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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Lotta
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Ljung, Ida-Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Bliss i interaktion: - En samtalsanalytisk fallstudie av hur blissanvändare och tolkare tillsammans bygger upp yttranden2008Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
  • 2.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Persson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Prosodiska aspekter av nonordsproduktion hos barn med cochleaimplantat och barn med språkstörning2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Prosodi kan sammanfattas som talets rytmiska, dynamiska och melodiska aspekter. Utan prosodi skulle talet förefalla monotont och kommunikationen kunna kompliceras. Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka prosodiska aspekter av nonordsproduktion hos barn med cochleaimplantat och barn med språkstörning. Tidigare studier av prosodi hos nämnda grupper har inte i detalj beskrivit vilka typer av fel som förekommer varför detta var intressant att undersöka.

    Föreliggande studie baseras på redan insamlat material av nonordsrepetition av sammanlagt 41 barn vilka deltagit i tidigare studier. Av dessa var 27 stycken barn med språkstörning i åldrarna 4:6-7:6 år och fjorton var barn med CI i åldrarna 3:0-13:4. Det inspelade materialet transkriberades och felanalyserades gruppvis och medelvärden för grupperna räknades ut.

    Barnen med CI uppvisade större prosodiska problem vid nonordsrepetition än barnen med språkstörning. Såväl barnen med språkstörning som barnen med CI uppvisade svårigheter med stavelseproduktion, betoningsplacering, ordaccent och vokalkvantitet. Dock gjorde barnen med CI generellt större antal fel samt fler olika typer av fel jämfört med barnen med språkstörning. Alla barnen med CI gjorde någon typ av prosodiskt fel medan 11 av 27 de barnen med språkstörning producerade korrekt prosodi på samtliga nonord. Barn som hade en högre ålder vid implantation uppvisade större prosodiska svårigheter än barn som implanterats vid en lägre ålder

  • 3.
    Adolfsson, Elin
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Persson, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Äldreriktat tal på boenden för äldre: Förekomst och karaktäristik2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Äldreriktat tal avser kommunikationsanpassningar gentemot äldre liknande de som görs till små barn. Anpassningarna sker inom flera språkliga domäner och är en del av äldres kommunikativa miljö. Ämnet är relativt outforskat och få eller inga studier har gjorts i Sverige. Föreliggande studies syfte var att undersöka eventuell förekomst av äldreriktat tal, samt beskriva dess karakteristika då personal på olika typer av boenden för äldre samtalar med en äldre.

    Deltagare är fem personer som arbetar på olika former av boenden för äldre. Samtal mellan personal och äldre samt samtal mellan personal och en kollega spelades in och grovtranskriberades. Inspelningarna klipptes till filer utifrån varje analys syfte. Arbetet antog en datadriven ansats och data studerades utifrån tidigare forskning kring äldreriktat och barnriktat tal.

    I föreliggande studie påvisades att deltagande personal på boende för äldre, i varierande grad, anpassade sin kommunikation inom flera språkliga domäner. Anpassningarna förekom huvudsakligen inom den prosodiska domänen men förekom i viss utsträckning även inom den grammatiska. Anpassningar inom den pragmatiska domänen påvisades till viss del medan anpassningar inom den semantiska domänen ej förekom. Tendenser till talanpassningar förekom hos majoriteten av deltagarna. Följande tillägg av delaspekter till äldreriktat tal föreslås; upprepat användande av namn, mindre samtidigt tal och färre tvekfenomen.

  • 4.
    Ager, Emma
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Solli, Elin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    The PhonicStick: A Swedish Study: How do children age 5 and 6 handle the PhonicStick and will the use of it affect their phonological awareness?2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Phonological awareness is the ability to recognise, identify and manipulate components in words. Phonological awareness is an important part of the early literacy learning, although researchers disagree on how the connection arises. In the United Kingdom, synthetic phonics is a recommended way to teach literacy and the Jolly Phonics is a common approach within this method. In Sweden, mostly synthetic but also analytic methods are used for literacy teaching. The PhonicStick is developed as a communication device for impaired people and is based on the Jolly Phonics. In this study, the PhonicStick was being tested on children aged 5 and 6 years in mainstream pre-school classes to evaluate the use of it and its use for improvement of phonological awareness. The participating children were randomly divided into a test and a control group. All children were pre- and post-tested to analyse the possible improvement of parts of the phonological awareness. The test group went through three PhonicStick sessions, including different games and tests. The results from the pre- and post-tests of phonological awareness showed no significant differences between the test and control group. However, four out of five PhonicStick tests showed a significant improvement between session 1 and session 3. This shows that the children in the study were able to handle the PhonicStick after only three sessions, including remembering phonics the without visual information and producing words including two or three phonics.

  • 5. Ahlberg, Alexander
    et al.
    Engström, Therese
    Nikolaidis, Polymnia
    Gunnarsson, Karin
    Johansson, Hemming
    Sharp, Lena
    Laurell, Göran
    Umeå universitet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, Öron- näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Early self-care rehabilitation of head and neck cancer patients2011Inngår i: Acta Oto-Laryngologica, ISSN 0001-6489, Vol. 131, nr 5, 552-61 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    CONCLUSIONS: No positive effects of early preventive rehabilitation could be identified. The results do not contradict the proposition that rehabilitation based on self-care can be effective but it is important to establish evidence-based training programs and identify proper instruments for selection of patients and evaluation of intervention.

    OBJECTIVES: Patients with head and neck cancer suffer from functional impairments due to intense treatment. In this study, we investigated the effectiveness of an experimental early preventive rehabilitation using hard, objective end points in a nonselective, longitudinal, prospective cohort study.

    METHODS: In all, 190 patients were included in the program and received instructions for training before the start of treatment with the aim of reducing swallowing problems and reducing mouth opening and stiffness in the neck. A control group of 184 patients was recruited.

    RESULTS: There was no difference in weight loss and 2-year survival between the two groups. No positive effects concerning functional impairments were found in patient-reported outcome measures.

  • 6.
    Aittomäki, Minna
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Winell, Helena
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Grammatisk språkförståelse vid fyra år - testar vi det vi tror?: En jämförande studie av två grammatiska språkförståelsetest2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 30 poäng / 45 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det har gjorts många studier kring barns språkproduktion medan kunskaperna om hur och när förståelsen utvecklas är mindre. Forskare är eniga om att förståelsen i stort föregår produktionen även om vissa grammatiska strukturer produceras innan barnet har en full förståelse för dem. Att testa språkförståelse är svårt då barnet behöver utföra någon form av handling för att visa vad det förstår. Syftet med denna studie är att jämföra två grammatiska förståelsetest, Nya SIT och TROG-2, dels resultatmässigt och dels innehållsmässigt. Sjuttiosex fyraåriga barn, enspråkiga med svenska som förstaspråk och flerspråkiga, testades med båda testen. Slutsatserna är att de båda testen poängmässigt har en ganska hög korrelation för hela gruppen barn, 0,7 enligt Spearmans rangkorrelationskoefficient. Korrelationen är 0,6 för flerspråkiga barn och 0,5 för enbart svenskspråkiga barn. En regressionsanalys visar att språk är den faktor som mest påverkar resultatet och att kön liksom ålder inverkar mindre. Analysen av testmomenten visar att TROG-2 testar grammatik i en högre grad än Nya SIT som bara till en del ger svar på om barnet förstår grammatik.

  • 7.
    Albinsson, Sophie
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Berglund, Julia
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Testbatteri för talapraxi: Utformning och pilotnormering av ett artikulationstest2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Talapraxi är en talmotorikstörning som drabbar planeringen och programmeringen av talet, vilket visar sig som avvikelser i artikulation och prosodi. I dag finns inget svenskt test för utredning av talapraxi. Syftet med studien var därför att utforma ett testbatteri på svenska som är känsligt även för lindriga grader av talapraxi. Detta test pilotnormerades på 50 friska deltagare.  För att kunna studera hur kön, ålder och utbildningsnivå kan inverka på prestationen i testbatteriet, eftersträvades en jämn fördelning när det gäller dessa demografiska bakgrundsvariabler.

    Uppgifterna konstruerades baserat på tidigare forskning gällande de typiska perceptuella dragen vid talapraxi och på testuppgifter som tidigare har visat sig vara känsliga för talapraxi.

    Deltagarnas prestation varierade mellan testbatteriets olika uppgifter. På några uppgifter hade en stor andel av deltagarna alla rätt, medan andra uppgifter visade sig vara utmanande även för friska personer. Inga signifikanta könsskillnader fanns för prestationerna på någon av uppgifterna i testbatteriet. Utbildningsnivå och ålder påverkade däremot prestationen på vissa uppgifter. Generellt var effektstyrkorna för utbildningsnivå större än för ålder.

    Testbatteriet bör i framtiden kunna ge ett bra underlag för bedömning av huruvida talapraxi föreligger eller inte. Det bör också kunna användas vid bedömning av talapraxins svårighetsgrad. För att gå vidare med utvecklingen av testbatteriet bör man fortsätta normeringen på ett större antal personer samt kliniskt validera det på personer med diagnostiserad talapraxi.

