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  • 1.
    Abrahamson, Maria
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Moral norms in older Swedish women’s drinking narratives. Enduring patterns and successively new features2012Inngår i: Nordic Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1455-0725, Vol. 29, nr 4, 371-396 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS - To examine how the changes in women's relationship to alcohol during the 1960s appear in narratives of situated drinking occasions. DATA - Newly collected autobiographies written by women born between 1918 and 1951 are analysed using theories by William Labov on narrative construction and Kenneth Burke on the rhetoric of motives. RESULTS - The historically restrictive attitude to women at all drinking is present in the oldest women's narratives, while the liberalisation of attitudes to alcohol that took place in the 1960s likewise marks the narratives told by the younger women, even though they when writing are of pension able age. With the writers' diminishing age, the norms framing the narratives have changed, from sobriety among the oldest women to controlled moderation among the younger. And yet, the narratives also demonstrate a stable pattern of questioning women's drinking, although the focus has shifted from tasting alcohol at all to the state of becoming intoxicated. CONCLUSIONS - A controlling norm remains in place, which the women have internalised and made their own. The mitigating circumstances and the neutralising explanations that are presented throughout indicate that the women are conscious of the narratives' deviation from the prevailing norm, and show that women take a risk in drinking alcohol. When a woman drinks she risks her femininity.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Sanne
    Högskolan Kristianstad, Sektionen för hälsa och samhälle.
    Socialtjänsten och mödrahälsovårdens arbete och samarbete kring gravida risk- och/eller missbrukare2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with my study is to highlight, illuminate and examine the social and maternal health care motivational work of pregnant women with a risk or abuse of alcohol and / or drugs, and what actions can be considered for these women. In addition, the aim is to explore how social services and maternity care might interact in this type of case. The aim is to convey the subjective experience of each of the interviewees. For the purposes of this study, I have chosen to use the qualitative research method. I have interviewed social workers in individual and family care, and midwives. Study interview results show that pregnant misusers priority for both maternity care and social services. By the AUDIT, conducted by the maternal health care, shows that the woman has a risk and / or abuse woman offered a variety of activities that may be in the form of talks, drug testing and treatment. Cooperation is the key to success in this motivational work, and it's mainly collaboration between social services, maternal health and child health care. Cooperation seems to work fine, but could be improved with more time and more staff.

  • 3.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden; Department of Sociology, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Institutet för gerontologi. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. ARN-J (Aging Research Network - Jönköping). Aging Research Center, Karolinska Institutet/Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Alcohol consumption in very old age and its association with survival: a matter of health and physical function2016Inngår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 159, 240-245 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Alcohol consumption in very old age is increasing; yet, little is known about the personal and health-related characteristics associated with different levels of alcohol consumption and the association between alcohol consumption and survival among the oldest old.

    Methods

    Nationally representative data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD, ages 76-101; n = 863) collected in 2010/2011 were used. Mortality was analyzed until 2014. Alcohol consumption was measured with questions about frequency and amount. Drinks per month were calculated and categorized as abstainer, light-to-moderate drinker (0.5–30 drinks/month) and heavy drinker (>30 drinks/month). Multinomial logistic regressions and Laplace regressions were performed.

    Results

    Compared to light-to-moderate drinkers, abstainers had lower levels of education and more functional health problems, while heavy drinkers were more often men, had higher levels of education, and no serious health or functional problems. In models adjusted only for age and sex, abstainers died earlier than drinkers. Among light-to-moderate drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with longer survival, while among heavy drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with shorter survival. However, after adjusting for personal and health-related factors, estimates were lower and no longer statistically significant.

    Conclusions

    The association between alcohol consumption and survival in very old age seems to have an inverse J-shape; abstention and heavy use is associated with shorter survival compared to light-to-moderate drinking. To a large extent, differences in survival are due to differences in baseline health and physical function.

    Graphical abstract

  • 4.
    Agahi, Neda
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Kelfve, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Lennartsson, Carin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI).
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Jönköping University, Sweden.
    Alcohol consumption in very old age and its association with survival: A matter of health and physical function2016Inngår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 159, 240-245 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol consumption in very old age is increasing; yet, little is known about the personal and health-related characteristics associated with different levels of alcohol consumption and the association between alcohol consumption and survival among the oldest old. Methods: Nationally representative data from the Swedish Panel Study of Living Conditions of the Oldest Old (SWEOLD, ages 76-101; n=863) collected in 2010/2011 were used. Mortality was analyzed unti12014. Alcohol consumption was measured with questions about frequency and amount. Drinks per month were calculated and categorized as abstainer, light-to-moderate drinker (0.5-30 drinks/month) and heavy drinker (>30 drinks/month). Multinomial logistic regressions and Laplace regressions were performed. Results: Compared to light-to-moderate drinkers, abstainers had lower levels of education and more functional health problems, while heavy drinkers were more often men, had higher levels of education, and no serious health or functional problems. In models adjusted only for age and sex, abstainers died earlier than drinkers. Among light-to-moderate drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with longer survival, while among heavy drinkers, each additional drink/month was associated with shorter survival. However, after adjusting for personal and health-related factors, estimates were lower and no longer statistically significant. Conclusions: The association between alcohol consumption and survival in very old age seems to have an inverse J-shape; abstention and heavy use is associated with shorter survival compared to light-to moderate drinking. To a large extent, differences in survival are due to differences in baseline health and physical function.

  • 5. Ahacic, Kozma
    et al.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om äldre och åldrande (ARC), (tills m KI). Karolinska Institute .
    Helgason, Asgeir R.
    Allebeck, Peter
    Non-response bias and hazardous alcohol use in relation to previous alcohol-related hospitalization: comparing survey responses with population data2013Inngår i: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 8, 10- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: This study examines whether alcohol-related hospitalization predicts survey non-response, and evaluates whether this missing data result in biased estimates of the prevalence of hazardous alcohol use and abstinence. Methods: Registry data on alcohol-related hospitalizations during the preceding ten years were linked to two representative surveys. Population data corresponding to the surveys were derived from the Stockholm County registry. The alcohol-related hospitalization rates for survey responders were compared with the population data, and corresponding rates for non-responders were based on the differences between the two estimates. The proportions with hazardous alcohol use and abstinence were calculated separately for previously hospitalized and non-hospitalized responders, and non-responders were assumed to be similar to responders in this respect. Results: Persons with previous alcohol-related admissions were more likely currently to abstain from alcohol (RR=1.58, p<.001) or to have hazardous alcohol use (RR=2.06, p<.001). Alternatively, they were more than twice as likely to have become non-responders. Adjusting for this skewed non-response, i. e., the underrepresentation of hazardous users and abstainers among the hospitalized, made little difference to the estimated rates of hazardous use and abstinence in total. During the ten-year period 1.7% of the population were hospitalized. Conclusions: Few people receive alcohol-related hospital care and it remains unclear whether this group's underrepresentation in surveys is generalizable to other groups, such as hazardous users. While people with severe alcohol problems - i.e. a history of alcohol-related hospitalizations -are less likely to respond to population surveys, this particular bias is not likely to alter prevalence estimates of hazardous use.

  • 6.
    Ahlberg, Rickard
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Skårberg, Kurt
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper. Addiction Center.
    Brus, Ole
    Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine and Health, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Kjellin, Lars
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Auricular acupuncture for substance use: a randomized controlled trial of effects on anxiety, sleep, drug use and use of addiction treatment services2016Inngår i: Substance Abuse Treatment, Prevention, and Policy, ISSN 1747-597X, E-ISSN 1747-597X, Vol. 11, nr 1, 24Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A common alternative treatment for substance abuse is auricular acupuncture. The aim of the study was to evaluate the short and long-term effect of auricular acupuncture on anxiety, sleep, drug use and addiction treatment utilization in adults with substance abuse.

    Method: Of the patients included, 280 adults with substance abuse and psychiatric comorbidity, 80 were randomly assigned to auricular acupuncture according to the NADA protocol, 80 to auricular acupuncture according to a local protocol (LP), and 120 to relaxation (controls). The primary outcomes anxiety (Beck Anxiety Inventory; BAI) and insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index; ISI) were measured at baseline and at follow-ups 5 weeks and 3 months after the baseline assessment. Secondary outcomes were drug use and addiction service utilization. Complete datasets regarding BAI/ISI were obtained from 37/34 subjects in the NADA group, 28/28 in the LP group and 36/35 controls. Data were analyzed using Chi-square, Analysis of Variance, Kruskal Wallis, Repeated Measures Analysis of Variance, Eta square (η(2)), and Wilcoxon Signed Ranks tests.

    Results: Participants in NADA, LP and control group improved significantly on the ISI and BAI. There was no significant difference in change over time between the three groups in any of the primary (effect size: BAI, η(2) = 0.03, ISI, η(2) = 0.05) or secondary outcomes. Neither of the two acupuncture treatments resulted in differences in sleep, anxiety or drug use from the control group at 5 weeks or 3 months.

    Conclusion: No evidence was found that acupuncture as delivered in this study is more effective than relaxation for problems with anxiety, sleep or substance use or in reducing the need for further addiction treatment in patients with substance use problems and comorbid psychiatric disorders. The substantial attrition at follow-up is a main limitation of the study.

    Trial registration: Clinical Trials NCT02604706 (retrospectively registered).

