN141, Mankato, MN 56001 USA..
    Ryan, Russell E.
    Space Telescope Sci Inst, 3700 San Martin Dr, Baltimore, MD 21218 USA..
    Tompkins, Scott
    Arizona State Univ, Sch Earth & Space Explorat, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Willmer, Christopher N. A.
    Univ Arizona, Steward Observ, Dept Astron, 933 N Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 USA..
    Yan, Haojing
    Univ Missouri, Dept Phys & Astron, Columbia, MO 65211 USA..
    Diego, Jose M.
    Inst Fis Cantabria, Edificio Juan Jorda,Ave de los Castros S N, Santander 39005, Cantabria, Spain.;Inst Fis Cantabria CSIC UC, Ave Los Castros S N, Santander 39005, Spain..
    Cheng, Cheng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Natl Astron Observ, CAS, Beijing 100101, Peoples R China..
    Finkelstein, Steven L.
    Univ Texas Austin, Dept Astron, 2515 Speedway,Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712 USA..
    Willner, Steven P.
    Harvard & Smithsonian, Ctr Astrophys, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 USA..
    Wang, Lifan
    Texas A&M Univ, Mitchell Inst Fundamental Phys & Astron, College Stn, TX 77843 USA..
    Zitrin, Adi
    Ben Gurion Univ Negev, Phys Dept, POB 653, IL-8410501 Beer Sheva, Israel..
    Smith, Brent M.
    Arizona State Univ, Sch Earth & Space Explorat, Tempe, AZ 85287 USA..
    Bhatawdekar, Rachana
    European Space Agcy ESA, European Space Astron Ctr ESAC, Camino Bajo del Castillo S N, Villanueva de la Canada 28692, Madrid, Spain..
    Gim, Hansung B.
    Montana State Univ, Dept Phys, POB 173840, Bozeman, MT 59717 USA..
    A search for high-redshift direct-collapse black hole candidates in the PEARLS north ecliptic pole field2024In: Astronomy and Astrophysics, ISSN 0004-6361, E-ISSN 1432-0746, Vol. 683, article id A58Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Direct-collapse black holes (DCBHs) of mass ∼ 104-105 M that form in HI-cooling halos in the early Universe are promising progenitors of the greater than or similar to 109 Msupermassive black holes that fuel observed z greater than or similar to 7 quasars. Efficient accretion of the surrounding gas onto such DCBH seeds may render them sufficiently bright for detection with the JWST up to z ≈ 20. Additionally, the very steep and red spectral slope predicted across the ≈ 1-5 μm wavelength range of the JWST/NIRSpec instrument during their initial growth phase should make them photometrically identifiable up to very high redshifts. In this work, we present a search for such DCBH candidates across the 34 arcmin2 in the first two spokes of the JWST cycle-1 PEARLS survey of the north ecliptic pole time-domain field covering eight NIRCam filters down to a maximum depth of ∼ 29 AB mag. We identify two objects with spectral energy distributions consistent with the Pacucci et al. (2016) DCBH models. However, we also note that even with data in eight NIRCam filters, objects of this type remain degenerate with dusty galaxies and obscured active galactic nuclei over a wide range of redshifts. Follow-up spectroscopy would be required to pin down the nature of these objects. Based on our sample of DCBH candidates and assumptions on the typical duration of the DCBH steep-slope state, we set a conservative upper limit of less than or similar to 5x10-4 comoving Mpc-3 (cMpc-3) on the comoving density of host halos capable of hosting DCBHs with spectral energy distributions similar to the Pacucci et al. (2016) models at z ≈ 6-14.