  • 8.
    Alkass Yousef, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Bergström, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Normering av Rösthandikappindex och Halsskalan för personer över 65 år i Sverige.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The population over 65 years of age is increasing and health in elderly has been a subject of research for decades but voice function and vocal health has not been prioritized. The purpose of this study is to obtain reference value for the Swedish version of Voice Handicap Index (RHI) and the Throat Scale among people over 65 years of age and assess voice function and vocal health for this age group. The questions were as followed:

    1) What is the reference value of RHI for people over 65 years of age? 2) What is the reference value of the Throat Scale for people over 65 years of age? 3) Is there a correlation between a self-rated VA-scale on the perceived degree of voice problems, and the self-rated RHI-/Throat Scale result? 4) Does age, gender or previous profession matter for the self-perceived voice?

    In total 100 individuals participated in the study, 50 women and 50 men, between 65 and 92 years old. The reference value of RHI for people over 65 years of age was 13,4 points and the reference value for the Throat Scale was 7,7 points. Both reference values are higher than reference values for younger people. The reference value of RHI is mainly described from the high points of the participants over 85 years of age. There was a correlation between the results of the RHI/the Throat Scale and the VA-scale concerning the perceived degree of voice problems, p < .01. Age is a significant factor for self-perceived voice problems. The older the subject, the higher points scored, both on the RHI, p < .05 and the Throat Scale. The results of the Throat Scale, however, were not significant. Even though most of the participants were active the reference value of RHI and the Throat Scale was higher than the reference value for younger people. The conclusion is that the voice changes in elderly affect voice experience.

  • 9.
    Alkass Yousef, Sabina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Bergström, Hanna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Ordförråd på modersmål hos barn i förskoleklass i Sverige: en jämförelse mellan tvåspråkiga och enspråkiga barn2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    I samhället kommer vi ofta i kontakt med tvåspråkighet, så även på logopedmottagningar runt om i landet. Det kan vara svårt att genomföra språkbedömningar på barn med flera modersmål eller annat modersmål än svenska. Syftet med uppsatsen var att översätta benämningstestet "Ordracet" till arabiska och sedan använda det för att testa aktivt ordförråd. Passivt ordförråd testades med Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III. Fonologiskt och semantiskt ordflöde testades med ordflödestestet FAS. Frågeställningarna var: Hur skiljer sig de två ordförråden hos simultant tvåspråkiga barn från ordförrådet hos enspråkiga barn? Hur skiljer sig det svenska ordförrådet från det arabiska ordförrådet inom gruppen tvåspråkiga barn? Hur ser sambandet mellan fonologiskt och semantiskt ordflöde och ordförråd ut? De tvåspråkiga barnen hade lägre resultat på arabiska än vad de enspråkiga barnen hade på svenska, både vad gäller förståelse och produktion. På svenska presterade de tvåspråkiga barnen praktiskt taget lika högt som de enspråkiga, de var alltså bättre på svenska än på arabiska. Det fanns en stor skillnad mellan grupperna på delen fonologi svenska, där de tvåspråkiga barnen fick signifikant högre resultat än de enspråkiga barnen.

  • 10.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.
    Jaensson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lundeberg, Stefan
    Pain Treatment Service, Astrid Lindgren Children's Hospital, Department of Physiology and Pharmacology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Adherence to Swedish guidelines for pain treatment in relation to pediatric tonsil surgery: A survey of the multidisciplinary team2017Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 101, 123-131 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Pain management in children after tonsil surgery is essential, and optimal pain treatment has been discussed for many years. Data from the National Tonsil Register in Sweden (NTRS) and a national mapping system have demonstrated the need for national pain treatment guidelines for pediatric tonsil surgery. As a result, Swedish national guidelines, together with updated patient information on the website tonsilloperation.se, were developed and implemented in 2013.

    Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate the professionals’ opinions of and adherence to pain treatment guidelines for pediatric tonsil surgery patients in a two-year follow-up.

    Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study was based on data from an inter-professional questionnaire, which was validated by an expert group using a content validity index (S-CVI 0.93). The questionnaire was sent to all Swedish ear, nose and throat (ENT) departments (n=49) that the NTRS identified as performing tonsil surgery on children younger than 18 years of age. In each clinic, we asked for responses from staff in each of the following professions: ENT physicians, anesthesia physicians, registered nurse anesthetists, and registered nurses in the ENT departments.

    Results: Respondents from 48 ENT departments participated, and 139/163 (85%) completed questionnaires were returned. The guidelines were reported as being clear, ensuring patient safety and providing optimal pharmacological treatment. Treatment was given according to the guidelines: Half of the departments gave pre- or intraoperative treatment with clonidine, betamethasone and high-dose paracetamol (acetaminophen). A multimodal pain approach (paracetamol and COX inhibitors) after hospital discharge was prescribed by all departments after tonsillectomy and, more extensively, after tonsillotomy. One-third of the departments prescribed paracetamol with a higher normal dose for the first three postoperative days. Half of the departments prescribed rescue analgesics, clonidine or opioids after tonsillectomy. None of the departments prescribed codeine or tramadol, drugs that are discouraged in the guidelines. The majority of the departments used the website tonsilloperation.se to provide information to the patients and their caregivers.

    Conclusion: The respondents' opinions of and the ENT departments adherence to the Swedish national guidelines were considered to be good. The national implementation process in Sweden has impacted the manner in which ENT departments treat pain after tonsil surgery.

  • 11.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Jaensson, Maria
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Lundeberg, Stefan
    Astrid Lindgrens barnsjukhus, Karolinska universitetssjukhus, Stockholm.
    Hemlin, Claes
    Sollentuna Specialist Clinic, Stockholm.
    Hessén-Söderman, Anne-Charlotte
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology Aleris Sabbatsberg Stockholm; Division of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Nerfeldt, Pia
    Karolinska Universitetssjukhuset, Huddinge.
    Odhagen, Erik
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg; Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg.
    Sunnergren, Ola
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology Ryhov County Hospital, Futurum-The Academy for health and care, Conuty Council, Jönköping.
    Stalfors, Joacim
    Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Adherence to Swedish Guidelines for Pain Treatment in Tonsil Surgery in Pediatric Patients2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: As shown by data from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden, tonsil surgery often causes severe pain that lasts for many days. The register data demonstrate the necessity for better evidence-based pain treatment guidelines for tonsil surgery. The guidelines, introduced in 2013, consist of both pharmacological and non-pharmacological recommendations. In the guidelines, a multimodal analgesic approach and combination of analgesics are recommended to provide effective pain treatment with limited side effects. Two national multi-professional education days on pain, pharmacology and the guidelines were offered. Web-based information about pharmacological treatment (www.tonsililloperation.se) was designed for patients and next-of-kin. The current aims were to describe adherence to the Swedish guidelines for pain treatment in tonsil surgery in pediatric patients < 18 years

    Method: An inter-professional questionnaire was developed, including questions linked to the relevant guidelines. The questions came from a national mapping before the guidelines were designed. The items were discussed by an expert group, and content validity was evaluated using the content validity index.ENT-and anesthesia physicians and nurses from all 50 ENT clinics in Sweden were enrolled.

    Results: Most clinics had received the guidelines, but there was a discrepancy between the professions. More than half had perused the literature review performed before the guidelines were designed, and attended themulti-professional education day. Pre- and perioperative treatment usually included paracetamol, clonidine and betamethasone. A multimodal pain approach after discharge from hospital (tonsillectomy and tonsillotomy) was used, combining paracetamol with cox-inhibitors. Most clinics used paracetamol, with a higher dose for the first 3 days (healthy children and acceptable nutrition), and a reduced dose from day 4.In case of inadequate analgesia after tonsillectomy, oral clonidine or opioids were used. Several clinics followed the recommendation to use clonidine as first choice and secondly an opioid. No respondents prescribed codeine compared to 80% at the mapping before the guidelines were designed. The guidelines were experienced as clear, safe and sufficient. The web-based information was used by most of the clinics to improve quality of care and provide facilitating tools for patients, relatives and caregivers.

    Conclusion: Swedish guidelines for tonsil surgery provide practical evidence-based pain treatment recommendations. To achieve a change, multi-professional education is necessary. This needs to be repeated for a wider spread.