  • 7.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för samhällsmedicin och rehabilitering, Rättsmedicin.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgisk och perioperativ vetenskap, Kirurgi.
    Drowning deaths in Sweden with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and drugs: a retrospective study, 1992-20092013Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, 216- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Drowning deaths constitute a significant proportion of unnatural deaths globally. In Sweden and other high-income countries, drowning deaths have decreased. This study investigates the epidemiology and current trends of unintentional, intentional, and undetermined drowning deaths with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and other drugs.

    Methods: During an 18-years period, 5,125 drowning deaths were autopsied in Sweden. Data on cases including toxicological analysis on alcohol, pharmaceutical drugs, and illicit drugs were obtained from the National Board of Forensic Medicine.

    Results: During the study period, the annual incidence of drowning deaths in Sweden was 3.1/100,000 inhabitants and decreased on average by about 2% each year (p<0.001). The highest incidence was found among males and in middle/older age groups. The incidence increased 3% for each year of age. Children/adolescents (<= 18 years) constituted 5% of all drowning deaths. Of all drowned females in the study, 55% (847/1,547) committed suicide, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with males (21%, 763/3,578) (p<0.001). In total, 38% (1,656/4,377) of tested drowned persons had alcohol in their blood and the mean concentration was 1.8 g/l. In the unintentional drowning group, intentional drowning group, and the undetermined group, the proportion of alcohol positive was 44%, 24%, and 45%, respectively. One or several psychoactive drugs were present in the blood in 40% (1,688/4,181) of all tested persons and in 69% (965/1,394) of tested persons who died from suicidal drowning. The most common drug was benzodiazepines (21%, 891/4,181). Illicit drugs were detected in 10% (82/854) of tested persons.

    Conclusion: Presence of alcohol and drugs were frequent and may have contributed to the drowning deaths. The incidence of drowning deaths significantly decreased during the study period. Males and the middle/older age groups had a higher incidence compared to females and children. Suicidal drowning was common especially among women. Alcohol and drugs are significant contributors in drowning deaths in Sweden and should be considered as part of a comprehensive prevention program.

  • 8.
    Ahmadi, Nader
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för hälsa och arbetsliv, Avdelningen för socialt arbete och psykologi.
    Foreword2013Inngår i: Substance Use & Misuse, ISSN 1082-6084, E-ISSN 1532-2491, Vol. 48, nr 13, 1283-1284 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 9.
    Alho, Hannu
    et al.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Helsinki, Finland..
    Jansen, Jakob
    Arhus Municipal, Ctr Addict Treatment, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Krajci, Peter
    Oslo Univ Hosp, Div Mental Hlth & Addict, Dept Subst Use Disorder Treatment, Oslo, Norway..
    Littlewood, Richard
    Appliedstrategic, London, England..
    Runarsdottir, Valgendur
    Vogur Hosp, SAA Ctr Addict Treatment, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Nyberg, Fred
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för farmaceutisk biovetenskap.
    Misuse and diversion of agonist opioid treatment medicines: assessment of the scale of the problem and review of the changing environment for care in the Nordic countries2015Inngår i: Heroin Addiction and Related Clinical Problems, ISSN 1592-1638, Vol. 17, nr 5, 43-49 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Opioid addiction is effectively treated via a multidisciplinary approach including agonist opioid treatment (AOT) and psychosocial intervention. Misuse and diversion of AOT medicines such as methadone and mono-buprenorphine comprise a significant problem occurring in the Nordic countries with some of the highest frequencies in Europe. Misuse and diversion are associated with poor treatment compliance and increases in risk of blood-borne infections, crime, and mortality. Regulations and guidelines for provision of AOT medication vary among the Nordic countries. Aim: The extent and impact of misuse and diversion in the Nordic countries has not been documented in the literature. This review of local sources summarizes the extent and impact of misuse and diversion of AOT medication to provide a basis for improving outcomes in opioid addiction care. Methods: PubMed was searched using the terms "methadone" or "buprenorphine" and "misuse" or "diversion". Titles and abstracts of search results were inspected for location and relevance. Government sources and mainstream media were also searched for relevant reports. Results: Misuse and diversion of AOT medicines is a significant issue in the Nordic countries; these opioids are available outside of treatment and are misused, including by young addicts. To address this problem, changes in medicines used in treatment in Finland and Iceland have already been implemented and considerations are under way in Norway and Sweden. Conclusions: All persons involved in AOT should take action to better understand AOT medication misuse and diversion as this can lead to a step change improvement in outcomes.

  • 10.
    Alm, Susanne
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kriminologiska institutionen.
    What happened to the Swedish problem drug users of the 1960's and 1970's?2015Inngår i: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 32, nr 2, 109-132 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS & DESIGN - In this study we follow a Stockholm birth cohort born in 1953 (n = 14 294) from youth to middle age. The cohort members were in their teenage years when drug abuse was established as a considerable threat to Swedish society and some of the cohort members themselves became drug abusers (n=431). RESULTS - As expected, life became dramatically worse for those with documented drug abuse when young, than for the rest of the cohort members. While 72 percent of those without documented drug abuse were socially included at the age of 56, the corresponding share among those with documented drug abuse was 18 per cent. And while 5 percent in the former group were diseased at 56, this was true for 38 percent in the latter group. Supplementary analyses showed that social inclusion was also less stable among those with documented drug abuse than among the rest of the cohort, and that the flow from exclusion to inclusion was virtually nonexistent, which was not the case for those without experience of drug abuse. CONCLUSIONS - Gender specific analyses showed that the situation, at least in absolute terms, tended to be even worse for male drug abusers than for women. Gender differences in alcohol abuse, criminality, and with respect to parenthood are suggested as possible explanations to be further studied in future research.

  • 11. Almazidou, Maria
    et al.
    Anderberg, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Borg, Mattias
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Kainulainen, Kari
    Nilsson, Ingegerd
    Saras, Terese
    Williamsson, Oskar
    Maria-mottagningarna i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö - Ungdomar i öppenvård år 20132014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Trestad2 är en nationell satsning där de tre städerna Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö samarbetar för att minska användandet av cannabis bland ungdomar. Inom ramen för projektet har det skapats en modell för att identifiera och följa trender i de tre storstäderna vad gäller droganvändning och psykosocial situation för ungdomar som påbörjar behandling för missbruksproblem. Framtagandet av relevanta indikatorer har skett i nära samarbete mellan praktiker och forskare utifrån en sammanvägning av forskningsmässiga, metodologiska och kliniskt betydelsefulla utgångspunkter. Underlaget utgörs av uppgifter om 788 ungdomar som inledde öppenvårdsbehandling vid någon av städernas Maria-mottagningar under år 2013 och har inhämtats med intervjumetoden UngDOK.

    Sammanställningen av indikatorer visar att flickor utgör cirka en fjärdedel av det totala antalet ungdomar som påbörjar öppenvård för problem med alkohol eller narkotika. Ungdomarnas medianålder när vårdkontakten inleds är 17 år och mer än hälften av ungdomarna har kommit i kontakt med Maria-mottagningarna via eget eller nätverkets initiativ. Nästan två tredjedelar av ungdomarna uppger att de har eller har haft omfattande problem under sin skolgång och cirka en tiondel av ungdomarna varken studerar, arbetar eller praktiserar. Drygt tre fjärdedelar av ungdomarna anger cannabis som sin primära drog, men nästan hälften av dem har även en riskfylld alkoholkonsumtion. Den genomsnittliga debutåldern för den primära drogen är 15 år. Ungefär en fjärdedel av ungdomarna har tidigare fått vård och behandling för alkohol- eller narkotikaproblem. Förekomsten av besvärliga uppväxtvillkor är hög hos ungdomarna och över hälften av dem har erfarenheter av att ha växt upp med våld, psykiska problem och/eller missbruk i familjen. Drygt en tredjedel av samtliga ungdomar har eller har haft kontakt med den psykiatriska vården.

    Vissa skillnader mellan de tre städernas Maria-mottagningar kan identifieras. Ungdomarna som påbörjar kontakt med mottagningen i Stockholm verkar ha problem av något lindrigare art jämfört med Göteborg och Malmö och utgör mindre andelar både när det gäller komplicerande bakgrundsfaktorer och nuvarande problembeteenden. Det finns även mindre skillnader i åldersstrukturen i de tre städerna, där Stockholm har fler ungdomar under 18 år medan både Göteborg och Malmö har fler som är över 18 år. Det finns även vissa könsskillnader genom att flickorna i samtliga tre städer tycks ha en tyngre problematik i jämförelse med pojkarna. Flickorna saknar i högre grad sysselsättning, anger oftare problem i skolan, har haft svårare uppväxtvillkor och har i större utsträckning haft kontakt med psykiatrin i jämförelse med pojkarna.

    Att sammanställa och rapportera deskriptiva indikatorer om individer som påbörjar behandling för alkohol- och narkotikaproblem kan ha flera fördelar. En sådan är att informationen kan ligga till grund för en ökad förståelse av ungdomars alkohol- och narkotikaanvändning och dess omfattning. Även om rapportens uppgifter inte är heltäckande, beskriver den en större population av svenska ungdomar med en problematisk användning av alkohol och droger. Föreliggande rapport är således en första ansats till att ge en sammanfattande bild av de ungdomar som påbörjar behandling vid Maria-mottagningarnas öppenvård i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö.

