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  • 1.
    Acevedo Gomez, Yasna
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Tillämpad elektrokemi.
    Performance of a PEM fuel cell using electroplated Ni–Mo and Ni–Mo–P stainless steel bipolar plates2017Inngår i: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, ISSN 0013-4651, E-ISSN 1945-7111, Vol. 164, nr 13, F1427-F1436 s., 10.1149/2.0771713jesArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance and durability of 316L stainless steel bipolar plates (BPP) electroplated with Ni–Mo and Ni–Mo–P coatings are investigated in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), using a commercial Pt/C Nafion membrane electrode assembly (MEA). The effect of the BPP coatings on the electrochemical performance up to 115 h is evaluated from polarization curves, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy together with interfacial contact resistance (ICR) measurements between the coatings and the gas diffusion layer. The results show that all the coatings decrease the ICR in comparison to that of uncoated 316L BPP. The Ni-Mo coated BPP shows a low and stable ICR and the smallest effects on MEA performance, including catalyst activity/usability, cathode double layer capacitance, and membrane and ionomer resistance build up with time. After electrochemical evaluation, the BPPs as well as the water effluents from the cell are examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive and Inductively Coupled Plasma spectroscopies. No significant degradation of the coated surface or enhancement in metal release is observed. However, phosphorus addition to the coating does not show to improve its properties, as deterioration of the MEA and consequently fuel cell performance losses is observed.

  • 2.
    Ahlgren, Maria
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Farmaceutiska fakulteten, Institutionen för läkemedelskemi, Avdelningen för analytisk farmaceutisk kemi.
    Remediation of diclofenac in a non-sterile bioreactor using the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental perspective, it is interesting to assess new methods for efficient removal of drugs from wastewater. The purpose of this project was to assess the possibility of using the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor  to degrade diclofenac in a lab scale bioreactor. Two methods for quantitative analysis of diclofenac were developed, using GC-MS and UHPLC-Q-TOF (C18-column). Both methods were partly validated, with regard to sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, which highlighted the superiority of UHPLC-Q-TOF over GC-MS. Two HILIC columns were also assessed, but proved unsuitable for quantitative analysis of diclofenac under the used conditions. The fungal mycelia were immobilized on plastic carriers in a nutrient solution. In initial E-flask experiments, 10 mg/L diclofenac was added to an active culture and a heat-killed control of T. versicolor . Samples were analyzed, and the results from the active culture indicated a 98% removal of diclofenac after 48 hours. The lab scale bioreactor was used in a semi-continuous mode with the influent containing 10 mg/L diclofenac. Samples were collected from the effluent to monitor the concentration over 7 days. The results showed a decline in concentration to a stable level of approximately 2 mg/L. The initial experiments showed that most of the removal (85%) was due to sorption of diclofenac, but a clear difference was seen between the active and heat-killed culture. It was impossible to conclude from the bioreactor experiment if the observed removal was due to sorption or to a combination of sorption and enzymatic remediation.

  • 3.
    Ahlström, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Aim, Karel
    Dohrn, Ralf
    Elliott, J Richard
    Jackson, George
    Jaubert, Jean Noël
    Rebello de A. Macedo, Maria Eugénia
    Pokki, Juha-Pekka
    Reczey, Kati
    Victorov, Alexey
    Fele Zilnik, Ljudmila
    Economou, Ioannis
    A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the USA2010Inngår i: Chemical Engineering Education, ISSN 0009-2479, Vol. 44, nr 1, 35-43 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermodynamics and Transport Properties (TTP) is a central subject in the majority of chemical engineering curricula worldwide and it is thus of interest to know how it is taught today in various countries if chemical engineering education is to be improved. A survey of graduate thermodynamics education in the USA was performed a few years ago by Visco et al. [1] but as far as we know no systematic study of the undergraduate thermodynamics education has been performed, at least in recent years. In the present study, a survey about TTP education in Europe and the USA is presented. Results were obtained from nearly twenty different European countries and the USA and in total answers from about 150 universities were used for this study. The study is performed under the auspices of the Working Party of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering. The survey was performed using a web based surveying system for which invitations were sent out to the universities by local representatives who were responsible for one or more countries each. Of the universities that answered more than 70 % offer BSc education 65 % offer MSc education and 55 % offer PhD education. Most universities offer at least two courses of thermodynamics. The following discussion is mainly based on the first two (undergraduate) courses reported. Half of these are taught to chemical engineers exclusively whereas the rest are taught with other branches of engineering, mainly mechanical and / or process engineering. In general two sets of course lengths were observed, corresponding either to a full semester of full time studies or to quarter of a semester. Most courses are centered around lectures and exercise classes with little or no laboratory work whereas home assignments are given in the vast majority (70-80 %) of the courses. The first course is mainly centered around the first and second law of thermodynamics whereas the second course is frequently more concentrated on phase equilibria. Both of these courses are mainly comprising of classical thermodynamics whereas the molecular interpretation often is touched upon. An analysis of the differences between thermodynamics education in Europe and the USA in presently being undertaken and results from this will also be presented. An investigation of the use of thermodynamics within industry is also on-going within the Working Party and results will be reported in the near future. [1] S.K.Dube, D.P. Visco, Chem. Eng. Ed., 2005, 258-263.

  • 4.
    Ahlström, Peter
    et al.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Moodley, Suren
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Bolton, Kim
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Ramjugernath, D.
    Högskolan i Borås, Institutionen Ingenjörshögskolan.
    Computer Simulations of Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Equilibria Involving Hydrocarbons and Water2008Inngår i: Proceedings of the 100th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Chemical Engineering, 2008, CHPC National Meeting, Durban, South Africa, December 9-10, 2008, AlChe Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, November 15-21, 2008, 2008Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 5.
    Akhand, Victoria
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Mass Balance Model of Impurities for the WoodRoll Process2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion time for fossil fuels calculated from 2009 is 35 years for oil, 37 years for gas

    and 107 years for coal. Hence, it has become essential to reduce the dependence on fossil

    fuels by switching over to renewable resources. This in turn will also help in combating the

    negative effects on the environment like global warming. Thermochemical processes such as

    pyrolysis and gasification of biomass are considered the most efficient technology for

    converting biomass to useful energy carriers. Cortus Energy AB is a Swedish company that

    has developed a patented gasification technology called WoodRoll

    ® for gasification of fuels derived from biomass. However, ash in a thermochemical conversion process can cause

    corrosion, sintering, slag and poisoning of catalysts, which leads to operational problems. In

    addition, heavy metals such as Zn, Pb and Cd are environmentally problematic. These metals

    contribute to environmental pollution by contaminating the soil, which in turn can harm

    humans and the ecosystem via the food chain. The undesired elements should therefore be

    identified to minimize their impact on the overall thermochemical process and to reduce the

    emission of these harmful substances.

    The objective of this master thesis project, on behalf of Cortus Energy AB, was to investigate

    possible key numbers that can be used to describe and predict how the ash behaves in their

    patented WoodRoll® process. The key numbers that have been identified are empirically

    developed based on experience of coal combustion. These key numbers are regularly used for

    fuel derived from biomass by companies specializing in analyzing, although knowledge about

    whether they can actually be used on biomass is limited. In order to ensure that the use of

    these for biomass is correct, they must be experimentally verified in the future. In addition, a

    theoretical investigation is conducted to study which species can form and in what phase this

    occurs. The investigation reveals that there are no clear trends for how the inorganic elements

    behave since contradicting results from different studies have been reported. Formation of

    species and their phase depends on several parameters such as temperature, heating rate,

    particle size, volatility, quantity and interaction between the elements in the biomass. The

    thesis project ends with a mass balance model on selected inorganic elements for wood

    residues, as well as for bark. The model could be a tool for Cortus Energy AB to identify

    approximately how much of each element is present in each stream in the WoodRoll® process.

    The models are verified with analysis results. Inorganic elements that affect the

    overall process and its equipment have been selected for modelling. The volume percent of

    H2, CO, CO2 and CH4 in the models agree well with the values obtained by Cortus Energy

    AB. This shows that the thermodynamic equilibrium calculations performed are reasonable.

