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  • 1.
    Abrahamsson, Louise
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring.
    Improving methane production using hydrodynamic cavitation as pre-treatment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    To develop anaerobic digestion (AD), innovative solutions to increase methane yields in existing AD processes are needed. In particular, the adoption of low energy pre-treatments to enhance biomass biodegradability is needed to provide efficient digestion processes increasing profitability. To obtain these features, hydrodynamic cavitation has been evaluated as an innovative solutions for AD of waste activated sludge (WAS), food waste (FW), macro algae and grass, in comparison with steam explosion (high energy pre-treatment). The effect of these two pre-treatments on the substrates, e.g. particle size distribution, soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biodegradability rate, have been evaluated. After two minutes of hydrodynamic cavitation (8 bar), the mean fine particle size decreased from 489- 1344 nm to 277- 381 nm (≤77% reduction) depending of the biomasses. Similar impacts were observed after ten minutes of steam explosion (210 °C, 30 bar) with a reduction in particle size between 40% and 70% for all the substrates treated.  In terms of BMP value, hydrodynamic cavitation caused significant increment only within the A. nodosum showing a post treatment increment of 44% compared to the untreated value, while similar values were obtained before and after treatment within the other tested substrates. In contrast, steam explosion allowed an increment for all treated samples, A. nodosum (+86%), grass (14%) and S. latissima (4%). However, greater impacts where observed with hydrodynamic cavitation than steam explosion when comparing the kinetic constant K. Overall, hydrodynamic cavitation appeared an efficient pre-treatment for AD capable to compete with the traditional steam explosion in terms om kinetics and providing a more efficient energy balance (+14%) as well as methane yield for A. nodosum.

  • 2.
    Acevedo Gomez, Yasna
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lindbergh, Göran
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Lagergren, Carina
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Reformate from biogas used as fuel in a PEM fuel cell2013Inngår i: EFC 2013 - Proceedings of the 5th European Fuel Cell Piero Lunghi Conference, 2013, 163-164 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a PEM fuel cell can be easily degraded by introducing impurities in the fuel gas. Since reformate of biogas from olive mill wastes will contain at least one third of carbon dioxide, its influence was studied on a PtRu catalyst. A clean reformate gas for the anode (67% H2 and 33% CO2) without any traces of other compounds was used and electrochemical measurements showed that the performance of the fuel cell was hardly affected. However, diluting the hydrogen with higher amounts of CO2 will reduce the performance remarkably.

  • 3.
    Alvfors, Per
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Arnell, Jenny
    IVL.
    Berglin, Niklas
    Innventia.
    Björnsson, Lovisa
    LU.
    Börjesson, Pål
    LU.
    Grahn, Maria
    Chalmers/SP.
    Harvey, Simon
    Chalmers.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    Innventia.
    Holmgren, Kristina
    IVL.
    Jelse, Kristian
    IVL.
    Klintbom, Patrik
    Kusar, Henrik
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Lidén, Gunnar
    LU.
    Magnusson, Mimmi
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Energiprocesser.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers.
    Rydberg, Tomas
    IVL.
    Sjöström, Krister
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Stålbrand, Henrik
    LU.
    Wallberg, Ola
    LU.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    LiU.
    Zacchi, Guido
    LU.
    Öhrman, Olof
    ETC Piteå.
    Research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors – three illustrative examples: Improvement potential discussed in the context of Well-to-Tank analyses2010Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Currently biofuels have strong political support, both in the EU and Sweden. The EU has, for example, set a target for the use of renewable fuels in the transportation sector stating that all EU member states should use 10% renewable fuels for transport by 2020. Fulfilling this ambition will lead to an enormous market for biofuels during the coming decade. To avoid increasing production of biofuels based on agriculture crops that require considerable use of arable area, focus is now to move towards more advanced second generation (2G) biofuels that can be produced from biomass feedstocks associated with a more efficient land use. Climate benefits and greenhouse gas (GHG) balances are aspects often discussed in conjunction with sustainability and biofuels. The total GHG emissions associated with production and usage of biofuels depend on the entire fuel production chain, mainly the agriculture or forestry feedstock systems and the manufacturing process. To compare different biofuel production pathways it is essential to conduct an environmental assessment using the well-to-tank (WTT) analysis methodology. In Sweden the conditions for biomass production are favourable and we have promising second generation biofuels technologies that are currently in the demonstration phase. In this study we have chosen to focus on cellulose based ethanol, methane from gasification of solid wood as well as DME from gasification of black liquor, with the purpose of identifying research and development potentials that may result in improvements in the WTT emission values. The main objective of this study is thus to identify research and development challenges for Swedish biofuel actors based on literature studies as well as discussions with the the researchers themselves. We have also discussed improvement potentials for the agriculture and forestry part of the WTT chain. The aim of this study is to, in the context of WTT analyses, (i) increase knowledge about the complexity of biofuel production, (ii) identify and discuss improvement potentials, regarding energy efficiency and GHG emissions, for three biofuel production cases, as well as (iii) identify and discuss improvement potentials regarding biomass supply, including agriculture/forestry. The scope of the study is limited to discussing the technologies, system aspects and climate impacts associated with the production stage. Aspects such as the influence on biodiversity and other environmental and social parameters fall beyond the scope of this study. We find that improvement potentials for emissions reductions within the agriculture/forestry part of the WTT chain include changing the use of diesel to low-CO2-emitting fuels, changing to more fuel-efficient tractors, more efficient cultivation and manufacture of fertilizers (commercial nitrogen fertilizer can be produced in plants which have nitrous oxide gas cleaning) as well as improved fertilization strategies (more precise nitrogen application during the cropping season). Furthermore, the cultivation of annual feedstock crops could be avoided on land rich in carbon, such as peat soils and new agriculture systems could be introduced that lower the demand for ploughing and harrowing. Other options for improving the WTT emission values includes introducing new types of crops, such as wheat with higher content of starch or willow with a higher content of cellulose. From the case study on lignocellulosic ethanol we find that 2G ethanol, with co-production of biogas, electricity, heat and/or wood pellet, has a promising role to play in the development of sustainable biofuel production systems. Depending on available raw materials, heat sinks, demand for biogas as vehicle fuel and existing 1G ethanol plants suitable for integration, 2G ethanol production systems may be designed differently to optimize the economic conditions and maximize profitability. However, the complexity connected to the development of the most optimal production systems require improved knowledge and involvement of several actors from different competence areas, such as chemical and biochemical engineering, process design and integration and energy and environmental systems analysis, which may be a potential barrier.

  • 4.
    Andersson, Henny
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Lindmark, Johan
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Jansson, Joakim
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik, Framtidens energi.
    Suhonen, Anssi
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Jääskeläinen, Ari
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Reijonen, Tero
    Savonia University of Applied Sciences.
    Laatikainen, Reino
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Heitto, Anneli
    Finnoflag.
    Hakalehto, Elias
    Finnoflag.
    Technical Output Report – Pilot A in Sweden2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Andersson, Jim
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Lundgren, Joakim
    Luleå University of Technology, Sweden.
    Malek, Laura
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Hultegren, Christian
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Karin
    Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Wetterlund, Elisabeth
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Energisystem. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    System studies on biofuel production via integrated biomass gasification2013Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    A large number of national and international techno-economic studies on industrially integrated gasifiers for production of biofuels have been published during the recent years. These studies comprise different types of gasifiers (fluidized bed, indirect and entrained flow) integrated in different industries for the production of various types of chemicals and transportation fuels (SNG, FT-products, methanol, DME etc.) The results are often used for techno-economic comparisons between different biorefinery concepts. One relatively common observation is that even if the applied technology and the produced biofuel are the same, the results of the techno-economic studies may differ significantly.

    The main objective of this project has been to perform a comprehensive review of publications regarding industrially integrated biomass gasifiers for motor fuel production. The purposes have been to identify and highlight the main reasons why similar studies differ considerably and to prepare a basis for “fair” techno-economic comparisons. Another objective has been to identify possible lack of industrial integration studies that may be of interest to carry out in a second phase of the project.

    Around 40 national and international reports and articles have been analysed and reviewed. The majority of the studies concern gasifiers installed in chemical pulp and paper mills where black liquor gasification is the dominating technology. District heating systems are also well represented. Only a few studies have been found with mechanical pulp and paper mills, steel industries and the oil refineries as case basis. Other industries have rarely, or not at all, been considered for industrial integration studies. Surprisingly, no studies regarding integration of biomass gasification neither in saw mills nor in wood pellet production industry have been found.

    There are several reasons why the results of the reviewed techno-economic studies vary. Some examples are that different system boundaries have been set and that different technical and economic assumptions have been made, product yields and energy efficiencies may be calculated using different methods etc. For obvious reasons, the studies are not made in the same year, which means that different monetary exchange rates and indices have been applied. It is therefore very difficult, and sometimes even impossible, to compare the technical as well as the economic results from the different studies. When technical evaluations are to be carried out, there is no general method for how to set the system boundaries and no right or wrong way to calculate the system efficiencies as long as the boundaries and methods are transparent and clearly described. This also means that it becomes fruitless to compare efficiencies between different concepts unless the comparison is done on an exactly equal basis.

    However, even on an equal basis, a comparison is not a straight forward process. For example, calculated efficiencies may be based on the marginal supply, which then become very dependent on how the industries exploit their resources before the integration. The resulting efficiencies are therefore very site-dependent. Increasing the system boundaries to include all in- and outgoing energy carriers from the main industry, as well as the integrated gasification plant (i.e. total plant mass and energy balance), would inflict the same site-dependency problem. The resulting system efficiency is therefore a measure of the potential improvement that a specific industry could achieve by integrating a biomass gasification concept.