  • 12.
    Almquist, Ylva B.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Östberg, Viveca
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för forskning om ojämlikhet i hälsa (CHESS).
    Social relationships and subsequent health-related behaviours: linkages between adolescent peer status and levels of adult smoking in a Stockholm cohort2012Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 108, nr 3, 629-637 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: Peer status reflects the extent to which an individual is accepted by the group. Some studies have reported that low peer status in adolescence is associated with a higher risk of smoking, while others found the reverse. No studies have investigated peer status influences on adult smoking. The aim of the study was therefore to examine the relationship between adolescents' peer status and the intensity of smoking in adulthood.

    Design: Prospective cohort study.

    Setting: Stockholm, Sweden.

    Participants: A subsample (n = 2329) of the cohort with information about adult smoking.

    Measurements: Peer status was assessed sociometrically at age 13 and information on smoking was gathered through a questionnaire at age 32. Relative risks (RR) for self-reported level of smoking were calculated using multinomial logistic regression. Several family-related and individual variables were included as control variables.

    Findings: Lower peer status in adolescence was associated with smoking of any intensity in adulthood. For example, the risk of heavy smoking was more than threefold (RR = 3.67) among individuals in the lowest status positions. The association with occasional smoking was abolished by controlling for factors related to adolescents' attitude to school and cognitive ability. For regular and heavy smoking the relationship was attenuated by controlling for these factors.

    Conclusions: Low peer status in adolescence appears to be a risk factor for smoking in adulthood. Part of this association may be explained by adolescents' feelings towards school and cognitive ability. However, being unpopular in adolescence remains a strong risk factor for regular and heavy smoking in adulthood.

  • 13. Amundsen, Ellen J.
    et al.
    Bretteville-Jensen, Anne L.
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT, Institut für Therapiforschung, Germany.
    Estimating incidence of problem drug use using the Horwitz-Thompson estimator - A new approach applied to people who inject drugs in Oslo 1985-20082016Inngår i: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 27, 36-42 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The trend in the number of new problem drug users per year (incidence) is the most important measure for studying the diffusion of problem drug use. Due to sparse data sources and complicated statistical models, estimation of incidence of problem drug use is challenging. The aim of this study is to widen the palette of available methods and data types for estimating incidence of problem drug use over time, and for identifying the trends. Methods: This study presents a new method of incidence estimation, applied to people who inject drugs (PWID) in Oslo. The method took into account the transition between different phases of drug use progression - active use, temporary cessation, and permanent cessation. The Horwitz-Thompson estimator was applied. Data included 16 cross-sectional samples of problem drug users who reported their onset of injecting drug use. We explored variation in results for selected probable scenarios of parameter variation for disease progression, as well as the stability of the results based on fewer years of cross-sectional samples. Results: The method yielded incidence estimates of problem drug use, over time. When applied to people in Oslo who inject drugs, we found a significant reduction of incidence of 63% from 1985 to 2008. This downward trend was also present when the estimates were based on fewer surveys (five) and in the results of sensitivity analysis for likely scenarios of disease progression. Conclusion: This new method, which incorporates temporarily inactive problem drug users, may become a useful tool for estimating the incidence of problem drug use over time. The method may be less data intensive than other methods based on first entry to treatment and may be generalized to other groups of substance users. Further studies on drug use progression would improve the validity of the results.

  • 14.
    Anderberg, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Att upptäcka spelproblem: ett pilotprojekt vid ett socialkontor2015Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, nr 4, 505-517 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna artikel belyser hinder och möjligheter vid implementering av en screeningmetod för att identifiera spelproblem bland personer som uppbär försörjningsstöd inom socialtjänsten i Göteborg. Det empiriska underlaget samlades in via dels en undersökning av spelproblem med de två screen-inginstrumenten NODS och NODS-PERC, dels fem intervjuer med handläg-gare. Studien visar att det är möjligt att identifiera personer med spelproblem inom socialtjänsten med båda screeningintervjuerna, men åskådliggör även de svårigheter som förelåg vid implementeringen av detta nya arbetssätt inom socialtjänsten.

  • 15.
    Anderberg, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Riskfylld alkoholanvändning hos ungdomar med cannabisproblem2015Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 92, nr 4, 484-494 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Ungdomar som använder cannabis dricker också ofta alkohol. Denna arti-kel belyser hur en riskfylld alkoholkonsumtion hos ungdomar, som inleder behandling på storstädernas Maria-mottagningar för missbruk av cannabis, relateras till droganvändningsmönster samt till olika bakgrunds- och riskfak-torer. Studien baseras på strukturerade intervjuer med 887 ungdomar och analysen urskiljer nio olika riskfaktorer som är starkt relaterade till deras kom-binerade användning av cannabis och alkohol. En slutsats är att det är viktigt att uppmärksamma ungdomars riskfyllda alkoholkonsumtion och vid behov även erbjuda specifika interventioner med inriktning på alkoholproblem.

  • 16.
    Anderberg, Mats
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Dahlberg, Mikael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för samhällsvetenskap (FSV), Institutionen för pedagogik (PED).
    Ungdomar med missbruksproblem: en deskriptiv studie av Maria-mottagningarna i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö2014Inngår i: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, nr 4, 348-359 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [sv]

    Det saknas i stor utsträckning kunskap om de ungdomar som kommer i kontakt med öppenvård i Sverige för alkohol- och narkotikaproblem. Syftet med denna artikel är att med stöd av ett empiriskt material från intervjumetoden UngDOK beskriva de ungdomar som får vård vid Maria-mottagningarna i Stockholm, Göteborg och Malmö. Den deskriptiva tvärsnittsstudien baseras på material om 755 ungdomar som påbörjat någon form av vårdkontakt. Studien belyser vikten av att de screenings- och bedömningsinstrument som vänder sig till ungdomar som påbörjar vård och behandling för missbruksproblem behöver inrymma ett flertal risk- och skyddsfaktorer, för att personal tidigt ska upptäcka och uppmärksamma dessa faktorer i behandlingsarbetet.

  • 17.
    Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Newcastle University, England; Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa, Avdelningen för samhällsmedicin. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i västra Östergötland, Medicinska specialistkliniken.
    Spak, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Reynolds, Jillian
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Drummond, Colin
    Kings Coll London, England; South London and Maudsley NHS Fdn Trust, England.
    Segura, Lidia
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Keurhorst, Myrna N.
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Palacio-Vieira, Jorge
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Wojnar, Marcin
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland.
    Parkinson, Kathryn
    Newcastle University, England.
    Colom, Joan
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Kloda, Karolina
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Deluca, Paolo
    Kings Coll London, England.
    Baena, Begona
    Govt Catalonia, Spain.
    Newbury-Birch, Dorothy
    Newcastle University, England.
    Wallace, Paul
    UCL, England.
    Heinen, Maud
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands.
    Wolstenholme, Amy
    Kings Coll London, England.
    van Steenkiste, Ben
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Mierzecki, Artur
    Pomeranian Medical University, Poland.
    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna
    State Agency Prevent Alcohol Related Problems, Poland.
    Ronda, Gaby
    Maastricht University, Netherlands.
    Kaner, Eileen
    Newcastle University, England.
    Laurant, Miranda G. H.
    Radboud University of Nijmegen, Netherlands; HAN University of Appl Science, Netherlands.
    Coulton, Simon
    University of Kent, England.
    Gual, Toni
    Hospital Clin Barcelona, Spain.
    Improving the delivery of brief interventions for heavy drinking in primary health care: outcome results of the Optimizing Delivery of Health Care Intervention (ODHIN) five-country cluster randomized factorial trial2016Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 111, nr 11, 1935-1945 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    AimTo test if training and support, financial reimbursement and option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice (eBI) can increase primary health-care providers delivery of Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT)-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers. DesignCluster randomized factorial trial with 12-week implementation and measurement period. SettingPrimary health-care units (PHCU) in different locations throughout Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. ParticipantsA total of 120 PHCU, 24 in each of Catalonia, England, the Netherlands, Poland and Sweden. InterventionsPHCUs were randomized to one of eight groups: care as usual, training and support (TS), financial reimbursement (FR) and eBI; paired combinations of TS, FR and eBI, and all of FR, TS and eBI. MeasurementsThe primary outcome measure was the proportion of eligible adult (age 18+ years) patients screened during a 12-week implementation period. Secondary outcome measures were proportion of screen-positive patients advised; and proportion of consulting adult patients given an intervention (screening and advice to screen-positives) during the same 12-week implementation period. FindingsDuring a 4-week baseline measurement period, the proportion of consulting adult patients who were screened for their alcohol consumption was 0.059 per PHCU (95% CI 0.034 to 0.084). Based on the factorial design, the ratio of the logged proportion screened during the 12-week implementation period was 1.48 (95% CI=1.13-1.95) in PHCU that received TS versus PHCU that did not receive TS; for FR, the ratio was 2.00 (95% CI=1.56-2.56). The option of referral to eBI did not lead to a higher proportion of patients screened. The ratio for TS plus FR was 2.34 (95% CI=1.77-3.10), and the ratio for TS plus FR plus eBI was1.68 (95% CI=1.11-2.53). ConclusionsProviding primary health-care units with training, support and financial reimbursement for delivering Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-C-based screening and advice to heavy drinkers increases screening for alcohol consumption. Providing primary health-care units with the option of referring screen-positive patients to an internet-based method of giving advice does not appear to increase screening for alcohol consumption.