  • 6. Aldea, Steliana
    et al.
    Snåre, Mathias
    Eränen, Kari
    Grenman, Henrik
    Rautio, Anne-Riika
    Kordás, Krisztian
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, 20500 Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Salmi, Tapio
    Murzin, Dmitry Y.
    Crystallization of Nano-Calcium Carbonate: The Influence of Process Parameters2016Inngår i: Chemie Ingenieur Technik, ISSN 0009-286X, E-ISSN 1522-2640, Vol. 88, nr 11, 1609-1616 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitated calcium carbonate was synthesized by carbonation of calcium hydroxide in the presence and absence of ultrasound (conventional stirring) at atmospheric as well as at elevated pressures and different initial concentrations of Ca(OH)2. Spherical morphology of the formed calcite was favored at high Ca(OH)2 concentrations and low CO2 pressures. The presence of ultrasound did not show any influence on the reaction rate in case of efficient mixing. A small increase of the reaction rate was observed at lower CO2 pressures. Elevated pressures in combination with ultrasound did not lead to notable changes of reaction rate or particle morphology.

  • 7.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Richard Hallam, Keith
    University of Bristol, England.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Jawaid, Sana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Sirajjuddin,
    Univ Sindh, Natl Ctr Excellence Analyt Chem, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för teknik och naturvetenskap, Fysik och elektroteknik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    A highly selective and sensitive electrochemical determination of melamine based on succinic acid functionalized copper oxide nanostructures2015Inngår i: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, nr 127, 105090-105097 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the development of a highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensor for the determination of melamine from aqueous environments. The sensor system is based on functionalised marigold-like CuO nanostructures fabricated using a controlled hydrothermal process, where the utilised succinic acid is considered to play a dual role as a functionalising and growth controlling agent (modifier). The fabricated nanostructures exhibit sharp and well-ordered structural features with dimensions (thickness) in the range of 10-50 nm. The sensor system exhibits strong linearity within the concentration range of 0.1 x 10(-9) to 5.6 x 10(-9) M and demonstrates an excellent limit of detection up to 0.1 x 10(-10) M. The extreme selectivity and sensing capability of the developed sensor is attributed to the synergy of selective interaction between succinic acid and melamine moieties, and the high surface area of marigold-like CuO nanostructures. In addition to this, the developed sensor was also utilised for the determination of melamine from real milk samples collected from different regions of Hyderabad, Pakistan. The obtained excellent recoveries proved the feasibility of the sensor for real life applications. The sensor system offers an operative measure for detecting extremely low melamine content with high selectivity in food contents.

  • 8.
    Andersson Krohn, Robert
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Biomethane via Woodroll® - Investigation of Revenues & Profitability Analysis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Woodroll® is a gasification technology developed by Cortus that produces synthetic gas (syngas) from biomass. Syngas can be used in several different applications. One interesting option is to convert it further into biomethane, which can be used as automotive fuel or replace natural gas in gas grids. The revenues and profitability of biomethane production is heavily dependent on policy instruments and support schemes. These subsidies can be either direct, where the producer receives a feed-in tariff for biomethane production, or indirect, where consumption rather than production is stimulated.

    This work has investigated which revenues that can be expected from biomethane production via Woodrooll® in Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, the UK, France and Italy, both in terms of amounts and risks. A profitability analysis have also been carried out to preliminary compare the returns in the different countries, where two different scenarios for different revenues have been analyzed for two different feedstock prices.

    The results showed that the Netherlands and Italy provides the potentially highest revenues. However, there are uncertainty factors associated with all cases. Sweden and Germany offers indirect support and negative market trends. The Netherlands and the UK are the only options that provide a feed-in tariff for biomethane production via gasification. In the Netherlands the tariff can be secured before making investment decision but is only disbursed for 12 years. The UK offers a fixed feed-in tariff for 20 years but the tariff is secured first after plant start-up and the tariff may be reduced on a quarterly basis. In fact, the tariff has been reduced with 40 % over the last 24 months, but there are discussions on introducing a separate tariff for gasification. Italy has the support schemes that potentially offer the highest revenues, but gasification is currently not eligible for support. The latter also holds for France, which may be an interesting case in the future.

    If risk is to be minimized, Cortus may either focus on the Netherlands or await the discussions in the UK and France on introducing a gasification tariff. The work on standardization of biomethane use should also be followed since Italy offers the potentially highest return of the investigated countries. It is also recommended to look further for other cases. The best-case scenario for the risk averse is the one that provides a fixed tariff for 20 years and in which the tariff can be secured before an investment decision is taken.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Sven
    et al.
    SP.
    Bäfver, Linda
    SP.
    Davidsson, Kent
    SP.
    Pettersson, Jens
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Schmidt, Hans
    SP.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Yngvesson, Johan
    SP.
    Skrubberintegrerat vått elfilter, WESP2012Rapport (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 10.
    Anna, Trubetskaya
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Kling, J.
    Brown, A.
    Tompsett, G.
    Umeki, K.
    Effects of Lignocellulosic Compounds on the Yield, Nanostructure and Reactivity of Soot from Fast Pyrolysis at High Temperatures2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 11.
    Anna, Trubetskaya
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Talbot Barsberg, S.
    Development of CO2 neutral reductants in metallurgical industry from thermochemically produced biochar using DFT calculations2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 12.
    Ascue Avalos, Katia
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Avfallshanteringens miljöpåverkan - Fem avfallstypers koldioxidutsläpp i SÖRABs återvinningsprocess2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Klimatförändringen är ett av det största miljöproblem som vi står inför idag och beror på den förstärkta växthuseffekten som orsakas av främst koldioxid.  SÖRAB är ett avfallshanteringsföretag och fick förfrågningen av en av sina kunder angående hur mycket koldioxid som en avfallstyp genererar när den lämnas i en av deras sex återvinningscentraler och återvinns. Den frågan har besvarats i det här examensarbetet för fem olika typer av avfall: gips, däck, hårdplast, betong och textil. Utöver det har en miljönytta också beräknats genom att jämföra SÖRABs återvinningsprocess med en alternativ process i det fall avfallet istället skickas till deponering eller förbränning.

    En positiv miljönytta indikerar således att det sker besparing av koldioxidutsläpp till miljön genom att återvinna avfallet i fråga hos SÖRAB och inte förbränna eller deponera den.

     

    Avgränsningarna för återvinningsprocesserna inkluderar:

    • Transport av avfallet (inkluderar biltransport och färjetransport)

      • Intern transport av avfallet hos SÖRAB

      • Transport från SÖRABs anläggningar till extern återvinningsföretag.

    • Energiförbrukningen från avfallskrossar på SÖRAB

    • Drivmedelutsläpp från arbetsmaskiner på SÖRAB

    • Koldioxidutsläppet från behandling av avfallet i externt företag. Vilket även inkluderar koldioxidutsläppet vid eventuell vidaretransport till förbränningsanläggning och koldioxidutsläppet vid förbränning.

     

    Avgränsningen för koldioxidutsläppet börjar frän det att kunden lämnar avfall hos SÖRAB och sträcker sig olika långt beroende på avfallstyp. I resultatdelen illustreras avgränsningarna för varje avfallstyp.

     

    Resultaten av beräkningarna visade att koldioxidutsläppet för varje avfallstyp skiljer sig mycket. Skillnaderna berodde på att varje avfallstyp återvinningsprocess i SÖRAB skiljer sig vad gäller vikter som transporteras, transportlängder, transportmedel och utsläppsgrader i de externa företagen. För plast-, textil- och däcks återvinningsprocess är det transporterna som bidrar till den största delen av utsläppen. För gips och betong är utsläppen i de externa företagen som bidrar mest vilket beror på att transportlängderna i deras återvinningsprocess är relativt korta.

     

    Däckens miljönytta blev högst, 611 kg C02/ton plast besparas genom att inte skicka däcken till förbränning och istället skicka den till återvinning genom SÖRABs återvinningsprocess. Resultatet beror bl.a. på att den alternativa processen inkluderar förbränning av ett ton däck och en relativt lång färjetransport på ca 150 km.

     

    Miljönyttan blev positiv för alla avfallstyper förutom för hårdplasten (-9,85 kg CO2/ton hårdplast) som hade en väldigt lång transportlängd i förhållande med den alternativa processen som var att skicka den till förbränning. Dock var inte slutsatsen att det vore bättre att förbränna hårdplasten eftersom den egentliga miljönyttan möjligtvis ligger i det koldioxidutsläpp som besparas genom att inte behöva tillverka nytt hårdplast från jungfruligt material.