    When estimating the overall system efficiency of industrial biorefinery concepts that include multiple types of product flows and energy sources, the authors of this report encourage the use of electrical equivalents as a measure of the overall system efficiency. This should be done in order to take the energy quality of different energy carriers into concern.

    In the published economic evaluations, it has been found that there is a large number of studies containing both integration and production cost estimates. However, the number of references for the cost data is rather limited. The majority of these have also been published by the same group of people and use the same or similar background information. The information in these references is based on quotes and estimates, which is good, however none of these are publically available and therefore difficult to value with respect to content and accuracy.

    It has further been found that the variance in the operational costs is quite significant. Something that is particularly true for biomass costs, which have a high variance. This may be explained by natural variations in the quality of biomass used, but also to the different markets studied and the dates when the studies were performed. It may be seen from the specific investment costs that there is a significant spread in the data. It may also be seen that the differences in capital employed and process yields will result in quite large variations in the production cost of the synthetic fuels. On a general note, the studies performed are considering future plants and in some cases assumes technology development. It is therefore relevant to question the use of today’s prices of utilities and feedstock’s. It is believed that it would be more representative to perform some kind of scenario analysis using different parameters resulting in different cost assumptions to better exemplify possible futures.

    Due to the surprising lack of reports and articles regarding integration of biomass gasifiers in sawmills, it would be of great interest to carry out such a study. Also larger scale wood pellet production plants could be of interest as a potential gasification based biorefinery.

  • 6.
    Andersson Schönn, Mikael
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström, Molekylär biomimetik.
    Promoter regulation: designing cells for biotechnological applications2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133 is a model species fordevelopment of sustainable production methods of numerous compounds. One of its uniquefeatures is the anaerobic environment of the strains nitrogen fixing heterocyst cells. To be ableto properly utilize this environment, more knowledge regarding what regulates cell specificexpression is required. In this study, three motifs of the NsiR I promoter of Anabaena sp.PCC 7120 was studied in this system utilizing YFP-fluorescence as a reporter to determinetheir impact on spatial expression pattern. Investigations were performed on immobilizedcells with the use of confocal microscopy and results point towards sigma factor regulation.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Simon
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för miljö- och livsvetenskaper.
    Pellet production of Sicklebush, Pigeon Pea, and Pine in Zambia: Pilot Study and Full Scale Tests to Evaluate Pellet Quality and Press Configurations2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    More deaths are caused every year by indoor air pollution than malaria, HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis combined. Cooking with traditional fuels such as charcoal and fuelwood with poor ventilation causes the single most important environmental health risk factor worldwide. It also contributes to environmental issues such as deforestation as traditional biomass fuels and cooking stoves are inefficient and requires large quantities of wood. This is especially critical in Africa where the largest regional population growth in the world is expected to occur.

    A solution to these issues was realized through fuel pellets and modern cooking stoves by Emerging Cooking Solutions, a company started by two Swedes and based in Zambia. The production of fuel pellets in Zambia is dependent on pine sawdust from small sawmills and is a declining source of raw material. However, other sources of biomass are available in Zambia such as pigeon pea stalk, an agricultural waste product, and sicklebush, an invasive tree species. If these species are viable for pelletization, the production of pellets can increase while reducing issues with sicklebush and promoting cultivation of pigeon pea. The aim of this work is to evaluate if pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush are viable to pelletize in Zambia and how the press is affected by the different raw materials.

    A pilot study is done at Karlstad University with a single unit press, hardness tester and soxhlet extractor to evaluate how the material constituents correlate to friction in the press channel and hardness of the pellets. The results of the pilot study provide support for full scale tests done in a pellet plant in Zambia. The normal production of pellets from pine sawdust is used as quality and production reference for the tests with pigeon pea stalk, sicklebush, and different mixes of the raw materials. The properties used to evaluate the quality of the pellets are hardness, durability, moisture content, bulk density, and fines. The press configuration is evaluated by logging the electricity consumption by the press motor, calculating the power and specific energy consumption from the logs, and observations during the tests.

    The results show that sicklebush, and mixes of sicklebush with pigeon pea stalk can produce pellets with better quality than the reference pine pellets. An interesting composition is a mix of 80% pigeon pea and 20% sicklebush that produces pellets with the best quality of all the tests. However, pellets produced from sicklebush and pigeon pea show a larger variation in hardness as compared to the reference pellets from pine sawdust. Mixing pigeon pea with pine reduces these variations but reduces the hardness of the pellets below the reference. The press struggles to process sicklebush and pigeon pea stalk with fluctuating power consumption that causes the motor to trip. The inhomogeneity of the materials in sicklebush and pigeon pea are identified to cause the issues in the press. Production improvements are discussed to facilitate the production of pigeon pea stalk and sicklebush pellets.

  • 8.
    Basu, Alex
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för biologisk grundutbildning.
    Relation between hydrogen production and photosynthesis in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The modernized world is over-consuming low-cost energy sources that strongly contributes to pollution and environmental stress. As a consequence, the interest for environmentally friendly alternatives has increased immensely. One such alternative is the use of solar energy and water as a raw material to produce biohydrogen through the process of photosynthetic water splitting. In this work, the relation between H2-production and photosynthesis in the green algae Chlamydomonas reinhardtii was studied with respect to three main aspects: the establishment of prolonged H2-production, the involvement of PSII in H2-production and the electron pathways associated with PSII during H2-production. For the first time, this work reveals that PSII plays a crucial role throughout the H2-producing phase in sulfur deprived C. reinhardtii. It further reveals that a wave-like fluorescence decay kinetic, before only seen in cyanobacteria, is observable during the H2-producing phase in sulfur deprived C. reinhardtii, reflecting the presence of cyclic electron flows also in green algae. 

  • 9.
    Berghel, Jonas
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Renström, Roger
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för teknik- och naturvetenskap, Avdelningen för energi-, miljö- och byggteknik.
    Kullendorff, Anders
    Biobränsletorkning - en lägesrapport projektet Fluidtork1996Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10. Bergström, Dan
    et al.
    Israelsson, Samuel
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Dahlqvist, Sten-Axel
    Gref, Rolf
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Wästerlund, Iwan
    Effects of raw material particle size distribution on the characteristics of Scots pine sawdust fuel pellets2008Inngår i: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, Vol. 89, nr 12, 1324-1329 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In order to study the influence of raw material particle size distribution on the pelletizing process and the physical and thermomechanical characteristics of typical fuel pellets, saw dust of Scots pine was used as raw material for producing pellets in a semi industrial scaled mill (similar to 300 kg h(-1)). The raw materials were screened to a narrow particle size distribution and mixed into four different batches and then pelletized under controlled conditions. Physical pellet characteristics like compression strength, densities, moisture content, moisture absorption and abrasion resistance were determined. In addition, the thermochemical characteristics, i.e. drying and initial pyrolysis, flaming pyrolysis, char combustion and char yield were determined at different experimental conditions by using a laboratory-scaled furnace. The results indicate that the particle size distribution had some effect on current consumption and compression strength but no evident effect on single pellet and bulk density, moisture content, moisture absorption during storage and abrasion resistance. Differences in average total conversion time determined for pellet batches tested under the same combustion conditions was less than 5% and not significant. The results are of practical importance suggesting that grinding of saw dust particle sizes below 8 mm is probably needless when producing softwood pellets. Thus it seem that less energy could be used if only over sized particles are grinded before pelletizing.

  • 11.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Usage of Biofuels in Sweden2013Inngår i: CSR-2 Catalyst for renewable sources: Fuel, Energy, Chemicals Book of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibrisk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, 5-7 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, biofuels have come into substantial use, in an extent that are claimed to be bigger than use of fossil oil. One driving force for this have been the CO2-tax that was introduced in 1991 (1). According to SVEBIO:s calculations (2) based on the Swedish Energy Agency´s prognosis, the total energy consumption in Sweden 2012 was 404 TWh. If the figure is broken down on the different energy sources (figure 1) one can see that the consumption roughly distribute in three different, equally sized, blocks, Biofuels, fossil fuels and water & nuclear power. The major use of the fossil fuels is for transport and the water & nuclear power is used as electric power. The main use of the biofuels is for heating in the industrial sector and as district heating. In 2009 the consumption from those two segments was 85 TWh, and 10 TWh of bio power was co-produced giving an average biomass to electricity efficiency of 12%. This indicates a substantial conversion potential from hot water production to combined heat and power (CHP) production. in Sweden 2013 broken down on the different energy sources. In 2006 the pulp, paper and sawmill industry accounted for 95% of the bio energy consumption in the industrial sector, and the major biofuel consumed was black liquor (5). However, the pulp and paper industries also produced the black liquor in their own processes. The major energy source (58%) for district heating during 2006 was woody biomass (chips, pellets etc.) followed by waste (24%), peat (6%) and others (12%) (5). The use of peat has probably decreased since 2006 since peat is no longer regarded as a renewable energy source. While the use of biofuel for heating purpose is well developed and the bio-power is expected to grow, the use in the transport sector is small, 9 TWh or 7% in 2011. The main consumption there is due to the mandatory addition (5%) of ethanol to gasoline and FAME to diesel (6). The Swedish authorities have announced plans to increase the renewable content to 7.5 % in 2015 on the way to fulfill the EU’s goal of 10 % renewable transportation fuels in 2020. However the new proposed fuel directive in EU says that a maximum of 5% renewable fuel may be produced from food sources like sugars and vegetable oils. Another bothersome fact is that, in principle, all rape seed oil produced in Sweden is consumed (95-97%) in the food sector, and consequently all FAME used (in principle) in Sweden is imported as FAME, rape seed oil or seed (6). In Sweden a new source of biodiesel have emerged, tall oil diesel. Tall oil is extracted from black liquor and refined into a diesel fraction (not FAME) and can be mixed into fossil diesel, i.e. Preem Evolution diesel. The SUNPINE plant in Piteå have a capacity of 100 000 metric tons of tall oil diesel per annum, while the total potential in all of Sweden is claimed to be 200 000 tons (7). 100 000 tons of tall oil corresponds to 1% of the total diesel consumption in Sweden. in Sweden for 2010 and a prognosis for 2014. (6). Accordingly, the profoundest task is to decrease the fossil fuel dependency in the transport sector, and clearly, the first generation biofuels can´t do this on its own. Biogas is a fuel gas with high methane content that can be used in a similar way to natural gas; for instance for cooking, heating and as transportation fuel. Today biogas is produced by fermentation of waste (municipal waste, sludge, manure), but can be produced by gasification of biomass, for instance from forest residues such as branches and rots (GROT in Swedish). To get high efficiency in the production, the lower hydrocarbons, mainly methane, in the producer gas, should not be converted into synthesis gas. Instead a synthesis gas with high methane content is sought. This limits the drainage of chemically bonded energy, due to the exothermic reaction in the synthesis step (so called methanisation). In 2011 0.7 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden by fermentation of waste (6) and there were no production by gasification, at least not of economic importance. The potential seems to be large, though. In 2008 the total potential for biogas production, in Sweden, from waste by fermentation and gasification was estimated to 70 TWh (10 TWh fermentation and 60 TWh gasification) (8). This figure includes only different types of waste and no dedicated agricultural crops or dedicated forest harvest. Activities in the biogas sector, by gasification, in Sweden are the Göteborgs energi´s Gobigas project in Gothenburg and Eon´s Bio2G-project, now pending, in south of Sweden. If the producer gas is cleaned and upgraded into synthesis gas also other fuels could be produced. In Sweden methanol and DME productions are planned for in the Värmlands metanol-project and at Chemrecs DME production plant in Piteå.

