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  • 1.
    Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Adelphi University, NY 21402 USA; University of Oxford, England.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Cooper, Angela
    Dalhousie University, Canada.
    Macdonald, James
    Headington Psychotherapy, England.
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Uppsala University, Sweden.
    Patients Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, no 2, 175-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 2. Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Cooper, Angela
    McDonald, James
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Patients’ Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2017In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536, Vol. 54, no 2, 175-183 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients’ in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients’ adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients’ immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients’ in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 3.
    Aare, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Wernh, Weronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Emotionella upplevelser och emotionsreglering i samband med en nedskärningsprocess2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate emotions and emotion regulation of a downsizing in an industrial company. The sample consisted of persons who had experienced a downsizing but have kept the employment, within a same position or being transferred to another one. Data consisted of two focus group interviews, analysed by an inductive thematic analysis. The results have indicated that emotional reactions changed over time as well the emotional regulation did during the different phases. The groups differed in emotional reaction related to the time of decision regarding the retention of employment. One conclusion is that fast and accurate information during the different phases of a downsizing process may lead to more positive emotional reactions, which in consequence may result in a positive experience of the reduction process as a whole. The confidence in management increased across the time, due to its decisiveness during the process of downsizing.

  • 4.
    Aasen, Linn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Thunberg, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    En utvärdering av arbetspsykologiska testet Shapes med test-retestmetod2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många rekryteringsmetoder som används i dag, som CV och referenstagning, har enligt studier låg validitet, däremot visar många studier att personlighet är stabilt över tid och därför är en mer valid prediktor för att kunna predicera arbetsprestation. Studiens syfte var att undersöka Shapes, ett internetbaserat personlighetstest, och dess arton kompetensdimensioner med test-retest utifrån tre frågeställningar. En datainsamling med 91 deltagare (29 män och 62 kvinnor) gjordes vid två tillfällen med tre veckors mellanrum. Deltagarna delades upp i kön- och åldersgrupper för att se skillnad över tid inom grupperna. Medelvärdesskillnader och korrelationer över tid jämfördes där resultatet visade att det fanns positiva samband mellan båda testtillfällena på samtliga dimensioner. Sju av de arton dimensionerna hade skillnader på medelvärde från testtillfälle ett och testtillfälle två. Detta skulle kunna bero på att Shapes inte är tillräckligt tillförlitligt för att mäta dessa dimensioner eller att dessa dimensioner inte är stabila över tid.  

  • 5. Aasmundsen, Wibeke
    et al.
    Flodman, Hjördis
    Bedömning av begåvningsmässigt funktionshinder i vuxen ålder: en studie av neuropsykologers metoder2012Report (Other academic)
  • 6.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lokförarutbildning i Sverige: simulatoranvändning och ERTMS2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, which provides an overview of the compulsory basic training for train drivers in Sweden, highlights the occurrence of simulator-based training in education, along with the training efforts being made with regards to the future introduction of ERTMS/ETCS. The report also shows the possibilities and limitations of increased use of simulators in driver training and describes the most important governing documents for train drivers and train driver training. Furthermore, the Swedish Transport Agency curriculum for train driver licenses is presented along with the institutions engaged in basic education, training and examination of train driver’s. Also, the Swedish Transport Administration’s E-learning tool for ERTMS, the ERSA-simulator and company specific ERTMS education at SJ and Green Cargo are described. Moreover, Swedish train companies’ and educators’ current use and future needs of simulators for train driver training were examined. Examples from other domains where simulators are used in a training context are also presented.

  • 7.
    Abarzúa Gonzalez, Roberto
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Motivationsfaktorer för förändring av våldsbeteende: Tre män berättar om sin motivationsprocess före, under och i slutet av behandlingen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att genom intervjuer beskriva olika betingelser som motiverar män att söka hjälp för sitt våldsutövande i nära relationer samt beskriva olika betingelser som är avgörande för om man fullföljer den planerade behandlingen eller inte. Den tredje frågeställning var om de här beskrivningarna kunde ge idéer om vilka behandlingsinslag som bidrar till att män fullföljer behandlingen som syftar till att man slutar använda våld. Tre män intervjuades tre gånger under sin behandling, det vill säga i början, i mitten och i slutet av behandlingen. Intervjuerna genomfördes under sammanlagt sex månader. Intervjuerna följde en intervjuguide och var halvstrukturerade.

    Gemensamt för alla tre män som är avgörande för att de söker hjälp och fullföljer sin behandling är när de upplevde att deras våldshandlingar fick allvarliga konsekvenser både för sig själva och för sin omgivning.

    En annan avgörande motiverande faktor för dessa män var att de upplevde att gruppledarna för behandlingsgruppen gav utrymme för allas berättelser. Männen uttrycker att de får ett utrymme för att själva reflektera över den situation som de befinner sig i utan en alltför styrande, kontrollerande attityd från gruppledarna. Detta förhållningssätt från gruppledarna verkar stärka männens motivation till att fortsätta behandlingen och därmed göra förändringen möjligt.

     Mötet med de andra deltagarna är en central motivationsfaktor för att genomföra behandlingen. Känslan att man inte är ensam, att man delar med sig av sina egna erfarenheter, att man känner igen sig, att se värre konsekvenser för andra deltagare är viktiga faktorer i förändringsarbetet.

    Motivationen verkar vara motorn eller drivkraften i själva förändringsarbetet. Denna undersökning pekar i riktning att motivationen verkligen är en dynamisk och föränderlig process som påverkas av många olika komponenter, inte minst i relation till andra människor.

