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  • 1.
    Abou Nada, Fahed
    et al.
    Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Combustion Physics, Box 118, Lund, Swede.
    Lantz, Andreas
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Larfeldt, Jenny
    Siemens Industrial Turbomachinery AB, Finspång, Sweden.
    Markocsan, Nicolaie
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för avverkande och additativa tillverkningsprocesser (AAT).
    Alden, Marcus
    Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Combustion Physics, Box 118, Lund, Swede.
    Richter, Mattias
    Lund University, Department of Physics, Division of Combustion Physics, Box 118, Lund, Swede.
    Remote temperature sensing on and beneath atmospheric plasma sprayed thermal barrier coatings using thermographic phosphors2016Inngår i: Surface & Coatings Technology, ISSN 0257-8972, E-ISSN 1879-3347, Vol. 302, 359-367 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Investigations on remote temperature sensing of yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) at the surface and at the bond-coat/top-coat interface were carried out. Using Y2O3:Eu thermographic phosphor as an embedded temperature sensing layer, sub-surface temperature probing through 300 mu m of atmospheric plasma sprayed YSZ is demonstrated. The Y2O3:Eu thermographic phosphor displays a temperature sensitivity ranging between 400 degrees C up to a maximum of 900 degrees C when utilizing the luminescence originating from the 611 nm emission band. Dysprosium stabilized zirconia (10 wt.% DySZ), a TBC material, is also investigated and established as a temperature sensor from 400 degrees C up to a temperature of 1000 degrees C using both the intensity decay time and emission intensity ratio methods. In addition, the luminescence of presumed optically inactive YSZ materials was spectroscopically investigated in terms of optical interferences caused by impurities. A validation temperature probing measurement through 300 mu m of YSZ top-coat was successfully performed in a SGT-800 Siemens burner running at six different operating conditions in an atmospheric combustion rig. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Johansson, Jan
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Rask, Kjell
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Fältholm, Ylva
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för ekonomi, teknik och samhälle, Arbetsvetenskap.
    Kumar, Uday
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för samhällsbyggnad och naturresurser, Drift, underhåll och akustik.
    Bergquist, Bjarne
    Projekt: LUPO - globala länkar2010Annet (Annet (populærvitenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Abrikosov, Igor
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Knutsson, Axel
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Tasnádi, Ferenc
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lind, Hans
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Teoretisk Fysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Hultman, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tunnfilmsfysik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Odén, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Nanostrukturerade material. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Phase Stability and Elasticity of TiAlN2011Inngår i: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 4, nr 9, 1599-1618 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We review results of recent combined theoretical and experimental studies of Ti1−xAlxN, an archetypical alloy system material for hard-coating applications. Theoretical simulations of lattice parameters, mixing enthalpies, and elastic properties are presented. Calculated phase diagrams at ambient pressure, as well as at pressure of 10 GPa, show a wide miscibility gap and broad region of compositions and temperatures where the spinodal decomposition takes place. The strong dependence of the elastic properties and sound wave anisotropy on the Al-content offers detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti1−xAlxN alloy films and multilayers. TiAlN/TiN multilayers can further improve the hardness and thermal stability compared to TiAlN since they offer means to influence the kinetics of the favorable spinodal decomposition and suppress the detrimental transformation to w-AlN. Here, we show that a 100 degree improvement in terms of w-AlN suppression can be achieved, which is of importance when the coating is used as a protective coating on metal cutting inserts.

  • 4.
    Adeva Rodil, Teresa
    Karlstads universitet, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, fysik och matematik.
    Edge effect on abrasive wear mechanisms and wear resistance in WC-6wt.% Co hardmetals2006Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Magister), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Wear of hardmetals is a complicated topic because the wear resistance and the wear mechanisms are influenced by microstructural factors. Although edge wear resistance has a vital importance, most of the researches made in laboratories are related to flat wear resistance using coarse abrasive paper. This situation produces problems with the prediction of abrasive wear behaviour and with the estimation of the lifetime of cutting edges of different kinds of tooling.

    Several studies have been done in order to clarify edge wear behaviour. It has been published correlations of the edge toughness to the load and to the bulk fracture toughness. In those publications coarse abrasive or Vickers indenter were used.

    In the present research, edge shaped specimens of WC-6wt%Co grades were investigated. In order to compare the obtained results for flat sliding and edge wear behaviour two test arrangements, pin on flat disc and edge on flat disc were employed. The specimens were tested using 120, 320, 800 and 2400 mesh SiC abrasive paper and the worn surfaces were investigated using SEM instrument to evaluate wear mechanisms. The edge wear was observed was discussed in relation to wear mechanisms investigated and correlated to the flat wear behaviour.

    The obtained results showed limited applicability of the results obtained with the pin on the flat disc test arrangement for prediction of the edge wear resistance, especially in the case when size of the abrasive particles is close to the WC grain size. However, both edge and flat wear results were similar in; 1) large WC grain sized hard metals wore more than fine grain sized against coarse abrasive paper whereas the reverse occurred against fine abrasives, and 2) wear mechanisms were mainly ploughing (or grooving) for fine grain sized hardmetals in all cases, whereas wear mechanisms changed from ploughing to binder removal and carbide pull-out going from coarse to fine abrasive paper.

  • 5.
    Adler, Jeanette
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik.
    Film Formation and Surface Tension Studies of Powder Coatings2005Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In industrial use of paint systems a swift processing is crucial. Another very important issue is to improve the quality of the final coating. This report investigates the film formation process of powder coatings, specially the spreading of individual powder particles. The obtained results can be used to understand and control the film formation process. In this way the desired levelling can be achieved and thus the desired gloss or other surface characteristics that may be required. This means that the method could be used when evaluating different polymer and additive combinations that could be used to change film formation behaviour or curing time for powder coating systems to suit various substrates. It makes it possible to avoid and minimize different surface defects as orange peel or cratering in the powder coated film.

    We used a reflection optical microscope to better understand the film formation process and especially the spreading of a powder melt on surfaces with various surface energies. The obtained data were: the particle diameter, the area, area ratio and the contact angle of the powder particle as a function of time and temperature. This information can be used to derive the surface tension of any powder melt.

    In this report we evaluate the dependencies of temperature, heat rate and surface energy for powder coatings on different substrates. The method provides information that can be used to optimize the film formation of a specific powder coating/substrate combination. This method can be used to evaluate the powder spreading and levelling on different substrates from a surface tension point of view.

    We found, as expected, that the powder flows out on a hydrophilic surface and is inhibited by a hydrophobic. The increase of the area ratio on a hydrophilic surface was about five times as the initial area coverage and on a hydrophobic surface only two times the initial area coverage. The contact angle between the melted powder particle on the different surface types could be calculated. The melt surface tension could be calculated since three substrates surfaces with various surface energies were used. The melt surface tension was found to be about 18.5 mN/m.