     

  • 13.
    Barrientos, Javier
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik, Kemisk teknologi.
    Deactivation of cobalt and nickel catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and methanation2016Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

                A potential route for converting different carbon sources (coal, natural gas and biomass) into synthetic fuels is the transformation of these raw materials into synthesis gas (CO and H2), followed by a catalytic step which converts this gas into the desired fuels. The present thesis has focused on two catalytic steps: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) and methanation. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis serves to convert synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. Methanation serves instead to produce synthetic natural gas (SNG). Cobalt catalysts have been used in FTS while nickel catalysts have been used in methanation.

                The catalyst lifetime is a parameter of critical importance both in FTS and methanation. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the deactivation causes of the cobalt and nickel catalysts in their respective reactions.

                The resistance to carbonyl-induced sintering of nickel catalysts supported on different carriers (γ-Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and α-Al2O3) was studied. TiO2-supported nickel catalysts exhibited lower sintering rates than the other catalysts. The effect of the catalyst pellet size was also evaluated on γ-Al2O3-supported nickel catalysts. The use of large catalyst pellets gave considerably lower sintering rates. The resistance to carbon formation on the above-mentioned supported nickel catalysts was also evaluated. Once again, TiO2-supported nickel catalysts exhibited the lowest carbon formation rates. Finally, the effect of operating conditions on carbon formation and deactivation was studied using Ni/TiO2 catalysts. The use of higher H2/CO ratios and higher pressures reduced the carbon formation rate. Increasing the temperature from 280 °C to 340 °C favored carbon deposition. The addition of steam also reduced the carbon formation rate but accelerated catalyst deactivation.

                The decline in activity of cobalt catalysts with increasing sulfur concentration was also assessed by ex situ poisoning of a cobalt catalyst. A deactivation model was proposed to predict the decline in activity as function of the sulfur coverage and the sulfur-to-cobalt active site ratio. The results also indicate that sulfur decreases the selectivity to long-chain hydrocarbons and olefins.

  • 14. Barsberg, S.T.
    et al.
    Andersson, M.L.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Anna, Trubetskaya
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Modeling of radical structures in biochar using DFT calculations2017Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 15.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Schuetze, A.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Characterizing the Influence of Gate Bias on Electrical and Catalytical Properties of a Porous Platinum Gate on Field Effect Gas Sensors2016Inngår i: 2016 IEEE SENSORS, IEEE , 2016Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we exposed an MIS capacitor with porous platinum as gate material to different concentrations of CO and NH3. Its capacitance and typical reaction products (water, CO2 and NO) were monitored at high and low oxygen concentration and different gate bias voltages. We found that the gate bias influences the switch-point of the binary CO response usually seen when either changing the temperature at constant gas concentrations or the CO/O-2 ratio at constant temperature. For NH3, the sensor response as well as product reaction rates increase with bias voltages up to 6 V. A capacitance overshoot is observed when switching on or off either gas at low gate bias, suggesting increasing oxygen surface coverage with decreasing gate bias.

  • 16.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Reimringer, W.
    3S GmbH, Germany.
    Conrad, T.
    3S GmbH, Germany.
    Schuetze, A.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Dynamic multi-sensor operation and read-out for highly selective gas sensor systems2016Inngår i: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH ANNIVERSARY EUROSENSORS CONFERENCE - EUROSENSORS 2016, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 168, 1685-1688 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe hardware and algorithms which enable highly selective and sensitive operation of the two gas sensor types used in the SENSIndoor project. The resistance of a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) type can rise above 1 G Omega in temperature cycled operation (TCO), which is measured using a logarithmic amplifier. A silicon-carbide based, gas-sensitive field-effect transistor (SiC-FET) driven with a combination of TCO and gate-bias cycled operation (GBCO) is used as second, complimentary sensor. The cyclic sensor signals exhibit distinct shape changes depending on the gas present which is captured by pattern recognition. In this study we use Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) for discrimination and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) for quantification of ppb concentrations of target VOCs in changing ppm concentrations of interfering gases for indoor air quality assessment. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 17.
    Becker, Sebastian
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Inverkan av olika joner och jonconcentrationer på porstorleksfördelningen i trämassa-fibrer2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The basic ingredient of paper is the individual wood fibers. The property of the fibers depends on a variety of factors e.g., method of pulp production and processing. The final sheet quality depends in part on how the fibers interface between each other and therefore factors that affect the fiber size are of interest.

    The flexibility of the fibers depends in part on the pore water i.e., the fiber swelling. The sheet becomes less flexible at low water content which gives a loss in strength. Thus it becomes desirable to increase the water uptake.

    The experimental investigation described in this report consists of exposing the wood fibers to different ions and ionic strength and then measure the pore size by thermoporosimetry where a DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) is used. DSC measures the freezing point of water in the pores of the wood fibers. As the freezing point varies with the pore size the size distribution can be determined.

    The results show that there are complications with thermoporosimetry measurements at different ion concentrations. The strength of the ionic solutions will contribute to a fictitious pore volume, which makes analysis difficult to interpret.

  • 18.
    Bengtsson, Katarina
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Ytors Fysik och Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Electrokinetic devices from polymeric materials2017Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    There are multiple applications for polymers: our bodies are built of them, plastic bags and boxes used for storage are composed of them, as are the shells for electronics, TVs, computers, clothes etc. Many polymers are cheap, and easy to manufacture and process which make them suitable for disposable systems. The choice of polymer to construct an object will therefore highly influence the properties of the object itself. The focus of this thesis is the application of commonly used polymers to solve some challenges regarding integration of electrodes in electrokinetic devices and 3D printing.

    The first part of this thesis regards electrokinetic systems and the electrodes’ impact on the system. Electrokinetic systems require Faradaic (electrochemical) reactions at the electrodes to maintain an electric field in an electrolyte. The electrochemical reactions at the electrodes allow electron-to-ion transduction at the electrode-electrolyte interface, necessary to drive a current at the applied potential through the system, which thereby either cause flow (electroosmosis) or separation (electrophoresis). These electrochemical reactions at the electrodes, such as water electrolysis, are usually problematic in analytical systems and systems applied in biology. One solution to reduce the impact of water electrolysis is by replacing metal electrodes with electrochemically active polymers, e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT). Paper 1 demonstrates that PEDOT electrodes can replace platinum electrodes in a gel electrophoretic setup. Paper 2 reports an all-plastic, planar, flexible electroosmotic pump which continuously transports water from one side to the other using potentials as low as 0.3 V. This electroosmotic pump was further developed in paper 3, where it was made into a compact and modular setup, compatible with commercial microfluidic devices. We demonstrated that the pump could maintain an alternating flow for at least 96 h, with a sufficient flow of cell medium to keep cells alive for the same period of time.

    The second part of the thesis describes the use of 3D printers for manufacturing prototypes and the material requirements for 3D printing. Protruding and over-hanging structures are more challenging to print using a 3D printer and usually require supporting material during the printing process. In paper 4, we showed that polyethylene glycol (PEG), in combination with a carbonate-based plasticizer, functions well as a 3D printable sacrificial template material. PEG2000 with between 20 and 30 wt% dimethyl carbonate or propylene carbonate have good shear-thinning rheology, mechanical and chemical stability, and water solubility, which are advantageous for a supporting material used in 3D printing.

    The advances presented in this thesis have solved some of the challenges regarding electrokinetic systems and prototype manufacturing. Hopefully this will contribute to the development of robust, disposable, low-cost, and autonomous electrokinetic devices.

  • 19.
    Beretta, A.
    et al.
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Groppi, G.
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Lualdi, Matteo
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Tavazzi, I.
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Forzatti, P.
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Experimental and modeling analysis of methane partial oxidation: transient and steady-state behavior of rh-coated honeycomb monoliths2009Inngår i: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 48, nr 8, 3825-3836 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study consists of an experimental and theoretical study of the performance of Rh-coated honeycomb monoliths for methane partial oxidation. The thermal behavior of Rh-coated honeycomb monoliths was studied under representative operating conditions, at steady state and during light-off. Model analysis (based on a dynamic heterogeneous reactor model that incorporates a kinetic scheme of the process independently developed, and well-assessed correlations for heat and mass transfer) provided a key for interpreting the observed effects. The comprehension of how transport phenomena and surface kinetics affect the reactor behavior leads to the conclusion that the feasibility of small-scale production of syngas via CH(4) catalytic partial oxidation relies on thermal management of the short contact time reactor and not the obtainment of high syngas yields (which is not a challenging task). Severe operating conditions (and high surface temperatures) can deplete the catalyst activity and cause unstable reactor operation. Guidelines for optimal reactor design are proposed.