  • 18. Anderson, Peter
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Addictions and European policy: Has the 'European project' stifled science-led policy?2011Inngår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 30, nr 2, 117-118 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Department of Clinical Sciences, Section of Rheumatology, Lund University, Lund, Sweden & Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Larsson, Ingrid
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Akademin för hälsa och välfärd, Centrum för forskning om välfärd, hälsa och idrott (CVHI). Spenshult Research and Development Center, Oskarström, Sweden.
    Reasons to stop drinking alcohol among patients with rheumatoid arthritis – a mixed method study2016Inngår i: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases, ISSN 0003-4967, E-ISSN 1468-2060, Vol. 75, nr Suppl 2, 1295Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Studies of alcohol use in patients with rheumatoid arthritis are sparse and studies of why patients choose to stop drinking alcohol in particular.

    Objectives: The aim of the current study was twofold: first to identify patients with RA who stopped drinking alcohol and compare those to patients drinking alcohol, and second, to explore reasons to stop drinking alcohol.

    Methods: In 2010 a self-completion postal questionnaire was sent to all 2,102 prevalent patients in the Better anti-rheumatic farmacotherapy (BARFOT) study enquiring about disease severity, physical function (HAQ) and health related quality of life (EQ5D), pain, fatigue, patient global assessment (PatGA) and lifestyle factors e.g. alcohol. The questions assessing alcohol included the question “Have you stopped drinking alcohol?” and an open question “Why have you stopped drinking alcohol?” A mixed method design was used and 1512 patients had answered the alcohol questions and was included in the study of those 86 had stopped drinking alcohol. Seventy-one patients answered the open question and their answers were analyzed with qualitative content analysis (1).

    Results: Comparing patient with RA using alcohol or not, the patients who stopped drinking alcohol was older median age (min-max) 69 (36–90) vs. 66 (23–95), p=0.011, more men 42% vs. 29%, p=0.015, had worse physical function, median HAQ (min-max) 0.50 (0–3.00) vs. 1.00 (0–2.75), p<0.001, worse health related quality of life, median EQ5D (min-max), 0.69 (-0.59–1.00) vs. 0.76 (-0.02–1.00), p<0.001, worse self-perceived health, median PatGA (min-max) 5 (0–10) vs. 3 (0–10), <0.001, more pain, median (min-max) 5 (0–10) vs. 3 (0–10), p<0.001, and more fatigue median (min-max) 6 (0–10) vs 4 (0–10), p<0.001. There were no differences between the groups regarding disease duration, swollen and tender joints. The qualitative content analysis resulted in five categories describing the reasons for patient with RA to stop drinking alcohol: disease and treatment, health and wellbeing, work and family, faith and belief and dependences and abuse.

    Conclusions: Patients with RA who stopped drinking alcohol have a lower physical function, health related quality of life, self-perceived health and more pain and fatigue comparing to patients with RA drinking alcohol. The reasons to stop drinking alcohol were of different nature such as medical, physical, mental, social and spiritual

  • 20.
    Aziz, Abdul Maruf Asif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Neuropeptide Receptors as Treatment Targets in Alcohol Use Disorders2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol use disorder (AUD) is a complex disorder with multiple pathophysiological processes contributing to the initiation, progression and development of the disease state. AUD is a chronic relapsing disease with escalation of alcohol-intake over time in repeated cycles of tolerance, abstinence and relapse and hence, it is very difficult to treat. There are only a few currently available treatments with narrow efficacy and variable patient response. Thus it is important to find new, more effective medications to increase the number of patients who can benefit from pharmacological treatment of AUD.

    The research presented in this thesis work focuses on the critical involvement of central neuropeptides in alcohol-related behaviors. The overall aim was to evaluate the nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor, the neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y2 receptor and the melanin-concentrating hormone (MCH) receptor 1 as novel and potential pharmacological treatment targets for AUD by testing the NOP receptor agonist SR-8993, the NPY-Y2 receptor antagonist CYM-9840 and the MCH1 receptor antagonist GW803430 in established animal models.

    In the first study (Paper I), the novel and selective NOP agonist SR-8993 was assessed in rat models of motivation to obtain alcohol and relapse to alcohol seeking behavior using the operant self-administration (SA) paradigm. Firstly, treatment with SR-8993 (1 mg/kg) showed a mildly anxiolytic effect and reversed acute alcohol withdrawal-induced “hangover” anxiety in the elevated plus-maze (EPM). Next, it potently attenuated alcohol SA and motivation to obtain alcohol in the progressive ratio responding (PRR) and reduced both alcohol cue-induced and yohimbine stress-induced reinstatement of alcohol seeking, without affecting the pharmacology and metabolism of alcohol nor other control behaviors. To extend these findings, SR-8993 was evaluated in escalated alcohol-intake in rats.  Treatment with SR-8993 significantly suppressed alcohol-intake and preference in rats that were trained to consume high amounts of alcohol in the two-bottle free choice intermittent access (IA) paradigm. SR-8993 also blocked operant SA of alcohol in rats that showed robust escalation in operant alcohol SA following chronic IA exposure to alcohol.

    In the second study (Paper II), SR-8993 was further evaluated in a model for escalated alcohol-intake induced by long-term IA exposure to alcohol. The effect of previous experience on operant alcohol SA on two-bottle free choice preference drinking was evaluated and sensitivity to treatment with SR-8993 was tested in rats selected for escalated and non-escalated alcohol seeking behavior. We found that rats exposed to the combined SA-IA paradigm showed greater sensitivity to SR-8993 treatment. In addition, acute escalation of alcohol SA after a three-week period of abstinence was completely abolished by pretreatment with SR-8993.

    In the third study (Paper III), the effects of the novel, small molecule NPY-Y2 antagonist CYM-9840 were tested in operant alcohol SA, PRR which is a model for motivation to work for alcohol and reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior. Treatment with CYM-9840 (10 mg/kg) potently attenuated alcohol SA, progressive ratio responding and stress-induced reinstatement using yohimbine as the stressor, while alcohol cue-induced reinstatement was unaffected. Moreover, a range of control behaviors including taste sensitivity, locomotor and pharmacological sensitivity to the sedative effects of alcohol remained unaffected by CYM-9840 pretreatment, indicating that its effects are specific to the rewarding and motivational aspects of alcohol-intake and related behaviors. CYM-9840 also reversed acute alcohol withdrawal-induced “hangover” anxiety measured in the EPM and reduced alcohol-intake in the 4 hour limited access two-bottle free choice preference drinking model.

    Finally, in the fourth study (Paper IV), the selective MCH1-R antagonist GW803430 was tested in rat models of escalated alcohol-intake. Pretreatment with GW803430 (effective at 10 & 30 mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced alcohol and food-intake in rats that consumed high amounts of alcohol during IA, while it only decreased food-intake in rats that consumed low amounts of alcohol during IA, likely due to a floor effect. Upon protracted abstinence following IA, GW803430 significantly reduced operant alcohol SA and this was associated with adaptations in MCH and MCH1-R gene-expression. In contrast, GW803430 did not affect escalated alcohol SA induced by chronic alcohol vapor exposure and this was accompanied by no change in MCH or MCH1-R gene expression. Overall, these results suggest that the MCH1-R antagonist affects alcohol-intake through regulation of both motivation for caloric-intake and the rewarding properties of alcohol.

    In conclusion, our results suggest critical roles for these central neuropeptides in the regulation of anxiety and of alcohol reward, making them potential pharmacological targets in the treatment of AUD.

  • 21.
    Aziz, Abdul Maruf Asif
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Brothers, Shaun
    University of Miami Health System, University of Miami, Miami, USA.
    Sartor, Gregory
    University of Miami Health System, University of Miami, Miami, USA.
    Holm, Lovisa
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    Heilig, Markus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Centrum för social och affektiv neurovetenskap (CSAN). Region Östergötland, Närsjukvården i centrala Östergötland, Psykiatriska kliniken.
    Wahlestedt, Claes
    University of Miami Health System, University of Miami, Miami, USA.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för cellbiologi. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ receptor agonist SR-8993 as a candidate therapeutic for alcohol use disorders: validation in rat models2016Inngår i: Psychopharmacology, ISSN 0033-3158, E-ISSN 1432-2072, Vol. 233, nr 19-20, 3553-3563 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    RATIONALE: Alcoholism is a complex disorder in which diverse pathophysiological processes contribute to initiation and progression, resulting in a high degree of heterogeneity among patients. Few pharmacotherapies are presently available, and patient responses to these are variable. The nociceptin/orphanin FQ (NOP) receptor has been suggested to play a role both in alcohol reward and in negatively reinforced alcohol seeking. Previous studies have shown that NOP-receptor activation reduces alcohol intake in genetically selected alcohol-preferring as well as alcohol-dependent rats. NOP activation also blocks stress- and cue-induced reinstatement of alcohol-seeking behavior.

    OBJECTIVES: Here, we aimed to examine a novel, potent, and brain-penetrant small-molecule NOP-receptor agonist, SR-8993, in animal models of alcohol- as well as anxiety-related behavior using male Wistar rats.