  • 8. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Town, Joel
    On Paolo Migione's "What Does Brief Mean?"2014In: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, ISSN 0003-0651, E-ISSN 1941-2460, Vol. 62, no 5, NP18-NP22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Nina Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Sandström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Jag känner mig ju hel med extra tillagt liksom": En diskursanalytisk intervjustudie med personer som kan kategoriseras som mixed race i dagens Sverige2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 10.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH). Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Anund, A.
    Fors, C.
    Seoane, Fernando
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Computer and Electronic Engineering. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads2017In: EMBEC & NBC 2017, Springer, 2017, Vol. 65, 149-152 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems. Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

  • 11.
    Abtahi, Farhad
    et al.
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Anund, Anna (red.)
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Seoane, Fernando
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Lindecrantz, Kaj
    Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan.
    Association of drivers’ sleepiness with heart rate variability: A pilot study with drivers on real roads2018In: IFMBE Proceedings, Springer Verlag , 2018, Vol. 65, 149-152 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Vehicle crashes lead to huge economic and social consequences, and one non-negligible cause of accident is driver sleepiness. Driver sleepiness analysis based on the monitoring of vehicle acceleration, steering and deviation from the road or physiological and behavioral monitoring of the driver, e.g., monitoring of yawning, head pose, eye blinks and eye closures, electroencephalogram, electrooculogram, electromyogram and electrocardiogram (ECG), have been used as a part of sleepiness alert systems.

    Heart rate variability (HRV) is a potential method for monitoring of driver sleepiness. Despite previous positive reports from the use of HRV for sleepiness detection, results are often inconsistent between studies. In this work, we have re-evaluated the feasibility of using HRV for detecting drivers’ sleepiness during real road driving. A database consists of ECG measurements from 10 drivers, driving during morning, afternoon and night sessions on real road were used. Drivers have reported their average sleepiness level by using the Karolinska sleepiness scale once every five minutes. Statistical analysis was performed to evaluate the potential of HRV indexes to distinguish between alert, first signs of sleepiness and severe sleepiness states. The results suggest that individual subjects show different reactions to sleepiness, which produces an individual change in HRV indicators. The results motivate future work for more personalized approaches in sleepiness detection.

  • 12.
    Adell, Emeli
    et al.
    Trivector Traffic.
    Nilsson, Annika
    Trivector Traffic.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Cyclists' use of mobile IT in Sweden: usage and self-reported behavioural compensation2014In: 3rd International Cycling Safety Conference (ICSC2014), 18-19 November, Gothenburg, Sweden: proceedings, Gothenburg, Sweden, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increasing use of mobile phones while cycling has raised safety concerns. In this paper two studies of mobile phone use by cyclists are presented.

    The first study was designed to characterize mobile phone use by cyclists in Sweden, while the second studied how mobile phone use affected cyclist behaviour and compensation strategies. Mobile phone use was observed in about 20 percent of all urban bicycle trips. The usage varied with cyclist age with the highest usage among young cyclists. Of those using phones, 90% of the cyclists observed used head-phones.

    In parallel, standardized, interviews 15% of cyclists under 15 years old stated that they always used mobile phones while cycling. Listening to music in headphones was the most fre-quent self-reported activity. To converse using hand-held phones was also rather common, and was the only mobile phone usage reported by women above 50 years old.

    In the second study twenty-two young cyclists (age 16-25 years) completed a route in real traffic five times while listening to music, receiving and making calls, receiving and sending text messages, searching for information on the internet and while cycling normally without using the phone. The route and the types of tasks were controlled, but the cyclists could choose rather freely when, where and how to carry out the tasks. When the cyclist returned to the starting point, a short interview was conducted. During the interviews cyclists reported their experiences and the compensation strategies they used while cycling.

  • 13.
    Adolfsson, Anna
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Rosenqvist, Michelle
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    7 LEDARE I FASTIGHETSMÄKLARBRANSCHENS SYN PÅ, OCH HANTERING AV, FASTIGHETSMÄKLARES GRÄNSLÖSA ARBETSFÖRHÅLLANDEN.2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study was to get an idea of ​​how the leaders in the real estate industry perceive and manage boundless working conditions. Questions that were answered were how the leaders in the service influence and control the employees' working conditions. Also how the communication strategies are designed to facilitate the work towards common goals, when tasks are not limited to the workplace. The study examine if boundless working conditions is characterized by unspoken expectations. Based on the current view, seven interviews were conducted with leaders from six organizations in the real estate brokerage. The results showed that the industry is controlled by few limits and that leaders use different strategies to maximize performance and wellbeing. It is a commission-based industry in which all work is according to individual performance where results are measured before the time spent at work. By explicit strategies of working and labor leaders are trying to reduce inequalities, and so they try to also reduce the scope of the psychological contract in certain aspects.

  • 14.
    Agerström, Jens
    et al.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Björklund, Fredrik
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Allwood, Carl Martin
    Lund Universtity, Sweden.
    The Influence of Temporal Distance on Justice and Care Morality2010In: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, ISSN 0036-5564, E-ISSN 1467-9450, Vol. 51, no 1, 46-55 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether changes in the temporal distance of a moral dilemma affect how it is perceived and subsequently resolved. Based on Construal Level Theory (Trope & Liberman, 2003), it was predicted that the relative weight of abstract justice features should increase and the relative weight of concrete care features should decrease with temporal distance. The results showed that females became increasingly justice-oriented with greater temporal distance. However, this was not the case for males who were unaffected by temporal distance. This interaction was conceptually replicated in a follow-up experiment in which abstraction was manipulated directly by a mindset manipulation. The present results suggest that temporal distance is a contextual factor that can alter the extent to which moral judgments and reasoning are based on justice and care, although this effect seems to be moderated by gender.