    Future research should include evaluation through pain diaries and questionnaires to next-of-kin and children. There should be matching of data from the quality registers at each clinic, with pain variables such as unplanned health care contacts due to pain, number of days with analgesics, and return to normal diet

  • 12.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Stalfors, Joacim
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.
    Nerfeldt, Pia
    Karolinska University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Patient reported outcome of pain after tonsil surgery: An analysis of 32,225 children from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden 2009-20162017Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tonsil surgery is common surgical procedure in children and cause significant pain under postoperative recovery. The objective of this register study was to explore factors affecting pain after pediatric tonsil surgery, using patient-reported outcomes from questionnaires in the National Tonsil Surgery Registry in Sweden, 30 days after surgery. A total of 32,225 tonsil surgeries on children (aged 1-18 years) during January 2009- November 2016 were included; 13,904 tonsillectomies with or without adenoidectomy (TE±A) and 18,321 tonsillotomies with or without adenoidectomy (TT±A). In surgery cases of indication obstruction, the TT±A stopped taking painkillers and returned to normal eating habits sooner, and had less contact with health care services due to pain, compared to TE±A. After TE±A, the indication infection group had more days on analgesics and more contacts with health care services due to pain, compared to the indication obstruction group. TE±A with cold-dissection technique resulted in fewer days on painkillers compared to warm-technique, and reduced the number of contacts with health care services due to pain. Older children were affected by more days of morbidity than the younger ones, but there was no gender difference after adjustment for age, dissection technique and hemostasis technique. Implementation of national guidelines for pain treatment (2013) and patient information on the website tonsilloperation.se seems to have increased the days on analgesics after surgery. Pain after tonsil surgery depends on the surgical procedure and technique, as well as factors such as the patient’s age and surgical indication. More studies including pain interventions are needed to improve the care of tonsillectomy patients.

  • 13.
    Alm, Fredrik
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper. Department of Anaesthesia and Intensive Care.
    Stalfors, Joacim
    Institute of Clinical Sciences, Sahlgrenska Academy, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Sheikh Khalifa Medical City, Ajman, United Arab Emirates.
    Nerfeldt, Pia
    Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden; Division of Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskaper.
    Patient reported pain-related outcome measures after tonsil surgery: an analysis of 32,225 children from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden 2009–20162017Inngår i: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0937-4477, E-ISSN 1434-4726, Vol. 274, nr 10, 3711-3722 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to describe factors affecting pain after pediatric tonsil surgery, using patient reported pain-related outcome measures (pain-PROMs) from the National Tonsil Surgery Register in Sweden. In total, 32,225 tonsil surgeries on children (1 to\18 years) during 2009–2016 were included; 13,904 tonsillectomies with or without adenoidectomy (TE ± A), and 18,321 tonsillotomies with or without adenoidectomy (TT ± A). Adjustments were made for variables included in the register to compensate for contributable factors in the analysis. When compared to TE ± A for surgical indication obstruction, TT ± A resulted in lower pain-PROMs, shorter use of postoperative analgesics, earlier return to regular food intake, and lower risk for contact with health care services due to pain. Children who underwent TE ± A because of obstruction problems stopped taking painkillers and returned to normal eating habits sooner, compared to children who underwent TE ± A for infectious indications. In both indication groups, TE ± A performed with hot rather than cold technique (dissection and haemostasis) generally resulted in higher pain-PROMs. Older children reported more days on analgesics and a later return to regular food intake after TE ± A than younger ones. No clinically relevant difference between sexes was found. Between 2012 and 2016 (pre-and post-implementation of Swedish national guidelines for pain treatment), the mean duration of postoperative analgesic use had increased. In conclusion, TE ± A caused considerably higher ratings of pain-related outcome measures, compared to TT ± A. For TE ± A, cold surgical techniques (dissection and haemostasis) were superior to hot techniques in terms of pain-PROMs. Older children reported higher pain-PROMs after TE ± A than younger ones.

  • 14.
    Alm, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    A new framework for understanding stuttering: The dual premotor model2007Inngår i: Research, Treatment, and Self-Help in Fluency Disorders: New Horizons : Proceedings of the Fifth World Congress on Fluency Disorders, Dublin, 25-28th July 2006 / [ed] James Au-Yeung and Margaret M. Leahy, Dublin: The International Fluency Association , 2007, 77-83 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Alm, Per
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Cluttering: a neurological perspective2011Inngår i: Cluttering: a handbook of research, intervention, and education / [ed] D. Ward & K. Scaler Scott, London: Psychology Press , 2011Kapittel i bok, del av antologi (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 16.
    Alm, Per
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience and Department of Psychology, Lund University.
    Stuttering and sensory gating: a study of acoustic startle prepulse inhibition2006Inngår i: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, E-ISSN 1090-2155, Vol. 97, nr 3, 317-321 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    It was hypothesized that stuttering may be related to impaired sensory gating, leading to overflow of superfluous disturbing auditory feedback and breakdown of the speech sequence. This hypothesis was tested using the acoustic startle prepulse inhibition (PPI) paradigm. A group of 22 adults with developmental stuttering were compared with controls regarding the degree of PPI. No significant differences were found between the stuttering adults and the control group; the groups showed similar means and distribution. Likewise, no relation between the degree of PPI and the effect of altered auditory feedback on stuttering was found. In summary, the results of the study indicate that there is no relation between stuttering and PPI.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Englund, Stina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Pragmatisk förmåga hos barn med cochleaimplantat2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    A cochlear implant (CI) is a hearing device that makes it possible for individuals who are deaf or has a severe hearing impairment to receive auditory information and develop spoken language. The pragmatic ability may be affected. In short, pragmatics may be described as the study of language use in social contexts. Pragmatic ability can be seen as the result of the individual‟s behavior as well as the underlying causes.

    The aim of the present study was to describe the pragmatic ability in children with CI. An approach inspired by Conversation Analysis (CA) was used in order to highlight the various phenomena that occurred in the interaction.

    Seven children with CI participated in the study, five girls and two boys. Each conversation consisted of either a child with CI interacting with a peer, or a child with CI interacting with a parent or a teacher. A total of 14 conversations were analyzed and phenomena relevant to the study were examined. To gather further information regarding the children‟s communicative behavior, Children’s Communication Checklist was filled in by parents and teachers.

    The children who participated in the study constitute a heterogeneous group and there was no clear pattern when it comes to hearing-impairment and pragmatic ability. The result showed that children with CI used both specific and non-specific requests for clarification. It seems as if intelligibility on the sentence level may reflect how efficient the interaction turns out, as the children with high intelligibility were the ones who managed to solve misunderstandings the best in the conversations. Furthermore, the result demonstrated that the adult participants used a higher rate of specific requests for clarification in contrast to children with CI.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Kristina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Svensson, Erika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för medicin och hälsa. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Resultat av oralmotorisk och fonologisk testning: En jämförelsestudie mellan taldelen i NOT-S och kortversionen av Stora fonemtestet2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tal är det akustiska resultatet av rörelser i talapparaten med avsikt att förmedla ett språkligt budskap (Kent, 2000). Oralmotorisk funktion är en grundläggande förutsättning för talkommunikation (Sjögreen & Lohmander, 2008). Om tal- eller oralmotoriska problem uppstår kan en tal- eller oralmotorisk diagnos ställs utifrån en utredning över dessa funktioner (McAllister, 2008). Nordiskt Orofacialt Test – Screening (NOT-S) är ett screeningmaterial som testar den oro-faciala funktionen (Bakke, Bergendal, McAllister, Sjögreen & Åsten, 2007). Materialet består av en intervju- och en undersökningsdel som är uppdelade i sex domäner vardera. En av domänerna i undersökningsdelen är tal och består av tre uppgifter A. Talar inte, B. Räkna högt till tio och C. Säg ”pataka pataka pataka”. Syftet med föreliggande studie är att undersöka om den information som erhålls i prövning med taldelen i NOT-S överensstämmer med den information som en bedömning med ett fonologiskt test ger. I studien analyserades inspelningar av 61 ljudfiler där barn i åldern 6:0-8:0 år testas med taldelen i NOT-S och kortversionen av Stora fonemtestet. Resultatet av fonemtestet transkriberades fonetiskt och utifrån dessa beräknades Percentage of Phonemes Correct. Ett gränsvärde sattes upp för att avgöra vilka som befann sig inom normalvariationen. Dessa resultat jämfördes sedan med barnens resultat på taldelen i NOT-S. Det visade sig att åtta (13,1 %) barn hamnade under gränsvärdet för normalvariation på fonemtestet vilket står i kontrast till 22 (36 %) barn som bedömdes som avvikande på NOT-S taldel enligt de fastställda kriterierna för testet. De båda delarna i NOT-S taldel fångade tillsammans upp 100 % av de som identifierades som avvikande i fonemtestet. Därutöver fångade NOT-S upp 23 % (14 barn) som inte bedömdes som avvikande i fonemtestet. Vid beräkning av taldelen i NOT-S utan den diadochokinetiska uppgiften fångades 62,5 % upp av dem som identifierades av fonemtestet. Alla de barn som fick felfria resultat på fonemtestet fick även det på NOT-S taldel. Utifrån dessa resultat bedöms NOT-S taldel och kortversionen av Stora fonemtestet inte fullt ut ge samma information om barns talavvikelser. 