    RESULTS: SR-8993 was mildly anxiolytic when given to naïve animals and potently reversed acute alcohol withdrawal-induced ("hangover") anxiety. SR-8993 reduced both home-cage limited access drinking, operant responding for alcohol, and escalation induced through prolonged intermittent access to alcohol. SR-8993 further attenuated stress- as well as cue-induced relapse to alcohol seeking. For the effective dose (1.0 mg/kg), non-specific effects such as sedation may be limited, since a range of control behaviors were unaffected, and this dose did not interact with alcohol elimination.

    CONCLUSION: These findings provide further support for NOP-receptor agonism as a promising candidate treatment for alcoholism and establish SR-8993 or related molecules as suitable for further development as therapeutics.

  • 22.
    Barclay, Kieron
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen. London School of Economics and Political Science, UK; Max Planck Institute for Demographic Research, Germany.
    Myrskylä, Mikko
    Tynelius, Per
    Berglind, Daniel
    Rasmussen, Finn
    Birth order and hospitalization for alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden2016Inngår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 167, 15-22 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies have shown that birth order is an important predictor of later life health as well as socioeconomic attainment. In this study, we examine the relationship between birth order and hospitalization for alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. Methods: We study the relationship between birth order and hospitalization related to alcohol and narcotics use before and after the age of 20 using Swedish register data for cohorts born 1987-1994. We apply Cox proportional hazard models and use sibling fixed effects, eliminating confounding by factors shared by the siblings. Results: Before age 20 we find that later born siblings are hospitalized for alcohol use at a higher rate than first-borns, and there is a monotonic increase in the hazard of hospitalization with increasing birth order. Second-borns are hospitalized at a rate 47% higher than first-borns, and third-borns at a rate 65% higher. Similar patterns are observed for hospitalization for narcotics use. After age 20 the pattern is similar, but the association is weaker. These patterns are consistent across various sibling group sizes. Conclusions: Later born siblings are more likely to be hospitalized for both alcohol and narcotics use in Sweden. These birth order effects are substantial in size, and larger than the estimated sex differences for the risk of hospitalization related to alcohol and drug use before age 20, and previous estimates for socioeconomic status differences in alcohol and drug abuse.

  • 23.
    Beckhusen, Benedict
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Internationella Handelshögskolan, IHH, Informatik.
    Mobile Apps and the ultimate addiction to the Smartphone: A comprehensive study on the consequences of society’s mobile needs2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The smartphone is omnipresent and is cherished and held close by people. It allows for constant connection within a digitally connected society, as well as for many other purposes such as leisure activity or informational purpose. Within the Information Systems studies deeper investigation is required as to what impact this “taken – for – granted” mobile access to information and mobile apps has for individuals and society and if a “technological addiction”can be developed when using the smartphone for everything during the day on such a constant basis.

    The aim of this study was to understand the role of the smartphone in society and to shed light on this unclear relationship between the constant use of a smartphone and its development towards an addictive quality. To reach a conclusion, in depth – interviews were conducted with participants about their relationship to the smartphone and their smartphone use based on questions derived from literature on mobile communication technologies and the types of digital addictions existing.

    The results are that the smartphone is a device that seamlessly integrates into our daily lives in that we unconsciously use it as a tool to make our daily tasks more manageable, and enjoyable. It also supports us in getting better organized, to be in constant touch with family and friends remotely, and to be more mobile which is a useful ability in today’s mobility driven society.

    Smartphones have been found to inhabit a relatively low potential to addiction. Traits of voluntary behaviour, habitual behaviour, and mandatory behaviour of smartphone use have been found. All of these behaviours are not considered a true addiction. In the end, it seems that the increase of smartphone use is mainly due to the way we communicate nowadays digitally,and the shift in how we relate to our social peers using digital means.

  • 24. Been, Frederic
    et al.
    Bifisma, Lubertus
    Benaglia, Lisa
    Berset, Jean-Daniel
    Botero-Coy, Ana M.
    Castiglioni, Sara
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Zobel, Frank
    Schaub, Michael P.
    Buecheli, Alexander
    Hernandez, Felix
    Delemont, Olivier
    Esseiva, Pierre
    Ort, Christoph
    Assessing geographical differences in illicit drug consumption-A comparison of results from epidemiological and wastewater data in Germany and Switzerland2016Inngår i: Drug And Alcohol Dependence, ISSN 0376-8716, E-ISSN 1879-0046, Vol. 161, 189-199 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Wastewater analysis is an innovative approach that allows monitoring illicit drug use at the community level. This study focused on investigating geographical differences in drug consumption by comparing epidemiological, crime and wastewater data. Methods: Wastewater samples were collected in 19 cities across Germany and Switzerland during one week, covering a population of approximately 8.1 million people. Self-report data and consumption offences for the investigated areas were used for comparison and to investigate differences between the indicators. Results: Good agreement between data sources was observed for cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants, whereas substantial discrepancies were observed for cocaine. In Germany, an important distinction could be made between Berlin, Dortmund and Munich, where cocaine and particularly amphetamine were more prevalent, and Dresden, where methamphetamine consumption was clearly predominant. Cocaine consumption was relatively homogenous in the larger urban areas of Switzerland, although prevalence and offences data suggested a more heterogeneous picture. Conversely, marked regional differences in amphetamine and methamphetamine consumption could be highlighted. Conclusions: Combining the available data allowed for a better understanding of the geographical differences regarding prevalence, typology and amounts of substances consumed. For cannabis and amphetamine-type stimulants, the complementarity of survey, police and wastewater data could be highlighted, although notable differences could be identified when considering more stigmatised drugs (i.e. cocaine and heroin). Understanding illicit drug consumption at the national scale remains a difficult task, yet this research illustrates the added value of combining complementary data sources to obtain a more comprehensive and accurate picture of the situation.

  • 25. Bejerot, Susanne
    et al.
    Bejerot, Nils
    Representativitet i en studie av intravenöst missbruk bland arrestanter i Stockholm1984Inngår i: SCI: de två första verksamhetsåren / [ed] J. Ewers, J. Hartelius, Markaryd: Scipio , 1984, 90-97 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 26.
    Benderix, Ylva
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Fridell, Mats
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Billsten, Johan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Holmberg, Robert
    Utvärdering av "Kunskap till Praktik" ett nationellt stöd till implementering av Nationella Riktlinjer för missbruks och beroendevård. delrapport I  2008 - 20112012Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 27.
    Bendtsen, P.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Johansson, K.
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Åkerlind, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Sweden.
    Feasibility of an email-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) to college students in Sweden2006Inngår i: Addictive Behaviors, ISSN 0306-4603, Vol. 31, nr 5, 777-87 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An email-based electronic screening and brief intervention (e-SBI) with personalized normative feedback on alcohol habits was offered to all 3,875 second term students at Linköping University, Sweden. The students received an email with a link to a computerized alcohol habit test and were offered personalized feedback directly on the computer screen. The students evaluated the test and were asked to state whether they were going to consider changing or actually change their alcohol habits. The response rate was 44%, with 742 female and 843 male students participating. The students displayed a strong gender difference in drinking pattern. A three-fold higher percentage of males than females were risky drinkers with regard to a high average weekly volume consumption. The gender differences were less pronounced regarding heavy episodic drinking that was reported by 51% of the females and 70.5% of the males. The email-based computerized normative feedback was appreciated by the students and one-third of the females and one-fifth of the males believed that they would benefit from the normative feedback; 8% of the females and 3% of the males believed that they would actually change their habits after the feedback. Students with a risky drinking pattern, previous experiences of blackouts, being dissatisfied with their current drinking and students that had considered to change their habits before the e-SBI, yielded a stronger motivation to change their drinking after having performed the intervention compared to students without such characteristics. The e-SBI with normative feedback was simple to administer and has the potential to be used repeatedly and on a large scale with minimum effort in terms of cost and time.

  • 28.
    Berglund, Kristina J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg.
    Balldin, Jan
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Berggren, Ulf
    Department of Psychiatry and Neurochemistry of the Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg .
    Gerdner, Arne
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ. Forskningsplattformen socialt arbete. Högskolan i Jönköping, Hälsohögskolan, HHJ, Avd. för beteendevetenskap och socialt arbete.
    Fahlke, Claudia
    Department of Psychology, University of Gothenburg .
    Childhood Maltreatment Affects the Serotonergic System in Male Alcohol-Dependent Individuals2013Inngår i: Alcoholism: Clinical and Experimental Research, ISSN 0145-6008, E-ISSN 1530-0277, Vol. 37, nr 5, 757-762 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Reduced central serotonergic neurotransmission has been demonstrated in individuals with excessive alcohol consumption and/or alcohol dependence. Childhood maltreatment has also been found to have a negative impact on central serotonergic neurotransmission. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of childhood maltreatment on central serotonergic dysfunction in alcohol-dependent individuals.

    Methods: Adult men with a diagnosis of alcohol dependence (n=18) were recruited from outpatient treatment units for alcoholism. Central serotonergic neurotransmission was assessed by a neuroendocrine method, that is, the prolactin (PRL) response to the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor citalopram. Childhood maltreatment was assessed retrospectively by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire.

    Results: Alcohol-dependent individuals with childhood experience of emotional abuse had significantly lower PRL response compared with those without such abuse (3 +/- 5 and 64 +/- 24mU/l, respectively; t=6.51, p<0.001). Among those who reported childhood emotional abuse, 4 of 7 individuals had flat PRL responses in comparison with none in those with no report of such abuse (p<0.01).