  • 15.
    Ahlesten, Richard
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Psykometriska egenskaper hos Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Psykologisk inflexibilitet är ett centralt begrepp inom Acceptance and committment therapy (ACT). I enlighet med teorin bakom ACT är människor psykiska lidande starkt sammankopplat med komponenterna som utgör psykologisk inflexibilitet; upplevelsemässigt undvikande och kognitiv fusion. Det psykiska måendet bland barn och ungdomar tenderar att försämras och behovet av psykologiska vårdinsatser ökar. I det sammanhanget är det viktigt med fungerande skattningsinstrument som möjliggör bedömningar och utvärderingar av vårdbehov och vårdinsatser. I uppsatsen undersöktes psykometriska egenskaper hos självskattningsinstrumentet Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y) i en grupp ungdomar som vårdas av Statens institutionsstyrelse. Av resultaten framgick att såväl reliabilitet som validitet var god i de utvalda måtten, faktorstrukturen tolkades som endimensionell. Även graden av psykologisk inflexibilitet i gruppen undersöktes. Bland undersökningsdeltagarna hade flickorna signifikant högre AFQ-Y-resultat jämfört med normpopulationen. Pojkarna avvek inte från normpopulationen.

  • 16.
    Ahlgren, Christina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS). Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Sandberg, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Lindahl, Bernt
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Occupational and Environmental Medicine.
    Olsson, Tommy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Larsson, Christel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food and Nutrition. Department of Food and Nutrition, and Sport Science, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden .
    Fjellman-Wiklund, Anncristine
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Engagement in New Dietary Habits: Obese Women's Experiences from Participating in a 2-Year Diet Intervention2016In: International Journal of Behavioral Medicine, ISSN 1070-5503, E-ISSN 1532-7558, Vol. 23, no 1, 84-93 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Dietary weight loss interventions most often result in weight loss, but weight maintenance on a long-term basis is the main problem in obesity treatment. There is a need for an increased understanding of the behaviour patterns involved in adopting a new dietary behavior and to maintain the behaviour over time.

    PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to explore overweight and obese middle-aged women's experiences of the dietary change processes when participating in a 2-year-long diet intervention.

    METHODS: Qualitative semi-structured interviews with 12 overweight and obese women (54-71 years) were made after their participation in a diet intervention programme. The programme was designed as a RCT study comparing a diet according to the Nordic nutrition recommendations (NNR diet) and a Palaeolithic diet (PD). Interviews were analysed according to Grounded Theory principles.

    RESULTS: A core category "Engagement phases in the process of a diet intervention" concluded the analysis. Four categories included the informants' experiences during different stages of the process of dietary change: "Honeymoon phase", "Everyday life phase", "It's up to you phase" and "Crossroads phase". The early part of the intervention period was called "Honeymoon phase" and was characterised by positive experiences, including perceived weight loss and extensive support. The next phases, the "Everyday life phase" and "It's up to you phase", contained the largest obstacles to change. The home environment appeared as a crucial factor, which could be decisive for maintenance of the new dietary habits or relapse into old habits in the last phase called "Crossroads phase".

    CONCLUSION: We identified various phases of engagement in the process of a long-term dietary intervention among middle-aged women. A clear personal goal and support from family and friends seem to be of major importance for long-term maintenance of new dietary habits. Gender relations within the household must be considered as a possible obstacle for women engaging in diet intervention.

  • 17.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Fors, Carina
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Forward, Sonja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Gregersen, Nils Petter
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Mobility, actors and planning processes.
    Hjälmdahl, Magnus
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Jansson, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lindberg, Gunnar
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Transport economics Stockholm.
    Nilsson, Lena
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users.
    Patten, Christopher
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dangerous use of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving: A toolbox of counter-measures2013In: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference Road Safety on Four Continents: Beijing, China. 15-17 May 2013, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of mobile phone and similar devices while driving has been a topic of discussion and research for several years. It is now an established fact that driving performance is deteriorated due to distraction but no clear conclusions can yet be drawn concerning influence on crash rates. Better studies on this relationship is needed. Most countries in Europe and many countries elsewhere have introduced different types of bans for handheld devices. Sweden has, however, no such bans. VTI was commissioned by the Swedish Government to outline possible means to reduce the dangerous usage of mobile phones and other communication devices while driving as alternatives to banning. This task was a result of a previous VTI-state-of-the-art review of research on mobile phone and other communication device usage while driving. One of the findings in the review was that bans on handheld phones did not appear to reduce the number of crashes.

    Eighteen different countermeasures in three main areas were suggested. (1) Technical solutions such as countermeasures directed towards the infrastructure, the vehicle and the communication device. (2) Education and information, describing different ways to increase knowledge and understanding among stakeholders and different driver categories. (3) Different possibilities for how society, industry and organisations can influence the behaviour of individuals, via policies, rules, recommendations and incentives. Our conclusion is that a combination of different countermeasures is needed – where education and information to the drivers are combined with support and incentives for a safe usage of different communication devices.

  • 18.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Ihlström, Jonas
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Förares användning av kommunikationsutrustning under färd: Del 1: Enkätstudie. Del 2: Användning enligt objektiv mätning2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Av resultaten från denna enkät är något av det mest tydliga att saker som funnits i en bil en längre tid, exempelvis att ställa in radio, använda navigationsutrustning och prata i telefon, görs i betydligt högre utsträckning än nyare saker som att skicka meddelanden, surfa på internet eller spela spel. Överlag tycks det vara låg acceptans för de nyare företeelserna och en stor andel av urvalet tycker att det är felaktigt eller olämpligt att hålla på med dessa aktiviteter. Att prata i telefon med handsfree tycks uppfattas av många som säkrare och mer lämpligt än att inte använda det. Detta avspeglas även i inställning till införandet av förbud, där en relativt stor andel accepterar att det ska vara lagligt att använda handsfreefunktioner men att annan användning av kommunikationsutrustning borde förbjudas.