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  • Aad, G.
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Dimitriadi, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Univ Bonn, Phys Inst, Bonn, Germany.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellajosyula, Venugopal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mathisen, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mullier, Geoffrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ripellino, Giulia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Steentoft, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sunneborn Gudnadottir, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Pursuit of paired dijet resonances in the Run 2 dataset with ATLAS2023In: Physical Review D: covering particles, fields, gravitation, and cosmology, ISSN 2470-0010, E-ISSN 2470-0029, Vol. 108, no 11, article id 112005Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    New particles with large masses that decay into hadronically interacting particles are predicted by many models of physics beyond the Standard Model. A search for a massive resonance that decays into pairs of dijet resonances is performed using 140 fb-1 of proton-proton collisions at √s = 13 TeV recorded by the ATLAS detector during Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider. Resonances are searched for in the invariant mass of the tetrajet system, and in the average invariant mass of the pair of dijet systems. A data-driven background estimate is obtained by fitting the tetrajet and dijet invariant mass distributions with a four-parameter dijet function and a search for local excesses from resonant production of dijet pairs is performed. No significant excess of events beyond the Standard Model expectation is observed, and upper limits are set on the production cross sections of new physics scenarios.

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  • Aad, G.
    et al.
    Aix Marseille Univ, CPPM, CNRS IN2P3, Marseille, France.
    Bergeås Kuutmann, Elin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Brenner, Richard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Dimitriadi, Christina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics. Univ Bonn, Phys Inst, Bonn, Germany.
    Ekelöf, Tord
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellajosyula, Venugopal
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ellert, Mattias
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ferrari, Arnaud
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Gonzalez Suarez, Rebeca
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mathisen, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Mullier, Geoffrey
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Ripellino, Giulia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Steentoft, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Sunneborn Gudnadottir, Olga
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Zwalinski, L.
    CERN, Geneva, Switzerland.
    Performance and calibration of quark/gluon-jet taggers using 140 fb-1 of pp collisions at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector2024In: Chinese Physics C, ISSN 1674-1137, E-ISSN 2058-6132, Vol. 48, no 2, article id 023001Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The identification of jets originating from quarks and gluons, often referred to as quark/gluon tagging, plays an important role in various analyses performed at the Large Hadron Collider, as Standard Model measurements and searches for new particles decaying to quarks often rely on suppressing a large gluon-induced background. This paper describes the measurement of the efficiencies of quark/gluon taggers developed within the ATLAS Collaboration, using √s = 13 TeV proton-proton collision data with an integrated luminosity of 140 fb-1 collected by the ATLAS experiment. Two taggers with high performances in rejecting jets from gluon over jets from quarks are studied: one tagger is based on requirements on the number of inner-detector tracks associated with the jet, and the other combines several jet substructure observables using a boosted decision tree. A method is established to determine the quark/gluon fraction in data, by using quark/gluon-enriched subsamples defined by the jet pseudorapidity. Differences in tagging efficiency between data and simulation are provided for jets with transverse momentum between 500 GeV and 2 TeV and for multiple tagger working points.

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  • Brons, Maaike
    et al.
    Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Ten Klooster, Iris
    Department of Psychology, Health and Technology, Center for eHealth Research and Disease Management, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette
    Department of Psychology, Health and Technology, Center for eHealth Research and Disease Management, University of Twente, Enschede, Netherlands.
    Jaarsma, Tiny
    Linköping University, Department of Health, Medicine and Caring Sciences, Division of Nursing Sciences and Reproductive Health. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Department of Nursing Science, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Asselbergs, Folkert W
    Department of Cardiology, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam University Medical Centers, Amsterdam, Netherlands; Health Data Research UK and Institute of Health Informatics, University College London, London, United Kingdom.
    Oerlemans, Marish I F J
    Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Koudstaal, Stefan
    Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Rutten, Frans H
    Department of General Practice, Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht University, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Patterns in the Use of Heart Failure Telemonitoring: Post Hoc Analysis of the e-Vita Heart Failure Trial2023In: JMIR cardio, ISSN 2561-1011, Vol. 7Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Research on the use of home telemonitoring data and adherence to it can provide new insights into telemonitoring for the daily management of patients with heart failure (HF). Objective: We described the use of a telemonitoring platform—including remote patient monitoring of blood pressure, pulse, and weight—and the use of the electronic personal health record. Patient characteristics were assessed in both adherent and nonadherent patients to weight transmissions. Methods: We used the data of the e-Vita HF study, a 3-arm parallel randomized trial performed in stable patients with HF managed in outpatient clinics in the Netherlands. In this study, data were analyzed from the participants in the intervention arm (ie, e-Vita HF platform). Adherence to weight transmissions was defined as transmitting weight ≥3 times per week for at least 42 weeks during a year. Results: Data from 150 patients (mean age 67, SD 11 years; n=37, 25% female; n=123, 82% self-assessed New York Heart Association class I-II) were analyzed. One-year adherence to weight transmissions was 74% (n=111). Patients adherent to weight transmissions were less often hospitalized for HF in the 6 months before enrollment in the study compared to those who were nonadherent (n=9, 8% vs n=9, 23%; P=.02). The percentage of patients visiting the personal health record dropped steadily over time (n=140, 93% vs n=59, 39% at one year). With univariable analyses, there was no significant correlation between patient characteristics and adherence to weight transmissions. Conclusions: Adherence to remote patient monitoring was high among stable patients with HF and best for weighing; however, adherence decreased over time. Clinical and demographic variables seem not related to adherence to transmitting weight.

    Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01755988; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01755988

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  • Hamgård, Nelly
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Duvetorp, Albert
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Lund University, Skane University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.
    Hägg, Anna
    Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Värnamo Hospital, Region Jönköping County, Sweden.
    Gulin, Sandra Jerkovic
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bock (Seifert), Oliver
    Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Department of Biomedical and Clinical Sciences, Division of Cell Biology.
    Exploring comorbidity and pharmacological treatment patterns in psoriasis - a retrospective population-based cross-sectional study2023In: Journal of multimorbidity and comorbidity, ISSN 2633-5565, Vol. 13Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Individuals with psoriasis face an increased risk of suffering from various comorbid conditions. However, there haven´t been any studies conducted in Sweden to examine the frequency of comorbidities and the corresponding treatment for these conditions among psoriasis patients.

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  • Rabel, Kerstin
    et al.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Nath, Amélie Joséphine
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Nold, Julian
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Spies, Benedikt C.
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Wesemann, Christian
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Altmann, Brigitte
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, Manufacturing Processes.
    Witkowski, Siegbert
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Tomakidi, Pascal
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Steinberg, Thorsten
    University of Freiburg, Germany.
    Analysis of soft tissue integration-supportive cell functions in gingival fibroblasts cultured on 3D printed biomaterials for oral implant-supported prostheses2024In: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A, ISSN 1549-3296, E-ISSN 1552-4965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To date, it is unknown whether 3D printed fixed oral implant-supported prostheses can achieve comparable soft tissue integration (STI) to clinically established subtractively manufactured counterparts. STI is mediated among others by gingival fibroblasts (GFs) and is modulated by biomaterial surface characteristics. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to investigate the GF response of a 3D printed methacrylate photopolymer and a hybrid ceramic-filled methacrylate photopolymer for fixed implant-supported prostheses in the sense of supporting an STI. Subtractively manufactured samples made from methacrylate polymer and hybrid ceramic were evaluated for comparison and samples from yttria-stabilized tetragonal zirconia polycrystal (3Y-TZP), comprising well documented biocompatibility, served as control. Surface topography was analyzed by scanning electron microscopy and interferometry, elemental composition by energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and wettability by contact angle measurement. The response of GFs obtained from five donors was examined in terms of membrane integrity, adhesion, morphogenesis, metabolic activity, and proliferation behavior by a lactate-dehydrogenase assay, fluorescent staining, a resazurin-based assay, and DNA quantification. The results revealed all surfaces were smooth and hydrophilic. GF adhesion, metabolic activity and proliferation were impaired by 3D printed biomaterials compared to subtractively manufactured comparison surfaces and the 3Y-TZP control, whereas membrane integrity was comparable. Within the limits of the present investigation, it was concluded that subtractively manufactured surfaces are superior compared to 3D printed surfaces to support STI. For the development of biologically optimized 3D printable biomaterials, consecutive studies will focus on the improvement of cytocompatibility and the synthesis of STI-relevant extracellular matrix constituents.