  • 20.
    Bergström, Lars Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Kemi. YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Jan Christer
    KTH, Tidigare Institutioner, Kemi. YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Sweden .
    Synergistic effects in binary surfactant mixtures2004Inngår i: Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science, ISSN 0340-255X, E-ISSN 1437-8027, Vol. 123, 16-22 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    By considering the main contributions to the micellar free energy we have analysed the synergistic effect often seen on the CMC of a binary surfactant mixture. The synergistic effects are due mainly to the entropic free energy contributions related with the surfactant head groups. Several cases have been treated: (i) For a mixture of a monovalent ionic and a non-ionic surfactant in the absence of added salt we obtain, entirely because of electrostatic reasons, a negative deviation from the ideal behaviour corresponding to an interaction parameter β≈-1. Upon adding an inert salt we found that the magnitude of the synergistic effect first increases, reaches a maximum and eventually decreases. (ii) For mixtures of two ionic surfactants with the same charge number but with different hydrocarbon moieties β-values as low as -10 may arise. (iii) For mixtures of an anionic and a cationic surfactant enormous effects are anticipated yielding β≤-20 depending on the CMCs of respective pure surfactant. (iv) Synergistic effects due to different cross-section areas of the head groups are found to be rather small, with 0 > β > -1, provided the difference in head group size is modest but can become more significant when the size difference is larger.

  • 21. Bertram, F.
    et al.
    Zhang, Fan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Evertsson, J.
    Carla, F.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemi, Yt- och korrosionsvetenskap.
    Messing, M. E.
    Mikkelsen, A.
    Nilsson, J-O
    Lundgren, E.
    In situ anodization of aluminum surfaces studied by x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy2014Inngår i: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, nr 3, 034902- s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from the anodization of an aluminum single crystal [Al(111)] and an aluminum alloy [Al 6060] studied by in situ x-ray reflectivity, in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. For both samples, a linear increase of oxide film thickness with increasing anodization voltage was found. However, the slope is much higher in the single crystal case, and the break-up of the oxide film grown on the alloy occurs at a lower anodization potential than on the single crystal. The reasons for these observations are discussed as are the measured differences observed for x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  • 22.
    Bhasin, Aditi
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Recovery of Phosphorus from Incineration of Sewage Sludge2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The primary source of phosphorus, phosphate rock, is a non-renewable resource which is expected to get exhausted in the next 50 – 100 years. Sewage sludge in Sweden constitutes 25% of the annual phosphorus in the country, making it a potentially significant source for phosphorus recovery. The aim of this project was to identify the potential for phosphorus recovery from incineration of dewatered and digested sewage sludge in Fortum Värme’s power plants in Stockholm. The study was limited to two boilers located at Bristaverket, Stockholm - boiler B1, a bio-fired fluidized bed boiler and boiler B2, a waste-fired grate incinerator. A theoretical analysis for boiler B1 showed that it is possible to reach a concentration of 4.6% phosphorus in fly ash if sludge and recycled wood fuel are mixed in the ratio 48:52. A test program was executed in boiler B2 to burn up to 12.5% sludge with a mixture of household waste and industrial waste. A total of 755 tons of sludge was used over a period of three weeks during the test in boiler B2. The test was successful in terms of combustion and emissions. There was no increase in the emissions of nitrogen oxides, sulphur dioxide and hydrochloric acid in the flue gas. Mercury emissions in the chimney increased with an increase in the share of sludge, nevertheless, the emission level was below the limit set by the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency. Decrease in the amount of unburnt materials in bottom ash and in the emission of carbon monoxide showed that the burning of fuel was more efficient with input of sludge. The maximum phosphorus concentration was 0.7% in both bottom ash and fly ash from boiler B2 and occurred at an input of 12.5% sludge. This concentration is close to the expected theoretical value, however it is not expected to be feasible to recover phosphorus at such a low concentration. The ashes were sent to Fortum Waste Solutions and Ragn-Sells for recovery of phosphorus, however the results are not included in this report due to time constraints for thesis study. In order to increase the concentration of phosphorus in the ashes, a system approach is recommended, for instance, recirculation of bottom ash into the incinerator.

  • 23.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Mersiowsky, Ivo
    Hamburg, Germany.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema Miljöförändring. Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för tema, Tema vatten i natur och samhälle. Linköpings universitet, Filosofiska fakulteten.
    Impacts of temperature on the leaching of organotin compounds from poly(vinyl chloride) plastics – A study conducted under simulated landfill conditions. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2007Inngår i: Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology, ISSN 0193-7197, E-ISSN 1548-0577, Vol. 13, nr 4, 176-188 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether organotin-stabilized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) products could contribute to the pool of organotins observed in landfill leachates, and if the possible release could be related to different temperatures and landfill degradation phases. Small-scale anaerobic reactors filled with generic household waste, a mixture of inocula, and different PVC plastics were used in the study and incubated at 20, 37, 55, and 70°C. The reactor units incubated at temperatures of 20–55°C underwent the anaerobic degradation phases that are characteristic for the aging of landfilled waste material. There were, however, differences in the duration of the phases as well as in the total biogas production among the units. Under methanogenic conditions greater losses of organotin compounds were observed as compared to acidogenic conditions. It was shown that the release of organotin stabilizers increases considerably at temperatures above the glass transition of the PVC products. A dealkylation from di- into monoalkyltin species was observed, as well as a possible methylation of inorganic tin. However, the main part of the organotins was adsorbed into the solid waste matrix. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 13:176–188, 2007. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers

  • 24.
    Bohlin, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper, Paper Surface Centre.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper, Paper Surface Centre.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper, Paper Surface Centre.
    Evaluation of ink penetration in porous coatings2012Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 25.
    BOOG RUDBERG, SUSANN
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Kylanläggning för småskalig ölproduktion anpassad för jäsning och lagring av lageröl2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Antalet mikrobryggerier runt om i Sverige har de senaste åren ökat markant. Vanligast är att dessa producerar öl som ale och stout trots att vi svenskar, om man ser till systembolagets statistik, fortfarande främst dricker lager. En anledning till få av de mindre mikrobryggerierna brygger lageröl är att bryggprocessen är mer avancerad för att brygga lager. För att brygga lager krävs, utöver den vanliga bryggutrustningen, också ett sätt att kyla ölet på först till 10°C och sedan till 0°C under en längre period. Den utrustning som används av de flesta större mikrobryggerierna är för dyr för de mindre mikrobryggerierna och bryggning av lageröl uteblir därför ofta. Ett exempel på ett mindre mikrobryggeri som har detta problem är Brewing Költur och detta arbete har haft som avsikt att lösa kylproblemet för dem.

    Arbetet gick ut på att ta fram ett alternativt sätt, dels att kyla en sats öl på, 300 liter, dels att hålla ölet kallt utan större fluktuationer under en längre tid. En viktig del i lösningen är att investeringskostnaden för kylanläggningen skulle vara avsevärt lägre än de alternativ som finns på marknaden idag. Projektet hade dock inte som avsikt att lösa övriga problem som finns med bryggning av lager.

    Resultatet blev en Bag-in-Box: en frysbox i vilken en engångspåse placerades. En luftspalt skapades mellan påsen och frysens innerkanter för att sakta ner värmeöverföringen och på så vid undvika att kyla ned jästen för snabbt vilket (annars) kan få allvarliga konsekvenser på ölet.

    En prototyp av produkten kylanläggningen byggdes ihop på vilken tester utfördes. Testerna visade att produkten utan problem kunde hålla stabila temperaturer under längre perioder, framförallt vid de lägre temperaturerna. Vid nedkylning från 10°C samt vid hållning av denna temperatur krävdes viss komplettering med manuell omrörning för att undvika stora temperaturgradienter i påsen.