  • 6.
    Adli, E.
    et al.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Gjersdal, H.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Røhne, O.M.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Dorholt, O.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Bang, D.M.
    University of Oslo, Oslo, Norway.
    Thomas, D,
    ESS ERIC, Lund, Sweden.
    Shea, T.
    ESS ERIC, Lund, Sweden.
    Andersson, R.
    ESS ERIC, Lund, Sweden.
    Ibison, M.G.
    University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, UK.
    Welsch, C.P
    University of Liverpool and Cockcroft Institute, Daresbury, UK.
    Joshi, Shrikant V.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för avverkande och additativa tillverkningsprocesser (AAT). Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Forskningsmiljön produktionsteknik(PTW).
    THE ESS TARGET PROTON BEAM IMAGING SYSTEMAS IN-KIND CONTRIBUTION2017Inngår i: Proceedings of IPAC2017, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2017, 3422-3425 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 7.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för avverkande och additativa tillverkningsprocesser (AAT).
    Eynian, Mahdi
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för avverkande och additativa tillverkningsprocesser (AAT).
    Hägglund, .
    Seco Tools Fagersta Sweden.
    Ståhl, J-E
    Production and Materials Engineering Lund University Lund Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för avverkande och additativa tillverkningsprocesser (AAT).
    Influence of radial depth of cut on entry conditions and dynamics in face milling application2017Inngår i: Journal of Superhard Materials, ISSN 1063-4576, Vol. 39, nr 4, 259-270 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of milling cutter geometry and appropriate cutting data for certain milling application is of vital importance for successful machining results. Unfavorable selection of cutting conditions might give rise to high load impacts that cause severe cutting edge damage. Under some circumstances the radial depth of cut in combination with milling cutter geometry might give unfavorable entry conditions in terms of cutting forces and vibration amplitudes. This phenomenon is originated from the geometrical features that affect the rise time of the cutting edge engagement into workpiece at different radial depths of cut. As the radial depth of cut is often an important parameter, particularly when machining difficult-to-cut materials, it is important to explore the driving mechanism behind vibrations generation. In this study, acceleration of the workpiece is measured for different radial depths of cut and cutting edge geometries. The influence of the radial depth of cut on the dynamical behavior is evaluated in time and frequency domains. The results for different radial depths of cut and cutting geometries are quantified using the root mean square value of acceleration. The outcome of this research study can be used both for the better cutting data recommendations and improved tool design.

  • 8.
    Agic, Adnan
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för avverkande och additativa tillverkningsprocesser (AAT). Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Eynian, Mahdi
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för avverkande och additativa tillverkningsprocesser (AAT).
    Hägglund, S.
    Seco Tools, Fagersta, Sweden.
    Ståhl, Jan-Eric
    Lund University, Production and Materials Engineering, Lund, Sweden.
    Beno, Tomas
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avdelningen för avverkande och additativa tillverkningsprocesser (AAT).
    Influence of radial depth of cut on dynamics of face milling application2016Inngår i: The 7th International Swedish Production Symposium, SPS16, Conference Proceedings: 25th – 27th of October 2016, Lund: Swedish Production Academy , 2016, 1-9 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The choice of milling cutter geometry and appropriate cutting data for certain milling application is of vital importance for successful machining results. Unfavourable selection of cutting conditions might give rise to high load impacts that cause severe cutting edge damage. The radial depth of cut in combination with milling cutter geometry might under some circumstances give unfavourable entry conditions in terms of cutting forces and vibration amplitudes. This phenomenon originates from the geometrical features that affect the rise time of the cutting edge engagement into work piece at different radial depths of cut. As the radial depth of cut is often an important parameter, particularly when machining difficult to cut materials, it is important to explore the driving mechanism behind vibrations generation. In this study, acceleration of the work piece is measured for different radial depths of cut and cutting edge geometries. The influence of the radial depth of cut on the dynamical behaviour is evaluated in time and frequency domains. The results for different radial depths of cut and cutting geometries are quantified using root mean square value of acceleration. The outcome of this research study can be used both for the better cutting data recommendations and improved tool design.

  • 9.
    Ahlgren, Dennis
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Maskinteknik.
    Patriksson, Daniel
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Maskinteknik.
    Konstruktion av värmeelement2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims to describing the work behind the development of a masonry heater.

    The masonry heater is developed in collaboration with the company Transient Design KB that is a product development company located in Alingsås. The company sees a possibility to cover a market segment where modern technology and design are missing.

    The report presents those methods and approaches that have been used and gives an overview to how the project has been carried out. It describes how the ideas behind the final results have produced and how they have been developed during the project's time. In the report you can also read about the final concept with its choices of construction and materials.

    The report is completed with a presentation of a final concept and a ground for possible future production.

  • 10.
    Ahmad, Maqsood
    et al.
    Base Engine & Materials Technology, Volvo Group, Gothenburg.
    Peng, Ru
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Konstruktionsmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    König, Mathias
    Materials Technology for Basic Engine, Scania CV, Södertälje.
    Johansson, Sten
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling, Konstruktionsmaterial. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Bending Fatigue Behavior of Blast Cleaned Grey Cast Iron2017Inngår i: Residual Stresses 2016: ICRS-10, Materials Research Proceedings 2 (2016), 2017, Vol. 2, 193-198 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a detailed study on the effect of an industrial blast cleaning process on the fatigue behavior of a grey cast iron with regard to the residual stresses and microstructural changes induced by the process. A comparison was also made to the effect of a machining operation which removed the casting skin layer. The blast cleaning process was found to greatly improve the fatigue resistance in both the low and high cycle regimes with a 75% increase in the fatigue limit. Xray diffraction measurements and scanning electron microscopic analyses showed that the improvement was mainly attributed to compressive residual stresses in a surface layer up to 800 μm in thickness in the blast cleaned specimens. The machining also gave better fatigue performance with a 30% increase in the fatigue limit, which was ascribed to the removal of the weaker casting skin layer.

  • 11.
    Akselsen, Odd M.
    et al.
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Wiklund, Greger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Østby, Erling
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Sörgjärd, Arve
    Kværner Verdal.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    A first assessment of laser hybrid welding of 420 mpa steel for offshore structure application2013Inngår i: 14th NOLAMP Conference: The 14th Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference, August 26th – 28th 2013, Gothenburg, Sweden / [ed] Alexander Kaplan; Hans Engström, Luleå: Luleå tekniska universitet, 2013, 171-182 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    For many years, laser hybrid welding has been used in various industries to increaseproductivity and reduce costs. One example is the adaption of the hybrid process inshipbuilding. The next natural step is to further develop the process for the oil and gasindustry, where the welded joint properties requirements are more severe, and the ability tohandle tolerance deviations is more critical. As a first attempt to develop hybrid laser processfor the use in offshore structures, the present investigation addresses preliminary weldingtrails carried out with 15 kW fibre laser with appropriate gas metal arc welding equipment,using double Y joint geometry and 20 mm thick 420 MPa steel plates. The subsequent weldtesting included both Charpy V notch impact and CTOD fracture mechanical testing at -30°C.The results indicate that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the examined steel appeared withsatisfactory Charpy and CTOD toughness (> 200 J, > 0.2 mm) while the weld metal hadinsufficient toughness (20-40 J, < 0.2 mm). With a better welding wire, designed for lowtemperature applications, it is reasonable to suggest that laser hybrid arc welding can be usedfor applications even below a temperature of -30°C.