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  • Yamamoto, Yuji
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Aranda Muñoz, Alvaro
    RISE Research Institutes of Sweden, Digital Systems, Industrial Systems.
    Sandström, Kristian
    Mälardalen University, Sweden.
    Practical Aspects of Designing a Human-centred AI System in Manufacturing2024In: Procedia Computer Science. 5th International Conference on Industry 4.0 and Smart Manufacturing, ISM 2023, Elsevier B.V. , 2024, Vol. 232, p. 2626-2638Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An increasing number of manufacturing companies have initiated designing and implementing AI systems in manufacturing, however, with limited success. Within our overarching research objective of establishing a methodology for the development of AI systems in manufacturing with socio-technical system consideration, this paper focuses on the early design phase of the development life cycle and aims to identify factors that are essential in the phase but whose importance has been less addressed in the manufacturing literature. To this aim, a case study was conducted adopting a design science approach. The case company was developing an ML-based anomaly detection system for a casting process. The researcher organised an AI system design workshop where participants from the company used the Human-AI design guidelines created by a leading large software company. The workshop enabled the participants to explore a wide range of design concerns. It, however, caused the confusing experience that they had to deal with too many questions simultaneously without clear guidance. Analysing this negative experience has led to identifying four design issues requiring further attention in the research. An example of these issues is that the interdependency of design decisions on operational procedures, human-machine interfaces, ML models, pre-processing, and input data makes it challenging to design these elements in isolation. The study found that a structured approach to dealing with the identified issues was currently lacking. This paper contributes to the manufacturing research community by addressing key unresolved issues in the research through highlighting practical details of designing AI systems in manufacturing. 

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  • Kultursamarbeten och nordisk bidragsgivningBook (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    I rapporten Kultursamarbeten och nordisk bidragsgivning studeras fördelning av de två stora kulturstöden hos Nordisk kulturfond och Nordisk kulturkontakt – ”Projektstöd till tvärgående samarbeten” respektive ”Kultur- och konstprogrammet”. Rapporten sammanställer en analys av samarbeten inom konst och kultur, och hur den nordiska bidragsgivningen möjliggör för gemensamma projekt. Fokus läggs på utformning av tvärgående samarbeten mellan kulturskapare och genomförande av projekt. En viktig utgångspunkt för studerad bidragsgivning är att den ska bidra till utbyten mellan de nordiska länderna och skapa nordiskt mervärde.  Baserat på intervjuer med bidragsmottagare framkommer erfarenheter av hur det är att söka kulturstöd från Nordisk kulturfond och Nordisk kulturkontakt samt bygga upp nätverk. 

     En återkommande problematik inom nordiskt samarbete kretsar kring geografiska, miljömässiga och ekonomiska hinder som påverkar projekten från planering till genomförande. Geografiska avstånd skapar ojämlika förutsättningar för samarbete, där centrala områden gynnas av goda kommunikationer och stora kulturbudgetar, medan perifera områden står inför svårigheter att inkluderas på grund av bristande resurser. Samtidigt utgör de nordiska kulturstöden ett viktigt komplement till den nationella bidragsgivningen, inte minst för de mindre länderna som på så sätt får möjlighet att skala upp projekt och därmed får del av en större publik och arbetsmarknad.  

     Rapporten är framtagen av Kulturanalys Norden. Kulturanalys Norden är ett nordiskt kunskapscentrum för kulturpolitik som etablerats på uppdrag av Nordiska ministerrådet.

     Rapporten är skriven på svenska med en sammanfattning på engelska.

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  • Dubol, Manon
    et al.
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Stiernman, Louise
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Sundström-Poromaa, Inger
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Bixo, Marie
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences.
    Comasco, Erika
    Department of Women's and Children's Health, Science for Life Laboratory, Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Cortical morphology variations during the menstrual cycle in individuals with and without premenstrual dysphoric disorder2024In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 355, p. 470-477Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is hypothesized to stem from maladaptive neural sensitivity to ovarian steroid hormone fluctuations. Recently, we found thinner cortices in individuals with PMDD, compared to healthy controls, during the symptomatic phase. Here, we aimed at investigating whether such differences illustrate state-like characteristics specific to the symptomatic phase, or trait-like features defining PMDD.