  • 12.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för bygg- och energiteknik (BE).
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola .
    Leveau, Andreas
    Biofuel-Solutions AB.
    Selective Catalysts for Glycerol Dehydration2013Inngår i: CRS-2, Catalysis for Renewable Sources: Fuel,Energy,ChemicalsBook of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, 17-18 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

     There has been an increased interest over the last decade for replacing fossil based feedstock’s with renewable ones. There are several such feedstock’s that are currently being investigated such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, triglycerides etc. However, when trying to perform selective reactions an as homogeneous feedstock as possible is preferable. One such feedstock example is glycerol, a side-product from biofuels production, which is a tri-alcohol and thus has much flexibility for reactions, e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, addition reactions etc. Glycerol in itself is a good starting point for fine chemicals production being non-toxic and available in rather large quantities [1-2]. A key reaction for glycerol valorisation is the dehydration of glycerol to form acrolein, an unsaturated C3 aldehyde, which may be used for producing acrylic acid, acrylonitrile and other important chemcial products. It has recently been shown that pore-condensation of glycerol is an issue under industrial like conditions, leading to liquid-phase reactions and speeding up the catalyst activity and selectivity loss [3]. To address this issue, modified catalyst materials have been prepared where the relevant micro and meso pores have been removed by thermal sintering; calculations have shown that pores below 45 Å may be subject to pore condensation. The catalyst starting material was a 10% WO3 by weight supported on ZrO2 in the form of beads 1–2 mm and it was thermally treated at 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 700°C, 800°C, 850°C, 900°C and 1000°C for 2 hours. The catalysts were characterised using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), Raman spectroscopy and ammonia temperature programmed desorption. The thermal sintered catalysts show first of all a decreasing BET surface area with sintering commencing between 700°C and 800°C when it decreases from the initial 71 m2/g to 62 m2/g and at 1000°C there is a mere 5 m2/g of surface area left. During sintering, the micro and meso-porosity is reduced as evidenced by MIP and depicted in figure 1. As may be seen in the figure, sintering decrease the amount of pores below and around 100 Å is reduced at a sintering temperature of 800°C and above. The most suitable catalyst based on the MIP appears to be the one sintered at 850°C which is further strengthened by the Raman analysis. There is a clear shift in the tungsten structure from monoclinic to triclinic between 850°C and 900°C and it is believed that the monoclinic phase is important for activity and selectivity. Further, the heat treatment shows that there is an increase in catalyst acidity measured as mmol NH3/(m2/g) but a decrease in the acid strength as evidenced by a decrease in the desorption peak maximum temperature.

     

  • 13.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lund University .
    Poisoning of SCR Catalysts used in Municipal Waste Incineration Applications2017Inngår i: Topics in catalysis, ISSN 1022-5528, E-ISSN 1572-9028, Vol. 60, nr 17-18, 1306-1316 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A commercial vanadia, tungsta on titania SCRcatalyst was poisoned in a side stream in a waste incinerationplant. The effect of especially alkali metal poisoningwas observed resulting in a decreased activity at long timesof exposure. The deactivation after 2311 h was 36% whilethe decrease in surface area was only 7.6%. Thus the majorcause for deactivation was a chemical blocking of acidicsites by alkali metals. The activation–deactivation modelshowed excellent agreement with experimental data. Themodel suggests that the original adsorption sites, fromthe preparation of the catalyst, are rapidly deactivated butare replaced by a new population of adsorption sites dueto activation of the catalyst surface by sulphur compounds(SO2, SO3)in the flue gas.

  • 14.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Tunér, Martin
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Odenbrand, Ingemar
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola.
    Small Scale Gasifiction: Gas Engine CHP for Biofuels2011Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In a joint project, Linnaeus University in Växjö (LNU) and the Faculty of Engineering at Lund University (LTH) were commissioned by the Swedish Energy Agency to make an inventory of the techniques and systems for small scale gasifier-gas engine combined heat and power (CHP) production and to evaluate the technology. Small scale is defined here as plants up to 10 MWth, and the fuel used in the gasifier is some kind of biofuel, usually woody biofuel in the form of chips, pellets, or sawdust. The study is presented in this report.

    The report has been compiled by searching the literature, participating in seminars, visiting plants, interviewing contact people, and following up contacts by e-mail and phone.

    The first, descriptive part of the report, examines the state-of-the-art technology for gasification, gas cleaning, and gas engines. The second part presents case studies of the selected plants:

    • Meva Innovation’s VIPP-VORTEX CHP plant
    • DTU’s VIKING CHP plant
    • Güssing bio-power station
    • Harboøre CHP plant
    • Skive CHP plant

    The case studies examine the features of the plants and the included unit operations, the kinds of fuels used and the net electricity and overall efficiencies obtained. The investment and operating costs are presented when available as are figures on plant availability. In addition we survey the international situation, mainly covering developing countries.

    Generally, the technology is sufficiently mature for commercialization, though some unit operations, for example catalytic tar reforming, still needs further development. Further development and optimization will probably streamline the performance of the various plants so that their biofuel-to-electricity efficiency reaches 30-40 % and overall performance efficiency in the range of 90 %.

    The Harboøre, Skive, and Güssing plant types are considered appropriate for municipal CHP systems, while the Viking and VIPP-VORTEX plants are smaller and considered appropriate for replacing hot water plants in district heating network. The Danish Technical University (DTU) Biomass Gasification Group and Meva International have identified a potentially large market in the developing countries of Asia.

    Areas for suggested further research and development include:

    • Gas      cleaning/upgrading
    • Utilization      of produced heat
    • System      integration/optimization
    • Small scale      oxygen production
    • Gas engine      developments
  • 15. Capablo, Joaquin
    et al.
    Arendt Jensen, Peter
    Hougaard Pedersen, Kim
    Hjuler, Klaus
    Nikolaisen, Lars
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Frandsen, Flemming
    Ash properties of alternative biomass2009Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 23, 1965-1976 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ash behavior during suspension firing of 12 alternative solid biofuels, such as pectin waste, mash from a beer brewery, or waste from cigarette production have been studied and compared to wood and straw ash behavior. Laboratory suspension firing tests were performed on an entrained flow reactor and a swirl burner test rig, with special emphasis on the formation of fly ash and ash deposit. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were performed to support the interpretation of the experiments. To generalize the results of the combustion tests, the fuels are classified according to fuel ash analysis into three main groups depending upon their ash content of silica, alkali metal, and calcium and magnesium. To further detail the biomass classification, the relative molar ratio of Cl, S, and P to alkali were included. The study has led to knowledge on biomass fuel ash composition influence on ash transformation, ash deposit flux, and deposit chlorine content when biomass fuels are applied for suspension combustion.

  • 16.
    Choong, Ferdinand X.
    et al.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Bäck, Marcus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Steiner, Svava E.
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Melican, Keira
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Peter
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Edlund, Ulrica
    KTH Royal Institute Technology, Sweden.
    Richter-Dahlfors, Agneta
    Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Nondestructive, real-time determination and visualization of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin by luminescent oligothiophenes2016Inngår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, 35578Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Enabling technologies for efficient use of the bio-based feedstock are crucial to the replacement of oil-based products. We investigated the feasibility of luminescent conjugated oligothiophenes (LCOs) for non-destructive, rapid detection and quality assessment of lignocellulosic components in complex biomass matrices. A cationic pentameric oligothiophene denoted p-HTEA (pentamer hydrogen thiophene ethyl amine) showed unique binding affinities to cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and cellulose nanofibrils in crystal, liquid and paper form. We exploited this finding using spectrofluorometric methods and fluorescence confocal laser scanning microscopy, for sensitive, simultaneous determination of the structural and compositional complexities of native lignocellulosic biomass. With exceptional photostability, p-HTEA is also demonstrated as a dynamic sensor for real-time monitoring of enzymatic cellulose degradation in cellulolysis. These results demonstrate the use of p-HTEA as a non-destructive tool for the determination of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in complex biomass matrices, thereby aiding in the optimization of biomass-converting technologies.