  • 12.
    Akselsen, Odd Magne
    et al.
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Wiklund, Greger
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Østby, Erling
    SINTEF, Trondheim.
    Sørgjerd, Arve
    Kværner Verdal.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Properties of laser hybrid butt welds of 420 MPa steel2013Inngår i: The proceedings of the Twenty-third (2013) International Offshore and Polar Engineering Conference: Anchorage, Alaska, June 30-July 5, 2013 : ISOPE-2013 Anchorage / [ed] Jin S. Chung, Cupertino, Calif.: International Society of Offshore and Polar Engineers , 2013, 290-294 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser hybrid welding has been used in European shipbuilding for many years due to its high productivity. In order to qualify the process for the oil and gas industry, an extensive welding and testing programme is needed, and the properties must satisfy more severe requirements than in shipbuilding. This is particularly the case when these activities are moving to the Arctic regions, where low temperature toughness may be the primary challenge. The present investigation addressed preliminary welding trials carried out with 15 kW fibre laser-gas metal arc (GMA) hybrid welding using double Y joint of 20 mm thick 420 MPa steel plates. Both Charpy V notch impact and CTOD fracture mechanical testing were included with test temperature of -30°C. The results indicate that the heat affected zone (HAZ) of the examined steel appeared with satisfactory toughness (> 200 J, > 0.2 mm) while the employed weld metal had insufficient impact properties. The weld metal CTOD toughness approached 0.2 mm. With a better welding wire, designed for low temperature applications, it is reasonable to suggest that laser hybrid arc welding can be used for applications even below -30 to -40°C

  • 13.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    A study of the fatigue behaviour of laser and hybrid laser welds2009Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This licentiate thesis focuses on the fatigue cracking behaviour of laser and hybrid laser-MAG welded structures. Beside the welding process and the resulting weld, several topics related to fatigue of welded structures are treated such as; macro and micro surface geometry, weld defects and their influence on fatigue performance of welded structures, fatigue analysis by the nominal and effective notch stress method, fatigue life prediction using LEFM (Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics), fatigue testing, metallurgical analysis, elastic and elastic-plastic finite element analysis. The main objective is to gain understanding of the impact of weld defects and weld shape details on the fatigue behaviour of laser and hybrid laser welded joints. The first paper is a literature survey which compiled useful information regarding fracture and fatigue analysis of various welded joints. In the second paper fatigue testing by bending of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints was carried out. The weld surface geometry was measured and studied in order to understand the crack initiation mechanisms. The crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied and compared to Finite Element stress analysis, taking into account the surface macro- and micro-geometry. Based on the nominal stress approach, SN-curves were designed for laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints. The competing criteria of throat depth and stress raising by the weld toe radii and by the surface ripples are explained, showing that surface ripples can be critical.The third paper is the continuation of the second paper, but studying the fatigue crack propagation of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints. Microscopic analysis was carried out to identify internal weld defects. Nominal and effective notch stress analysis was carried out to compare standardized values. LEFM analysis was conducted for this joint geometry for four point bending load in order to study the effect of LOF on fatigue life. In good agreement between simulation and metallurgy, cracking starts and propagates from the lower toe, but for certain geometries alternatively from the weld bead or upper toe, even in case of Lack of Fusion, as was well be explained. Improved understanding of the crack propagation for these geometrical conditions was obtained and in turn illustrated. Lack of fusion surprisingly was not critical and only slightly lowered the fatigue life. Two dimensional linear elastic finite element analyses is carried out in the fourth paper on laser welding of a beamer in order to study the impact of geometrical aspects of the joint design and of the weld root on the fatigue performance. Critical geometrical aspects were classified and then studied by FE-analysis with respect to their impact on the fatigue behaviour. Stress comparison of full 15 mm and partial 6 mm weld penetration of the beam was done by varying the toe and root geometry to identify the critical details. Generalization of the knowledge by new methods was an important aspect, particularly to apply the findings for other joints. Together the papers provide better understanding of fatigue behaviour for complex geometries and are therefore suitable guidelines for improved weld design.

  • 14.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Laser welding and cladding: the effects of defects on fatigue behaviour2012Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The thesis focuses on weld defects in laser processed materials (for laser welding, laser hybrid arc welding and laser cladding) and their effect on the fatigue life of components. Component properties were studied with particular emphasis on the macro and micro surface geometry, weld defects and clad defects. The influence of these defects on fatigue life was analyzed by; the nominal and effective notch stress method, fatigue life prediction using Linear Elastic Fracture Mechanics (LEFM), fatigue testing, metallurgical analysis, fractography, elastic and elastic-plastic Finite Element Analysis (FEA). A simplified Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis was also carried out to better understand the formation of undercuts during the welding process. The main objective is to gain an understanding of the impact of laser weld and clad defects on the fatigue behaviour of components.In the first two papers, fatigue testing involving the bending of laser hybrid arc welded eccentric fillet joints was carried out. Based on measurements of the weld surface geometry the crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied, experimentally and in conjunction with FE stress analysis. The competing criteria of throat depth and stress raising by the weld toe radii and by the surface ripples are explained, showing that the topology of surface ripples can be critical to fatigue behaviour. LEFM analysis was conducted to study the effect of Lack of Fusion (LOF) on fatigue life. Cracking starts and propagates preferentially from the lower toe of the top surface for this eccentric weld, even in cases of LOF. In the third paper two-dimensional linear elastic FEA was carried out for laser welding of a high strength steel beam. The impact of the geometrical aspects of joint design and of the weld root geometry on the fatigue performance was studied. Critical geometrical aspects were classified and then studied by FE-analysis with respect to their impact on the fatigue behaviour. In the fourth paper the melt pool flow behaviour during the laser hybrid arc welding process was analyzed by CFD simulation. The melt velocity behind the keyhole was measured from high speed imaging as a starting value for the simulation. It was found that a high speed flow in the thin topmost layer of the melt transferred its momentum to an underlying flow which is faster than the welding speed and this delays the lifting of the depressed melt.In the fifth and sixth papers FEA of different macro stress fields and of stress raisers produced by defects was studied in laser clad surfaces for four different fatigue load conditions. Defects were categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional types. Pores intersecting or just beneath the surface initiated fatigue cracking, accompanied by two circular buckling patterns. For a four-point bending load involving a surface pore on a spherical rod, the critical range of azimuthal angle was identified to be 55º. The performance of as-clad surfaces was found to be governed by the sharpness of surface notches. Planar defects like hot cracks or LOF are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. A generalized theory was established, showing that the combination of the macro stress field with the defect type, position and orientation, determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser.