    Methods: Patients and controls were scanned using structural magnetic resonance imaging during the mid-follicular and late-luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. Group-by-phase interaction effects on cortical architecture metrics (cortical thickness, gyrification index, cortical complexity, and sulcal depth) were assessed using surface-based morphometry.

    Results: Independently of menstrual cycle phase, a main effect of diagnostic group on surface metrics was found, primarily illustrating thinner cortices (0.3 < Cohen's d > 1.1) and lower gyrification indices (0.4 < Cohen's d > 1.0) in patients compared to controls. Furthermore, menstrual cycle-specific effects were detected across all participants, depicting a decrease in cortical thickness (0.4 < Cohen's d > 1.7) and region-dependent changes in cortical folding metrics (0.4 < Cohen's d > 2.2) from the mid-follicular to the late luteal phase.

    Limitations: Small effects (d = 0.3) require a larger sample size to be accurately characterized.

    Conclusions: These findings provide initial evidence of trait-like cortical characteristics of the brain of individuals with premenstrual dysphoric disorder, together with indications of menstrual cycle-related variations in cortical architecture in patients and controls. Further investigations exploring whether these differences constitute stable vulnerability markers or develop over the years may help understand PMDD etiology.

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  • Nair, Gireesh
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Mattsson, Moa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Delice, Eser
    Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Dino, Ipek Gursel
    Middle East Technical University, Turkey.
    Energy production, efficiency and flexibility forpositive energy districts: a review2024In: ISEC 2024 – 3rd International Sustainable Energy Conference, TIB Open Publishing , 2024Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2018, EU launched the programme “Positive energy districts and neighbourhoods for sustainable urban development” with an aim to support the planning, deployment and replication of 100 Positive energy districts (PEDs) by 2025. This is an ambitious target considering the various challenges on implementing PEDs. This paper, based on literature review, provides an overview on the challenges and possibilities on the three main components of PEDs; energy production, energy efficiency and energy flexibility.

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  • Bozorgpanah, Aso
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Torra, Vicenç
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Computing Science.
    Explainable machine learning models with privacy2024In: Progress in Artificial Intelligence, ISSN 2192-6352, Vol. 13, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of explainable machine learning models is increasing because users want to understand the reasons behind decisions in data-driven models. Interpretability and explainability emerge from this need to design comprehensible systems. This paper focuses on privacy-preserving explainable machine learning. We study two data masking techniques: maximum distance to average vector (MDAV) and additive noise. The former is for achieving k-anonymity, and the second uses Laplacian noise to avoid record leakage and provide a level of differential privacy. We are interested in the process of developing data-driven models that, at the same time, make explainable decisions and are privacy-preserving. That is, we want to avoid the decision-making process leading to disclosure. To that end, we propose building models from anonymized data. More particularly, data that are k-anonymous or that have been anonymized add an appropriate level of noise to satisfy some differential privacy requirements. In this paper, we study how explainability has been affected by these data protection procedures. We use TreeSHAP as our technique for explainability. The experiments show that we can keep up to a certain degree both accuracy and explainability. So, our results show that some trade-off between privacy and explainability is possible for data protection using k-anonymity and noise addition.

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  • Jonsson, Fanny
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Olofsson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Orthopaedics.
    Söderberg, Stefan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Niklasson, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation.
    Association between the COVID-19 pandemic and mental health in very old people in Sweden2024In: PLOS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 19, no 4, article id e0299098Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, Sweden implemented social distancing measures to reduce infection rates. However, the recommendation meant to protect individuals particularly at risk may have had negative consequences. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on very old Swedish peoples' mental health and factors associated with a decline in mental health.

    Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional study among previous participants of the SilverMONICA (MONItoring of Trends and Determinants of CArdiovascular disease) study. Of 394 eligible participants, 257 (65.2%) agreed to participate. Of these, 250 individuals reported mental health impact from COVID-19. Structured telephone interviews were carried out during the spring of 2021. Data were analysed using the χ2 test, t-test, and binary logistic regression.