  • 17.
    Cuvilas, Carlos Alberto
    et al.
    Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Jirjis, R.
    Swedish University for Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Department of Energy and Technology, Sweden .
    Lucas, C.
    Energy situation in Mozambique: A review2010Inngår i: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 14, nr 7, 2139-2146 s.Artikkel, forskningsoversikt (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The need to increase energy security and promote development, especially in rural areas has forced many developing countries in southern Africa, like Mozambique to take several actions toward development of several infrastructures and legislations for production and use of liquid biofuels. The main objective of this study is to present the energy situation in Mozambique and assess the potential for energy generation from widely available renewable sources including residues from agricultural crops and forest industry. The country is endowed with great potential for biofuels, solar, hydro and wind energy production. The energy production today is, however, far from fulfilling energy needs of the country, and the majority of people are still not benefiting from these resources. The potential of total residues from agricultural sector and forest industry is estimated to be around 128 PJ. This amount of energy covers almost half of the combined production of charcoal and firewood which amounted to approximately 298 PJ in 2006. However, such amount of energy resources is wasted and is not visible on national energy statistics.

  • 18.
    Daianova, Lilia
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Thorin, Eva
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Yan, Jinyue
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Dotzauer, Erik
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för ekonomi, samhälle och teknik.
    Locally produced bioethanol for a regional self-sufficient transport fuel system2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 19.
    Dias Batista, Edgard
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Etanolens hållbarhet – en litteraturöversikt2012Rapport (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [sv]

    Etanol är ett omdebatterat bränsle bland miljödebattörer och politiker, men även bland forskare. I denna studie har 192 vetenskapligt granskade artiklar om etanol studerats och slutsatserna kvantifierats. Slutsatserna har delats in i sex frågeområden, utöver de övergripande slutsatser om etanol som hållbart drivmedel. Litteraturstudien visar att en majoritet av artiklarna har slutsatser som är positiva till att använda etanol som biodrivmedel. Sammanställningen över artiklarnas övergripande slutsatser, som är den viktigaste frågan i studien, visar att 65 procent av slutsatserna är positiva eller mycket positiva, 10 procent av artiklarna är neutrala eller ofullständiga, medan summan av de negativa och helt negativa slutsatserna är 25 procent. Inom samtliga sex områden är andelen positiva slutsatser högre än de negativa. Frågan där fördelningen är jämnast gäller den om etanolens inverkan på livsmedelspriser och livsmedelsproduktion där 54 procent av artiklarna var positiva eller mycket positiva till använda etanol som drivmedel. 43 procent var negativa eller mycket negativa.

  • 20.
    Enefalk, Tommy
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Ersöz, Timur
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    Optimal rening av biogas för småskalig produktion och användning: En studie om energioptimering av biogasanläggningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogas är ett förnybart bränsle, och intresset för detta bränsle ökar runt om i världen. För att kunna använda biogas som fordonsbränsle måste biogasen uppgraderas innan användning. Koldioxid och andra föroreningar skiljs av, så att metanhalten i den råa biogasen höjs och gasen kan användas i motorer. Flera olika reningstekniker finns, men detta arbete fokuserar på vattenskrubbning. Arbetet syftar till att undersöka den optimala metanhalten i biogasen med hänsyn till nettoenergin och livslängden för de motorer som används. Undersökningen fokuserar på reningsprocessen i biogasproduktionen på små och mellanstora gårdar. Arbetet utfördes genom att ställa upp en energibalans över komponenterna i biogasproduktionen. Energibalansen användes för att skapa en matematisk modell av anläggningen, och beräkningarna gjordes med datorprogrammet Matlab. Den optimala metanhalten för biogasen beräknades till kring 80 % (78 – 83 %) vilket är lägre än den gräns på 85 % som rekommenderas av andra källor. Reningsanläggningens eget energibehov befanns motsvara 2,5 – 8,6 % av biogasens energiinnehåll, beroende på om högtryckskompression används eller inte. Dessa värden har god överensstämmelse med tidigare forskning. Den beräknade metanhalten är inte så låg så att motorernas livslängd förkortas nämnvärt, men det finns en risk för misständningar som kan ge skador på katalysatorn. Eftersom den beräknade metanhalten är lägre än 85 % är det lämpligt att genomföra ytterligare tester för att avgöra om gasen är lämplig som fordonsbränsle. Resultaten påverkas kraftigt av motorns verkningsgrad, vilket också är ett relevant ämne för framtida studier. 

  • 21.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik. Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Bisaillon, Mattias
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Haraldsson, Mårten
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Sundberg, Johan
    Profu AB, Mölndal, Sweden.
    Enhancement of biogas production from food waste and sewage sludge: environmental and economic life cycle performance2016Inngår i: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 175, 33-39 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of municipal solid waste is an efficient method to increase resource efficiency, as well as to replace fossil fuels with renewable energy sources due to that (1) waste to a large extent is renewable as it consists of food waste, paper, wood etc. and (2) when energy and materials are recovered from waste treatment, fossil fuels can be substituted. In this paper results from a comprehensive system study of future biological treatment of readily degradable waste in two Swedish regions are presented. Different collection and separation systems for food waste in households have been applied as well as technical improvements of the biogas process as to reduce environmental impact. The results show that central sorting of a mixed fraction into recyclables, combustibles, biowaste and inert is a competitive option compared to source separation. Use of pellets is beneficial compared to direct spreading as fertiliser. Fuel pellets seem to be the most favourable option, which to a large extent depends on the circumstances in the energy system. Separation and utilisation of nitrogen in the wet part of the digestion residue is made possible with a number of technologies which decreases environmental impact drastically, however to a substantial cost in some cases.

  • 22.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Hadin, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Hennessy, Jay
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Hästkrafter och hästnäring – hållbara systemlösningar för biogas och biogödsel: Explorativ systemanalys med datormodellen ORWARE2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet hästar i Sverige ökar och enligt beräknad statistik från Jordbruksverket finns det uppskattningsvis 360 000 hästar i landet. Dessa hästar återfinns i olika typer av verksam­heter (jordbruk, turridning, trav och galopp med mera) och ger upphov till stora mängder hästgödsel. Hästgödsel består av fekalier, urin och strömaterial där olika strömaterial används olika mycket. Hanteringen av hästgödseln medför miljöproblem då miljöstö­rande ämnen avges vid nedbrytning av det organiska materialet, samtidigt som växtnä­ringsämnen inte återförs till kretsloppet. Intresset för att kunna röta hästgödseln och till­verka biogas har ökat i och med ett ökat intresse för biogas som förnybart drivmedel.

    Denna studie har haft som mål att belysa miljöpåverkan från olika sätt att hantera häst­gödsel i ett systemperspektiv. Särskild uppmärksamhet har riktats mot inblandningen av olika typer av strömedel och hur det påverkar effektiviteten i olika behandlingsprocesser. Behandlingsmetoderna som undersökts är

    1. Okontrollerad kompostering
    2. Kontrollerad kompostering
    3. Storskalig förbränning i ett avfallskraftvärmeverk
    4. Torkning och småskalig förbränning
    5. Torrötning
    6. Våtrötning med och utan termisk förbehandling

    Till följd av betydande dataosäkerhet i undersökningen är resultaten endast indikativa men de pekar ändå på storskalig förbränning som en miljömässigt bra metod. Undantag utgör bidrag till klimatpåverkan där rötning i olika former är att föredra. Utifrån under­sökningen av olika strömaterial framstår pappersströ som ett intressant alternativ att gå vidare med.

    Den övergripande slutsatsen är att mer forskning behövs för att säkerställa kvaliteten i kommande undersökningar, det vill säga en samlad forskningsinsats från hästhållning till avfallshantering. 

  • 23.
    Eriksson, Ola
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Hadin, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Hennessy, Jay
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden, Borås, Sweden; University of Mälardalen, Västerås, Sweden.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Life cycle assessment of horse manure treatment2016Inngår i: Energies, ISSN 1996-1073, E-ISSN 1996-1073, Vol. 9, nr 12, 1011Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Horse manure consists of feces, urine, and varying amounts of various bedding materials. The management of horse manure causes environmental problems when emissions occur during the decomposition of organic material, in addition to nutrients not being recycled. The interest in horse manure undergoing anaerobic digestion and thereby producing biogas has increased with an increasing interest in biogas as a renewable fuel. This study aims to highlight the environmental impact of different treatment options for horse manure from a system perspective. The treatment methods investigated are: (1) unmanaged composting; (2) managed composting; (3) large-scale incineration in a waste-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plant; (4) drying and small-scale combustion; and (5) liquid anaerobic digestion with thermal pre-treatment. Following significant data uncertainty in the survey, the results are only indicative. No clear conclusions can be drawn regarding any preference in treatment methods, with the exception of their climate impact, for which anaerobic digestion is preferred. The overall conclusion is that more research is needed to ensure the quality of future surveys, thus an overall research effort from horse management to waste management.

  • 24.
    Evangelopoulos, Panagiotis
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Kantarelis, Efthymios
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Experimental Investigation of Pyrolysis of Printed Circuit Boards for Energy and Materials Recovery under Nitrogen and Steam Atmosphere2017Inngår i: 8th International Conference on Applied Energy, ICAE 2016; Beijing; China; 8 October 2016 through 11 October 2016, Elsevier, 2017, Vol. 105, 986-991 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Printed circuit boards (PCB) are one of the most challenging fractions of e-waste in terms of material recycling and energy recovery. In this study, pyrolysis of PCBs in inert and steam atmosphere has been investigated as a valuable alternative for energy recovery of the organic fraction with simultaneous recycling of metals. The decomposition of two different PCB fractions has been investigated by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and lab scale pyrolysis experiments in steam and nitrogen atmospheres. The composition of the gas obtained from the pyrolysis experiments was strongly influenced by the reactive atmosphere. The characterization of the solid residue by X-ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed high influence of steam to the migration of the antimony in the produced vapors.