    I den andra delen genomfördes en mätning av mobilanvändning under färd genom installerande tav en mobilapp. Den genomförda undersökningen är den första av sitt slag åtminstone i Sverige, så att den, trots vissa brister och begränsningar, kan leverera information som hittills har varit okänt. I detta del diskuteras resultaten, även i förhållande till enkätsvaren, följt av en reflektion över metoden och möjliga förbättringar, som är önskvärda inför en fortsättningsstudie.

  • 19.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Jansson, Sabina
    Linköpings Universitet.
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Local changes in the wake electroencephalogram precedes lane departures2017In: Journal of Sleep Research, ISSN 0962-1105, E-ISSN 1365-2869Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this exploratory study is to investigate if lane departures are associated with local sleep, measured via source-localized electroencephalography (EEG) theta power in the 5-9 Hz frequency range. Thirty participants drove in an advanced driving simulator, resulting in 135 lane departures at high levels of self-reported sleepiness. These lane departures were compared to matching non-departures at the same sleepiness level within the same individual. There was no correspondence between lane departures and global theta activity. However, at the local level an increased risk for lane departures was associated with increased theta content in brain regions related to motor function.

  • 20.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Trafikanttillstånd, TIL. Linköping University.
    Changes in glance behaviour when using a visual eco-driving system: A field study2017In: Applied Ergonomics, ISSN 0003-6870, E-ISSN 1872-9126, Vol. 58, 414-423 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While in-vehicle eco-driving support systems have the potential to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and save fuel, they may also distract drivers, especially if the system makes use of a visual interface. The objective of this study is to investigate the visual behaviour of drivers interacting with such a system, implemented on a five-inch screen mounted above the middle console. Ten drivers participated in a real-world, on-road driving study where they drove a route nine times (2 pre-baseline drives, 5 treatment drives, 2 post-baseline drives). The route was 96 km long and consisted of rural roads, urban roads and a dual-lane motorway.

    The results show that drivers look at the system for 5–8% of the time, depending on road type, with a glance duration of about 0.6 s, and with 0.05% long glances (>2s) per kilometre. These figures are comparable to what was found for glances to the speedometer in this study. Glance behaviour away from the windscreen is slightly increased in treatment as compared to pre- and post-baseline, mirror glances decreased in treatment and post-baseline compared to pre-baseline, and speedometer glances increased compared to pre-baseline. The eco-driving support system provided continuous information interspersed with additional advice pop-ups (announced by a beep) and feedback pop-ups (no auditory cue). About 20% of sound initiated advice pop-ups were disregarded, and the remaining cases were usually looked at within the first two seconds. About 40% of the feedback pop-ups were disregarded. The amount of glances to the system immediately before the onset of a pop-up was clearly higher for feedback than for advice.

  • 21.
    Ahlström, Christer
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Katja
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Kircher, Albert
    Linköpings Universitet.
    A gaze-based driver distraction warning system and its effect on visual behaviour2013In: IEEE transactions on intelligent transportation systems (Print), ISSN 1524-9050, E-ISSN 1558-0016, Vol. 14, no 2, 965-973 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Driver distraction is a contributing factor to many crashes; therefore, a real-time distraction warning system should have the potential to mitigate or circumvent many of these crashes. The objective of this paper is to investigate the usefulness of a real-time distraction detection algorithm called AttenD. The evaluation is based on data from an extended field study comprising seven drivers who drove on an average of 4351 ± 2181 km in a naturalistic setting.

    Visual behavior was investigated both on a global scale and on a local scale in the surroundings of each warning. An increase in the percentage of glances at the rear-view mirror and a decrease in the amount of glances at the center console were found. The results also show that visual time sharing decreased in duration from 9.94 to 9.20 s due to the warnings, that the time from fully attentive to warning decreased from 3.20 to 3.03 s, and that the time from warning to full attentiveness decreased from 6.02 to 5.46 s. The limited number of participants does not allow any generalizable conclusions, but a trend toward improved visual behavior could be observed. This is a promising start for further improvements of the algorithm and the warning strategy.

  • 22.
    Ahlström, Christian
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Gymnasieelevers syn på feedback i skolämnet idrott & hälsa2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study was to examine how high school students wish to receive feedback in physical education, if positive feedback from the P.E. teacher is perceived as beneficial to the students’ motivation and also to examine if the motivational climate is perceived as task oriented or ego oriented by the students. In total 8 high school students (4 boys, 4 girls) at the age of 16 participated. Semi structured interview guides were used during the interviews who took place in a private and neutral location. The informants wanted positive feedback and instructive feedback. Positive feedback was perceived as beneficial to the informants’ motivation. They also perceived encouragement as beneficial to their motivation. Both task oriented and ego oriented motivational climate were experienced. However the P.E. teacher was perceived as using a task oriented approach. The informants’ answers related to both Self determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000) and Achievement goal theory (Nicholls, 1989). According to the study, the P.E. teacher’s feedback approach should concentrate on positive, encouraging, instructing and constructive feedback and have a task oriented approach.

  • 23.
    Ahlström, Richard
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Savemark, Mattias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Dödsfall under och efter skuldsanering2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Konsumentverket har enligt skuldsaneringslagen (SFS 2006:548) uppdrag att stödja och vägleda den budget- och skuldrådgivning som kommunerna skall svara för. Detta innefattar bland annat utbildning, metodutveckling, kunskapsbyggande och information samt utvärdering. Som ett led i detta har verket initierat en utvärdering av verksamheten från, såväl ett gäldenärsperspektiv som ur ett samhällsekonomiskt perspektiv. Föreliggande rapport är en del av en kommande större rapport rörande bl.a. ekonomi och hälsoaspekter i samband med överskuldsättning och skuldrådgivning i kommunerna. Författare är docent Richard Ahlstöm och forskningsassistent Mattias Savemark. De slutsatser och ståndpunkter som redovisas här är författarnas egna och de ansvarar för delrapportens riktighet och innehåll.