  • 19.
    Andersson, Lisa
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Ringbert, Sofia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Pragmatisk förmåga hos barn med hörselnedsättning: En samtalsanalytisk studie om begäran om förtydligande2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Different abilities are of importance to pragmatics, there among hearing. Hearing impairment can affect language development and also pragmatic ability. The aim of the present paper was to study the pragmatic ability in terms of request for clarification in children with Hearing Impairment (HI) in conversation with children with no known hearing impairment, henceforth normally hearing (NH). The present study also describes requests for clarification sequentially in detail, and also highlights points where there may be observable differences between children with and without hearing impairment. Eight conversational pairs consisting of one child with HI and one NH child were studied. Children’s Communication Checklist (CCC) was filled out by the parents and teachers of the children with HI in order to complement the description of the pragmatic ability in children with HI. Conversation Analysis was used in order to make the study of interaction as open-minded as possible. The conversation extracts were grouped according to task or non-task oriented interaction based on the activities that occurred.

    The results of the present study showed that the children with HI and NH both used non-specific and specific requests for clarification, and that these types of requests were used in both task and non-task oriented interaction. Children with HI used the non-specific request "sorry?" to greater extent in the extracts than children with NH did. In general, no differences in occurrence of specific requests were seen between children with HI and children with NH. As regards to what happened before and after requests for clarifications, no distinct differences could be established between children with HI and children with NH. In conclusion, it is not certain if and how a hearing impairment have affected the pragmatic ability, although tendencies in the conversation extracts indicated that hearing impairment sometimes affected the interaction.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Madeleine
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Carlsson, Ann
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Utveckling av kognitiva färdigheter och läsförmåga hos barn med mild och måttlig hörselnedsättning i ett ettårsperspektiv2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity to process and to remember information is a basic condition for language ability and for coming reading ability. Reading ability is strongly connected to phonological awareness, receptive vocabulary knowledge and working memory capacity. In what way hearing impairment in children affects development of cognitive skills and later on reading ability is an area that has attracted minor attention for research.

    The aim with this study was to investigate changes in cognitive skills and reading ability in children with mild or moderate hearing impairment after one year of progress and furthermore if any connections between any increases of the abilities were to be found. Comparisons were made with results from age adequate normal hearing children. Moreover prosodic ability on word-level was tested this year. Eleven Swedish children aged 7:6-10:10 years participated in this study. To illustrate progress of the abilities mentioned the SIPS computer test battery and furthermore some manually given tests for reading and prosodic abilities were used.

    The results show a developmental trend for the children with hearing impairment on tests of working memory and reading comprehension. The least degree of development was found in the area of phonological skills. The children with hearing impairment showed in general the same capacity as normal hearing children on tests for the different abilities. In the area of working memory the children with hearing impairment had significant lower results on half of the tests than age adequate normal hearing children. Several strong connections were present for children with hearing impairment this year than last year, in-between cognitive skills and reading ability. Correlation appeared between age for insertion of hearing aid and test for decoding ability. Results on tests for prosodic ability reached ceiling effect.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Buhr, Ulrika
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Normering av test av intraoral stereognosi och tvåpunktsdiskrimination: Hos barn i åldrarna 5;6 - 7;0 år2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The oral sensory ability in children can be assessed through test of intraoral stereognosis and two-point discrimination. Currently, these two tests are not frequently used in clinical settings, and normative data are not always available. The aim of this study was to establish normative data for these two tests in children aged 5;6 to 7;0 years. Further, intention was to compare the results with respect to age and gender. In total 103 children participated, 49 boys and 54 girls. The participants were divided into three age-groups. The results regarding intraoral stereognosis showed significant differences between genders, where boys performed poorer than girls. Differences between two of the three age-groups could also be established. The results show that an improvement can be expected in children six years and older.

    Regarding two-point discrimination 73 of the 103 children performed perfectly. The remaining children’s scores were also consistently high. No differences between gender and age were found.

    There was no correlation between the test results of intraoral stereognosis and two-point discrimination. Therefore it would be necessary to perform both these tests in assessment, since they probably examine two separate aspects of the oral sensory ability.

     

  • 22.
    Andersson, Maria
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Fredriksson, Valeria
    Svenska audionomers inställning gentemot kompetensutvecklingsprogram2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning:

    Audionomyrket har utvecklats från ett assisterande till ett självständigt yrke. Framsteg inom forskning berörande audiologi ställer höga krav på audionomens kompetensutveckling. Internationellt har det undersökts hur kompetensutveckling kan förbättras, genom bildandet av frivilliga eller obligatoriska kompetensutvecklingsprogram, för att ge en säker patientvård och en tillfredsställande yrkesutveckling. I Sverige ansvarar varje audionom enskilt för sin kompetensutveckling. Det finns i dagsläget inga studier som undersöker svenska audionomers inställning till att införa liknande kompetensutvecklingsprogram som finns internationellt, vilket är motivet bakom studien. Syftet är att undersöka svenska audionomers inställning kring frivilliga samt obligatoriska kompetensutvecklingsprogram med tillhörande gransknings-process för att vidareutveckla audionomprofessionen och hålla samtliga yrkesverksamma ajour med ny vetenskap. En kvantitativ metod i form av en webbenkät tillämpades för att nå ut till ett stort omfång yrkesverksamma audionomer över hela Sverige. Studiens resultat visar att ett stort antal yrkesverksamma audionomer är positivt inställda till det frivilliga samt obligatoriska kompetensutvecklingsprogrammet med tillhörande granskningsprocess. En förändrad form av kompetensutvecklingssystem än den nuvarande är därmed eftersträvad av majoriteten. Studiens resultat har tagit fasta på att kompetensutvecklingsprogram bör inriktas mot både de tvärvetenskapliga områden som professionen bygger på och audionomens specialiseringsområden. Audionomerna anser att tiden motsvarande en till åtta timmar per månad är tillräcklig för kompetensutvecklande aktiviteter. Audionomerna har en stor medvetenhet om vikten av att utveckla den professionella kompetensen. Hindrande faktorer som ekonomi, hög patientgenomströmning, tidsbrist, etc. minskar audionomernas möjlighet till deltagande av kompetensutvecklande aktiviteter. De yttre omständigheterna bidrar till att yrkesverksamma audionomer i hög grad önskar en förändrad form av kompetensutvecklings-system än den nuvarande.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi.
    Normering av Nordiskt Orofacialt Test- Screening (NOT-S) för barn 6:0- 8:0 år.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Andning, sväljning, tuggning, mimik och artikulation är delar av orofacial funktion (Bakke, Bergendal, McAllister, Sjogreen, & Asten, 2007). Oralmotoriken är viktig för talproduktion och födointag (Lundeborg Hammarström, 2010). Nordiskt Orofacialt Test- Screening (NOT-S) är ett screeningtest som används för att bedöma avvikande orofacial funktion (Bakke et al., 2007). Syftet med studien är att undersöka hur barn med typisk utveckling mellan 6:0- 8:0 år presterar på NOT-S, samt om det föreligger någon ålder- eller könsskillnad i utförandet av uppgifterna. I studien deltog 80 barn och deras föräldrar. Barnen var uppdelade i två åldersgrupper, varav 30 stycken sexåringar och 50 stycken sjuåringar. Testningen genomfördes i skolmiljö och föräldraintervjuer gjordes via telefon. Resultatet visade att barn i åldrarna 6:0- 8:0 år fick en totalpoäng på 1,44 ± 1,16 på NOT-S. Sexåringarna i studien fick en totalpoäng på 1,63 ± 1,16 och sjuåringarna fick en totalpoäng på 1,32 ± 1,15. Det fanns inga signifikanta ålders- eller könskillnader förutom på intervjudelen där en könskillnad mellan sjuåringar uppmättes. De sjuåriga pojkarna hade mer orofaciala problem än flickorna på intervjudelen. Resultaten kan användas som normvärden vid klinisk användning av NOT-S på studerade åldersgrupper.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Marie
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Nordin, Elin
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Voice Onset Time among Children with Phonological Impairment.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Speech production requires cooperation between cognitive, linguistic and motor processes. It also requires spatial and temporal control of muscles, as well as simultaneous and coordinated activity of respiration, phonation and articulation (Cheng, Murdoch, Goozée & Scott, 2007; Yorkston, Beukelman, Strand & Bell, 1999; Raphael, Borden & Harris, 2011). Voice Onset Time (VOT) reflects the timing between phonation and articulation (Hoit-Dalgaard, Murry & Kopp, 1983). VOT is the most reliable acoustic cue for distinguishing between voiceless or voiced plosives (Auzou et al. 2000). Studies of English-speaking children with phonological impairment have shown atypical VOT-patterns (Bond & Wilson, 1980). The aim of the present study was to investigate Voice Onset Time (VOT) among Swedish children with phonological impairment and to examine if their VOT-values differ from typically developed Swedish children. Participants were 38 children aged 4;2−11;6 distributed over eight age- groups and five developmental stages of phonology. Audio recordings of minimal pairs were made at preschools, schools or at speech pathology clinics. The results indicated that children with phonological impairment produced VOT with deviant values and with a great variability. A marked acoustic difference between voiceless and voiced stop consonants was present, but not in all cases. Since the VOT-values were distributed over the group of children with phonological impairment, no developmental trend toward adult-like values that could be related to increasing age was found for either the acquisition of producing VOT or the acquisition of producing voicing lead. No differences in VOT were seen between the children in different phonological developmental stages or ages. No correlation between the degree of deviance of VOT and the proportion of Procent Phonemes Correct (PPC), age or phonological processes were found. From the results the conclusion can be drawn that children with phonological impairment have deviant VOT-values that could be caused by lack of phonological knowledge, but in particular since the variability did not decrease with increased age, have difficulties with motor execution. 