    Investeringskostnaden för produkten är mycket låg medan de rörliga kostnaderna är relativt höga på grund av engångspåsen då det går åt en eller två sådana per sats bryggd öl.

    På grund av produktens låga investeringskostnad, enkla montering samt relativt goda förmåga att hålla temperaturer konstanta anses produkten ha potential att kunna ha stor betydelse för mindre mikrobryggerier i framtiden.

     

  • 26.
    BORIS ERIC ALAIN, BIZET
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    From Sugar to Furfural Compounds Using Flow Chemistry2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the need to find alternatives for the current fossil-based chemical industry, the use of blo-sourced platform chemicals as building blocks for the synthesis of a wide range of industrial and consumer chemicals has gained significantly in importance over the past years.

    In this context, 5-(chloromethyl)furfural (CMF) could become a very interesting target for  the implementation of a sugar-based biorefinery. Originating from the dehydration of cellulose,  hemlcellulose or sugar, it can for example be a precursor of bio-fuels and/or fuel additives. However, there are very few published examples on the CMF synthesis as well as its ability to be further converted in interesting derivatives.

    A simple procedure for the conversion of sugar-based feedstocks to CMF, using flow chemistry, is reported in this  master  thesis.  Sucrose  and  High  Fructose  Corn  Syrup  (HFCS-90  and  HFCS-55)  were  shown  to  be suitable feedstocks. The use of HFCS-90 has been demonstrated to be particularly promising, as it could be converted in a stable process which yields 70% of CMF.

    As a proof of concept, condensation reactions of 5-methylfurfural (MF) and CMF were performed with amine compounds, thus expanding the existing pool of CMF derivatives. MF condensations could be performed under harsh conditions, whereas CMF required milder treatments. Very high conversions were observed, especially when using aliphatic amines as starting materials.

  • 27.
    Borén, Eleonora
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik. Umeå University Industrial Doctoral School for Research and Innovation.
    Yazdanpanah, Fahimeh
    Lindahl, Roger
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kemiska institutionen.
    Schilling, Christoph
    Chandra, Richard P.
    Ghiasi, Bahman
    Tang, Yong
    Sokhansanj, Shahabaddine
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Off-gassing of VOCs and permanent gases during storage of torrefied and steam exploded wood2017Inngår i: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 31, nr 10, 10954-10965 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermal treatment for upgrading of low-value feedstocks to improve fuel properties has gained large industrial interest in recent years. From a storage and transport perspective, hazardous off-gassing could be expected to decrease through the degradation of reactive biomass components. However, thermal treatment could also shift chemical compositions of volatile organic components, VOCs. While technologies are approaching commercialization, off-gassing behavior of the products, especially in terms of VOCs, is still unknown. In the present study, we measured off-gassing of VOCs together with CO, CO2, CH4, and O2 depletion from torrefied and steam exploded softwood during closed storage. The storage temperature, head space gas (air and N2), and storage time were varied. VOCs were monitored with a newly developed protocol based on active sampling with Tenax TA absorbent analyzed by thermal desorption-GC/MS. High VOC levels were found for both untreated and steam exploded softwood, but with a complete shift in composition from terpenes dominating the storage gas for untreated wood samples to an abundance of furfural in the headspace of steam exploded wood. Torrefied material emitted low levels of VOCs. By using multivariate statistics, it was shown that for both treatment methods and within the ranges tested, VOC off-gassing was affected first by the storage temperature and second by increasing treatment severity. Both steam exploded and torrefied biomass formed lower levels of CO than the reference biomass, but steam explosion caused a more severe O2 depletion.

  • 28.
    Boström, Dan
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Engineering.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Engineering.
    Ash transformation chemistry during energy conversion of biomass2010Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 29. Braovac, Susan
    et al.
    Fackler, Karin
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Ters, Thomas
    Chemical Composition of the Archaeological Oak Wood from the Oseberg Ship2011Inngår i: Cultural Heritage Preservation.EWCHP - 2011: Proceedings of the European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation. Berlin, Germany, September 26 to 28, 2011, Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, 2011, 156-163 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
  • 30.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för tillämpad fysik och elektronik.
    Effects of alkali chlorides in biomass and waste-fired boilers2009Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
  • 31.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Helwig, Nikolai
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb range with platinum-gate SiC-Field Effect Transistors2013Inngår i: SENSORS, 2013 IEEE, IEEE , 2013, 1-4 s.Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the use of a platinum gate gas-sensitive SiC Field Effect Transistor (SiC-FET) was studied for the detection of low concentrations of hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). For this purpose, a new gas mixing system was built providing VOCs down to sub-ppb levels by permeation ovens and gas pre-dilution. Measurements have shown that benzene, naphthalene and formaldehyde can be detected in the ppb range and indicate a detection limit of 1-2 ppb for benzene and naphthalene. The sensitivity is high with a response of 5.5 mV for 10 ppb naphthalene in a humid atmosphere (at 20% relative humidity) and with additional 2 ppm ethanol the response to naphthalene was still 1.3 mV. Formaldehyde can be detected down to approximately 100 ppb under humid conditions. This is the first time that a metal gated SiC-FET was used to detect hazardous VOCs in the low ppb range making SiC-FETs suitable candidates for indoor air quality applications.

  • 32.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken,, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Influence of a Changing Gate Bias on the Sensing Properties of SiC Field Effect Gas Sensors2012Inngår i: IMCS 2012, 2012, 140-143 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Field effect transistors based on silicon carbide have previously been used with temperature cycled operation to enhance the selectivity. In this study the influence of a changing gate bias on the sensing properties of a platinum gate FET has been studied in order to extend the virtual multi-sensor approach. The sensor exhibits gas specific hysteresis when changing the gate bias indicating that additional information regarding selectivity is contained in the transient behavior. Measurements also showed that especially the shape of the sensor signal changes dramatically with different gas exposures (e.g. H2, CO or NH3) during relaxation after step changes of the gate bias. The changing shape primarily reflects the gas itself and not the concentration so that the selectivity of the sensor is increased.

  • 33.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Bastuk, Emanuel
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Combination of temperature cycled and gate bias cycled operation to enhance the selectivity of MISiC-FET gas sensors2013Inngår i: Transducers 2013 & Eurosensors XXVII, IEEE , 2013, 2041-2044 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper temperature modulation and gate bias modulation of a gas sensitive field effect transistor are combined in order to increase the selectivity. Data evaluation was performed using multivariate statistics, here by Linear Discriminant Analysis. It was found that both temperature cycling and gate bias cycling are suitable for quantification of different concentrations of carbon monoxide. However, combination of both approaches enhances the quality of the separation. In addition, the presented method allows discrimination of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia independent of the gas concentration.

  • 34. Bylin, Susanne
    et al.
    Olsson, Carina
    Westman, Gunnar
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Solvation behavior of cellulose and xylan in the MIM/EMIMAc ionic liquid solvent system: Parameters for small-scale solvation2014Inngår i: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, nr 1, 1038-1054 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic liquid treatment has been reported by several researchers as a possible step in the process of fractionating lignocellulosic biomass within the biorefinery concept. However, understanding how solvation can be achieved and how the feedstock biopolymers are affected is needed prior to a viable implementation. An effective two-component solvent system for the wood components cellulose and xylan has been developed. Furthermore, the solvation of these components in the system consisting of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) in a novel combination with the co-solvent 1-methylimidazole (MIM) is investigated. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) particle characterization in combination with microscopic analysis and molecular weight determinations (xylan) shows that cellulose and xylan can be most efficiently solvated using only 3 to 4% IL (n/n anhydro-glucose units and n/n anhydro-xylose units) and 9% IL, respectively, while still avoiding any significant polymer degradation. A model for a two-step process of cellulose solvation in the present system is proposed.