  • 24.
    Ahlén, Julia
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Åhman, Maria
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Livet är ditt!: en studie om livskvalitet och motiverande samtal2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka om en kortare period av motiverande samtal (MI) kunde påverka livskvaliteten positivt hos en arbetande population. De tre frågeställningarna var: Kan en kort period av MI förändra livskvaliteten positivt? Vilka eventuella effekter har en kortare period av MI på livskvaliteten? Finns det några skillnader i eventuell förändring av livskvalitet mellan kön, ålder samt utbildningsnivå?

    Metod

    Studien bestod av två MI-samtal med tre veckors mellanrum, samt en enkätundersökning som genomfördes före och efter samtalsperioden. Ett företag kontaktades och deltagarna rekryterades genom information på företagets intranät. 25 anmälda bildade MI-gruppen och därefter efterfrågades kontrollgruppsdeltagare via mail, 23 anställda bildade kontrollgruppen. Företaget hade sedan många år tillbaka haft ett nära samarbete med företagshälsovården. En redan framtagen livskvalitetsenkät, SF-36, användes tillsammans med en egen kompletterande enkät om kön, ålder och utbildning. Enkätsvaren kodades om och analyserades enligt manualen för SF-36. Därefter utfördes statistiska tester för att få fram eventuella skillnader inom och mellan grupperna. Det totala bortfallet blev fyra personer från kontrollgruppen, resultatet beräknades utifrån 19 deltagare i kontrollgruppen och 25 deltagare från MI-gruppen.

    Resultat

    Resultaten visade att en kortare period av MI inte kunde förändra livskvaliteten och att det inte heller fanns någon signifikant skillnad i livskvalitet mellan grupperna. Vi tror att det bland annat kan bero på det tidigare hälsoarbetet på företaget. Däremot kunde en signifikant förbättring av den mentala hälsan inom MI-gruppen konstateras som en effekt. Det fanns inga skillnader i förändring av livskvalitet mellan kön, ålder och utbildningsnivå.

    Slutsats

    Slutsatsen blev att signifikanta resultat på livskvaliteten inte går att uppnå på så kort tidsperiod som studien avsåg. Utifrån de givna tidsramarna var studiens modell hanterbar och kunde ändå uppvisa resultat i form av en förbättring av mental hälsa hos MI-gruppen.

  • 25.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Understanding Individuals' Learning and Decision Processes in a Changing Environment by Using Panel Data2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When a new transport service is introduced, people have to learn and familiarize themselves with the new service before they decide to adopt it. These processes are developed over time, thus produce dynamics in individuals’ behavioural responses towards the service. This affects the demand of the new service, thus affect revenues. Available studies have examined the factors influencing these responses from microeconomic perspectives. The influence of the theory-based subjective factors has not been examined empirically. Understanding these would assist transport and urban planners to design a better marketing strategy to increase the market share of the new service. A change in seasons affect individuals’ activity-travel decisions, thus produce dynamics in activitytravel patterns in different seasons. Individuals’ constraints, in a form of mandatory activities (working/studying), are influencing individuals’ decisions to participate in day-to-day nonmandatory activities (leisure and routine activities). The interdependency between travel demand, time allocation and mode choice that considers interactions between mandatory and non-mandatory activities, in different seasons is less explored. Understanding these would assist transport planners and operators to manage travel demand strategies across different seasons of the year and provide better transportation systems for all individuals. This thesis includes five papers. Paper I explores individuals’ characteristics of the quick-response and the adopters of the new public transport (PT) service and examines the temporal effects. Paper II investigates the subjective factors influencing a quick-response to the new PT service by proposing a modified attitude-behaviour framework. Paper III and IV analyse the effects of seasonal variations and individuals’ constraints on their day-to-day activity-travel decisions and patterns. Paper V analyses the attrition and fatigue in the two-week travel diary panel survey instrument.

  • 26.
    Ahmad Termida, Nursitihazlin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics. Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia, Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Department of Infrastructure and Geomatic Engineering.
    Susilo, Yusak
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Franklin, Joel
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Transport Science, System Analysis and Economics.
    Subjective Factors Influencing Individual's Response to a New Public Transport ServiceManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The timing and nature of people’s responses can be expected to vary when a new element enter their environment. For example, when an individual is provided with a new or modified transport service. This time-scale of behavioural responses will affect the patronage of, and short- and long-term demands on the new service over time. Understanding the underlying factors that influence an individual’s response over time to a new or modified transport service would enable us to identify trigger factors that make the new service attractive from an individual’s point of view. Chatterjee (2001) and Douglas (2003) argued that motives other than instrumental factors related to public transport use, such as attitudes, awareness, travel habits and learning processes, can influence individual responses over time to changes in the travel environment. Unfortunately, despite their importance, there have been few studies that examined this argument empirically. To address this research gap, this paper aims to investigate the influences of subjective factors on individuals’ responses to the introduction of a modified public transport (PT) service over time by proposing and testing an alternative model that modifies the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) model framework. This paper also aims to investigate the behavioural change in terms of attitudes and perceptions on individuals’ resources and constraints in using a modified PT service over time after its introduction. The case study involves the new extension of a tram line connecting the suburbs of Alvik and Solna Centrum in Stockholm, Sweden. Four waves of a panel survey were conducted with 96 individuals who lived along the new service, from just before the new service was introduced and until seven months after its introduction. A structural equation modelling technique was used to estimate the relationships between behavioural constructs and panel data, then incorporate them into a discrete choice model. The results show that intention influences individual’s quick-response choice. The panel analysis shows that past behaviour in using the new service influenced current behaviour, and that perceived walking distance in using the service consistently influenced the frequency of using the new service over time.