  • 25.
    Andersson, Susanna
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan.
    Thuresson Muhrman, Eva
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för nervsystem och rörelseorgan.
    Arbetsminne och receptivt lexikon hos barn med cochleaimplantat: en undersökning med SIPS och PPVT2007Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Cochleaimplantat (CI) är en av de största medicinska innovationer som gjorts under de senaste 20 åren. Med hjälp av ett sådant kan barn med grav hörselnedsättning eller dövhet få möjlighet att höra och utveckla ett talat språk. Många barn med CI uppnår dock inte den förväntade språknivån. Orsakerna till detta är ännu inte fullt förstådda och vidare forskning är därför nödvändig. I föreliggande studie deltog 9 barn i åldrarna 6;7 – 12;4 år med CI. Syftet med denna studie var att undersöka kognitiv och språklig förmåga med fokus på arbetsminne och receptivt lexikon hos barn med CI. I detta syfte användes utvalda delar ur det datorbaserade testbatteriet SIPS (Sound Information Processing System) samt PPVT (Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test). Testresultaten analyserades på grupp- och individnivå. Dessutom jämfördes testresultaten med resultat från en kontrollgrupp normalhörande barn.

    Barnen med CI presterade lägre än kontrollgruppen på gruppnivå. Enskilda individer presterade dock i nivå med barnen i kontrollgruppen vilket innebär att det är möjligt för barn med CI att uppnå goda resultat på de undersökta aspekterna. Resultaten i studien indikerar också att sen implantation inte alltid behöver vara ett hinder för god språklig utveckling. Samband mellan arbetsminne och lexikon påvisades hos barnen med CI samt hos kontrollgruppen. Inget samband kunde påvisas mellan undersökta bakgrundsvariabler och testresultat.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Susanne
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Eriksson, Angelica
    Ljudmiljön på två särboenden för äldre: En pilotstudie2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 27.
    Andersz, Caroline
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Hansson, Anna-Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    The use of the PhonicStick in group training: Can South African children age 5-6 improve their phonological awareness by using the PhonicStick?2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Phonological awareness is the ability to recognize, reflect on and manipulate sound structures of a language. This ability has been shown to be crucial when acquiring literacy. The PhonicStick is a speech-generation communication device, which was initially developed for individuals with complex communication needs (CCN) though more recent research has focused on the effects of the device on factors important for literacy acquisition. In the present study the effects on phonological awareness were evaluated after seven group training sessions with the PhonicStick. The participants of the study were 20 typically developing South African 5-6 year old children. All participants where pre and post tested with The Phonological Awareness Test part c) isolation and a PhonicStick test which tested the ability to produce isolated phonemes and combinations of three phonemes with the device. The results of the study showed that training with the PhonicStick did not appear to improve results on The Phonological Awareness Test part c) isolation. However, it was found that the participants of the training group had improved their ability to manoeuvre the PhonicStick and to produce isolated phonemes and combinations of three phonemes.

  • 28. Andrade, Pedro Amarante
    et al.
    Wistbacka, Greta
    Larsson, Hans
    Sodersten, Maria
    Hammarberg, Britta
    Simberg, Susanna
    Svec, Jan G.
    Granqvist, Svante
    KTH, Skolan för teknik och hälsa (STH), Naturvetenskap och biomedicin. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    The Flow and Pressure Relationships in Different Tubes Commonly Used for Semi-occluded Vocal Tract Exercises2016Inngår i: Journal of Voice, ISSN 0892-1997, E-ISSN 1873-4588, Vol. 30, nr 1, 36-41 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This experimental study investigated the back pressure (Pback) versus flow (U) relationship for 10 different tubes commonly used for semi-occluded vocal tract exercises, that is, eight straws of different lengths and diameters, a resonance tube, and a silicone tube similar to a Lax Vox tube. All tubes were assessed with the free end in air. The resonance tube and silicone tube were further assessed with the free end under water at the depths from 1 to 7 cm in steps of 1 cm. The results showed that relative changes in the diameter of straws affect Pback considerably more compared with the same amount of relative change in length. Additionally, once tubes are submerged into water, Pback needs to overcome the pressure generated by the water depth before flow can start. Under this condition, only a small increase in Pback was observed as the flow was increased. Therefore, the wider tubes submerged into water produced an almost constant Pback determined by the water depth, whereas the thinner straws in air produced relatively large changes to Pback as flow was changed. These differences may be taken advantage of when customizing exercises for different users and diagnoses and optimizing the therapy outcome.

  • 29. Anmyr, Lena
    et al.
    Olsson, Mariann
    Freijd, Anders
    Larsson, Kjerstin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för folkhälso- och vårdvetenskap, Forskning om funktionshinder och habilitering.
    Sense of coherence, social networks, and mental health among children with a cochlear implant2015Inngår i: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology, ISSN 0165-5876, E-ISSN 1872-8464, Vol. 79, nr 4, 610-615 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the personal and social resources of children with a cochlear implant from a child's perspective. Method: This descriptive cross-sectional study included 19 children with cochlear implants, aged 9-12 years. Data was collected, using the children's sense of coherence (CSOC) scale, the Network map, and the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). The data was analyzed using descriptive and correlation statistics. Results: Most children had a strong sense of coherence. School life was an important arena for their social network. The mental health was comparable to normal hearing children. Still, some of the children with implants had low SOC and poor mental health. High SOC and closeness of the social network, especially in school, were associated with good mental health. Conclusion: This study shows that Swedish school-aged children with cochlear implants as a group have access to personal and social resources as strong sense of coherence and social networks. Still, there are individual children with psychosocial problems who need support and treatment.

  • 30.
    Arancibia, Elisabeth
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap och medicin.
    Eriksson, Emma
    ”Det klickar i mitt öra…” Objektiv tinnitus orsakad av palatal myoklonus: En forskningsöversikt2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Tinnitus är idag vanligt förekommande och kan klassificeras som antingen subjektiv eller objektiv. Subjektiv tinnitus hörs endast av den drabbade individen, medan objektiv tinnitus kommer från verkliga ljud som kan mätas eller höras av andra. Palatal myoklonus innebär muskelryckningar i palatala muskler och räknas bland muskulära orsaker till objektiv tinnitus.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att belysa objektiv tinnitus orsakad av essentiell palatal myoklonus med avseende på symptombild, diagnostik samt behandling och utfall.

    Metod: En forskningsöversikt har genomförts för att besvara studiens syfte.

    Resultat: Resultatet visar att symptombilden vid essentiell palatal myoklonus främst är objektiv klickande tinnitus, vilken i vissa fall varit mycket svår för individen att hantera och i majoriteten av fallen haft en negativ inverkan på de drabbade individernas livskvalitet. De diagnostiska metoder som används är i många fall mätningar som görs i syfte att utesluta påverkan från andra organ, i synnerhet någon form av neurologisk patologi. Nasal endoskopi, audiologiska utredningar och magnetkameraröntgen är några av de mätmetoder som använts för att ställa korrekt diagnos. Bland behandlingsmetoder nämns främst injektion av botulinumtoxin A i muskler kring mjuka gommen samt farmakologiska behandlingsmetoder, men även ett par mer sällsynta behandlingsmetoder beskrivs såsom radiofrekvensablation av palatala muskler och kirurgisk blockering av örontrumpeten.

    Slutsats: En tidig, korrekt diagnos för den drabbade individen är angelägen då denna objektiva tinnitus kan vara enormt påfrestande. Det föreligger ett behov av kontrollerade studier på ett större antal individer för att fastställa reproducerbarheten i de behandlingsmetoder som idag finns att tillgå.

  • 31.
    Arbin, Linn
    et al.
    Vasteras Hosp, Dept Otorhinolaryngol, S-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Enlund, Mats
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås. Dept Anaesthesiol, Cty Hosp, S-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Knutsson, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning, Västerås. Dept Otorhinolaryngol, Vasteras Cent Hosp, S-72189 Vasteras, Sweden..
    Post-tonsillectomy pain after using bipolar diathermy scissors or the harmonic scalpel: a randomised blinded study2017Inngår i: European Archives of Oto-Rhino-Laryngology, ISSN 0937-4477, E-ISSN 1434-4726, Vol. 274, nr 5, 2281-2285 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    To compare the postoperative pain following bipolar diathermy scissors tonsillectomy (higher temperature dissection) with harmonic scalpel tonsillectomy (lower temperature dissection). Sixty patients aged 7-40 years planned for tonsillectomy with no other concurrent surgery were randomised to either bipolar diathermy scissors or harmonic scalpel as surgical technique. Blinded to the surgical technique, the patients recorded their pain scores (VAS, 0-10) at awakening and the worst pain level of the day in the postoperative period. All intake of pain medication was also recorded. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups regarding postoperative pain levels or consumption of pain medication. Usage of the harmonic scalpel does not render less postoperative pain following tonsillectomy when compared with usage of the bipolar diathermy scissors.