  • 25.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    et al.
    Umeå University ; Umeå Marine Sciences Centre.
    Rowe, O. F.
    Umeå University ; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för Hälso- och livsvetenskap (FHL), Institutionen för biologi och miljö (BOM).
    Andersson, Agneta
    Umeå University ; Umeå Marine Sciences Centre.
    Allochthonous Carbon-a Major Driver of Bacterioplankton Production in the Subarctic Northern Baltic Sea2016Inngår i: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 71, nr 4, 789-801 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Heterotrophic bacteria are, in many aquatic systems, reliant on autochthonous organic carbon as their energy source. One exception is low-productive humic lakes, where allochthonous dissolved organic matter (ADOM) is the major driver. We hypothesized that bacterial production (BP) is similarly regulated in subarctic estuaries that receive large amounts of riverine material. BP and potential explanatory factors were measured during May-August 2011 in the subarctic Råne Estuary, northern Sweden. The highest BP was observed in spring, concomitant with the spring river-flush and the lowest rates occurred during summer when primary production (PP) peaked. PLS correlations showed that ∼60 % of the BP variation was explained by different ADOM components, measured as humic substances, dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and coloured dissolved organic matter (CDOM). On average, BP was threefold higher than PP. The bioavailability of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (ADOC) exhibited large spatial and temporal variation; however, the average value was low, ∼2 %. Bioassay analysis showed that BP in the near-shore area was potentially carbon limited early in the season, while BP at seaward stations was more commonly limited by nitrogen-phosphorus. Nevertheless, the bioassay indicated that ADOC could contribute significantly to the in situ BP, ∼60 %. We conclude that ADOM is a regulator of BP in the studied estuary. Thus, projected climate-induced increases in river discharge suggest that BP will increase in subarctic coastal areas during the coming century.

  • 26.
    García López, Natxo
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Biomass utilization for energy purposes in Kenya: Fuel characteristics and thermochemical properties2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Around forty percent of the world´s population, mostly inhabitants of countries with developing economies, rely on the traditional usage of biomass for energy purposes. The major negative consequences are environmental and health effects. Additionally, the most remarkable social consequence is rural poverty which is directly linked to lack of access to electricity. This places the questions related to biomass utilization for energy production at the core of global welfare.

    The present work was performed as a part of a larger research project funded by Formas and which involves Swedish and Kenyan partners. The aim of this study was to gather basic knowledge about the characteristics of relevant biomass from sub-Saharan Africa, more specifically from Kenya. Eight different types of biomass, including agroforestry trees, agricultural residues, and water hyacinth, were evaluated according to fuel characteristics and thermochemical properties. Ultimate and proximate analyses of the collected biomass were carried out, in addition to heating values analyses. Moreover, the biomass was pelletized and a thermogravimetric analysis was performed in a single pellet reactor.  Finally, the composition of the residual ashes was determined. The results show that there was a large variation in the fuel characteristics and thermochemical behaviour of the studied agricultural residues and water hyacinth biomass types, whereas agroforestry trees had rather similar properties and thermochemical behaviour when combusted at the same temperature. In addition, results from the ash composition analyses showed large differences among the studied biomass types, which can be used to better predict and solve problems related to the combustion of these biomass types. 

  • 27.
    Giagkalos, Panagiotis
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Industriell ekologi (flyttat 20130630).
    Scenario Development for the City of Stockholm Towards a Fossil Fuel Free City by 20502012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The City of Stockholm’s energy and climate goals are analyzed and projected in several scenarios. Using the year 2015 as the baseline year, a database covering the energy performance and fuel use within the City is created. This starting point is used to project the performance of the City until the year 2050. The projection is made with the use of scenarios and the simulation software LEAP by formulating scenarios that combine ongoing, planned and conceivable measures. All these scenarios aim to the reduction of emissions with the long term aim to set the City of Stockholm a fossil fuel free city by 2050. Various paths can be followed towards that goal and these are analyzed and classified based on cost and applicability. According to the simulation of scenarios, the immediate action and the long-term planning are shown to play an essential role in achieving the City’s goals. In addition, the significance of policy, the behavioral aspect and the continuous gradual development are found to be three basic pillars towards the target that the City has set. Specifically, the City should focus on energy efficiency in both generation and utilization. Available technology can help to this direction at an affordable cost and with remarkable potential. However, in order to achieve the target of an entirely fossil fuel free city by the year 2050, the City of Stockholm needs to support a shift of transportation modes towards public transport. Currently, the transportation sector has a low share of clean fuels and is likely going to be the most challenging sector to affect. Among the challenges in the transportation sector comes the fact that there is always a given risk when trying to introduce a new dominant fuel, based on assumptions of future car fleets and volatility of markets. Biofuels may for instance lead to a shortage in the market with higher biofuel and food prices as a result while changing the entire vehicle fleet takes 20 years on average. The best possible scenario does demonstrate one possible path toward a fossil fuel free City of Stockholm 2050 by taking a number of aggressive actions. This does not account for possible new technologies nor changes in the economy at large.

  • 28. Gilbe, Carl
    et al.
    Lindström, Erica
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik, Energiteknik och termisk processkemi.
    Samuelsson, Robert
    Burvall, Jan
    Ohman, Marcus
    Predicting slagging tendencies for biomass pellets fired in residential appliances: a comparison of different prediction methods2008Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 22, nr 6, 3680-3686 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper, a comparison between four different types (both empirical and theoretical) of techniques to predict the slagging tendencies in residential pellet combustion appliances was performed. The four techniques used were the standard ash fusion test (SS ISO-540) used in the Swedish pellet standard (SS 18 7120), thermal analysis (TGA/DTA), thermochemical model calculations, and a laboratory-scale sintering test. The tests were performed with 12 pelletized biomass raw materials, and the results were compared with measured slagging tendencies in controlled combustion experiments in a commercial under-fed pellet burner (20 kW) installed in a reference boiler. The results showed significant differences in the prediction of slagging tendencies between different predicting techniques and fuels. The method based on thermal analysis (TGA/DTA) of produced slags must be further developed before useful information could be provided of the slagging behavior of different fuels. The used sintering method must also be further improved before the slagging tendency of fuels forming slags extremely rich in silicon (e.g., some grasses) can be predicted. Relatively good agreement was obtained between results from chemical equilibrium calculations and the actual slagging tendencies from the combustion tests. However, the model calculations must be further improved before quantitative results can be used. The results from the standard ash fusion test (SS ISO 540) showed, in general, relatively high deformation temperatures, therefore predicting a less problematic behavior of the fuels in comparison to the actual slagging tendencies obtained from controlled combustion experiments in commercial pellet burner equipment. Nevertheless, the method predicted, in most cases, the same fuel-specific slagging (qualitatively) trends as the corresponding combustion behavior.

  • 29.
    Gregeby, Erik
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Welander, Ulrika
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Provrötning av marina substrat i laboratorie- och pilotskala: Delstudie i projektet Biogas – Nya substrat från havet2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna rapport omfattar delstudie 4 av projektet Biogas-Nya substrat från havet. Inom delstudien har ett antal provrötningar av substrat från havet (vass, musslor, alger och skrapsill) genomförts. Syftet med delstudien var att få fram metanpotentialen för de olika substraten och att öka kunskapen kring hur dessa substrat uppför sig i en biogasprocess. Projektet var ett samverkansprojekt delfinansierat av EU Regionala fonden för Småland och öarna. Projektledare var Regionförbundet i Kalmar län. Inledningsvis genomfördes ett antal satsvisa försök med samtliga substrat. Metanpotentialerna för vassen, musslorna, algerna respektive skarpsillen var 400, 270, ca 210 och 460 Ndm3/kg VS. Ymp hämtades från Kalmar Biogas ABs industriella rötkammare. Vassen samrötades också med industriellt avfall i ett kontinuerligt våtrötningsförsök. Försöket genomfördes i två total omrörda tankreaktorer med volymen 30 l/st. Tillsatsen av vass gav en utökad metanproduktion med 220 Ndm3/kgVS.

    Vassen och musslorna studerades också i torrötningsförsök. Försöken i laboratorieskala genomfördes vid Avdelningen för Bioteknik i Lund medan försöket med musslor i pilotskala genomfördes vid Avdelningen för Bioenergiteknik, Linnéuniversitet. Metanpotentialen för vassen var i torrötningsförsöket ca 220 Ndm3/kg VS vilket är lika med potentialen i våtrötningsförsöket. För musslorna erhölls en metanpotential på 330 Ndm3/kg VS i laboratorieskaleförsöket. Pilotskaleförsöket visade att hydrolysen etablerades på likartat sätt som i laboratorieskaleförsöket. Metanhalten var ca 70 %. En visuell inspektion av musslorna efter rötningen visade också att endast skalen återstod. Det är dock inte möjligt att ange en metanpotential från detta försök beroende på ett antal tekniska problem med processen. Processen byggdes inför detta försök och det fanns inte tid att testköra den samma före försökets start.Arbetet med de satsvisa försöken och det kontinuerliga våtrötningsförsöket av vass genomfördes i samarbete med Kalmar Biogas AB. Detta bland annat genom att Kalmar Biogas AB tillhandahöll sin försöksanläggning med satsvisa och kontinuerliga reaktorer till projektet.