    Conclusions: This is the first study to show that self-reported childhood maltreatment, in particular emotional abuse, in male alcohol-dependent individuals is associated with a quite dramatic (more than 90%) reduction in central serotonergic neurotransmission. It should, however, be noted that the number of individuals is relatively small, and the results should therefore be considered as preliminary.

  • 29.
    Bergmark, Anders
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för socialt arbete - Socialhögskolan.
    The role of psychopathology as motivator for drug dependency—some moderating remarks2013Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 108, nr 4, 673-674 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Bergstrand, Marcus
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Frantz, Petra
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för hälsa, socialt arbete och beteendevetenskap, Institutionen för pedagogik, psykologi och idrottsvetenskap, PPI.
    Stora Starka Män- Behandling och missbruk av anabola androgena steroider2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna kvalitativa studie handlar om några behandlares upplevelser och erfarenheter kring vilka personer som hamnar i missbruk av anabola androgena steroider(AAS). Den belyser även vilken behanding som finns för problematiken. För att erhålla empiri används semistrukturerade intervjuer på fyra personer som arbetar med behandling av AAS. Resultatet visar att man kan kategorisera AAS-användare i tre olika grupper. När klienter kommer till behandling är det viktigt att man ser till helhetsbilden och att man ser varje individ för sig. Metoder som finns är terapi för det sjuka kroppsidealet, hjälp med träningsmissbruket, läkemedelsassisterad behandling samt annan psykosocial terapi. En intressant slutsats är att det finns hjälp att få vid AAS-missbruk, men tyvärr finns det inte resurser att hjälpa alla. Det finns fortfarande mycket kvar att lära inom ämnet och man behöver forska kring fler och bättre behandlingsmetoder som kan passa vid detta missbruk.

  • 31. Berman, Anne H.
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Sinadinovic, Kristina
    Changes in Mental and Physical Well-Being Among Problematic Alcohol and Drug Users in 12-Month Internet-Based Intervention Trials2015Inngår i: Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, ISSN 0893-164X, E-ISSN 1939-1501, Vol. 29, nr 1, 97-105 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Twelve-month well-being outcomes were investigated for 835 participants in 1 of 2 randomized controlled trials offering online assessment and brief intervention for either problematic alcohol (n = 633) or drug use (n = 202). The well-being of participants who had reduced their substance use to a less problematic level (regardless of intervention) over 12 months was compared with that of participants who had maintained or increased their use. At a 12-month follow-up, the 227 alcohol trial participants with reduced use showed better well-being in comparison to the 406 with stable or increased use, in physical health and sleep quality, as well as general well-being, ability to concentrate, lower stress, better social life satisfaction and sense of control, and a lower rate of depressed mood. Among the 70 drug trial participants who had reduced their drug use over 12 months, 80% had ceased all drug use, and at follow-up they had fewer alcohol-related problems than the stable group. No differences in well-being between these groups were identified. Self-reported access to additional treatment modalities beyond the trial interventions (e.g., speaking to someone about problematic use and accessing additional Internet-based interventions) was higher among participants in both cohorts with reduced substance use in comparison to those with stable/increased use. Drug users who reduced their use accessed prescribed medication to a larger extent than those whose use remained stable or increased. Points to consider when conducting future research on well-being and problematic substance use are discussed.

  • 32.
    Billsten, Johan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Holmberg, Robert
    Lund university.
    Benderix, Ylva
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för psykologi (PSY).
    Evidensbaserad praktik inom missbruks- och beroendevården2014Inngår i: Implementering av evidensbaserad praktik / [ed] Per Nilsen, Falkenberg: Gleerups Utbildning AB, 2014, 1, 233-245 s.Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 33. Bjerge, Bagga
    et al.
    Houborg, Esben
    Edman, Johan
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Perälä, Riikka
    Concepts and policies directed at drug use i Denmark, Finland and Sweden2016Inngår i: Concepts of Addictive Behaviours across Time and Place / [ed] Matilda Hellman, Virginia Berridge, Karen Duke, Alex Mold, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2016Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nordic countries are often thought of in terms of social democratic welfare regimes with numerous shared cultural aspects. Based on research from Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, this chapter explores how historical developments, specific ways of constructing policies, and welfare institutions articulate specific conceptions of what drug-related issues are and how they should be managed in three seemingly very similar welfare states. The Nordic welfare states are often described as quite alike and fairly open and inclusive in their approach to welfare policies and concerns, but the chapter demonstrates that similar political systems adopt different policy responses to similar conditions. To explore the similarities and differences, we are inspired by the analytical concepts of policy space and political rationalities; we use this approach to provide an overview of drug policy history in the three countries and present a closer examination of the topics of sanctions against drug users, coercive treatment, and substitution treatment nationally as well as cross-nationally.

  • 34. Bloomfield, Kim
    et al.
    Grittner, Ulrike
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Piontek, Daniela
    Drinking patterns at the sub-national level: What do they tell us about drinking cultures in European countries?2017Inngår i: Nordisk Alkohol- og narkotikatidsskrift (NAT), ISSN 1455-0725, E-ISSN 1458-6126, Vol. 34, nr 4, 342-352 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    A drinking pattern is not only a major drinking variable, but is also one indicator of a country's drinking culture. In the present study, we examine drinking patterns within and across the neighbouring countries of Denmark and Germany. The aim of the research is to determine to what extent drinking patterns differ or are shared at the sub-national level in the two countries.

    Method:

    Data came from the German 2012 Epidemiological Survey of Substance Use (n = 9084) 18-64 years (response rate 54%), and the Centre for Alcohol and Drug Research's 2011 Danish national survey (n = 5133) 15-79 years (response rate 64%), which was reduced to a common age range, producing a final n = 4016. The drinking pattern variable included abstention, moderate drinking, heavy drinking, risky single occasion drinking (RSOD), and was investigated with bivariate statistics and gender-specific hierarchical cluster analysis.

    Results:

    For men three clusters emerged: one highlighting abstention and RSOD, moderate/heavy drinking, RSOD and RSOD + heavy drinking. For women, two clusters appeared: one highlighting abstention and moderate/heavy drinking and the other highlighting RSOD and RSDO + heavy drinking. The clusters revealed different geographical patterning: for men, a west vs. east divide; for women, a north-south gradient.

    Conclusions:

    The analysis could identify for each gender clusters representing both separate and shared drinking patterns as well as distinctive geographical placements. This new knowledge can contribute to a new understanding of the dynamics of drinking cultures and could indicate new approaches to prevention efforts and policy initiatives.

  • 35.
    Bogren, Alexandra
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Alcohol short-circuits important part of the brain': Swedish newspaper representations of biomedical alcohol research2017Inngår i: Addiction Research and Theory, ISSN 1606-6359, E-ISSN 1476-7392, Vol. 25, nr 3, 177-187 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The media has a central role in communicating and constructing health knowledge, including communicating research findings related to alcohol consumption. However, research on news reporting about alcohol is still a relatively small field; in particular, there are few studies of the reporting of biomedical alcohol and drug research, despite the assumed increasing popularity of biomedical perspectives in public discourse in general. The present article addresses the representational `devices' used in Swedish press reporting about biomedical alcohol research, drawing on qualitative thematic analysis of the topics, metaphors, and optimist versus critical frames used in presenting biomedical research findings. In general, the press discourse focuses on genetic factors related to alcohol problems, on the role of the brain and the reward system in addiction, and on medication for treating alcohol problems. Metaphors of `reconstruction' and `reprograming' of the reward system are used to describe how the brain's function is altered in addiction, whereas metaphors of `undeserved reward' and `shortcuts' to pleasure are used to describe alcohol's effects on the brain. The study indicates that aspects of the Swedish press discourse of biomedical alcohol research invite reductionism, but that this result could be understood from the point of view of both the social organization of reporting and the intersection of reporting, science, and everyday understandings rather than from the point of view of the news articles only. Moreover, some characteristics of the media portrayals leave room for interpretation, calling for research on the meanings ascribed to metaphors of addiction in everyday interaction.

  • 36. Bowden, Jacqueline A.
    et al.
    Delfabbro, Paul
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Miller, Caroline L.
    Wilson, Carlene
    Prevalence, perceptions and predictors of alcohol consumption and abstinence among South Australian school students: a cross-sectional analysis2017Inngår i: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, E-ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 17, 549Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Alcohol consumption by young people (particularly early initiation) is a predictor for poorer health in later life. In addition, evidence now clearly shows a causal link between alcohol and cancer. This study investigated prevalence, predictors of alcohol consumption among adolescents including perceptions of the link between alcohol and cancer, and the role of parents and peers. Methods: A sample of Australian school students aged 12-17 years participated in a survey (n = 2885). Logistic regression analysis was undertaken to determine predictors. Results: Alcohol use increased with age and by 16, most had tried alcohol with 33.1% of students aged 12-17 reporting that they drank at least occasionally (95% CI = 31.0-35.2). Awareness of the link between alcohol and cancer was low (28.5%). Smoking status and friends' approval were predictive of drinking, whereas parental disapproval was protective. Those aged 14-17 who did not think the link between alcohol and cancer was important were more likely to drink, as were those living in areas of least disadvantage. The only factors that predicted recent drinking were smoking and the perception that alcohol was easy to purchase. Conclusions: An education campaign highlighting the link between alcohol and cancer may have positive flow-on effects for young people, and schools should incorporate this messaging into any alcohol education programs. Consideration should be given to factors that serve to regulate under-aged accessibility of alcohol.