  • 15.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Barsoum, Z
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Stockholm.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Influence of defects on fatigue crack propagation in laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joint2011Inngår i: Engineering Fracture Mechanics, ISSN 0013-7944, E-ISSN 1873-7315, Vol. 78, nr 10, 2246-2258 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue cracking of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints has been studied for stainless steel. Two-dimensional linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis was carried out for this joint geometry for four point bending load. The numerical simulations explain for the experimental observations why the crack propagates from the lower weld toe and why the crack gradually bends towards the root. Lack of fusion turned out to be uncritical for the initiation of cracks due to its compressive stress conditions. The linear elastic fracture mechanics analysis has demonstrated in good qualitative agreement with fatigue test results that lack of fusion slightly (<10%) reduces the fatigue life by accelerating the crack propagation. For the geometrical conditions studied here improved understanding of the crack propagation was obtained and in turn illustrated. The elaborated design curves turned out to be above the standard recommendations

  • 16.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Barsoum, Z.
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    The influence of surface geometry and topography on the fatigue cracking behaviour of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints2010Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 265, nr 6, 1936-1945 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Laser hybrid welding of an eccentric fillet joint causes a complex geometry for fatigue load by four point bending. The weld surface geometry and topography were measured and studied in order to understand the crack initiation mechanisms. The crack initiation location and the crack propagation path were studied and compared to Finite Element stress analysis, taking into account the surface macro- and micro-geometry. It can be explained why the root and the upper weld toe are uncritical for cracking. The cracks that initiate from the weld bead show higher fatigue strength than the samples failing at the lower weld toe, as can be explained by a critical radius for the toe below which surface ripples instead determine the main stress raiser location for cracking. The location of maximum surface stress is related to a combination of throat depth, toe radius and sharp surface ripples along which the cracks preferably propagate.

  • 17.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Fatigue behaviour study of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints: Part I2009Inngår i: 12th NOLAMP proceeding 2009: Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference ; 24th - 26th August 2009 in Copenhagen / [ed] Erling Dam Mortensen, Kgs. Lyngby: ATV-SEMAPP , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Welded joints are a major component that is often responsible for causing a structure failure or for being the point at which fatigue cracking initiates and propagates. Despite tremendous research efforts, the understanding of fatigue behaviour is still limited, particularly for new techniques like laser hybrid welding. Beside a comprehensive state-of-the-art study, the paper presents a fatigue study of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joint of stainless steel of 10 mm thickness, with 5 mm displacement. Motivation is to study the influence of the surface geometry shape on fatigue performance under a four point bending test. 13 samples were produced, measuring the toe radii and testing under constant amplitude loading with stress ratio R=0. Different techniques have been used to measure local weld geometry, like plastic replica, a 3D optical profiler and a 3D-digitizer. The influence of the local weld geometry, like the toe radii, on the stress concentration was studied by FE-analysis. Occasionally lack of fusion was observed, which was taken into account in the FE-analysis. Based on the nominal stress approach, SN-curves were designed for laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints. Macro hardness tests were carried out and the crack surfaces were observed in order to detect crack initiation and propagation. Correlations between the toe radii, the corresponding stress maxima and crack initiation locations were studied between the different samples and even along the welds.

  • 18.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Kungliga tekniska högskolan, KTH.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Fatigue behaviour study of laser hybrid welded eccentric fillet joints: Part II: State-of-the-art of fracture mechanics and fatigue analysis of welded joints2009Inngår i: 12th NOLAMP proceeding 2009: Nordic Laser Materials Processing Conference ; 24th - 26th August 2009 in Copenhagen / [ed] Erling Dam Mortensen, Kgs. Lyngby: ATV-SEMAPP , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Simplified fatigue and fracture mechanics based assessment methods are widely used by the industry to determine the structural integrity significance of postulated cracks, manufacturing flaws, service-induced cracking or suspected degradation of engineering components under normal and abnormal service loads. In many cases, welded joints are the regions most likely to contain original fabrication defects or cracks initiating and growing during service operation. The welded joints are a major component that is often blamed for causing a structure failure or for being the point at which fatigue or fracture problems initiate and propagate. Various mathematical models/techniques for various classes of welded joints are developed by analytically or by simulation software's that can be used in fatigue and fracture assessments. This literature survey compiled useful information on fracture and fatigue analysis of various welded joints. The present review is divided into two major sections- fracture mechanics and fatigue analysis with widely used models. A survey table is also introduced to get the outlook of research trend on fatigue and fracture over last 3 decades. Although tremendous research effort has been implemented on fatigue and fracture analysis of conventional welding, research on relatively new welding technology (laser welding, hybrid laser welding) is still limited and unsatisfactory. In order to give guarantee or make welding standard for new welding technology, further research is required in the field of fatigue and fracture mechanics including FEM and multi-scale modeling.

  • 19.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Geometrical aspects of the fatigue behaviour of laser hybrid fillet welds2009Inngår i: Proceedings of the Fatigue Design Conference, Cetim , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 20.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Barsoum, Zuheir
    Royal Institute of Technology.
    Jonsén, Pär
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Material- och solidmekanik.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Häggblad, Hans-Åke
    The effects of surface topography and lack of fusion on the fatigue strength of laser hybrid welds2009Inngår i: Congress proceedings: ICALEO, 28th International Congress on Applications of Lasers & Electro-Optics : November 2 - 5, 2009 - Orlando, FL : Laser Materials Processing Conference, Laser Microprocessing Conference, Nanomanufacturing Conference, poster presentation, gallery, Orlando, Fla: Laser institute of America , 2009, 38-46 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The geometrical aspects of laser hybrid welding before, during and after the process differ from autonomous laser welding and from arc welding. When studying the fatigue behaviour of laser hybrid welded fillet joints we identified that the microgeometry, i.e. the surface ripples can be more critical than the macrogeometry of the weld surface and even than lack of fusion (LOF), which frequently was detected. The plastic replica method was applied to measure the toe radii at the weld edges while the topography was identified by interferometric profilometry. From metallurgical analysis of the joint interface the tendency to LOF can be explained. Stress analysis was carried out by FEA for the complex joint geometry and bending load situation, showing maximum stress on the weld toes, even when including LOF. It was shown that the position and value of the maximum stress depends on a non-trivial combination of the weld geometry, including possible LOF, and the surface topography. Thus it can be explained that at compressive stress conditions LOF does not contribute significantly to the fatigue strength of laser hybrid welds while the surface topography does. Recommendations for defining and in turn avoiding critical geometrical aspects during the welding process are discussed.