  • 30.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Characteristics of aerosol particles from steam and oxygen gasification of various biofuels2010Inngår i: 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition: From resarch to industry and markets, ETA Renewable Energies and WIP Renewable Energies , 2010, 900-902 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigated how the characteristics of the particulate matter (PM) from steam and oxygen gasification of biomass were affected by the biofuel used. The results show that the biofuel had a large impact on the fine mode PM generated during the gasification, both on the particle size distribution and on the elementary composition. When using miscanthus as fuel, high concentrations of ultrafine particles consisting of potassium chloride were formed compared to when using high- and low-quality wood (wood A and wood B) as fuels. The impact of the biofuel on the coarse mode PM was less in this study. Large amounts of bed material dominated the coarse fraction. However, heavy metals were detected in the coarse mode PM when using wood B, constituting treated wood, as fuel.

  • 31.
    Gustafsson, Eva
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Lin, Leteng
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Characterization of particulate matter in the hot product gas from atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers2011Inngår i: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, E-ISSN 1873-2909, Vol. 35, nr Supplement 1, 71-78 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares the characteristics of particulate matter (PM) in the hot product gas from three different atmospheric fluidized bed biomass gasifiers: a bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) gasifier, a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) gasifier, and an indirect BFB gasifier (the latter integrated with a CFB boiler). All gasifiers displayed a bimodal particle mass size distribution with a fine mode in the <0.5 μm size range and a coarse mode in the >0.5 μm size range. Compared with the mass concentration of the coarse mode the mass concentration of the fine mode was low in all gasifiers. For both the BFB and CFB gasifiers the fine-mode PM had a similar inorganic composition, indicating an origin from the ash and the magnesite bed material used in both gasifiers. In the indirect BFB gasifier the fine-mode PM was instead dominated by potassium and chlorine, and the tar fraction properties evoked tar condensation in the sampling system that affected mainly the fine-mode PM. The coarse-mode PM in the BFB gasifier was dominated by char fragments abraded from the pyrolyzed wood pellets. In the CFB gasifier the coarse-mode PM was mainly ash and magnesite bed material that passed through the process cyclone. In the indirect BFB gasifier the coarse-mode PM was mainly ash, probably originating both from the BFB gasifier and the CFB boiler.

  • 32.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Haus, Sylvia
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Ortiz, Carina
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Sathre, Roger
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Dynamic impacts of forest residues on primary energy use and greenhouse gas emissions2014Inngår i: The 9th Conference on Sustainable Development of Energy, Water and Environment Systems - SDEWES. September 20 - 27, 2014, Venice-Istanbul, 2014Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 33.
    Gustavsson, Leif
    et al.
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Truong, Nguyen Le
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Bioenergy pathways for cars: Effects on primary energy use, climate change and energy system integration2016Inngår i: Energy, ISSN 0360-5442, E-ISSN 1873-6785, Vol. 115, nr 3, 1779-1789 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Different pathways and technologies can be used to convert woody biomass to transport services, but the biomass use and climate implications vary strongly between the alternatives. This study focuses on primary energy use and climate change effects of using bioenergy for transportation in the context of a renewable-based energy system. Integrated pathways to improve the energy efficiency of power and transportation sectors and integrated intermittent renewable energy are considered. The results show that the bioenergy pathway that produces biomotor fuels to replace fossil fuels leads to high primary energy use and instantaneous biogenic CO2 emission per km of driving distance, thus increasing global warming during the first 40e50 years, compared to fossil alternatives. The electric vehicle pathway using bioelectricity from combined heat and power plants leads to immediate global cooling and much greater climate benefits in the long run compared to biomotor fuels. Climate change effects of light-duty vehicles could be strongly reduced by changes in technology together with system integration that links the transport sector to the electricity and heating sectors. The use of biomass should be considered in the context of the overall integrated energy system, and in relation to the development of energy conversion technologies between different sectors.

  • 34.
    Hadin, Åsa
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Anaerobic digestion of horse manure: renewable energy and plant nutrients in a systems perspective2016Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In horse keeping horse manure is produced, which can be utilized as a fertilizer or considered a waste. Horse manure constitutes a resource in terms of both plant nutrients and energy. In addition energy policies and objectives aim at replacing fossil fuels with renewable energy sources. The interest to improve resource recovery of horse manure increases due various incentives for renewable vehicle fuels, legal requirements on management of manure, and environmental impact from current horse manure management.

    This thesis aims at describing horse manure management in a life cycle perspective. This is made by (1) identifying factors in horse keeping affect­ing the possibility to use horse manure as a biogas feedstock and to recycle plant nutrients, (2) analysing factors in anaerobic digestion with influence on methane potential and biofertilizer nutrient content and (3) comparing the environmental impact from different horse manure treatment methods. Literature reviews, systematic combining, and simulations have been used as research methods.

    The results show that horse keeping activities such as feeding, indoor keeping, outdoor keeping and manure storage affect the amount and charac­teristics of horse manure and thereby also the possibilities for anaerobic digestion horse manure. Transport affects the collected amount and spread­ing affects loss of nutrients and nutrient recycling. Simulation results in­dicate the highest methane yield and energy balance from paper bedding, while straw and peat gave a higher nutrient content of the biofertilizer. The highest methane yield was achieved with a low rate of bedding, which in the cases of woodchips and paper is also preferable for plant nutrient recycling. Still, results indicate the best energy balance from anaerobic digestion with a high ratio of bedding. The environmental impact assessment indicates a reduction in global warming potential for anaerobic digestion compared to incineration or composting.

  • 35.
    Hadin, Åsa
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik, Miljöteknik.
    Energi och växtnäring från hästgödsel: Förbehandling, rötning och biogödselavsättning2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet hästar i samhället ökar och idag finns det enligt Jordbruksverket drygt 360 000 hästar i Sverige, där tre fjärdedelar återfinns inom tätorter eller i tätortsnära miljöer. Alla dessa hästar skall enligt beräkningar ge upphov till en total gödselmängd på uppemot 1,4 miljoner ton per år. Om denna gödsel rötas effektivt motsvarar detta en årlig biogaspro­duktion på 641 GWh, vilket är knappt hälften av all biogas som producerades i Sverige 2010. Även om det föreligger en del praktiska begränsningar i hur mycket av potentialen som kan utnyttjas så finns här trots allt en betydande potential till ökad användning av förnybar energi. Genom att samla in gödseln och röta den uppnås tre miljövinster:

    1. Utsläppen från konventionell hantering där gödseln ligger kvar eller komposteras upphör.
    2. Rötning av gödseln ger upphov till biogas som kan användas för att generera el och värme eller, efter rening, som fordonsbränsle; därigenom kan utsläpp från fossila bränslen reduceras.
    3. Den efter processen uppkomna biogödseln kan användas inom jordbruket och däri­genom ersätta konstgödsel varigenom ytterligare miljövinster uppstår.

    Trots alla dessa möjligheter finns det dock en del hinder och kunskapsluckor. I denna rapport görs en systematisk genomgång av kunskapsläget angående hästgödselhantering, förbehandlingsmetoder, rötningsmetoder för hästgödsel samt aspekter på spridning av biogödsel från hästgödsel. I denna del görs i huvudsak kvalitativa beskrivningar medan kommande rapporter redovisar indikativa beräkningar av miljövinsterna med olika sätt att ställa om hanteringen.

    Slutsatserna är att det finns många faktorer som talar för att utvinna energi från häst­gödsel som t.ex. att det finns betydande gödselmängder relativt nära tätorter, att halm som strömaterial ger ett tillskott i biogasproduktionen, att det finns gott om mark för spridning av biogödsel och att en förbättrad hästgödselhantering även är en bra vattenskyddsåtgärd. På den negativa sidan finns att rötning av hästgödsel är relativt oprövat och att det är svårt att bedöma hur ökade kostnader för avfallshantering påverkar hästnäringen. En annan slutsats är att det överlag saknas kunskap om hästgödsel ur ett miljöperspektiv på en sådan nivå som krävs för tillförlitliga miljöbedömningar. Vi hoppas trots detta kunna föreslå systemlösningar som i högre utsträckning än tidigare ska kunna visa sig fungera tekniskt och vara genomförbara ekonomiskt. Om dessa systemlösningar omsätts i praktisk verklighet kan miljövinster göras genom minskad klimatpåverkan, minskad övergödning, ökad biologisk mångfald och minskad användning av ändliga resurser.

  • 36.
    Haglund, Emelie
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Industriell miljöteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Systematisk bedömning av våtmarksväxter som substrat för biogasproduktion2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Två miljöproblem idag är ökade koncentrationer av växthusgaser i atmosfären och övergödning. Därför är två utmaningar att reducera utsläppen av växthusgaser och flöden av näringsämnen. Ytterligare en utmaning är att trygga energiförsörjningen i en värld där efterfrågan på energi ökar. Nya förnybara energikällor behöver utvecklas både för att trygga energiförsörjningen men även för att minska användandet av fossil energi. En förnybar energikälla är biogas som kan användas till el, värme och fordonsgas. Det förutspås att substrat för biogasproduktion kommer vara en bristvara i framtiden, därför behöver nya substrat utvärderas. Våtmarksväxter är ett alternativt substrat för biogasproduktion och utvärderades i den här studien. Våtmarker och dess växter är intressanta att studera eftersom de kan reducera koncentrationen näringsämnen som når sjöar och hav och kan därför bidra till att minska problemen med övergödning. 

     

    Studien genomfördes inom ett projekt vid Biogas Research Center och var en litteraturstudie med studie av ett fall. Metoden som användes har arbetats fram i projektet och är en multikriteriaanalys, (MCA), vilket innebär att det är flera olika områden som studeras. Områdena tar hänsyn till biologiska, ekonomiska, kemiska, miljömässiga och tekniska aspekter. För att strukturera upp informationen användes en matris som bestod av de olika huvudområdena som studerades. För att tydliggöra möjligheter och hinder gjordes en semi-kvalitativ bedömning av varje huvudområde.