  • 37. Bramness, Jorgen G.
    et al.
    Henriksen, Beate
    Persson, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Mann, Karl
    A Bibliometric Analysis of European versus USA Research in the Field of Addiction. Research on Alcohol, Narcotics, Prescription Drug Abuse, Tobacco and Steroids 2001-20112014Inngår i: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 20, nr 1, 16-22 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To compare the publication and citation rate within the areas of drug abuse and dependence research in Europe with that in the USA. Methods: This is a bibliometric study using the Thomson Reuters Web of Knowledge as data source, 40 key words were used as search terms, but certain scientific publications not concerning the issue were excluded. Scientific publications from Denmark, England, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Spain, Sweden, and the USA were studied. The number of publications in each country and in each year in addition to the citation indices for these publications was retrieved. Results: Approximately two thirds of the publications came from the USA. Both in absolute and relative figures, Europe lagged behind. The trend over the last decade was a greater gap between the amount of research performed in Europe versus the USA. There were thematic differences. Smaller European countries had a greater relative publication rate. The citations were relatively evenly distributed. Conclusions: It has been claimed that 85% of the world's research within the field of drug abuse and dependence is carried out in the USA. This study challenges this figure, but European research within this field is lagging behind. Copyright (C) 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel

  • 38. Bramness, Jørgen G.
    et al.
    Henriksen, Beate
    Person, Olle
    Umeå universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Sociologiska institutionen.
    Mann, Karl
    Bibliographic Searches for a Bibliometric Analysis on Drug Addiction Reply2015Inngår i: European Addiction Research, ISSN 1022-6877, E-ISSN 1421-9891, Vol. 21, nr 1, 32-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39. Braun, Barbara
    et al.
    Ludwig, Monika
    Sleczka, Pawel
    Buehringer, Gerhard
    Kraus, Ludwig
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). IFT Institut für Therapieforschung, Germany.
    Gamblers seeking treatment: Who does and who doesn't?2014Inngår i: Journal of Behavioral Addictions, ISSN 2062-5871, Vol. 3, nr 3, 189-198 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and aims: As only a minority of pathological gamblers (PGr) presents for treatment, further knowledge about help-seeking behavior is required in order to enhance treatment utilization. The present study investigated factors associated with treatment participation in gamblers in Germany. As subclinical pathological gamblers (SPGr, fulfilling one to four DSM-IV-criteria) are target of early intervention due to high risk of transition to pathological gambling, they were subject of special interest. Methods: The study analyzed data from a general population survey (n = 234, SPGr: n = 198, PGr: n = 36) and a treatment study (n = 329, SPGr: n = 22, PGr: n = 307). A two-step weighting procedure was applied to ensure comparability of samples. Investigated factors included socio-demographic variables, gambling behavior, symptoms of pathological gambling and substance use. Results: In PGr, regular employment and non-German nationality were positively associated with being in treatment while gambling on the Internet and gaming machines and fulfilling more DSM-IV-criteria lowered the odds. In SPGr, treatment attendance was negatively associated with married status and alcohol consumption and positively associated with older age, higher stakes, more fulfilled DSM-IV criteria and regular smoking. Conclusions: In accordance to expectations more severe gambling problems and higher problem awareness and/or external pressure might facilitate treatment entry. There are groups with lower chances of being in treatment: women, ethnic minorities, and SPGr. We propose target group specific offers, use of Internet-based methods as possible adaptions and/or extensions of treatment offers that could enhance treatment attendance.

  • 40.
    Bravo, Maria J.
    et al.
    Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida, Madrid.
    Barrio, Gregorio
    Centro Universitario de Salud Pública (CUSP), Madrid.
    de la Fuente, Luis
    Secretaría del Plan Nacional sobre el Sida, Madrid.
    Royuela, Luis
    Centro Universitario de Salud Pública (CUSP), Madrid.
    Domingo, Laura
    Proyecto Itínere, Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Silva, Teresa
    Proyecto Itínere, Centro Nacional de Epidemiología, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain.
    Reasons for selecting an initial route of heroin administration and for subsequent transitions during a severe HIV epidemic2003Inngår i: Addiction, ISSN 0965-2140, E-ISSN 1360-0443, Vol. 98, nr 6, 749-760 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim  To identify the most important reasons for selecting a particular route of heroin administration and for subsequent transitions during a period of epidemic HIV transmission. To study temporal trends in these reasons.

    Design  Cross-sectional survey.

    Participants  Nine hundred heroin users in three Spanish cities: 305 in Seville, 297 in Madrid and 298 in Barcelona.

    Measurements  A separate analysis was made of the reasons for five types of behaviour: (a) selecting injection as the initial usual route of heroin administration (URHA); (b) changing the URHA to injection; (c) never having injected drugs; (d) selecting the smoked or sniffed route as the initial URHA; and (e) changing the URHA to a non-injected route. Subjects were invited to evaluate the importance of each reason included in a closed list. Spontaneously self-perceived reasons were also explored in an open-ended question for each of the five types of behaviour studied.

    Findings  The primary reason selected for each type of behaviour was: (a) pressure of the social environment; (b) belief that injection is a more efficient route than smoking or sniffing heroin; (c) concern about health consequences (especially fears of HIV and overdose), and fear of blood or of sticking a needle into one's veins; (d), pressure of the social environment and (e) concern about health consequences and vein problems. For women, having a sexual partner who injected heroin played a decisive role in initiating or changing to injection. Few people spontaneously mentioned market conditions for purchasing heroin as an important reason for any behaviour, nor did many mention risk of overdose as reasons for (c) or (d).

    Conclusions  These findings should be considered when designing interventions aimed at preventing initiation of injecting or facilitating the transition to non-injected routes.

  • 41. Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta Thelin
    et al.
    Wennberg, Peter
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD).
    Kallmen, Hakan
    Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta
    Alcohol habits in patients with long term musculoskeletal pain: comparison with a matched control group from the general population2012Inngår i: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 35, nr 2, 130-137 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test in both groups. The patients were recruited if they underwent a biopsychosocial pain analysis for possible participation in pain rehabilitation. The patients with chronic pain drank alcohol significantly less, less often, in smaller quantities, and became intoxicated less than the control group did. The study was rather small and at a single site, but its strengths were the comprehensive and simple design and the possibility to describe the sample's representativeness compared with other clinics on the basis of data from a national quality register.

  • 42.
    Bruhn, Linnea
    Karlstads universitet.
    Motiverande samtal -En dynamisk process i arbetet med barn och ungdomar med övervikt: - En kvalitativ studie om professionella inom hälso- och sjukvårdens upplevelser av att använda MI tillsammans med överviktiga barn och ungdomar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Ohälsosamma levnadsvanor så som dålig kost och brist på fysisk aktivitet leder till övervikt och fetma hos barn och ungdomar idag. För att inte de ohälsosamma levnadsvanorna ska ge framtida komplikationer är det viktigt att se till att barn och ungdomar får den hjälp de behöver för att motiveras till en beteendeförändring så tidigt som möjligt. Motiverande samtal (MI) är en samtalsmetod för att få individer motiverade till en förändring. Denna studie kommer att fokusera på just hälsosamma levnadsvanor. Olika hälso- och sjukvårds professioners använder motiverande samtal som metod för att stödja en beteendeförändring hos överviktiga ungdomar. Därutifrån har syftet till denna studie skapats vilket är att undersöka professionernas upplevelser av hur metoden fungerar på barn och ungdomar med övervikt. Studien har en kvalitativ insats som inkluderade intervjuer med sex stycken professioner. Intervjuerna spelades in och analyserades. Resultatet av studien visade att professionerna upplevde MI som en mycket positiv och användbar samtalsmetod och att kontinuitet behövdes för att upprätthålla kunskapen. Möjligheterna med att använda MI menar de professionella är att de ofta kan se en positiv förändring hos patientens beteende samt att de ser positivt på användningen av MI i framtiden. Författaren anser att det är viktigt att fortsätta utbilda personal som jobbar med människor inom MI då samhället troligtvis kan “spara” både pengar och tid hos personalen genom att använda MI i exempelvis primärvården. 