  • 21.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Analysis of the rapid central melt pool flow in hybrid laser-arc welding2012Inngår i: Physics Procedia, ISSN 1875-3892, E-ISSN 1875-3892, Vol. 39, 853-862 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Hybrid laser arc welding creates a long weld pool tail. By high speed imaging the melt velocity behind the keyhole was measured to be very high, of the order of meters per second. Fluid dynamics simulation was carried out locally in the central axial plane of the pool tail. The high speed melt layer redistributes its momentum to slow movement of the deeper bulk. The consequences of initially high melt speed and its mass flow redistribution on the formation of the central reinforcement peak are discussed.

  • 22.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Tuominen, J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Vuoristo, P.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Miettinen, J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Design.
    Poutala, J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Mechanics and Design.
    Närkki, J.
    Tampere University of Technology, Department of Materials Science.
    Jankala, J.
    Technology Centre KETEK Ltd..
    Peltola, T.
    Technology Centre KETEK Ltd..
    Barsoum, Z.
    Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Aeronautical and Vehicle Engineering, Stockholm.
    Analysis of the stress raising action of flaws in laser clad deposits2013Inngår i: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 46, 328-337 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Fatigue cracking of laser clad cylindrical and square section bars depends upon a variety of factors. This paper presents Finite Element Analysis (FEA) of the different macro stress fields generated as well as stress raisers created by laser cladding defects for four different fatigue load conditions. As important as the defect types are their locations and orientations, categorized into zero-, one- and two-dimensional defects. Pores and inclusions become critical close to surfaces. The performance of as-clad surfaces can be governed by the sharpness of surface notches and planar defects like hot cracks or lack-of-fusion (LOF) are most critical if oriented vertically, transverse to the bar axis. The combination of the macro stress field with the defect type and its position and orientation determines whether it is the most critical stress raiser. Based on calculated cases, quantitative and qualitative charts were developed as guidelines to visualize the trends of different combinations.

  • 23. Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Generalising fatigue stress analysis of different laser weld geometries2011Inngår i: Materials & design, ISSN 0264-1275, E-ISSN 1873-4197, Vol. 32, nr 4, 1814-1823 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Two-dimensional elastic-plastic finite element analyses was carried out on a laser welded box beam in order to study the impact of the geometrical aspects of the joint type and weld root on the fatigue stress behaviour. Different experimental and hypothetical weld geometries were studied. Characteristic root shapes, measured by the plastic replica method, and critical geometrical aspects were classified and then studied by FE-analysis with respect to their impact on the maximum stress. The simulation of hypothetical transition geometries facilitated the identification of trends and the explanation of part of the phenomena. However, quantitative geometry criteria were only partially suitable to describe the relations. The results have shown that the combination of throat depth, local surface radius and its opening angle determines the peak stress value and its location. Beside extended throat depths, particularly larger toe radii and the avoidance of small opening angles and of surface ripples reduces the peak stress. The explanations were developed in a generalising manner, accompanied by illustrative and flow chart description.

  • 24.
    Alam, Md. Minhaj
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Powell, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Tuominen, Jari
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Vuoristo, Petri MJ J
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Miettinen, Juha S.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Poutala, J.
    Department of Mechanics and Design, Tampere University of Technology.
    Näkki, Jonne
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Junkala, J.
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Peltola, Tero
    Tampere University of Technology.
    Surface pore initiated fatigue failure in laser clad components2013Inngår i: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 25, nr 3Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    A laser clad and machined cylindrical structural steel rod was fatigue tested under four-point bending load. The resulting fracture could be tracked back to a spherical surface pore in the Co-based coating. Due to an oxide inclusion, the pore was not identified by dye penetrant inspection. Two circular buckling strain patterns that were detected beside the pore at the surfaces after fracture confirm local plastic deformation prior to crack initiation. In order to calculate the stress field around the surface pore, linear elastic finite element analysis was carried out. For four-point bending load, a surface pore generally exceeds the maximum stress of a smooth rod as long as the pore is located within an azimuthal angle of ±55°, which was the case for the presented as well as for another pore initiated sample.

  • 25.
    Albinsson, Ola
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Lundevall, Åsa
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF AB.
    Sehati, Parisa
    Linköpings universitet.
    Stålhanske, Christina
    RISE.
    Sundberg, P
    Mattsson, Lards-Göran
    KTH Royal Institute of Technology .
    Sjövall, Peter
    Rise.
    The influence of surface composition and plasma treatment on adhesion2015Inngår i: Proceedings of GPD Glass Performance Days 2015, 2015, 11-14 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 26.
    Aldén, Rickard
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap.
    Metallurgical investigation in weldability of Aluminium Silicon coated boron steel with different coating thickness.2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Hot-pressed aluminium and silicon coated boron steel is used in the car industry where high tensile strength is of great importance, such as in the safety cage of a car where deformation has to be kept to a minimum in case of a collision. After hot-pressing the AlSi-boron steel shows excellent properties with high tensile strength, minimal spring back and also shows good protection against corrosion. A thickness of the AlSi coating of 150 [g/m2] for AlSi coated boron steel is typically used by the car industry today. However the coating thickness would be desirable to be minimized to 80 [g/m2]. Welding of this boron steel with 80 [g/m2]have shown difficulties; and it’s not clear why this occurs.

    In this report the metallurgical properties of the different coating layers will be investigated, simulations with Thermocalc module Dictra will be used, SEM/EDS will be used to characterize phases in coating layers and correlate to weldability. Resistance spot welding tests will also be performed where the welding parameters of pre-pulse, pulse time, time in between pulses and current will be varied to achieve desirable weld plug diameter without expulsion. Hardness testing in form of micro Vickers will executed. The Materials used will be USIBOR® 1500, AS80 with four different annealing times and one sample of AS150.

  • 27.
    Alipour, Yousef
    KTH, Skolan för industriell teknik och management (ITM), Materialvetenskap, Materialens processteknologi.
    Machining of CoCr28Mo62011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The machining process of Cobait-Chromium medical ailoys become a veryessential topic for research due to widening range of application. They aregeneraily used because of their high wear resistance, low corrosioncharacteristics and high fatigue strength. This project describes an investigationof chip formation during the machining of Cobalt-Chromium-Molybdenum highcarbon alloy. A quick stop device has been employed to investigate mechanismof chip formation through analyzing of shear zone and shear plane. Thicknessmeasurement of segments, surface conditions after finishing, lowest valley andhighest peak with three different cutting tool inserts were studied as weil.Moreover cutting force measurement at different cutting speeds, feeds and radialnoses were performed. Microstructure and hardness of work material before andafter machining has been studied. Tool life of inserts was evaluated bymeasuring flank wear.