  • 35.
    Bäck, Andreas
    et al.
    Alstom Power Sweden AB.
    Grubbström, Jörgen
    Alstom Power Sweden AB.
    Ecke, Holger
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Pettersson, Jens
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för teknik, TEK.
    Operation of an Electrostatic Precipitator at a 30 MWth Oxyfuel Plant2011Inngår i: International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1881-8692, Vol. 5, nr 2, 141-145 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a full-scale ESP was studied at the Vattenfall AB oxyfuel pilot plant in Schwarze Pumpe. The lignite-fired boiler has a 30 MWth top-mounted pulverized coal burner and was operated under conventional air combustion as well as oxyfuel combustion. The ESP was operated with varying numbers of fields in service and at different current/voltage settings. Particle number size distributions downstream the ESP were established on-line in the size range 0.015-10 m, using an electrical mobility spectrometer and an aerodynamic particle sizer. The particle size distribution at oxyfuel operation was qualitatively very similar to the results obtained for air-firing. Gravimetric measurements of total fly ash concentration showed outlet emissions below 5 mg/Nm3 when the ESP was operated with two fields in service at oxyfuel conditions.

  • 36.
    Bäckström, Marie
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Global Manufacturing Training: The localization of the Powerformer Field Operator curricula at the Notre Dame de Gravenchon Refinery2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Manufacturing Training (GMT) project aims at homogenizing and raising the level of competency of the workforce at ExxonMobil plants in all countries where the company is active. This report presents and introduces the main structures of the GMT venture. It deals with important aspects of the project on a global scale, but it also details the implementation of training on a local level. The different pedagogical strategies are outlined, along with the resulting system of training documents.

    A global team of experts developed general training documents, called global modules in order to set the standard for the various training documents. The inherent differences between the plants in the ExxonMobil corporation makes it necessary to adapt the global modules to fit with the site in question. The differences between the plants are of both technical character, but also concern working procedures. The process of adapting each document according to the GMT outline is called Localization.

    In the current work, the localization of training documents for the Powerformer at the refinery in Notre Dame de Gravenchon-Port Jérôme (NDG-PJG) is detailed and explained. At the NDG-PJG refinery there are two units containing a Powerformer. The training documents concern the field operator, working on what is locally called the Reforming 2 position. The ensemble of the documents localized will be used for the habilitation of the process operator. Habilitation refers the preparatory training needed in order to be able to perform the tasks and procedures of a specific position. The work has resulted in the localization of 90 percent of the global documents concerning the Reforming 2 position.

  • 37.
    Caetano de Souza, Antonio Carlos
    et al.
    Department of Energy, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil.
    Silveira, José Luz
    Department of Energy, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Zanzi Vigouroux, Rolando
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    A low cost & safe system of hydrogen production utilizing NaBH4 and CoO catalysis2007Inngår i: 2nd International Congress University-Industry Cooperation (UNIDU07), 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the hydrogen production through hydrolysisof sodium borohydride (NaBH4) utilizing catalysts containing CoO. The reactant is safe and stable(when dry) at room temperature. Few works and studies have presented results of investigationsutilizing catalysts containing cobalt; however utilizing catalysts containing CoO were not found yet.In this work simple and cheap hydrogen generation system was developed having reactions atnormal conditions of temperature and pressure. A solution containing a gravimetric composition of10% wt. NaOH, 10% wt. NaBH4 and 80% wt. H2O was utilized. The reaction was carried out atvarious times using the same catalyst to evaluate its performance. This catalyst presented highrates of hydrogen production, especially at its start-up (about 99% of the theoretical hydrogenvolume was produced) at room temperature. After start-up, e.g., when more solution was put, rateof hydrogen production decreased having its production performance also decreased. Probablythis fact occurred due to the formation of the solid phase products such as NaBO2 which might fillthe porous catalyst structure; decreasing the catalytic area. This catalyst is suggested in situationswhere high production rates are necessary such as start-up of fuel cells.

  • 38.
    Caetano de Souza, Antonio Carlos
    et al.
    Department of Energy, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil.
    Silveira, José Luz
    Department of Energy, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Zanzi Vigouroux, Rolando
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Hydrogen production through hydrolysis of NaBH4: The use of catalysts containing Pt and Pt-Ru2007Inngår i: 2nd International Congress University-Industry Cooperation (UNIDU07), 2007Konferansepaper (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Several works about hydrolysis of NaBH4 utilizing various catalysts (such as catalysts containing Pt or Ru) are available in the literature. Investigations involving NaBH4 has increased due to the possibility to produce hydrogen using simple and safe systems, even at room temperatures with very high efficiencies. A solution containing a gravimetric  composition of 10%wt. NaOH, 10%wt. NaBH4 and 80%wt. H2O was utilized and the reaction was initiated immediately as soon as this solution was put in the chosen catalysts, in this case, catalysts containing Pt and mixtures of Pt-Ru. Catalysts containing Pt and Pt-Ru presented high yields of hydrogen after the solution being inserted in the reaction vessel several times. In this study it was found out that the rates of hydrogen production were increased with catalysts containing Pt and Pt-Ru (99 and 96% of theoretical hydrogen production respectively). The catalysts containing Pt presented higher production rate, while the catalysts containing the mixed Pt-Ru presented a quasi-linear production, e.g., stable production rate.

  • 39. Castro, A.
    et al.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, Skolan för bioteknologi (BIO), Glykovetenskap.
    Nilsson, L.
    Characterization of a water soluble, hyperbranched arabinogalactan from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) roots2017Inngår i: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 223, 76-81 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl.) roots are largely grown in Andean countries and have attracted recent interest due to their antioxidant and prebiotic effects. Yacon is typically consumed as a fruit due to its sweet taste and juiciness. The macromolecular properties of an aqueous extract of yacon are investigated using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detection. The method allows for determination of molar mass and size over the size distribution. Three major populations were found of which one strongly dominates in concentration. Through collection of fractions from AF4, carbohydrate composition and glycosidic linkage analysis for the dominating population was performed. The results show that the dominating population consists of a highly branched arabinogalactan (type 2) with a molar mass of approximately 1–2 · 105 g/mol, a hydrodynamic radius of approximately 6–10 nm and a relatively high apparent density (approx. 70–150 kg/m3).

  • 40.
    Cedervall, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Kemiska sektionen, Institutionen för kemi - Ångström.
    Synthesis and characterizationof rare earth free magnetic materialsfor permanent magnet applications2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the compounds Fe5SiB2 and Fe5PB2 have beensynthesized via high temperature synthesis, including arc melting anddrop synthesis. The structure for both compounds are of Cr5B3 typewith the space group I4/mcm. The cell parameters were refined toa = 5.5533 Å and c = 10.3405 Å for Fe5SiB2 and a = 5.4903 Å andc = 10.3527 Å for Fe5PB2. The saturation magnetization at roomtemperature for Fe5SiB2 has been measured to 138.8 Am2/kg and theanisotropy constant has been estimated to 79 kJ/m3. Theferromagnetic properties and the high anisotropy constant makesthese materials promising as permanent magnet materials, but moreinvestigations are necessary.

  • 41.
    Chamoun, Ninus
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Kjellvertz, Viktor
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Mahajan, William
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Song, Yuanchao
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Fate of Heavy Metals in Waste to Energy (WtE) Processes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This study was made to increase the understanding of how heavy metals in the aqueous phase are removed at low initial concentrations in different pH and Eh values. The reaction that has been studied is mainly hydroxide precipitation and adsorption in a condensate treatment. In the study, data from one of Vattenfalls waste incinerators was analysed and the results from the data were then compared to previous studies. To increase the understanding, modelling of the heavy metals behaviour in the given concentrations was then made with Medusa and PHREEQC. The heavy metals that were analysed were Sb, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd. The low initial concentration that vary between 36.1-23600 μg/l complicates the removal process because it corresponds in a low driving force and the results are hard to compare to other studies since the initial concentrations vary between 10-100 mg/l.