     

    Fallet som studerades var en våtmark i odlingslandskapet. Våtmarken är 5 ha och återskapades för några år sedan för att fungera som kväve- och fosforkälla.

    Det finns ingen växtlighet i våtmarken eftersom den är relativt ny. De växter som studerades under studien var därför växter som är tänkbara att växa i våtmarken i framtiden. Växterna som studerades var vass, rörflen och bredkaveldun. I våtmarken finns möjlighet att reglera vattennivån och därmed tömma den på vatten för att underlätta skörd.

     

    Resultatet visade att den teknik som finns idag för skörd och sönderdelning behöver utvecklas eftersom den inte motsvarar de krav som ställs. Det finns olika tekniker för rötning och eftersom växterna har hög torrsubstanshalt är torrötning att föredra eller ett tvåstegssystem där första steget är torrötning. En våtmark ger en relativt liten mängd biomassa och därför passar det bättre att röta växterna tillsammans med andra substrat till exempel på en gårdsbiogasanläggning.

     

    Våtmarksväxter är inte godkända substrat för certifiering av biogödsel, vilket kan vara ett hinder. Biogödseln har även ett lågt värde eftersom växterna innehåller låg halt näringsämnen.

    Våtmarker reducerar mängden näringsämnen och skörd kan bidra till att retentionen av fosfor ökar. Samtidigt avger våtmarker metan och lustgas som påverkar växthuseffekten. 

    Idag finns det ingen ekonomisk lönsamhet att skörda våtmarker. Ett system där ersättning fås för miljönyttan som skörd ger är ett alternativ för att öka lönsamheten.

  • 37.
    Hallingback, Henrik R.
    et al.
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Fogelqvist, Johan
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Powers, Stephen J.
    Rothamsted Res, Computat & Syst Biol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Turrion-Gomez, Juan
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Rossiter, Rachel
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Amey, Joanna
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Martin, Tom
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Weih, Martin
    Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Dept Crop Prod Ecol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Gyllenstrand, Niclas
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Karp, Angela
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Lagercrantz, Ulf
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Växtekologi och evolution.
    Hanley, Steven J.
    Rothamsted Res, AgroEcol Dept, Harpenden AL5 2JQ, Herts, England..
    Berlin, Sofia
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Roennberg-Wastljung, Ann-Christin
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Uppsala BioCtr, Dept Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.;Linnean Ctr Plant Biol, POB 7043, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Association mapping in Salix viminalis L. (Salicaceae) - identification of candidate genes associated with growth and phenology2016Inngår i: Global Change Biology Bioenergy, ISSN 1757-1693, E-ISSN 1757-1707, Vol. 8, nr 3, 670-685 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Willow species (Salix) are important as short-rotation biomass crops for bioenergy, which creates a demand for faster genetic improvement and breeding through deployment of molecular marker-assisted selection (MAS). To find markers associated with important adaptive traits, such as growth and phenology, for use in MAS, we genetically dissected the trait variation of a Salix viminalis (L.) population of 323 accessions. The accessions were sampled throughout northern Europe and were established at two field sites in Pustnas, Sweden, and at Woburn, UK, offering the opportunity to assess the impact of genotype-by-environment interactions (GxE) on trait-marker associations. Field measurements were recorded for growth and phenology traits. The accessions were genotyped using 1536 SNP markers developed from phenology candidate genes and from genes previously observed to be differentially expressed in contrasting environments. Association mapping between 1233 of these SNPs and the measured traits was performed taking into account population structure and threshold selection bias. At a false discovery rate (FDR) of 0.2, 29 SNPs were associated with bud burst, leaf senescence, number of shoots or shoot diameter. The percentage of accession variation explained by these associations ranged from 0.3% to 4.4%, suggesting that the studied traits are controlled by many loci of limited individual impact. Despite this, a SNP in the EARLY FLOWERING 3 gene was repeatedly associated (FDR<0.2) with bud burst. The rare homozygous genotype exhibited 0.4-1.0 lower bud burst scores than the other genotype classes on a five-grade scale. Consequently, this marker could be promising for use in MAS and the gene deserves further study. Otherwise, associations were less consistent across sites, likely due to their small estimates and to considerable GxE interactions indicated by multivariate association analyses and modest trait accession correlations across sites (0.32-0.61).

  • 38.
    Hansson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Mechanism of zeolite activity in biogas co-digestion2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is a source of renewable energy and is produced at anaerobic conditions. The gas consists mainly of methane (55-70 %) and carbon dioxide (30-45 %). Biogas can be used as vehicle fuel after the gas has been upgraded to a methane content of approximately 97 %. There are several companies in Sweden producing biogas. Svensk biogas AB in Linköping is one of the largest. The company has two biogas production plants; one in Linköping and one in Norrköping.

    To meet the surge demand for biogas it is not only important to increase the volumetric capacity of the digesters, but also to optimize the process at the existing production plants in different ways. Zeolites, a clay mineral, have earlier been shown to have a positive effect on anaerobic digestion of certain substrates. The aim of this master’s thesis was to investigate if the organic loading rate could be increased and/or if the hydraulic retention time could be reduced by addition of zeolites to a reactor treating slaughterhouse waste as a substrate. The aim was further to investigate which substance/substances that zeolites possibly could affect.

    Addition of the zeolite clinoptilolite in a continuously stirred lab tank reactor showed a significantly lower accumulation of volatile fatty acids compared to that in a control reactor without zeolites added, when the hydraulic retention time was kept low (30 days) and the organic loading rate was high (4.8 kg VS/ (m3 × day)). The same results were observed upon zeolite addition in a batch experiment, which also showed a decreased lag phase. Neither the specific gas production nor the methane concentration was significantly affected by addition of zeolites. Furthermore, addition of a possible inhibitor, long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), increased the lag phase further when slaughterhouse waste was used as a substrate. The conclusion from the observed results is that a metabolite or metabolites produced during the anaerobic degradation is/are the reason to inhibition and an increased lag phase.

  • 39.
    Harahap, Fumi
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Integrated biorefinery vs. stand alone biodieselproduction in Indonesia – an economic analysis2017Inngår i: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, 2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuel policy instruments have largely steered the expansion of the biodiesel industry in Indonesia,promoting investments and creating fuel markets. Despite the growth, biodiesel use has not yet reached thedeployment targets set by the government. Low profitability and dysfunctional markets forces some plants to operatefar below the installed production capacity, which results in a deficit of biodiesel supply for domestic markets. At thesame time, biodiesel is being exported. The current production configuration of biodiesel in a standalone biodieselplant is perceived to be unprofitable without government subsidy. Therefore, we propose a comparative economicanalysis for biodiesel production in Indonesia using two configurations: the standalone production system typicallyused at present, and an integrated bio-refinery plant. The results show that the biodiesel production cost in thebiorefinery is 13% higher compared to the production cost in a standalone plant. However, due to higher revenuesgenerated in the biorefinery (16% higher than standalone system), biorefinery concept offers more profits to theindustry. Under current economic conditions, the integrated biorefinery concept brings advantages throughimprovement of efficiency in the biodiesel production system and higher production of other valuable products suchas electricity.

  • 40.
    Hassanzadeh, Masoumeh
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi, Träkemi och massateknologi.
    Li, Jiebing
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknologi.
    TUNICATES FOR BIO MATERIALS PRODUCTION: EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT FACTORS ON CELLULOSE AND PROTEIN COMPOSITION2014Inngår i: PAPERS OF THE 22ND EUROPEAN BIOMASS CONFERENCE: SETTING THE COURSE FOR A BIOBASED ECONOMY, 2014, 1116-1123 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Tunicates, a group of marine animals, is gaining a lot of interests in case of medical, food market, water pollution, cellulosic nanomaterial, and biofuel production issues due to their consisting of chemical compounds such as cellulose, amino-sugars, and proteins or protein-polysaccharide complexes. In this work, two dominant species of Scandinavian tunicates have been investigated by extraction and characterization of their cellulose, and amino acids. Samples in different sizes, ages, place of growing (Distance to ocean's surface), and different chemical pretreatment, have been evaluated in their compositions to see the best conditions for extraction of cellulose and protein. For pure cellulose and bioethanol productions, the samples growing near to the ocean surface at the best harvesting time (after completion of metamorphosis), recommended to be explored. The highest amount of protein in tunicate body has been found in the internal organs with a total amino acid content of around 52 %. In addition, the larger and elder the sample is, the higher amount of protein it contains. Hence, for feed supplementing point of view, the internal organs of tunicates with higher size and age are favored to be considered. Eventually, a combination of both H3PO4 and Ba (OH)(2) might lead to a significantly high cellulose percentage (66.5%) and a high protein removal percentage (protein content of 6%) when aiming at cellulose extraction.

  • 41. He, Hanbing
    et al.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Energy Engineering, Division of Energy Science, Luleå University of Technology, Luleå, Sweden.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Time-Dependent Crack Layer Formation in Quartz Bed Particles during Fluidized Bed Combustion of Woody Biomass2017Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, nr 2, 1672-1677 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Bed agglomeration during combustion and gasification of woody biomass fuels in quartz beds has been frequently studied, and chemical mechanisms responsible for bed agglomeration have been suggested: However, few studies have focused on the bed material deposition on walls, in cyclones, and return legs in fluidized bed combustion. Part of these bed material depositions originates from sticky fragments of alkali-rich silicates formed after crack formation in older quartz bed particles. The crack layer formation in quartz bed particles in fluidized bed combustion of woody biomass was therefore investigated by collecting bed material samples of different ages from full-scale bubbling and circulating fluidized bed facilities. Scanning electron microscopy/energy-dispersive spectroscopy was used to analyze the crack morphology and composition of the layer surrounding the cracks. For quartz bed particles with an age of some days, a crack in the quartz bed particle was observed in connection to the irregular interface between the inner layer and the core of the bed particle. The crack layer composition is similar for quartz particles with different ages and for samples taken from different fluidized bed techniques. Their composition is dominated by Si, K, Ca, and Na (except O). These crack layers become deeper, wider, and more common as bed particle age increases. The crack layers eventually connect with each other, and the whole quartz particle is transformed into smaller quartz cores surrounded by crack layers, which were observed in particles older than 1 week. From the characterization work, a crack formation process including three phases is proposed on the basis of the presumption that the initial crack layer formation resulted from the presence of induced cracks in the inner quartz bed particle layer. Fragmentation after the third phase is likely responsible for the formation of sticky alkali silicate deposit formation, and a weekly complete exchange of the bed is therefore recommended to avoid problematic deposits in combustion of woody-type biomass in fluidized bed combustion.