    Results: Of 250 individuals (mean age: 85.5 ± 3.3 years, 54.0% women), 75 (30.0%) reported a negative impact on mental health, while 175 (70.0%) reported either a positive impact (n = 4) or no impact at all (n = 171). In the binary logistic regression model, factors associated with a decline in mental health included loneliness (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]) (3.87 [1.83-8.17]) and difficulty adhering to social distancing recommendations (5.10 [1.92-13.53]). High morale was associated with positive or no impact on mental health (0.37 [0.17-0.82]).

    Conclusions: A high percentage of very old people reported a negative impact on mental health from the COVID-19 pandemic, primarily from loneliness and difficulty adhering to social distancing measures, while high morale seemed to be a protective factor.

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  • Pauline Mwikali, Mutiso
    et al.
    epartment of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    M. Kalai, Jeremiah
    Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Okoth, Ursullah
    Department of Educational Management, Policy and Curriculum Studies, University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Hansson, Per-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Political Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Relationship between Goal-Orientation Culture and Job Commitment among Lecturers in Public Universities in Kenya2023In: International Journal of Scientific Research and Management (IJSRM), E-ISSN 2321-3418, Vol. 11, no 09, p. 1495-1507Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    One of the management strategies which guides people and organizations to focus their efforts towards achievement of individual and organizational objectives is goal orientation. While it has been documented by previous researchers that learning goal as well as performance goal orientations are significant in influencing employee behaviour, how the same influence job commitment among university lecturers is still a matter of conjecture. This knowledge would be significant especially in the context of public universities in Kenya where missing lecture sessions are rampant on one hand, while more employers prefer graduates from Technical, Industrial and Vocational Enterprise Training (TIVET) institutions than university graduates, on the other hand. This study explored the influence of goal orientation culture on job commitment among lecturers at the University of Nairobi and South Eastern University. The hypothesis that: Organizational goal orientation culture does not have significant relationship with job commitment among lecturers at the Nairobi University and South Eastern Kenya University was tested. Self-determination theory (SDT) of motivation originated by Ryan and Deci was used to guide the study. Descriptive survey design was used on a target population of 56191 lecturers, Deans and students from which 377 was derived as a sample size via Krejcie and Morgan’s (1970) Table. Closed and open-ended questionnaire was used for data collection, and regressions (at 0.05 level of significance) as well as thematic analyses used respectively to analyse quantitative and qualitative data. Findings revealed that 86.1% of changes in job commitment among the lecturers is attributed to goal-oriented culture (R2 =0.861), with goals related to timelines for examination result submission and number of units taught strictly adhered to. It is concluded that matching of the university and lecturers’ goals related to teaching timelines among others significantly enhance lecturers’ job commitment. Professional development opportunities for lecturers should be enhanced to improve their capacities, while challenges facing lecturers in enhancing their job commitment need further exploration.

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  • Johnson, Ericka
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, The Department of Gender Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Pepper as Imposter2023In: Science & Technology Studies, E-ISSN 2243-4690Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    “An imposter is commonly understood as a person who pretends to be someone else in orderto deceive others” (Vogel et al., 2021: 3). This isthe starting point of Woolgar and colleagues’(2021) recent work on imposters, in which theyexplore how thinking with imposters can be auseful analytic for social theory, i.e. a tool or lensthrough which to observe social-material phenomena. In the book, they trace early sociologicaluse of imposters to articulate (underlying and/orperformative) social orders, and how impostering was initially seen as an example of deviationfrom the normal. In these early uses, examplesof impostering could be interpreted for clues towhich mechanisms held together the social order.However, their reworking of the term imposteringmoves the figure of the imposter to ‘center stage’and uses it to explore indeterminacy, uncertaintyand disorder, the frictions and disruptions thatare actually central to social relations (Vogel et al.,2021: 4). Rather than using it to discover underlying normative mechanisms, this new use of impostering keeps the analytical focus on the messypractices of social relations but also encouragesanalysis of which other actors are collaborating inthe impostering practices, and what purposes theimposter is supposed to serve. 