  • 43.
    Brunnberg, Elinor
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för beteende-, social- och rättsvetenskap.
    Lindén Boström, Margareta
    Örebro universitet, Hälsovetenskapliga institutionen.
    Berglund, Mats
    Lund University.
    School adjustment, self-rated health and substance use in -16 year old hard-of-hearing students: a comparative study : life and health : young people 20052007Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Cai, Bing
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Bredenberg, Susanne
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Engqvist, Håkan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Tillämpad materialvetenskap.
    Development and evaluation of a tampering resistant transdermal fentanyl patch2015Inngår i: International Journal of Pharmaceutics, ISSN 0378-5173, E-ISSN 1873-3476, Vol. 488, nr 1-2, 102-107 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 45. Callina, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, Australia; Monash University, Australia.
    Harm, tangible or feared: Young Victorians' adverse experiences from others' drinking or drug use2014Inngår i: International journal on drug policy, ISSN 0955-3959, E-ISSN 1873-4758, Vol. 25, nr 3, 401-406 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Harms from alcohol experienced by someone other than the drinker have received increasing attention of late, but have not been compared to harms from others' drug use. The aim of the current study is to compare the reported harms that are attributable to the alcohol use of others to those attributable to drugs, distinguishing between different types of harm in order to highlight how reported harms may be influenced by perception and social standing of use of the substance. Method: Respondents aged 16-24 from Victoria, Australia, completed the Victorian Youth Alcohol and Drug Survey (n = 5001), including questions on demographics, drug and alcohol consumption, on the types of harms they experienced attributable to drugs and alcohol, as well as harms they perpetrated after using drugs or alcohol. Results: For both drug and alcohol related harms, reports of harms loaded into two groups using multiple correspondence analysis: tangible harms such as assault, and amenity impacts such as being annoyed by people under the influence. Amenity impacts attributed to alcohol were more likely to be experienced by those who reported drug use and vice versa, while the tangible impacts were more likely to be reported by those who used both drugs and alcohol. Conclusions: Reports of amenity impacts from others appear to be influenced by the perception of the drug in question more than tangible impacts such as assault. Particularly for amenity impacts, the greater stigma attached to drug use may make respondents more likely to consider themselves harmed by drugs than they would when compared to alcohol, something that needs to be taken into account when assessing harms by either alcohol or drugs.

  • 46. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Laslett, Anne-Marie
    Rekve, Dag
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia.
    Waleewong, Orratai
    Benegal, Vivek
    Casswell, Sally
    Florenzano, Ramon
    Hoang, Thi
    Vu, Thi
    Hettige, Siri
    Huckle, Taisia
    Ibanga, Akanidomo
    Obot, Isidore
    Rao, Girish
    Siengsounthone, Latsamy
    Rankin, Georgia
    Thamarangsi, Thaksaphon
    Alcohol's harm to others: An international collaborative project2016Inngår i: The international journal of alcohol and drug research, ISSN 1925-7066, Vol. 5, nr 2, 25-32 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: This paper outlines the methods of a collaborative population survey project measuring the range and magnitude of alcohol's harm to others internationally. Setting: Seven countries participating in the World Health Organization (WHO) and ThaiHealth Promotion Foundation (ThaiHealth) research project titled The Harm to Others from Drinking, along with two other countries with similar studies, will form the core of a database which will incorporate data from other countries in the future. Measures: The WHO-ThaiHealth research project developed two comparable versions of a survey instrument, both measuring harm from others' drinking to the respondent and the respondent's children. Design: Surveys were administered via face-to-face methods in seven countries, while similar surveys were administered via computer-assisted telephone interviews in two additional countries. Responses from all surveys will be compiled in an international database for the purpose of international comparisons. Discussion: Harms from the alcohol consumption of others are intertwined with the cultural norms where consumption occurs. The development of this database will make it possible to look beyond reports and analyses at national levels, and illuminate the relationships between consumption, harms, and culture. Conclusions: This database will facilitate work describing the prevalence, patterning, and predictors of personal reports of harm from others' drinking cross-nationally.

  • 47. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Livingston, Michael
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). La Trobe University, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Dietze, Paul
    Drinking Contexts and Alcohol Consumption: How Much Alcohol Is Consumed in Different Australian Locations?2016Inngår i: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs, ISSN 1937-1888, E-ISSN 1938-4114, Vol. 77, nr 4, 612-619 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine where Australians in different demographic groups and drinker categories consume their alcohol. Method: Results were taken from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study, a telephone survey of 2,020 Australian adults with an oversample of risky drinkers. The 1,789 respondents who reported consuming alcohol in the past 6 months were asked detailed questions about the location of their alcohol consumption and how much alcohol they consumed at each place. Results: Sixty-three percent of all alcohol consumption reported by respondents was consumed in the drinker's own home, with much less consumed at pubs, bars, and nightclubs (12%). This is driven primarily by the number of people who drink in the home and the frequency of these events, with the amount consumed per occasion at home no more than in other people's homes or pubs, and significantly less than at special events. The average consumption on a usual occasion at each of these locations was more than five Australian standard drinks (above the Australian low-risk guideline for episodic drinking). Short-term risky drinkers had the highest proportion of consumption in pubs (19%), but they still consumed 41% of their units in their own home. Conclusions: The majority of alcohol consumed in Australia is consumed in the drinker's own home. Efforts to reduce long-term harms from drinking need to address off-premise drinking and, in particular, drinking in the home.

  • 48. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). University of Melbourne, Australia; Turning Point Alcohol & Drug Centre, Australia.
    Livingston, Michael
    Changes in Australian attitudes to alcohol policy: 1995–20102014Inngår i: Drug and Alcohol Review, ISSN 0959-5236, E-ISSN 1465-3362, Vol. 33, nr 3, 227-234 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction and Aims

    In 2009 Wilkinson and colleagues reported a downward trend in support for alcohol policyrestrictions in Australia between 1995 and 2004. The aim of the current study is to examine more recent data on policy supportin Australia, specifically for policies covering alcohol availability up to 2010, and to examine specific demographic shifts insupport.

    Design and Methods

    Data was taken from the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys from 1995, 1998,2001, 2004, 2007 and 2010 (n = 80 846), primarily responses to attitude items on policy restriction and demographicquestions. The effects of age, sex, drinking patterns and income over time on three items addressing restriction of alcoholavailability were assessed using a factorial analysis of variance.

    Results

    Although availability items are among the lesspopular policy restrictions put forward in the National Drug Strategy Household Surveys, 2004 actually represented a turningpoint in the decrease in popularity, with an increase in support since then.Though some groups show consistently higher ratesof support than others for policy restrictions, the rate of change in support was fairly uniform across demographic and drinkinggroups.

    Discussion and Conclusions

    Despite the lack of an obvious catalyst, there has been an increase in support foralcohol policy restriction as it relates to general availability and accessibility since 2004. Furthermore, this increase does notappear to be a reflection of a change in a specific group of people, but appears to be occurring across the Australian population.

  • 49. Callinan, Sarah
    et al.
    Room, Robin
    Stockholms universitet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Centrum för socialvetenskaplig alkohol- och drogforskning (SoRAD). Centre for Alcohol Policy Research, Turning Point, Australia; University of Melbourne, Australia.
    Livingston, Michael
    Jiang, Heng
    Who Purchases Low-Cost Alcohol in Australia?2015Inngår i: Alcohol and Alcoholism, ISSN 0735-0414, E-ISSN 1464-3502, Vol. 50, nr 6, 647-653 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Debates surrounding potential price-based polices aimed at reducing alcohol-related harms tend to focus on the debate concerning who would be most affected-harmful or low-income drinkers. This study will investigate the characteristics of people who purchase low-cost alcohol using data from the Australian arm of the International Alcohol Control study. 1681 Australians aged 16 and over who had consumed alcohol and purchased it in off-licence premises were asked detailed questions about both practices. Low-cost alcohol was defined using cut-points of 80A cent, $1.00 or $1.25 per Australian standard drink. With a $1.00 cut-off low income (OR = 2.1) and heavy drinkers (OR = 1.7) were more likely to purchase any low-cost alcohol. Harmful drinkers purchased more, and low-income drinkers less, alcohol priced at less than $1.00 per drink than high income and moderate drinkers respectively. The relationship between the proportion of units purchased at low cost and both drinker category and income is less clear, with hazardous, but not harmful, drinkers purchasing a lower proportion of units at low cost than moderate drinkers. The impact of minimum pricing on low income and harmful drinkers will depend on whether the proportion or total quantity of all alcohol purchased at low cost is considered. Based on absolute units of alcohol, minimum unit pricing could be differentially effective for heavier drinkers compared to other drinkers, particularly for young males.

  • 50.
    Capusan, Andrea J.
    et al.
    Department of Psychiatry and Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Bendtsen, Preben
    Department of Medical Specialist and Department of Medicine and Health Sciences, Linköping University, Motala, Sweden.
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Centre for Social and Affective Neuroscience, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Linköping University, Linköping Sweden.
    Larsson, Henrik
    Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Comorbidity of Adult ADHD and Its Subtypes With Substance Use Disorder in a Large Population-Based Epidemiological Study2016Inngår i: Journal of Attention Disorders, ISSN 1087-0547, E-ISSN 1557-1246Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The objective of the study is to explore the role and possible substance preference in ADHD and subtypes in substance use disorder (SUD).

    Method: Using self-report data on ADHD Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; DSM-IV) symptoms and SUD (alcohol, illicit drugs, and nicotine) in 18,167 Swedish twins, aged 20 to 45 years, we obtained odds ratios (OR) from mixed effect logistic regression, controlling for age, sex, education, and nonindependence of twin data.

    Results: Increased ADHD symptoms were significantly associated with increased odds for all SUD. ORs ranged between 1.33 for regular nicotine (95% confidence interval [CI] = [1.12, 1.59]); 2.54 for multiple drug use (95% CI = [2.00, 3.23]), and 3.58 for alcohol dependence (95% CI = [2.86, 4.49]).

    Conclusion: ADHD symptoms and subtypes in the population are associated with increased risks for all SUD outcomes, with no difference between ADHD subtypes, no substance preference, and no sex differences for the comorbidity. Clinicians need to consider ADHD evaluation and treatment as part of management of SUD in adults.

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