    From the modelling and the measurement data it can be seen that Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd was removed by hydroxide precipitation at pH 10. According to the speciation calculations, the dominant species at this pH are Pb(OH)

    2 , Cd(OH)2, Zn(OH)2 and Cr(OH)3. For arsenic a clear conclusion could not be drawn from the modelling and the measurement data because of low precision. Due to the limited thermodynamic parameters of antimony in comparison with other heavy metals in the database of Medusa and PHREEQC, the modelling of antimony behaviour in condensate treatment has relatively larger uncertainty is low. The modelling results show that the main species in acidic solutions for antimony is Sb(OH)3 and in basic solutions Sb(OH)-6. Further investigation for antimony in needed for a clear conclusions to be drawn

  • 42.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Polymera material.
    Protein-based Packaging Films, Sheets and Composites: Process Development and Functional Properties2009Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion of the petroleum resources and a number of environmental concerns led to considerable research efforts in the field of biodegradable materials over the last few decades. Of the diverse range of biopolymers, wheat gluten (WG) stands out as an alternative to synthetic plastics in packaging applications due to its attractive combination of flexibility and strength, high gas barrier properties under low humidity conditions and renewability. The availability of raw materials has also been largely increased with an increase in the production of WG as a low-cost surplus material due to increasing demand for ethanol as fuel. In this study, WG was processed into films, sheets and composites using some of the most widely used techniques including solution casting, compression molding, extrusion and injection molding, accompanying process optimizations and characterization of their functional properties. This thesis consists mainly of six parts based on the purpose of the study. The first part addresses the aging and optical properties of the cast film in order to understand the mechanisms and reasons for the time-dependant physical and chemical changes. The films plasticized with glycerol were cast from acidic (pH 4) and basic (pH11) solutions. The film prepared from the pH 11 solution was mechanically more stable upon aging than the pH 4 film, which was initially very ductile but became brittle with time. It was revealed that the protein structure of the pH 4 film was initially less polymerized/aggregated and the polymerization increased during storage but it did not reach the degree of aggregation of the pH 11 film. During aging, the pH 4 film lost more mass than the pH 11 film mainly due to migration of glycerol but also due to some loss of volatile mass. In addition the greater plasticizer loss of the pH 4 film was presumably due to its initial lower degree of protein aggregation/polymerization. Glycerol content did not significantly change the opacity and pH 4 films showed good contact clarity because of less Maillard reaction. In the second part, the heat-sealability of WG films was investigated, using an impulse-heat sealer, as the sealability is one of the most important properties in the use of flexible packaging materials. It was observed that the WG films were readily sealable while preserving their mechanical integrity. The sealing temperature had a negligible effect on the lap-shear strength, but the peel strength increased with sealing temperature. The lap-shear strength increased with increasing mold temperature and the failure mode changed. The third part describes the possibility of using industrial hemp fibers to reinforce wheat gluten sheets based on evaluation of the fiber contents, fiber distribution and bonding between the fibers and matrix. It was found that the hemp fibers enhanced the mechanical properties, in which the fiber contents played a significant role in the strength. The fiber bonding was improved by addition of diamine as a cross-linker, while the fiber distribution needed to be improved. The fourth part presents a novel approach to improve the barrier and mechanical properties of extruded WG sheets with a single screw extruder at alkaline conditions using 3-5wt.% NaOH with or without 1 wt.% salicylic acid. The oxygen barrier, at dry conditions, was improved significantly with the addition of NaOH, while the addition of salicylic acid yielded poorer barrier properties. It was also observed that the WG sheets with 3 wt.% NaOH had the most suitable combination of low oxygen permeability and relatively small time-dependant changes in mechanical properties, probably due to low plasticizer migration and an optimal protein aggregation/polymerization. In the fifth part WG/PLA laminates were characterized for the purpose of improving the water barrier properties. The lamination was performed at 110°C and scanning electron microscopy showed that the laminated films were uniform in thickness. The laminates significantly suppressed the mass loss and showed promising water vapor barrier properties in humid conditions indicating possible applications in packaging. The final part addresses the development of injection molding processes for WG. Injection-molded nanocomposites of WG/MMT were also characterized. WG sheets were successively processed using injection molding and the process temperatures were found to preferably be in a range of 170-200°C, which was varied depending on the sample compositions. The clay was found to enhance the processability, being well dispersed in the matrix. The natural clay increased the tensile stiffness, whereas the modified clay increased the surface hydrophobicity. Both clays decreased the Tg and increased the thermal stability of the nanocomposites. The overall conclusion was that injection molding is a promising method for producing WG items of simple shapes. Further studies will reveal if gluten can also be used for making more complex shapes.

  • 43. Cracknell, R. F.
    et al.
    Head, R. A.
    McAllister, L. J.
    Andrae, Johan
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Kemiteknik.
    Octane sensitivity in gasoline fuels containing nitro-alkanes: A possible means of controlling combustion phasing for HCCI2009Inngår i: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Addition of nitroalkanes to gasoline is shown to reduce the octane quality. The reduction in the Motor Octane Number (MON) is greater than the reduction in the Research Octane Number (RON). In other words addition of nitroalkanes causes an increase in octane sensitivity. The temperature of the compressed air/fuel mixture in the MON test is higher then in the RON test. Through chemical kinetic modelling, we are able to show how the temperature dependence of the reactions responsible for break-up of the nitroalkane molecule can lead to an increase in octane sensitivity. Results are presented from an Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine with a homogeneous charge in which the air intake temperature was varied. When the engine was operated on gasoline-like fuels containing nitroalkanes, it was observed that the combustion phasing was much more sensitive to the air intake temperature. This suggests a possible means of controlling combustion phasing for HCCI.

  • 44.
    Cunha, Gisera
    et al.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. INRA, Biopolymeres Interact & Assemblages, France.
    Mougel, Jean-Bruno
    Cathala, Bernard
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Fiber- och polymerteknik, Biokompositer. KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE), Centra, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Capron, Isabelle
    Preparation of Double Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Chemically Tailored Nanocelluloses2014Inngår i: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, nr 31, 9327-9335 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocelluloses are bio-based nanoparticles of interest as stabilizers for oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsions. In this work, the surface chemistry of nanocelluloses of different length, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC, long) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC, short), was successfully tailored by chemical modification with lauroyl chloride (C12). The resulting nanofibers were less hydrophilic than the original and able to stabilize water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. The combination of the two types of nanocelluloses (C12-modified and native) led to new surfactant-free oil-in-water-in-oil (o/w/o) double emulsions stabilized by nanocellulose at both interfaces. Characterization was performed with respect to droplet size distribution, droplet stability over time, and stability after centrifugation. Nanocellulose-based Pickering emulsions can be designed with a substantial degree of control, as demonstrated by the stability of the chemically tailored NFC double emulsions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increased nanofiber length leads to increased stability.

  • 45.
    DAmico, A.
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Di Natale, C.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; IDASC CNR, Italy.
    Falconi, C.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; IDASC CNR, Italy.
    Pennazza, G.
    University of Campus Biomed Roma, Italy.
    Santonico, M.
    University of Campus Biomed Roma, Italy.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Biosensorer och bioelektronik. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska fakulteten.
    Equivalent electric circuits for chemical sensors in the Langmuir regime2017Inngår i: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 238, 214-220 s.Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an equivalent electric circuit model that describes adsorption-desorption processes occurring on bio and chemical sensor surfaces under the Langmuir hypothesis and considers the following practical case: the pressure or concentration of the particles in the test chamber is not perturbed by these processes and keeps its initial value, as in the cases of relatively high pressure or concentration values with zero molecular flow, or in the presence of a molecular flow at any pressure or concentration value. It is also pointed out that the equivalent circuit for Langmuir adsorption is similar to the circuit proposed for enzymatic reactions. Even if this work essentially covers theoretic aspects, a way is suggested for the possible experimental determination of both adsorption-desorption parameters and adsorption-desorption site density. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 46.
    Darmastuti, Zhafira
    et al.
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Bhattacharyya, Partha
    Bengal Engineering and Science University, India.
    Basu, Sukumar
    Jadavpur University, India.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Kemi. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköpings universitet, Institutionen för fysik, kemi och biologi, Tillämpad sensorvetenskap. Linköpings universitet, Tekniska högskolan.
    SiC - FET Sensors for methanol leakage detection2012Inngår i: Proceeding of the 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (IMCS 2012), 2012, 1579-1582 s.Konferansepaper (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Pt and Ir SiC based Field Effect Transistor sensors were tested to detect low concentration of methanol (<200 ppm) for both process control and leak detection applications. Pt sensors gave good and very fast response at 200°C, while Ir sensors gave larger but much slower response. The presence of oxygen improved the response of the sensor which was favorable for the leak detection application. The influence of hydrogen and propene to the sensor response was also studied. Beside the experimental work, the detection mechanism and different sensing behavior of Pt and Ir were studied by quantum chemical calculations.