    The consequences obtained from the study illuminated:

    1. For the constant cutting speed and nose radius flank wear increased whenthe feed increased.
    2. For the constant feed and nose radius, increase in the cutting speedlowered flank and crater wear.
    3. Cutting force increased with the increase in feed.
    4. Increase in cutting speed to 40 m/min raised cutting force. However afterthat cutting force decreased.
    5. Insert CNMG 120408-MF1 TS2000 with cutting data v~=70 m/min, ap= 3mm and f=0.1 mm seemed fit the best in base of lower flank and craterwear, almost lower cutting force and smoother finish roughness.
  • 28.
    Al-Mashikhi, S.O.
    et al.
    University of Notttingham.
    Powell, John
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Voisey, K.T.
    University of Notttingham.
    An explanation of ‘striation free' cutting of mild steel by fibre laser2009Inngår i: Lasers in manufacturing 2009: proceedings of the Fifth International WLT-Conference Lasers in Manufacturing, LIM 2009 : Munich, Germany, June 15th - 18th, 2009 / [ed] Andreas Ostendorf, Stuttgart: AT-Fachverlag , 2009Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the results of an experimental and theoretical investigation into the phenomenon of ‘striation free cutting', which is a feature of fibre laser cutting of thin section mild steel. The paper concludes that the creation of very low roughness edges is related to an optimisation of the cut front geometry when the cut front is inclined at angles close to the Brewster angle for the laser - material combination. For purely geometric reasons this particular type of cut front optimisation is not possible for CO2 laser cutting of mild steel.

  • 29.
    Al-Mashikhi, S.O
    et al.
    Salalah College of Technology, Engineering Department, Salalah, Oman and Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham.
    Powell, John
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Voisey, K.T.
    Faculty of Engineering, University of Nottingham.
    Heat affected zones and oxidation marks in fiber laser–oxygen cutting of mild steel2011Inngår i: Journal of laser applications, ISSN 1042-346X, E-ISSN 1938-1387, Vol. 23, nr 4Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of cutting speed and sheet thickness on surface oxidation and heat affected zones (HAZs) has been investigated for laser–oxygen cutting of mild steel sheet with a fiber laser. Optical and scanning electron micrographs were used to determine the extent of surface oxidation and HAZ from plan and cross-sectional views, respectively. The HAZ is consistently wider at the bottom of the cut compared to the HAZ at the top of the cut. With increasing speed, the width of the HAZ at the top of the cut decreases whereas the HAZ width at the bottom of the cut generally increases. No simple, direct relationship between HAZ width and surface oxidation was seen. However, it is possible to state that in each case considered here, the HAZ would be completely removed if they are machined back by a depth equal to the extent of the surface oxidation.

  • 30.
    Almgren, Anna
    Högskolan i Halmstad, Sektionen för ekonomi och teknik (SET).
    Material- och tillverkningsteknikval för en stol åt Källemo2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta projekt har pågått under sista terminen på maskiningenjörsprogrammet vid högskolan i Halmstad. Projektet har utförts av en student och tillsammans med företaget Källemo. Syftet med projektet har varit att studenten ska hitta och utvärdera ett lämpligt material åt en ny stol. Materialvalet skulle också kompletteras med en lämplig tillverkningsmetod. Stolen är designad av Pierre Sindre, SandellSandberg, och kommer att produceras och säljas av Källemo. Pierre Sindres ritningar och renderingar var underlaget som var utgångspunkt för projektet. Arbetet har inneburit att olika material har utvärderats och framförallt formpressad filt. Lämpligheten har testat genom liknande referensmöbler och fysiska tester. Bland annat har provbitar testat med enkla handtester. En dialog har också förts med leverantörer av material som haft mycket erfarenhet och kunnat bidra med tips och idéer.  Då projektet inte har varit ett typiskt konstruktionsprojekt har metoden utvecklats efterhand som olika resultat uppkommit. Detta har varit ett arbetssätt som har varit väldigt lärorikt för studenten och också väldigt tidseffektivt då ingen onödig tid har lagt på irrelevanta processer. Varje steg i arbetets gång har diskuterats med både uppdragsgivaren på företaget och två handledare som högskolan tillhandahållit. Veckomöten varje vecka har också bidragit till ett mycket tidseffektivt arbete där snedsteg tidigt kunnat upptäckas av de med mer erfarenhet. Dessa möten har varit avgörande för det goda resultatet som erhållits. Resultatet består av fem lösningsförslag som tagits fram och vid diskussion med företaget och leverantörer utmynnat i ett slutligt resultat som nu är färdigt för produktion. När projektet avslutades var den första delen i produktion och således målet med projektet uppfyllt.

  • 31.
    Altgärde, Noomi
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi.
    Local release of lithium from sol-gel coated orthopaedic screws: an in vitro and in vivo study2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

     

    In orthopaedic practice, fractures are usually stabilised with metal screws or rods. This is done in order to keep the fracture parts in place during the rather slow healing process. The healing time can potentially be reduced by local- or systemic treatment with different bone promoting drugs. In later years, lithium, otherwise used to treat bipolar disease, has shown promise to be such a drug.

     

    The aim of this master thesis was to find a way to coat metal bone screws with lithium and to characterise the coating. The coating was to be designed in such a way that it could release lithium to the surrounding bone tissue.

     

    Lithium chloride was incorporated into a titanate sol-gel and attached to silicon wafers and stainless steel screws by dip coating. Wafers were used for initial in vitro studies of how lithium changed coating characteristics. This was studied using ellipsometry, AFM and SEM. Lithium is most probably physisorbed and not incorporated into the network building up the sol-gel. Coating structure is changed as more lithium is incorporated. For large amounts of lithium, the nanoparticles normally formed when curing the sol-gel are inhibited. One effect of this is reduced bioactivity, seen as a reduced ability for calcium phosphate crystals to nucleate on the coating when immersed in simulated body fluid.

    Lithium release was investigated using AAS. Lithium is released from the coating, showing a burst effect. By changing the number of coating layers used, the release profile can be partly altered. The coating was also applied to screws, showing good attachment, and the lithium release profile was similar to the one seen from wafers.

    Finally, a screw model was used in rats to assess the effect of local lithium treatment from screws and systemic lithium treatment on fracture healing. In the model, a screw was inserted in tibia, mimicking a fracture. When the bone around the screw was healed, a pullout test was performed, giving information about the strength of the bone surrounding the screw. No significant difference could be found for either local- or systemic lithium treatment compared to control. However, when evaluating the strength of intact bone in a similar way, a positive effect of systemic lithium treatment could be seen. Therefore, it is still likely that lithium has a positive effect on bone and further studies are needed to fully evaluate its role in fracture healing.

     

  • 32.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Impact of an extended source in laser ablation using pulsed digital holographic interferometry and modelling2009Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 255, nr 21, 8917-8925 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to study the effect of the laser spot diameter on the shock wave generated in the ablation process of an Nd:YAG laser pulse on a Zn target under atmospheric pressure. For different laser spot diameters and time delays, the propagation of the expanding vapour and of the shock wave were recorded by intensity maps calculated using the recorded digital holograms. From the latter phase maps, the refractive index and the density field can be derived. A model was developed that approaches the density distribution, in particular the ellipsoidal expansion characteristics. The induced shock wave has an ellipsoid shape that approaches a sphere for decreasing spot diameter. The ellipsoidal shock waves have almost the same centre offset towards the laser beam and the same aspect ratio for different time steps. The model facilitates the derivation of the particle velocity field. The method provides valuable quantitative results that are discussed, in particular in comparison with the simpler point source explosion theory.