  • 32.
    Arehart, Kathryn H.
    et al.
    University of Colorado Boulder, Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences.
    Souza, Pamela
    Northwestern University, Evanston, Communication Sciences and Disorders.
    Kates, James M.
    University of Colorado Boulder, Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences.
    Lunner, Thomas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Handikappvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten. Linköpings universitet, Institutet för handikappvetenskap (IHV). Snekkersten, Oticon A/S, Eriksholm Research Centre,Denmark.
    Pedersen, Michael Syskind
    Eriksholm Research Centre, Oticon A/S, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Relationship between distortion, hearing loss and working memory for digital noise reduction2015Inngår i: Ear and Hearing, ISSN 0196-0202, E-ISSN 1538-4667, Vol. 36, nr 5, 505-516 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: This study considered speech modified by additive babble combined with noise-suppression processing. The purpose was to determine the relative importance of the signal modifications, individual peripheral hearing loss, and individual cognitive capacity on speech intelligibility and speech quality.

    Design: The participant group consisted of 31 individuals with moderate high-frequency hearing loss ranging in age from 51 to 89 years (mean = 69.6 years). Speech intelligibility and speech quality were measured using low-context sentences presented in babble at several signal-to-noise ratios. Speech stimuli were processed with a binary mask noise-suppression strategy with systematic manipulations of two parameters (error rate and attenuation values). The cumulative effects of signal modification produced by babble and signal processing were quantified using an envelope-distortion metric. Working memory capacity was assessed with a reading span test. Analysis of variance was used to determine the effects of signal processing parameters on perceptual scores. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to determine the role of degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity in individual listener response to the processed noisy speech. The model also considered improvements in envelope fidelity caused by the binary mask and the degradations to envelope caused by error and noise.

    Results: The participants showed significant benefits in terms of intelligibility scores and quality ratings for noisy speech processed by the ideal binary mask noise-suppression strategy. This benefit was observed across a range of signal-to-noise ratios and persisted when up to a 30% error rate was introduced into the processing. Average intelligibility scores and average quality ratings were well predicted by an objective metric of envelope fidelity. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity were significant factors in explaining individual listener’s intelligibility scores for binary mask processing applied to speech in babble. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity did not predict listeners’ quality ratings.

    Conclusions: The results indicate that envelope fidelity is a primary factor in determining the combined effects of noise and binary mask processing for intelligibility and quality of speech presented in babble noise. Degree of hearing loss and working memory capacity are significant factors in explaining variability in listeners’ speech intelligibility scores but not in quality ratings.

  • 33.
    Arlinger, Stig
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Gatehouse, Stuart
    MRC Institute of Hearing Research, Glasgow, Scotland.
    Kiessling, Jürgen
    Department of Audiology Justus-Liebig-Universität, Gießen, Germany.
    Naylor, Graham
    Oticon Research Centre, Eriksholm, Snekkersten, Denmark.
    Verschuure, Hans
    Audiological Centre Erasmus University, Rotterdam, Holland.
    Wouters, Jan
    ExpORL, Department of Neurosciences K. U. Leuven, Belgium.
    The design of a project to assess bilateral versus unilateral hearing aid fitting2008Inngår i: Trends in Amplification, ISSN 1084-7138, Vol. 12, nr 2, 137-144 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Binaural hearing provides advantages over monaural in several ways, particularly in difficult listening situations. For a person with bilateral hearing loss, the bilateral fitting of hearing aids thus seems like a natural choice. However, surprisingly few studies have been reported in which the additional benefit of bilateral versus unilateral hearing aid use has been investigated based on real-life experiences. Therefore, a project has been designed to address this issue and to find tools to identify people for whom the drawbacks would outweigh the advantages of bilateral fitting. A project following this design is likely to provide reliable evidence concerning differences in benefit between unilateral and bilateral fitting of hearing aids by evaluating correlations between entrance data and outcome measures and final preferences. © 2008 Sage Publications.

  • 34.
    Arvidsson Schloenzig, Nina
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Crona, Maja
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    I havet av siffror och bokstäver: En studie om matematik- och lässvårigheter hos barn i andra klass2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    It is not uncommon for math difficulties and reading difficulties to occur simultaneously. Despite this, math and reading difficulties are thought to have different cognitive profiles where math difficulties are linked to number sense; an innate ability to understand, approximate and manipulate both quantities and numerical information, whereas reading difficulties are linked to phonological ability; an innate ability to understand, create representations of and manipulate phonological information. A possible link between the difficulties is that phonological abilities also could affect mathematical ability. Support for this comes from studies where comorbid math and reading difficulties are associated with more severe difficulties in arithmetic ability compared to those with isolated math difficulties. The purpose of this study is to examine whether isolated math difficulties, isolated reading difficulties and comorbid math and reading difficulties can be linked to deficits in number sense, phonological ability or both of these, and whether comorbid math and reading difficulties differ in performance in mathematical tasks compared to isolated math difficulties for children in second grade. The study was carried out by testing 161 second grade children in arithmetic performance, reading performance, number sense and phonological ability. Based on performance in arithmetic and reading participants were divided into four groups: math difficulties (MD), reading difficulties (LD), comorbid math and reading difficulties (MD/LD) and control group. Statistical comparisons between groups were calculated by use of ANCOVAs, with non-verbal intelligence as covariate, and by independent t-test. Results gave partial support for the proposed core deficits for math and reading difficulties respectively, mainly concerning math difficulties and number sense deficits. The MD group performed significantly poorer in the non-symbolic number sense test.The group LD did not perform significantly poorer in respect to any task. The group MD/LD performed significantly poorer regarding subtraction, symbolic number sense tests and phonological awareness. Based on these results it can be discussed whether a link between number sense deficits and phonological awareness deficits may cause difficulty with learning and manipulating symbolic digit number.

  • 35.
    Asker-Arnason, Lena
    et al.
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Centre for Languages and Literature, Department of Linguistics, Lund University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Section of Logopedics, Phoniatrics and Audiology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University.
    Process and product in writing: A methodological contribution to the assessment of written narratives in 8-12 year old Swedish children using ScriptLog2008Inngår i: Logopedics Phoniatrics Vocology, ISSN 1401-5439, Vol. 33, nr 3, 143-152 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Twenty-seven children, with typical language development (TLD), 8-10 years old and 10-12 years old, were assessed with keystroke-logging in order to investigate their narrative writing. Measures of the writing process and the written product were used. One purpose was to explore how children produce written narratives in on-line production, and to relate the writing process to the written product. The results showed that those children who produced the final text faster, also wrote stories that comprised of more words. In the group of older children, children with better narrative ability used less pause time than those with worse ability, and the girls were faster writers than the boys. We believe that keystroke-logging gives valuable information for the assessment of young children's writing and that it is a potentially valid assessment tool for children from about 10 years of age.

  • 36.
    Asker-Árnason, Lena
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Ibertsson, Tina
    Lund University.
    Wass, Malin
    Linköping University.
    Wengelin, Åsa
    Lund University.
    Sahlén, Birgitta
    Lund University.
    Picture-elicited written narratives, process and product, in 18 children with cochlear implants2010Inngår i: Communication Disorders Quarterly, ISSN 1525-7401, E-ISSN 1538-4837, Vol. 31, nr 4, 195-212 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to explore the narrative writing of 18 children, ages 11 to 19, with severe and profound hearing impairment who had cochlear implants (CI), compared with the performance of hearing children. Nine of the 18 children had prelingual deafness and 9 children had postlingual deafness. The hearing impairment was progressive in 11 children. The participants thus formed a heterogeneous group, which was split in two ways: according to age at testing and age at implantation. The narratives were collected by means of keystroke logging. The difference between the children with CI and the hearing children was most prominent for two measures: the percentage of pause time (in the group of children older than 13 years) and lexical density. Furthermore, the children implanted after 5 years of age performed more like the hearing children. This group consisted of children with postlingual deafness and also of children who were deafened progressively. Our interpretation is that these children benefited from the early linguistic input. Taking the whole group of participants into consideration, the results reflect linguistic and cognitive processing limitations in complex linguistic tasks like narration for the children with CI in comparison with their hearing peers.