  • 27.
    Ahmad, Zubair
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Mumtaz, Jasim
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Informatics.
    Implementation of Activity Theory in Umeå University Library2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Information technology is playing a vital role in our every field of life. The most common use of information is in the field of education. Use of information technology in libraries is very important. People from differents works of life extract information from these libraries. In this paper, we have tried to identify how can we facilitate the Umeå university library users for better interaction with the information? We have used different methods for collection of data to identify the Umeå university libray problems and then we analysed the whole library system with the help of Engeström Activity theory, to find out which factors are effeting the interaction between users and library and creating main problems. In the end we have given some suggestions for the improvement of interaction between users and Umeå library to facilitate them for accessing information.

  • 28.
    Ajdahi, Sami
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hansson, Erik
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stolthet-statusmodellen och attityder till utbildning: En kvantitativ studie om hur gymnasielevers upplevelser av stolthet och social status korrelerar med deras attityder till utbildning2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 300 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research by Cheng, Tracy and Henrich (2010) has identified relationships betweentwo facets of pride and two different strategies to attain social status. These relationships havebeen conceptualized to a pride-status model. The model has been tested on an Americanpopulation and only in one study has it been tested in a Swedish context. Moreover, there areno previous studies on the possible relationship between the pride-status model and positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education. Therefore, the purposes of this study were toinvestigate if the pride-status model is valid on a Swedish population and investigate how thedifferent status strategies and facets of pride relate to positive attitudes towards post-secondary education. In order to examine this, a convenience sample consisting of 609students in high school preparing for post-secondary education rated subjective experiences offacets of pride, social status strategies and attitudes towards post-secondary education. Thestudents’ ratings were correlated with each other and the difference between the correlationswas examined. The findings show that the pride-status model is partly valid on a Swedishpopulation and that the status strategies correlated significantly with positive attitudes towardspost-secondary education. The facets of pride were significantly correlated with positiveattitudes towards post-secondary education to some extent. Possible explanations of thefindings are discussed together with a methodology discussion and proposals for futureresearch within the area of the pride-status model and attitudes towards education.

  • 29.
    Akkanen, Anita
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Sundström, Malin
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Effekter av en idrottspsykologisk utbildningsintervention för friidrottstränare: med fokus på tränares förhållningssätt och ungdomars motivation och upplevelse av tävlingsnervositet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract

    Aim: Since there is a lack of research based educational interventions concerning the relationship between coaches and young athletes, the aim of this study was to implement and examine the effects of sport psychology intervention for coaches in a track and field club. The research questions were: What are the effects of an educational intervention for coaches, with focus on a motivational climate, on: A) the coaches´ coaching approach B) their athletes´ goal orientation and C) their athletes´ perceived competitive anxiety?

    Method: The coach education stretched over two months and consisted of four two-hour lessons with focus on motivational climate, goal orientation and sport anxiety. Six coaches (three females, three males), aged 38-52 (M=44.33 years, SD=4.84) and their 59 athletes (27 males and 32 females) aged 12-14 (M=13.10 years, SD=0.82), participated in the study. A control group of 35 athletes (10 males and 25 females), of the same age (M=13.46 years, SD=0.70) and with similar demographic data, was also recruited. Potential effects of the intervention on the coaches and athletes were captured by measuring key constructs twice (pre-/post-test). Measures included a study-specific motivational climate questionnaire for the coaches and two validated questionnaires for athletes: the Achievement Goal Scale for Youth Sports (AGSYS; Cumming, Smith, Smoll & Grossbard 2008) and Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2; Smith, Smoll, Cumming & Grossbard 2006). Descriptive statistics, repeated ANOVA and repeated MANOVA were used to analyze the data.

    Results: The analyses showed that the participating coaches experienced positive behavioral changes among themselves regarding support of autonomy, belonging, competence, and encouragement to task orientation, five months after the intervention had taken place (F (1, 5) = 6.49, p < .051,  = .56). The analyses did not reveal any statistically significant changes concerning neither the athletes´ goal orientation nor sport anxiety over time or compared to the control group.

    Conclusions:The study indicates a continuous need for longitudinal research based sport psychology interventions, especially towards individual sports since they, in many ways, differ from team sports. Future studies ought to complement with qualitative measurements which can bring deeper understanding of how, when and why changes occur. Despite loss effects in the athletes, the coaches´ perceived behavioral changes in themselves indicate that educational interventions are worthwhile in the long run.

     

    Key words: coaches, competitive anxiety, motivation, motivational climate interventions, youth

  • 30.
    Albin, Björn
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Qin, Jiang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Hong, Zhang
    School of Humanities Fujian Medical University P R of China.
    Mental Health in the left-behind Children in the Fujian Province of China2013In: Journal of Public Mental Health, ISSN 1746-5729, Vol. 12, no 1, 21-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose - An increasing number of people are migrating within the borders of China. Some migrants have to leave their children behind, and 58,000,000 children are estimated to be living as left-behind children. Earlier studies have found severe mental problems in left-behind children, but different factors could influence their mental health. The aim of this study was to investigate the mental health of these left-behind children and to determine possible influencing factors.

    Design/methodology/approach - Data for this study were collected in one province of the P R of China with a validated instrument, the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) to investigate behavior in 13- to 15-year old children.