  • 33.
    Amer, Eynas
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Gren, Per
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Kaplan, Alexander
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Sjödahl, Mikael
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Strömningslära och experimentell mekanik.
    Shaer, M. El
    Department of Engineering Physics and Mathematics, Faculty of Engineering, Zagazig University.
    Comparison of the laser ablation process on Zn and Ti using pulsed digital holographic interferometry2010Inngår i: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 256, nr 14, 4633-4641 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Pulsed digital holographic interferometry has been used to compare the laser ablation process of a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser pulse (wavelength 1064 nm, pulse duration 12 ns) on two different metals (Zn and Ti) under atmospheric air pressure. Digital holograms were recorded for different time delays using collimated laser light (532 nm) passed through the volume along the target. Numerical data of the integrated refractive index field were calculated and presented as phase maps. Intensity maps were calculated from the recorded digital holograms and are used to calculate the attenuation of the probing laser beam by the ablated plume. The different structures of the plume, namely streaks normal to the surface for Zn in contrast to absorbing regions for Ti, indicates that different mechanisms of laser ablation could happen for different metals for the same laser settings and surrounding gas. At a laser fluence of 5 J/cm2, phase explosion appears to be the ablation mechanism in case of Zn, while for Ti normal vaporisation seems to be the dominant mechanism.

  • 34.
    Anderberg, Staffan
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Beno, Tomas
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Pejryd, Lars
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för industriell produktion.
    Energy and Cost Efficiency in CNC Machining from a Process Planning Perspective2011Inngår i: 9th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing: Sustainable Manufacturing –Shaping Global Value Creation / [ed] Günther Seliger, 2011, 383-389 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of process planning as an enabler for cost efficient and environmentally benign CNC machining is investigated in the paper. Specific energy is used as the principal indicator of energy efficient machining and different methods to calculate and estimate this is exemplified and discussed. The interrelation between process planning decisions and production outcome is sketched and process capability can be considered as one factor of green machining. A correlation between total machining cost and total energy use was shown for an experimental case. However, to generalise conclusions, the importance of having reliable data during process planning to make effective decisions should not be underestimated.

  • 35.
    Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Engström, Hans
    Luleå tekniska universitet, Institutionen för teknikvetenskap och matematik, Produkt- och produktionsutveckling.
    Wiklund, Greger
    Påsvetsning, upplegering och ytomsmältning (glasering) med högeffektlaser1983Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 36.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser.
    Jacobsson, J.
    Brederholm, A.
    Hänninen, H.
    Improved understanding of Varestraint Testing: Nickel-based superalloys2016Inngår i: Cracking Phenomena in Welds IV / [ed] Boellinghaus, T., Lippold, J. C. and Cross, C. E., Springer Publishing Company, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Information about the book:

    This is the fourth volume in the well-established series of compendiums devoted to the subject of weld hot cracking. It contains the papers presented at the 4th International Cracking Workshop held in Berlin in April 2014. In the context of this workshop, the term “cracking” refers to hot cracking in the classical and previous sense, but also to cold cracking, stress-corrosion cracking and elevated temp. solid-state cracking.  A variety of different cracking subjects are discussed, including test standards, crack prediction, weldability determination, crack mitigation, stress states, numerical modelling, and cracking mechanisms.  Likewise, many different alloys were investigated such as aluminum alloys, copper-aluminum dissimilar metal, austenitic stainless steel, nickel base alloys, duplex stainless steel, creep resistant steel, and high strength steel.

  • 37.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser.
    Jacobsson, J.
    Lundin, C.
    A Historical perspective on Varestraint testing and the importance of testing parameters2016Inngår i: Cracking Phenomena in Welds IV / [ed] Boellinghaus, T., Lippold, J. C. and Cross, C. E., Springer Publishing Company, 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 38.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser. Department of Materials Technology, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollha¨ttan, Sweden and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Department of Materials Technology, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollha¨ttan, Sweden and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Repair welding of wrought superalloys: Alloy 718, Allvac 718Plus and Waspaloy2012Inngår i: Science and Technology of Welding and Joining, ISSN 1362-1718, Vol. 17, nr 1, 49-59 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to weld repair three precipitation hardening superalloys, i.e. Alloy 718, Allvac 718Plus and Waspaloy, with gas tungsten arc welding, is compared in this study. Four different solution heat treatment conditions for each material were examined: Alloy 718 and Allvac 718Plus heat treated at 954uC–1 h, 982uC–1 h, 954uC–15 h and 1020uC–1 h and Waspaloy for 4 h at 996uC, 1010uC, 1040uC and at 1080uC. By metallography, the total number of cracks was evaluated in both the heat affected zone and the fusion zone, which made it possible to consistently rate the repair weldability of these three materials. Alloy 718 was significantly the best one, with Allvac 718Plus slightly better than Waspaloy. As expected, the solution heat treatment conditions only affected the heat affected zone cracking behaviour.

  • 39.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Brederholm, A.
    Hänninen, H.
    Solidification Cracking of Alloy Allvac 718Plus and Alloy 718 at Transvarestraint Testing2010Inngår i: EPD Congress 2008: Proceedings of Sessions and Symposia Sponsored by the Extraction and Processing Division (EPD) / [ed] Stanley M. Howard, Wiley-Blackwell, 2010, 157-169 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 40.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Chaturvedi, M.
    Hot Ductility Study of Haynes 282 Superalloy2010Inngår i: Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives / [ed] E. A. Ott, J. R. Groh, A. Banik, I. Dempster, T. P. Gabb, R. Helmink, X. Liu, A. Mitchell, G. P. Sjöberg and A. Wusatowska-Sarnek, The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, 2010, 539-554 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 41.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Hatami, S.
    Notch Sensitivity and Intergranular Crack Growth in the Allvac 718Plus Superalloy2007Inngår i: XVIII International Symposium on Air Breathing Engines (ISABE): Beijing, China, 2-7 September 2007, 2007, n.1293- s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 42.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser. Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hänninen, H.
    Aalto University School of Science and Technology, Espoo, Finland.
    Metallurgical Response of Electron Beam Welded Allvac® 718Plus™2011Inngår i: Hot Cracking Phenomena in Welds III / [ed] Lippold, J., Böllinghaus, T. and Cross C. E., Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2011, 415-428 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Electron beam welding of forged Allvac 718Plus superalloy has been carried out without any visible cracks in weld cross-sections. Healed cracks in the heat affected zone were, however, seen in most cross-sections with the healing as well as the cracking believed to be due to the constitutional liquation of the δ-phase. The δ-phase undergoes constitutional liquation in the Heat Affected Zone (HAZ) and consequently decreases the ductility of the material and renders cracks in the HAZ but due to the large amount of eutectic liquid produced at the same time the healing of the opened cracks takes place.