  • 37.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden; Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten. Region Östergötland, Sinnescentrum, Öron- näsa- och halskliniken US.
    Eskilsson, Gunnar
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neuro- och inflammationsvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Medicinska fakulteten.
    A longitudinal study of the bilateral benefit in children with bilateral cochlear implants2015Inngår i: International Journal of Audiology, ISSN 1499-2027, E-ISSN 1708-8186, Vol. 54, nr 2, 77-88 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To study the development of the bilateral benefit in children using bilateral cochlear implants by measurements of speech recognition and sound localization. Design: Bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet, in multi-source noise, and horizontal sound localization was measured at three occasions during a two-year period, without controlling for age or implant experience. Longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses were performed. Results were compared to cross-sectional data from children with normal hearing. Study sample: Seventy-eight children aged 5.1-11.9 years, with a mean bilateral cochlear implant experience of 3.3 years and a mean age of 7.8 years, at inclusion in the study. Thirty children with normal hearing aged 4.8-9.0 years provided normative data. Results: For children with cochlear implants, bilateral and unilateral speech recognition in quiet was comparable whereas a bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization was found at all three test occasions. Absolute performance was lower than in children with normal hearing. Early bilateral implantation facilitated sound localization. Conclusions: A bilateral benefit for speech recognition in noise and sound localization continues to exist over time for children with bilateral cochlear implants, but no relative improvement is found after three years of bilateral cochlear implant experience.

  • 38.
    Asp, Filip
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Mäki-Torkko, Elina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Karltorp, Eva
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Harder, Henrik
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap.
    Hergils, Leif
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Avdelningen för neurovetenskap.
    Stenfelt, Stefan
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Teknisk audiologi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Hur hör barn med bilaterala cochlea-implantat jämfört med normalhörande?2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 39.
    Asplund, Emilia
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Val med föremål och bilder hos barn i Tanzania med cerebral pares: En interventionsstudie2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that children with multiple disabilities have been able to learn to make choices. Practising choice making is a good way to introduce an intervention using Alternative and Augmentative Communication (AAC). Choice making with objects should then be trainded before choice making with pictures. The present study is a single subject experimental design and was accomplished at a center for children with disabilities in Tanzania during 12 weeks. The primary purpose was to examine if the number of choices made by two boys with cerebral palsy increased after communicationintervention with objects and pictures. The participants were trained to make choices over two intervention phases and the staff were given lectures on two occasions and through tuitions. The number of choices made by the participants as well as the choices offered by the staff, were measured continuously at predetermined activities. The results show that the number of choices with objects and pictures increased in both participants. It was also observed that the interaction between the children and the staff increased. Aspects that are discussed are whether the staff’s ability to offer choices affects the result and that the factors which separate what a “none-choice” is could be defined more clearly.

  • 40.
    Assadian, Farzaneh
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Sandström, Karl
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Bondeson, Kåre
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper, Infektionsmedicin.
    Laurell, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Lidian, Adnan
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Svensson, Catharina
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Akusjärvi, Göran
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Bergqvist, Anders
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Punga, Tanel
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinsk biokemi och mikrobiologi.
    Distribution and Molecular Characterization of Human Adenovirus and Epstein-Barr Virus Infections in Tonsillar Lymphocytes Isolated from Patients Diagnosed with Tonsillar Diseases2016Inngår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 11, nr 5, e0154814Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Surgically removed palatine tonsils provide a conveniently accessible source of T and B lymphocytes to study the interplay between foreign pathogens and the host immune system. In this study we have characterised the distribution of human adenovirus (HAdV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) in purified tonsillar T and B cell-enriched fractions isolated from three patient age groups diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy and chronic/recurrent tonsillitis. HAdV DNA was detected in 93 out of 111 patients (84%), while EBV DNA was detected in 58 patients (52%). The most abundant adenovirus type was HAdV-5 (68%). None of the patients were positive for HCMV. Furthermore, 43 patients (39%) showed a co-infection of HAdV and EBV. The majority of young patients diagnosed with tonsillar hypertrophy were positive for HAdV, whereas all adult patients diagnosed with chronic/recurrent tonsillitis were positive for either HAdV or EBV. Most of the tonsils from patients diagnosed with either tonsillar hypertrophy or chronic/recurrent tonsillitis showed a higher HAdV DNA copy number in T compared to B cell-enriched fraction. Interestingly, in the majority of the tonsils from patients with chronic/recurrent tonsillitis HAdV DNA was detected in T cells only, whereas hypertrophic tonsils demonstrated HAdV DNA in both T and B cell-enriched fractions. In contrast, the majority of EBV positive tonsils revealed a preference for EBV DNA accumulation in the B cell-enriched fraction compared to T cell fraction irrespective of the patients' age.

  • 41.
    Atturo, Francesca
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Barbara, Maurizio
    Rask-Andersen, Helge
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Is the Human Round Window Really Round?: An Anatomic Study With Surgical Implications2014Inngår i: Otology and Neurotology, ISSN 1531-7129, E-ISSN 1537-4505, Vol. 35, nr 8, 1354-1360 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hypothesis: Human round window (RW) presents anatomic variations that may influence surgical approach. Background: The true shape of the human RW has been divisive since its first description in 1772 by Antonio Scarpa. Introduction of novel surgical strategies in recent years have raised its significance. Here, the human RW size and shape variations were documented in microdissected human temporal bones. Methods: An archival collection of human microdissected temporal bones was analyzed. RW rim could be delineated and photographed from the labyrinthine aspect and its topography assessed. Results: Human RW is seldom round but ovoid or orthogonal, skewed, and nonplanar (saddlelike). Membrane is fan shaped or conical with an anteroinferior and a posterosuperior part. The mean longest diameter was 1.90 mm, and the smallest one is 1.54 mm. The mean diameter from the crista fenestra was 1.31 mm. The mean area of the RW was 2.08 mm(2), which varied between 0.99 and 3.20 mm(2). The crista fenestrae of the anterior component form a "doorstep" that may limit the entry to the scala tympani from the RW niche. Conclusion: The alternate anatomic features of the human RW may influence its surgical access and designs of implants aimed at targeting this region.

  • 42.
    Axelsson, Arvid
    et al.
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Hammar, Magnus
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Träning av frekvensdiskriminering - är det meningsfullt?2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna experimentella studie syftar till att undersöka huruvida en eventuell träningseffekt i 

    frekvensdiskrimination kvarstår efter en tids träningsuppehåll. Tidigare forskning har visat 

    tydliga samband mellan frekvensdiskriminering och talutveckling, kortikal signalbehandling 

    och dyslexi. Det har klargjorts genom tidigare studier att förmågan att diskriminera frekvenser 

    är möjligt att träna upp. Därmed är träning i frekvensdiskrimination en lämplig del i en 

    behandlingsmetod med syfte att utveckla den auditiva perceptionen. Denna studie undersöker 

    de praktiska förutsättningarna till denna behandlingsmetod genom att utreda varaktigheten av 

    den eventuella träningseffekten 14 dagar efter träningen. 24 normalhörande personer deltog i 

    studien där försökspersonernas förmåga att frekvensdiskriminera undersöktes med hjälp av ett 

    egenutvecklat mjukvaruprogram. Först uppmättes försökspersonernas förmåga när de var 

    otränade (mätning 1). Sedan genomfördes ett träningspass som följdes av en mätning 

    (mätning 2). Efter 14 dagar genomfördes ytterligare en mätning för att undersöka den 

    bestående effekten (mätning 3). 

    Resultatet visade (när tre outliers exkluderats) en signifikant skillnad mellan mätning 1 och 2 

    (p=0,034) vilket innebär att en omedelbar träningseffekt erhölls. Ingen signifikant skillnad 

    kunde påvisas mellan mätning 2 och 3 (p=0,952) men en signifikant skillnad erhölls mellan 

    mätning 1 och 3 (p=0,031) vilket påvisar att den omedelbara träningseffekten kvarstod efter 

    de gångna 14 dagarna. 

  • 43.
    Axelsson, Inge
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Mölstad, S
    Mindre antibiotika ska ges vid öroninflammation. Aktiv exspektans gäller för 1–12-åringar – tonåringar och vuxna får antibiotika: [Less antibiotics should be used for acute otitis media]. Medicinsk kommentar [commissioned editorial].2011Inngår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 108, nr 19, 1044-1045 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 44.
    Backlund, Ann-Christin
    Örebro universitet, Hälsoakademin.
    Grad av nöjdhet och ökad livskvalitet hos uni- respektive bilaterala hörapparatanvändare2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 45.
    Backlund, Caroline
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Wallner, Maria
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet.
    Stamningsbehandling enligt Lidcombeprogrammet: En långtidsuppföljning av svensktalande förskolebarn2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to study the long-term effects of stuttering treatment according to the Lidcombe Program in Sweden and to answer questions whether underlying factors may have affected the treatment results. Participants were seven children, one girl and six boys aged 7:10-14:2, who all completed Stage 1 of the program approximately 2-7 years ago.The children were video recorded during a conversation with one of the authors and while reading aloud. Before the recording, their parents estimated the level of stuttering according to a Severity Range (SR) Scale. The evaluations were used as reference for determining whether the recordings were representative for the children´s current speech fluency. Proportions of stuttered syllables (%SS) were calculated from the video recorded material and compared with the proportions of stuttered syllables (%SS) at the time when the first stage of the program was initiated.The results showed that the Lidcombe Program had a significant (z=-2.37, p=0.02) long term effect on stuttering treatment for the participants in this study. The effect size was calculated to 1.05, which indicates a large effect. No correlation between underlying factors and treatment results could be established at group level. However, the results showed differences among the participants and underlying factors as age at stuttering onset and age when treatment was introduced may have affected the treatment results.This is one of the very first long term follow-ups on Swedish preschool children that have been treated according to the Lidcombe Program and the authors hope to see further research.