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  • Damoiseaux, David
    et al.
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology The Netherlands Cancer Institute Amsterdam The Netherlands.
    Amant, Frédéric
    Department of Gynecology The Netherlands Cancer Institute Amsterdam The Netherlands;Gynecologic Oncology UZ Leuven Leuven Belgium.
    Beijnen, Jos H.
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology The Netherlands Cancer Institute Amsterdam The Netherlands;Utrecht Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands.
    Barnett, Shelby
    Newcastle University Centre for Cancer Newcastle University Newcastle upon Tyne UK.
    Veal, Gareth J.
    Newcastle University Centre for Cancer Newcastle University Newcastle upon Tyne UK.
    Huitema, Alwin D. R.
    Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology The Netherlands Cancer Institute Amsterdam The Netherlands;Department of Pharmacology Princess Máxima Center for Pediatric Oncology Utrecht The Netherlands;Department of Clinical Pharmacy, University Medical Center Utrecht Utrecht University Utrecht The Netherlands.
    Dorlo, Thomas P. C.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacy. Department of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, The Netherlands Cancer Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.
    Physiologically‐based pharmacokinetic model to predict doxorubicin and paclitaxel exposure in infants through breast milk2023In: CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology (PSP), E-ISSN 2163-8306, Vol. 12, no 12, p. 1931-1944Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Limited information is available concerning infant exposure and safety when breastfed by mothers receiving chemotherapy. Whereas defining distribution to breast milk is important to infer drug exposure, infant pharmacokinetics also determine to what extent the infant will be exposed to potential toxic effects. We aimed to assess the impact of chemotherapy containing breast milk on infants by predicting systemic and local (intestinal) exposure of paclitaxel and doxorubicin in infants through breast milk using a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approach. Whole-body PBPK models of i.v. paclitaxel and doxorubicin were extended from the literature, with an oral absorption component to enable predictions in infants receiving paclitaxel or doxorubicin-containing breast milk. For safety considerations, worst-case scenarios were explored. Finally, paclitaxel and doxorubicin exposures in plasma and intestinal tissue of infants following feeding of breast milk from paclitaxel- or doxorubicin-treated mothers were simulated and breast milk discarding strategies were evaluated. The upper 95th percentile of the predicted peak concentrations in peripheral venous blood were 3.48 and 0.74 nM (0.4%–1.7% and 0.1%–1.8% of on-treatment) for paclitaxel and doxorubicin, respectively. Intestinal exposure reached peak concentrations of 1.0 and 140 μM for paclitaxel and doxorubicin, respectively. Discarding breast milk for the first 3 days after maternal chemotherapy administration reduced systemic and tissue exposures even further, to over 90% and 80% for paclitaxel and doxorubicin, respectively. PBPK simulations of chemotherapy exposure in infants after breastfeeding with chemotherapy containing breast milk suggest that particularly local gastrointestinal adverse events should be monitored, whereas systemic adverse events are not expected.

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  • Horbyk, Roman
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of culture and media studies. Södertörn University, Sweden.
    In pursuit of Kairos: Ukrainian journalists between agency and structure during Euromaidan2019In: Baltic Worlds, ISSN 2000-2955, E-ISSN 2001-7308, Vol. 12, no 1, p. 4-19Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article, I examine the role of journalists during Euromaidan in November 2013–February 2014. The conceptualization of a specific case of power, the media power (found in works by Bolin, Couldry, Curran, Hjarvard, Mancini, Zelizer, and others) basically oscillates between two extremes – that of regarding the media as heteronomous of the political field and that of arguing that the media increasingly influence other fields through processes of mediatization. What is the role of journalists in power relations? Under which conditions is the power of journalists – and their agency – likely to grow? This article presents the results of a series of interviews with Ukrainian journalists who covered the events of Euromaidan in different capacities. Validated with other evidence, their narratives suggest a positive power dynamic for the Ukrainian journalists during the protest events.

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