  • 43.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser. Volvo Aero Corporation, Materials Technology Department, Trollhättan, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Göteborg,Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Volvo Aero Corporation, Materials Technology Department, Trollhättan, Sweden och Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Larsson, J.
    Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Göteborg,Sweden.
    Investigation of Homogenization and its Influence on the Repair Welding of Cast Allvac 718Plus(®)2010Inngår i: Superalloy 718 and Derivatives: Proceedings of the 7th International Symposium on Superalloy 718 and Derivatives / [ed] E. A. Ott, J. R. Groh, A. Banik, I. Dempster, T. P. Gabb, R. Helmink, X. Liu, A. Mitchell, G. P. Sjöberg, and A. Wusatowska-Sarnek, The Minerals, Metals, and Materials Society, 2010, 439-454 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 44.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser. Department of Materials Technology, GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Trollhättan, Sweden och Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Department of Materials Technology, GKN Aerospace Engine Systems, Trollhättan, Sweden och Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Viskari, L.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chaturvedi, M. C.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Effect of Different Solution Heat Treatments on the Hot Ductility of Superalloys: Part 3 - Waspaloy2013Inngår i: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, Vol. 29, nr 1, 43-53 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The susceptibility to heat affected zone cracking of Waspaloy has been investigated in terms of its hot ductility, measured as the reduction of area (RA). Gleeble testing with on-heating as well as on-cooling test cycles was carried out to illuminate the influence of different 4 h solution heat treatments between 996 and 1080°C. A ductility maximum of between 80 and 90%RA was found at 1050–1100°C for all conditions in the on-heating tests. Although the different heat treatment conditions showed similar macrohardness, the particle size and distribution of the γ′ and M23C6 phases differed, which significantly affected the on-heating ductility in the lower temperature test region. The ductile to brittle transition was initiated at 1100°C in the on-heating testing with indications of grain boundary liquation at the higher test temperatures. Ductility recovery, as measured in the on-cooling tests from 1240°C, was very limited with <30%RA for all conditions and test temperatures except for the 1080°C/4 h treatment, which exhibited 60%RA at 980°C.

  • 45.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser. Department of Materials Technology, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden and Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Department of Materials Technology, Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, Sweden and Department of Materials and Manufacturing Technology, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Viskari, L.
    Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chaturvedi, M.C.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, MB, Canada.
    Effect of different solution heat treatments on hot ductility of superalloys: Part 2 – Allvac 718Plus2012Inngår i: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, Vol. 28, nr 6, 733-741 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The hot ductility of Allvac 718Plus for different solution heat treatments (954°C–15 h, 954°C–1 h, 982°C–1 h and 1050°C–3 h+954°C–1 h) has been investigated using Gleeble testing. Substantial variations in the microstructure among the heat treatments affected the Gleeble test hot ductility only to a very limited extent. Constitutional liquation of the NbC phase was found to be the main cause for the poor ductility at high testing temperatures in the on-heating cycle as well as at the lower temperatures on-cooling. Grain boundary δ phase was seen to assist the constitutional liquation of the NbC phase. Based on established evaluation criteria for Gleeble ductility testing, a ranked indicator for weldability is suggested.

  • 46.
    Andersson, Joel
    et al.
    Högskolan Väst, Institutionen för ingenjörsvetenskap, Avd för tillverkningsprocesser. Department of Materials Technology at Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, G.
    Department of Materials Technology at Volvo Aero Corporation, Trollhättan, and Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Viskari, L.
    Department of Microscopy and Microanalysis at Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Chaturvedi, M.C.
    Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba, R3T 5V6 Canada.
    Effect of solution heat treatments on superalloys: Part 1 – alloy 7182012Inngår i: Materials Science and Technology, ISSN 0267-0836, Vol. 28, nr 5, 609-619 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The hot ductility as measured by Gleeble testing of Alloy 718 at four different solution heat treatments (954°C/15 h, 954°C/1 h, 982°C/1 h and 1050°C/3 h+954°C/1 h) has been investigated. It is concluded that constitutional liquation of NbC assisted by δ phase takes place and deteriorates the ductility. Parameters established by analysing the ductility dependence on temperature indicate a reduced weldability of the material in the coarse grain size state (ASTM 3) while indicating an increased weldability when containing a large amount of δ phase due to a grain boundary pinning effect. The accumulation of trace elements during grain growth at the highest temperature is believed to be the cause for the observed reduced on-cooling ductility.

  • 47.
    Andersson, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Mikrosystemteknik.
    Mårtensson, Gustaf
    EMSL, MC2, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Klintberg, Lena
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Tekniska sektionen, Institutionen för teknikvetenskaper, Mikrosystemteknik.
    Flowing and pressurizing a solid-liquid two phase monodispersed fluid with high solid content in a transparent microfluidic high-pressure chip2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 48.
    Andersson, Niklas
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för ekonomisk och industriell utveckling.
    Gesällprovets tillverkningsprocess2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Examensarbetet är en beskrivande rapport om tillverkningsprocessen av ett gesällprov. Rapportens syfte är att beakta olika konstruktioner och hur de förvärvade kunskaperna används för att utföra en slutprodukt, i det här fallet ett gesällprov. Rapporten försöker svara på vilka faktorer som varit mest avgörande för ett lyckat resultat.

    Tyngdpunkten i arbetet ligger i att beskriva tillverkningsprocessen. Rapporten beskriver resonemanget kring valet av en möbel. Den presenterar olika träslag och hur de kan påverka möbelns uttryck. Vidare berättar rapporten om olika alternativ på skivmaterial att använda som blindträ. Uttag och hantering av faner och massivträ förklaras. Rapporten visar även olika konstruktioner och sammansättningar.

    I den avslutande delen presenteras resultatet av tillverkningen och granskarnas betygssättning. Ett resonemang förs angående vilka faktorer, så som erfarenheter, förvärvade kunskaper, noggrannhet etc. som påverkat resultatet. Slutligen beskrivs olika svårigheter och vad som skulle kunna göras annorlunda.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Petter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Belysningslära.
    Petersson, Marcus
    Högskolan i Jönköping, Tekniska Högskolan, JTH, Belysningslära.
    En undersökning av projicerat ljus i inomhusmiljö2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
  • 50.
    Andersson, Roger
    Luleå tekniska universitet.
    Deformation characteristics of stainless steels2005Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis describes the results of a theoretical and experimental investigation into the deformation characteristics of stainless steels. The title of the chapters is as follows; A new type of forming limit diagram for use with meta-stable stainless steels. A new equation to describe the microstructural transformation of meta- stable austenitic stainless steels during plastic deformation. FEM-simulation of the forming and impact behaviour of stainless steel automobile components. The development of high strain rate equations for stainless steels. The metallurgy and mechanical properties of laser welds between stainless and carbon steels.

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