  • 46.
    Backlund, Charlotte
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Lindström, Emma
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Stavningsförmåga och allografisk förmåga hos vuxna personer med dyslexi: Preklinisk validering av STAVUX och Kasttranskription2010Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att ta reda på om STAVUX (stavningstest för vuxna) och Kasttranskription är lämpliga test att använda vid dyslexiutredningar av vuxna, då det idag saknas sådana test som är normerade på personer över 18 år. STAVUX är ett stavningstest som framtogs av Nilsson och Pettersson (2009) och som består av 45 ord och 45 nonord av varierande svårighetsgrad. Orden är utvalda för att representera svenskans olika stavningskombinationer och nonorden är konstruerade för att följa svenskans ljudmässiga uppbyggnad. En mellangruppsdesign användes för att ta reda på om STAVUX är ett lämpligt test att använda vid utredning av stavningssvårigheter i samband med dyslexiutredningar. Testet validerades på 23 personer med dyslexi i åldrarna 18-64 år. Dyslexigruppens resultat testades mot en kontrollgrupp på 23 personer i åldrarna 18-62 år. I denna studie undersöktes även om det fanns något samband mellan stavningsförmåga och allografisk. Deltagarna fick utföra en kasttranskriptionsuppgift, som innebar att de, på tid, skulle konvertera gemener till versaler och versaler till gemener. Testet heter Kasttranskription och utformades av Hansson och Häägg (2008). Resultaten av denna studie visar att framförallt orddelen i STAVUX kan bidra till prediktionen av dyslexi. Dyslexigruppen presterade signifikant sämre än kontrollgruppen på båda deltesten (orddelen och nonorddelen). Båda grupper följde samma mönster vad gäller typ av stavfel. Flertalet deltagare i respektive grupp utförde Kasttranskription korrekt. Det fanns däremot en signifikant skillnad mellan grupperna i hur lång tid det tog att utföra Kasttranskription. Dyslexigruppen presterade signifikant sämre tidsmässigt jämfört med kontrollgruppen. Deltesten i STAVUX och Kasttranskription var starkt korrelerade med varandra.

  • 47.
    Backlund, Josefine
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Lindqvist, Anna
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för neurovetenskap, Logopedi.
    Snabb automatiserad benämning som screeninginstrument vid kognitiva störningar: En klinisk studie baserad på AQT2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    A Quick Test (AQT) Färg och Form är ett test av snabb automatiserad benämning avsett att detektera kognitiva störningar. Det består av tre delar som var och en utgörs av 40 visuella stimuli som skall benämnas så snabbt som möjligt. Tidigare studier har indikerat att AQT skiljer personer med Alzheimers sjukdom från friska kontroller med högre precision än det ofta använda Mini-Mental-Testet (MMT). I denna studie undersöktes för första gången om AQT-resultat kunde predicera diagnosen hos en konsekutiv serie patienter vid en minnesklinik samt relationen mellan AQT-resultat och biomarkörer (likvorproteiner) för neurodegenerativ sjukdom. 492 svarsblanketter från AQT Färg och Form analyserades och diagnostisk prediktion samt korrelation med nivån av likvorproteiner fastställdes för de 374 första patienterna i serien. Resultaten tyder på att AQT Färg och Form kan vara känsligt för vissa lindriga kognitiva sviktsymptom som förekommer hos personer remitterade för minnesbesvär men inte alltid känsligt för lindriga grader av demens. AQT-data korrelerade måttligt med nivån av patologiska likvorproteiner, troligen avspeglande förhöjda nivåer i Alzheimergruppen. Ytterligare forskning på konsekutiva fallserier behövs för att fastställa testets diagnostiska diskriminationsförmåga i klinisk praxis.

  • 48. Bagger-Sjoback, Dan
    et al.
    Strömbäck, Karin
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Hultcrantz, Malou
    Papatziamos, Georgios
    Smeds, Henrik
    Danckwardt-Lillieström, Niklas
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för kirurgiska vetenskaper, Öron-, näs- och halssjukdomar.
    Tideholm, Bo
    Johansson, Ann
    Hellstrom, Sten
    Hakizimana, Pierre
    Fridberger, Anders
    High-frequency hearing, tinnitus, and patient satisfaction with stapedotomy: A randomized prospective study2015Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 5, 13341Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Otosclerosis is a common disorder that leads to conductive hearing loss. Most patients with otosclerosis also have tinnitus, and surgical treatment is known to improve hearing as well as tinnitus. Some patients however experience worsening of tinnitus after the operation, but there are no known factors that allow surgeons to predict who will be at risk. In this prospective observational study on 133 patients undergoing stapedotomy, we show that postoperative air conduction thresholds at very high stimulus frequencies predict improvement of tinnitus, as assessed with proportional odds logistic regression models. Young patients were significantly more likely to experience reduction of tinnitus and patients whose tinnitus became better were also more satisfied with the outcome of the operation. These findings have practical importance for patients and their surgeons. Young patients can be advised that surgery is likely to be beneficial for their tinnitus, but a less positive message should be conveyed to older patients.

  • 49.
    Baguley, David
    et al.
    Cambridge University, UK.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för beteendevetenskap och lärande, Psykologi. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    McFerran, Don
    Consultant Otolaryngologist, Colchester, Essex, UK.
    McKenna, Laurence
    Royal National Throat, Nose and Ear Hospital, London, UK.
    Tinnitus: a multidisciplinary approach2013 (oppl. 2)Bok (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Tinnitus: A Multidisciplinary Approachprovides a broad account of tinnitus and hyperacusis, detailing the latest research and developments in clinical management, incorporating insights from audiology, otology, psychology, psychiatry and auditory neuroscience. It promotes a collaborative approach to treatment that will benefit patients and clinicians alike.

    The 2nd edition has been thoroughly updated and revised in line with the very latest developments in the field. The book contains 40% new material including two brand new chapters on neurophysiological models of tinnitus and emerging treatments; and the addition of a glossary as well as appendices detailing treatment protocols for use in an audiology and psychology context respectively.

  • 50.
    Bakke, Merete
    et al.
    Köpenhamns Universitet.
    Bergendal, Birgitta
    Jönköping.
    McAllister, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin, Logopedi. Linköpings universitet, Hälsouniversitetet. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för klinisk och experimentell medicin.
    Sjogreen, L.
    Göteborg University.
    Asten, P.
    Lovisenberg Diakonale Hospital.
    Development and evaluation of a comprehensive screening for orofacial dysfunction.2007Inngår i: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 31, nr 2, 75-84 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim was to develop a comprehensive screening instrument for evaluation of orofacial dysfunction that was easy to perform for different health professionals without special equipment. The Nordic Orofacial Test - Screening (NOT-S), consisting of a structured interview and clinical examination, was developed with a picture manual illustrating the different tasks in the examination. It was first tested in a Swedish version, and later translated to other Nordic languages, and to English.

             The interview reflected six domains, (I) Sensory function, (II) Breathing, (III) Habits, (IV) Chewing and swallowing, (V) Drooling, and (VI) Dryness of the mouth, and the examination included six domains representing (1) The face at rest, and tasks regarding (2) Nose breathing, (3) Facial expression, (4) Masticatory muscle and jaw function, (5) Oral motor function, and (6) Speech. One or more “yes” for impairment in a domain resulted in one point (maximum NOT-S score 12 points).

             The mean NOT-S score (±SD) in 120 patients (3-86 yr), referred to five centers for specialized dental care or speech and language pathology in Sweden, Norway and Denmark, was 4.1±2.6, and 0.4±0.6 in 60 control subjects (3-78 yr). The screening was easy to administer and the time spent 5-13 min. The scores from the clinic-referred sample differed significantly from the controls, and the sensitivity of the screening was 0.96 and specificity 0.63. Repeated evaluations of videotapes of 20 patients by 3 examiners, speech-language pathologists and dentists, with at least two-week intervals, showed inter- and intraexaminer agreement on the points given in the domains at respectively 83% and 92-95% which increased after recalibration to 85% and 95-99%. Kappa values for interexaminer agreement on the NOT-S scores were 0.42-0.44 (i.e. fair), and the method error was 5.3%. To conclude, NOT-S gave a reliable and valid screening for orofacial dysfunction.

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