  • 42.
    He, Jie
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Göransson, Kristina
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Söderlind, Ulf
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Zhang, Wennan
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för tillämpad naturvetenskap och design.
    Simulation of biomass gasification in a dual fluidized bed gasifier2012Inngår i: Biomass Conversion and Biorefinery, ISSN 2190-6815, E-ISSN 2190-6823, Vol. 2, nr 1, 1-10 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 43.
    Hellman, Emil
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Lagringstidens påverkan på metanpotentialen i matavfall2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Biogas är en förnyelsebar energikälla som tillverkas genom att organiskt material som matavfall bryts ner av mikroorganismer under anaeroba (syrefria) förhållanden. Regeringen har satt upp mål för en högre matavfallsutsortering vilket leder till ökad mängd tillgängligt substrat till biogasproduktion.

    Matavfallet som samlas in börjar brytas ner under tiden det transporteras och lagras. Syftet med studien var att undersöka hur länge matavfall lagras, ta fram ett representativt recept på ett genomsnittligt matavfall i Sverige och utvärdera hur mycket metanpotential som försvinner från matavfall med avseende på lagringstid, insamlingssystem (papper- och plastpåse) och lagringstemperatur (22°C och 6°C) genom laboratorieförsök.

    Den genomsnittliga lagringstiden för matavfall från villor och flerbostadshus i undersökningen var sex dagar. Ett recept för matavfall har tagits fram med hjälp av litteratursökning och modifiering av recept i Avfall Sveriges rapport U2010:10. Laboratorieförsöken visade att skillnaden i metanpotential mellan plast och papper var tydlig vid 22°C, då metanpotentialen sjunker, men obefintlig vid 6°C.

    För att uppnå maximal metangasproduktion från matavfall under den varma delen av året så är plastpåsar bättre då de har en mer konserverande effekt på matavfallet än papperspåsar. Detta kan relateras till att plast är tätare än papper och därför håller inne flyktiga ämnen.

  • 44.
    Hellmér, Elin
    KTH, Skolan för arkitektur och samhällsbyggnad (ABE), Hållbar utveckling, miljövetenskap och teknik, Industriell ekologi.
    CLIMATE PERFORMANCE OF BIOFUELS: PRODUCED FROM FOREST RESIDUE HARVESTED IN SWEDEN2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Biofuels produced from forest residues are much discussed in a Swedish context, among other things due to concerns for climate change. However, the undertaking of climate performance calculations is not an exact science. To examine whether climate concerns may be met by biofuels produced from forest residues, a literature review was carried out, analysing studies across methodologies.

    The scope for the literature review was limited to climate performance calculations for biofuels produced from forest residues harvested in Sweden. Five articles have been chosen for presentation, whereof one was carried out according to ISO 14040:2006 methodology, two according to climate performance calculations as stipulated by RED, two according to cumulative radiative forcing (CRF) and one according to a bottom up model using data from demo plants in Sweden (one study covers both ISO and RED methodology). All five studies presented in this paper suggest that climate performance of biofuels produced from forest residue (harvested in Sweden) show significantly better climate performance than fossil fuels.

    The local, environmental effects as well as future potential for harvesting of forest residue were also explored. A synthesis report on local, environmental effects suggests that the local, environmental effects are small. Furthermore, it is concludes that the effects on SOC are minor. Lastly, it is suggested that there is potential of increased harvesting of forest residue in Sweden in the magnitude of 30 TWh. 

  • 45.
    Hennessy, Jay
    et al.
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Eriksson, Ola
    Högskolan i Gävle, Akademin för teknik och miljö, Avdelningen för bygg- energi- och miljöteknik.
    Energy and nutrients from horse manure: Life-cycle data inventory of horse manure management systems in Gävleborg, Sweden2015Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Management of horse manure is seldom subject to energy recovery. In the current project solutions for energy recovery of horse manure, with a focus on biogas production as the process not only recovers energy but also closes nutrient cycles, are identified and asses­sed from an environmental point of view. The number of horses in society is increasing. Today, according to Statistics Sweden, there are more than 360,000 horses in Sweden, of which three-quarters are situated in urban or near-urban environments. With a dry matter content of 40 %, this equates to a quantity of 1,360 tonnes of horse manure per annum and corresponds to an annual biogas production of 641 GWh, which corresponds to almost 40 % of all biogas produced in Sweden in 2013. Although there are some practical limitations on how much of that potential can be exploited, this is still a significant potential for increased use of renewable energy. Collecting manure and anaerobically digesting it achieves three environmental benefits:

    1. Emissions from conventional management, where the manure is piled and stored, or spontaneously composted or decomposed, are avoided.
    2. Anaerobic digestion of manure produces biogas that can be utilised to generate electricity and/or heat or, after upgrading (purification and pressure increase), as vehicle fuel; thereby emissions from fossil fuels are reduced.
    3. Following the process, the resulting digestate can be used in agriculture, thereby re­placing chemical fertiliser and providing additional environmental benefits.

    The aim of this project is to find a greater breadth of system solutions than previously, solutions that are proven to function technically and be economically feasible. If these systems are translated into practical reality, environmental gains are made, for example, through reduced environmental impact such as reduced eutrophication and reduced use of finite resources.

    This report documents a data inventory made for the life-cycle assessment (LCA) of horse manure management systems in the Gävleborg region, Sweden. The overall result is that data are scarce for all parts of the system, from feedstock characteristics to waste treatment methods as well as utilisation of biofertiliser. There are few plants for solid state anaerobic digestion, at least using horse manure as substrate, and little is known about emissions from current manure practise. Moreover, as the number and location of horses are hard to estimate, the forthcoming systems analysis has to be made for a hypo­thetical amount of horse manure and emissions etc. have to be expressed per ton VS. Given these uncertainties the systems analysis will just give indicative results.

  • 46.
    Henrique, Pacini
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Energiteknik, Energi och klimatstudier, ECS.
    Consumer choice between Ethanol and Gasoline: Lessons from the Cases of Brazil and Sweden2010Inngår i: Conference proceedings 3rd International Scientific Conference on “Energy systems with IT” / [ed] Erik Dahlquist, Jenny Palm, 2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 47.
    Hermansson, Sven
    et al.
    SP.
    Backéus, Sofia
    Bohman, Christoffer
    Gulliksson, Hans
    Larsson, Sylvia
    Strand, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakulteten för teknik (FTK), Institutionen för byggd miljö och energiteknik (BET).
    Öhman, Marcu
    Testbädd Mellanskalig Biorbränsleförbränning - en förstudie2014Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Conversion of biomass to heat and power plays an important role in the transition of the Swedish energy system from fossil based to renewables. For manufacturers and users of medium scale combustion plants (0.5 – approx. 15 MWth), a spectrum of challenges are accounted with both today’s and future flexible use of modern biomass fuels. Such challenges are e.g. fuel handling and processing together with combustion instabilities caused by new fuels with resulting ware-and-tear and elevated emission levels. However, the possibilities to test and try out new innovations is very limited, which is why a Test Bed has the potential to significantly contribute to the innovation growth within the sector. The purpose of this feasibility study therefore to investigate the prerequisites for the establishment of a Test Bed for Medium Scale Biomass Combustion. The fundament of the feasibility study is a survey of the existing infrastructure for testing and innovation development of medium scale biomass combustion, which could be further developed and interconnected. Furthermore, a broad inquiry has been performed among market actors, focusing on the present and future need together with existing conditions for taking part in the development of a test bed. These first two steps has then been synthesized into recommendations on how a test bed should be developed and exploited by relevant actors. The major conclusions and recommendations of the feasibility study are:  A cost efficient and innovative Test Bed system for medium scale biomass combustion could be developed by enhanced cooperation between passive test-bed like plants and systems, industrial testing plants and research activities,  Development of a test bed system is hindered by the fact that there is no clear receiver of such system on the market. Stake holder cooperation is today weak, which makes common investments and financing impossible  There is no economic support for the erection of new, dedicated test bed facilities for medium scale biomass combustion,  Pre-treatment of biomass raw material with the purpose of enhancing fuel quality simultaneously refining products from the biomass has been found to show good potential for further development of test beds. This study therefore recommends that such investigation should be taken under consideration.

  • 48.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB (Lund University/Chemical engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    A Process for Producing Acrolein2012Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a process for dehydrating glycerol into acrolein over an acidic catalyst in gas phase in the presence of hydrogen, minimizing side reactions forming carbon deposits on the catalyst.

  • 49.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB ( Lund University/ Chemical Engineering) .
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Method for Hydrogenating 1,2-Unsaturated Carbonylic Compounds2011Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a method of hydrogenating an1,2-unsaturated carbonylic compound to obtain the corresponding saturated carbonylic compound in the presence of a palladium catalyst with heterogeneous distribution of palladium

  • 50.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-solution I Malmö AB (Lund University/ Chemical Engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Process for Preparing Lower Hydrocarbons from Glycerol2011Patent (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a process of preparing hydrocarbons from oxygenated hydrocarbons by use of at least two catalysts.

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