  • 47.
    Deshpande, Raghu
    Karlstads universitet, Fakulteten för hälsa, natur- och teknikvetenskap (from 2013), Institutionen för ingenjörs- och kemivetenskaper.
    The initial phase of the sodium bisulfite pulping of softwood dissolving pulp2015Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The sulfite pulping process is today practised in only a small number of pulp mills around the globe and the number of sulfite mills that use sodium as the base (cation) is less than five. However, due to the increasing interest in the wood based biorefinery concept, the benefits of sulfite pulping and especially the sodium based variety, has recently gained a lot of interest. It was therefore considered to be of high importance to further study the sodium based sulfite process to investigate if its benefits could be better utilized in the future in the production of dissolving pulps. Of specific interest was to investigate how the pulping conditions in the initial part of the cook (≥ 60 % pulp yield) should be performed in the best way.

    Thus, this thesis is focused on the initial phase of single stage sodium bisulfite cooking of either 100 % spruce or 100 % pine wood chips. The cooking experiments were carried out with either a lab prepared or a mill prepared cooking acid and the temperature and cooking time were varied. Activation energies for different wood components were investigated as well as side reactions concerning the formation of thiosulfate and sulfate.

  • 48.
    Done, Victoria
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    General description of measures for environmental compliance of substations owned by Svenska kraftnät in protected areas with focus on oil spill2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Svenska kraftnät is the Swedish transmission system operator, responsible for the national electrical grid with power lines of 220 kV and 400 kV, and the electrical substations of the grid. In this master thesis an old substation located in a sensitive environmental area is inspected and its environmental risks defined and assessed. From this “worst case scenario” measures are recommended, that should be applicable on other existing substations, and for new constructed substations. This thesis is limited to a more detailed analysis on how oil spill can be handled. The insulating oil is used in different machines and equipment on the substation to avoid electrical charges.

    The inspected substation has a special feature; a pipe system that connects wells on the substation area, water pipes from the substation house, and transformer pits to an oil-water separation house. The oil pits are made of concrete and placed under machines with large amounts of oil to capture the oil in case of a breakdown or leakage. In the oil-water separation house oil is separated from water and the clean water is sent to a lake in the vicinity. The most severe environmental risks found are the filter in the oil-water separation house and the risk of oil leakage from the open water-cooling system of the synchronous generator. In addition, there is no way to catch oil spill from current and voltage transformers and it is not known if the pipe system that transports water and oil spills is completely sealed. Finally, there is no permanent installation to catch spills from tank filling areas and Svenska kraftnät does rarely follow up the environmental work of the entrepreneurs.

    Svenska kraftnät is recommended to use the products and services from the companies Qlean Scandinavia AB and TTL Miljöteknik AB to attend to the noted environmental risks. Qlean Scandinavia AB offers an environmental friendly cleaning procedure with ultraclean water and sealing of concrete, which can be used for the transformer pits and oil-water separation house. They also sell profile planks as a fire-extinguishing layer for transformer pits. These are considered better and safer than the conventional stones used. The price is almost the same, however the maintenance costs are lower for the profile planks, since they are easier to clean and do not require heavy transports to landfill. They also require less space than the stones, therefore a smaller transformer pit can be built, and cost savings can be made on concrete.

    TTL Miljöteknik AB has products based on environmental friendly oil solidifying polymers placed in different textiles and filters. They let water and other substances pass, but react with hydrocarbons, like oil, forming a tight rubberlike mass. These installations are new to Europe, but more than 12 000 installations have been made, mainly in the United States and Australia. For the inspected substation in this thesis it is recommended to manage oil spill at each machine and to clean the pipe system. An HFF-filter should be installed in cleaned and sealed transformer pits. The filter lets water from precipitation pass, but binds oil, thanks to the solidifying polymers. The clean water is further transported through the pipe system to the oil-water separation house and from there water is pumped to the lake. Wells must be sealed and the pipes from the substation house led to a septic tank. Agent X, a type of filter mat, should be placed on the substation area to catch oil spills from current and voltage transformers, since previous breakdowns show that oil can be spread over a large area.

    For plants without a pipe system the water will be released outside the transformer pits. For new constructions it is suggested that transformer pits are built with a polyvinyl mat in the bottom and a filter on the sides, which will capture the oil. A concrete fundament still needs to be built to support the machine; therefore the price will almost be the same as for the conventional transformer pit in concrete, although less concrete is needed. However, with this technique the transformer pit will not require any maintenance.

  • 49.
    EDRISI, KEYVAN
    KTH, Skolan för kemivetenskap (CHE).
    Fastställande av PGM-tillgänglighet för dieseloxidationskatalysator med hjälp av kemisorption2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) is subjected to harsh conditions, causing its performance to

    diminish over time as the result of different aging mechanisms, which either decreases or lowers the

    accessibility to the catalyst’s active sites. Previous work using chemisorption to quantify aging progression

    has resulted in a reproducibility of 17%. In this study it has been attempted to lower this, while

    also performing performance evaluations to see if correlations exist between dispersion and Light-Off

    Temperature (LOT).

    Two catalysts have been investigated, LLC (Low Loading Catalyst) and HLC (High Loading Catalyst).

    These were hydrothermally aged at 600 C, 700 C and 800 C. In addition to these, two HLC engine cell

    samples were also investigated.

    To ensure sample homogeneity, different sample preparation methods were investigated. Catalyst samples

    were crushed, or had their washcoat layer removed, or were milled and then sieved. A total of 5 runs were

    done using fresh catalysts of LLC and HLC to calculate the standard deviation. Evaluation of performance

    was done on all samples using Synthetic Catalyst Activity Testing (SCAT).

    It was deemed that the only viable sample preparation method was to mill and sieve as other methods

    would be hard to reproduce. The results showed that the reproducibility for LLC was %STD = 4% and

    for HLC %STD = 2%. For LLC, a correlation between catalytic activity and dispersion was found. The

    activity dropped with respect to the dispersion in a close to linear fashion without a large effect on BET

    surface area. For HLC the dispersion decreased largely upon hydrothermal aging, however no correlation

    was found with the activity; only when aged at 800 C a significant change in LOT was noted. The BET

    surface area measurements were inconsistent. Lower dispersion sometimes resulted in higher surface area.

    Engine cell samples exhibited notable decrease in dispersion, but not in surface area, and did not correlate

    to the hydrothermally aged catalysts, which might be due to other effects inhibiting CO chemisorption

    during measurements.

  • 50.
    Edström, Evelina
    et al.
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Hillström, Martin
    Mälardalens högskola, Akademin för innovation, design och teknik, Innovation och produktrealisering.
    Produktutveckling miljöteknik: Framtagning av produkt som varnar vid förskämning av mjölk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis, industrial product design PPU304, is to develop a new product that will reduce food waste of dairy products in households. The main objective is that the product will be able to measure and signal when the milk has expired.The thesis is a start to find the solution to some of the food waste in households which is a major environmental issue in today's society. The goal is to develop a flexible expiration date that can reduce food wastage. With today's sensor technology bacterial levels can be calculated from the milk and that can increase the time a pack of milk can be used. The greater knowledge and awareness humanity have for environmental issues the better world we will live in. To understand the question, “what is it that makes the milk unfit for consumption?” A part of the work has gone into researching the technological aspect. In consumer ready milk there is different bacteria that will grow over time and eventually spoil the milk, how this process works varies depending on what or which bacteria manage to grow the most. Therefore, the most appropriate technique is to measure bacteria in the milk and identify at which level the milk passes its actual expiration date.The design of the product has been guided by two major factors, the predetermined dimensions of the circuit board and the adaptation to the size of the milk carton. The shape of the product is an oblong rear part with a spherical body at the front. The edges are rounded to give a pleasantand smooth feeling to the hand using the product.The thesis in industrial product design resulted in a final concept. The product analyses the amount of bacteria in the milk through sensors that measure bacterial metabolism. The data gets interpreted and displayed through the use of LEDs. To save energy the concept is equipped with a photo resistor that deactivates the LEDs when the fridge is closed and dark. The conclusion of the thesis, performed at Millcroft AB is at a conceptual level. To go from idea to product, is a process that takes a long time to complete and often involves many different moments. The timeframe during this study is considered too short to cover all parts of the product and therefore the boundaries set and the focus has been on constructing a design that fits the estimated technology as well as consumer needs. Some suggestions are that more research in the technical aspect of the product should be concluded. Further testing of dairy sustainability should be conducted on a larger scale and further development of the technology to send data.

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