    Findings - No significant difference was found in total difficulty score and in any subscale score of SDQ when we compared left-behind children with children who were not left behind. A significant difference in emotional difficulty subscale score was found between girls who were left behind and girls who were not. Some socio-economic factors such as poor family economy and living with relatives, friends or grandparents, were identified as risk factors.

    Originality/value - When strategies for support of the mental health in left-behind children are developed, they will need to be individualized according to the gender, social and economic situation and focused on emotional and conduct problems.

  • 31. Aletta, Francesco
    et al.
    Kang, Jian
    Axelsson, Östen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics. University of Sheffield, United Kingdom.
    Soundscape descriptors and a conceptual framework for developing predictive soundscape models2016In: Landscape and Urban Planning, ISSN 0169-2046, E-ISSN 1872-6062, Vol. 149, 65-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Soundscape exists through human perception of the acoustic environment. This paper investigates how soundscape currently is assessed and measured. It reviews and analyzes the main soundscape descriptors in the soundscape literature, and provides a conceptual framework for developing predictive models in soundscape studies. A predictive soundscape model provides a means of predicting the value of a soundscape descriptor, and the blueprint for how to design soundscape. It is the key for implementing the soundscape approach in urban planning and design. The challenge is to select the appropriate soundscape descriptor and to identify its predictors. The majority of available soundscape descriptors are converging towards a 2-dimensional soundscape model of perceived affective quality (e.g., Pleasantness–Eventfulness, or Calmness–Vibrancy). A third potential dimension is the appropriateness of a soundscape to a place. This dimensions provides complementary information beyond the perceived affective quality. However, it depends largely on context, and because a soundscape may be appropriate to a place although it is poor, this descriptor must probably not be used on its own. With regards to predictors, or soundscape indicators, perceived properties of the acoustic environment (e.g., perceived sound sources) are winning over established acoustic and psychoacoustic metrics. To move this area forward it is necessary that the international soundscape community comes together and agrees on relevant soundscape descriptors. This includes to agree on numerical scales and assessment procedures, as well as to standardize them.

  • 32.
    Alexandersson, David
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Stress inom Räddningstjänsten: En studie om samband mellan krav, kontroll, socialt stöd och brandmäns upplevda stressnivå.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fire and rescue services have an important function in society and aims to deliver effective emergency response to the public's benefit. Meanwhile, the firefighting profession a high-risk profession where firefighters are exposed to diseases caused by the physical environment as various forms of cancers. They are also exposed to organizational health risks like negative stress, which is the focus of this paper. The aim of the thesis was to make clear whether there is a relationship between psychosocial work environment and perceived stress among firefighters. The issue was whether the levels of demands, control and social support can predict firemens perceived stress level? A total of 67 firefighters from two different cities in southern Sweden participated. The independent variables were demands, control and social support, measured with Swedish Demand Control Support Questionnaire. Stress was measured with the Swedish version of the Perceived Stress Scale. Demand and social support were significant predictors. Demand had a positive relationship with stress and social support was negative associated with stress. Control could not predict stress. This result is consistent to some extent with previous research.

  • 33.
    Alexius, Katarina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Hollander, Anna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Social Work.
    Barns behov och vilja vid tvångsvård till följd av omsorgsbrist2014In: Barnrätt : en antologi / [ed] Ann-Christin Cederborg & Wiweka Warnling-Nerep, Stockholm: Norstedts Juridik AB, 2014, 1, 21-38 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Vid omhändertaganden av barn ska barnets bästa vara avgörande för de beslut som fattas. I den praktiska tillämpningen innefattar begreppet ofta tolkningar av barns behov, såsom dessa definieras av kompetenta vuxna, och barnets vilja, såsom denna uttrycks av barnet eller uttolkas av vuxna. I denna studie undersöks uttrycken barns behov och vilja samt hur barns behov och vilja bedöms i sociala utredningar och domar som rör tvångsomhändertaganden till följd av omsorgssvikt av barn i familjer där någon förälder har intellektuell funktionsnedsättning.

  • 34.
    Alfermann, Dorothee
    et al.
    Leipzig University, Leipzig, Germany.
    Stambulova, Natalia
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare, Centre of Research on Welfare, Health and Sport (CVHI), Center for Sport and Health Science (CIHF).
    Zemaityte, Aiste
    University of Vilnius, Vilnius, Lithuania.
    Causes and consequences of career termination: A comparison of German, Russian and Lithuanian athletes2001In: International Society of Sport Psychology (ISSP) 10th World Congress of Sport Psychology: organized by Democritus University of Thrace, University of Thessaly, Hellenic Society of Sport Psychology : in the dawn of the new millennium : May 28-June 2, 2001, Skiathos, Hellas : programme and proceedings: vol. 4 / [ed] Athanasios Papaioannou, Marios Goudas, Yannis Theodorakis, Thessaloniki, Greece: Christodoulidi Publications , 2001, 26-28 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Alfonsson, S
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Johansson, Karin
    Uddling, Johan
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Differences in motivation and adherence to a prescribed assignment after face-to-face and online psychoeducation: A randomized experiment.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Treatment Adherence in Internet-Based CBT: The Effects of Presentation, Support and Motivation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Homework assignments that patient work with between sessions is a key component in both face-to-face and Internet-based Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT). However, adherence to assignments is often low and it is largely unclear what factors predict or affect treatment adherence, and in the end, treatment outcomes. The overall aim of this thesis was to investigate if treatment presentation and therapist support can affect adherence and treatment outcome in internet-based CBT, whether adherence can be predicted by motivation variables and to compare differences in face-to-face and online conditions in this regard.

    A randomized controlled trial with a brief online relaxation program for people with stress and anxiety symptoms was conducted (n = 162). Participants in the enhanced support conditions completed a larger proportion of the online treatment but adherence was not affected by enhanced treatment presentation (Study I). Participants reported reduced symptoms of stress and anxiety after the relaxation program but there were no significant additional effects of enhanced presentation or support (Study II). Participants who adhered to the prescribed assignments reported lower symptom levels at study end, regardless of treatment conditions. Adherence to the online treatment was predicted by subject factors such as treatment credibility prior to the treatment and intrinsic motivation during the treatment (Study III). To further elucidate how motivation may affect adherence, an experiment with a one-session psychotherapy model was subsequently conducted (n = 100). Participants who were randomized to the face-to-face condition reported higher motivation for the assignment and completed significantly more of the homework compared to participants in the online condition (Study IV). Self-reported intrinsic motivation could predict adherence in both conditions while new motivational variables were identified specifically for the online condition.

    The results from these studies confirm that adherence to assignments in Internet-based CBT is difficult to affect with treatment features but can be predicted early in treatment by subject factors such as treatment credibility and motivation. How such motivational variables can be affected to improve treatments is still unclear.

  • 37.
    Alfonsson, Sven
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Psychology in Healthcare.
    Sewall, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lidholm, Henning
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hursti, Timo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    The meal pattern questionnaire: A psychometric evaluation using the eating disorder examination2016In: Eating Behaviors, ISSN 1471-0153, E-ISSN 1873-7358, Vol. 21, 7-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective

    Meal pattern is an important variable in both obesity treatment and treatment for eating disorders. Momentary assessment and eating diaries are highly valid measurement methods but often cumbersome and not always feasible to use in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to design and evaluate a self-report instrument for measuring meal patterns.

    Method

    The Pattern of eating item from the Eating Disorder Examination (EDE) interview was adapted to self-report format to follow the same overall structure as the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire. The new instrument was named the Meal Patterns Questionnaire (MPQ) and was compared with the EDE in a student sample (n = 105) and an obese sample (n = 111).

    Results

    The individual items of the MPQ and the EDE showed moderate to high correlations (rho = .63–89) in the two samples. Significant differences between the MPQ and EDE were only found for two items in the obese sample. The total scores correlated to a high degree (rho = .87/.74) in both samples and no significant differences were found in this variable.

    Discussion

    The MPQ can provide an overall picture of a person's eating patterns and is a valid way to collect data regarding meal patterns. The MPQ may be a useable tool in clinical practice and research studies when more extensive instruments cannot be used. Future studies should evaluate the MPQ in diverse cultural populations and with more ecological assessment methods.

  • 38.
    Alissavakis, Gricel
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Erfarenheter av ABFT2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Mental illness and suicide in young people from 15-24 years has increased in Sweden. To examine methods which can help in the fight against mental illness feels crucial, when traditional methods not always is sufficient for the target audience and for treatment of mental illness in youths. Attachment-based family therapy, ABFT is used for young people with mental health problems such as depression, anxiety and suicidality problems. ABFT is used today in child and youth psychiatry (BUP), in social services treatment for youth and in some state institutions for youth (SIS) in Sweden.

    Research questions: The study's purpose is to investigate psychotherapists, patients and parents different experiences of ABFT treatment. Interviews were conducted with four psychotherapists, two patients and two parents. Qualitative method was used and data collected have been analysed using thematic analysis of inductive approach.

    Results: The results are tied to five themes ; Attachment , relationships, communication, affects and change. Psychotherapists view re-attachment as necessary in order to re-establish dialogue and communication between parents and youth. This improves in the long run the relationship and affiliation, but also the mental state of youth according to psychotherapists. Young people's experience is that they became better understood and heard by their parents. The dialogue resumed and feelings could be expressed to the terms. When needs and feelings were received by the parent reliance grew on parents, the relationship improved and parents could be seen as a resource. Parents experience is that they got other ways to communicate, support and face his youth on.

    Discussion : Shows that reconnection and relational reformulation of the problems are made in the ABFT. The relational problems are consequences of the previous attachment injuries. Restored dialogue allows for reconnection, which improves the relationship. Extension of the fountain of youth and parent's capacity for emotional processing is the prerequisite for change. The expression of feelings associated with related injuries seems healing for young people as well as improves relationship and connection to the parent. Change occurs when youth put into words and share feelings with parents. To be received in their emotions creates a change in the internal working models of youth and parents. Changes occurs in the interaction between parents and youth which does that the internal working models of self and others can be reconsidered.

  • 39.
    Allan, Veronica
    et al.
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Turnnidge, Jennifer
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Vierimaa, Matthew
    Department of Kinesiology & Health Science, Utah State University, Logan, USA.
    Davis, Paul A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Côté, Jean
    School of Kinesiology & Health Studies, Queen’s University, Kingston, Canada.
    Development of the Assessment of Coach Emotions systematic observation instrument: A tool to evaluate coaches’ emotions in the youth sport context2016In: International journal of sports science & coaching, ISSN 1747-9541, E-ISSN 2048-397X, Vol. 11, no 6, 859-871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current research on emotions in sport focuses heavily on athletes’ intrapersonal emotion regulation; however, interpersonal consequences of emotion regulation are garnering recent attention. As leaders in sport, coaches have the opportunity to regulate not only their own emotions, but also those of athletes, officials, and spectators. As such, the present study set out to develop an observational tool, demonstrating evidence of validity and reliability, for measuring coaches’ overt emotions in the youth sport context. Categories were derived and refined through extensive literature and video review, resulting in 12 categories of behavioural content and eight emotion modifiers (NeutralHappyAffectionateAlertTenseAnxiousAngry and Disappointed). The final coding system is presented herein, complete with supporting evidence for validity and reliability. As a tool for both researchers and practitioners in sport, the Assessment of Coach Emotions (ACE) offers enhanced insight into the contextual qualities underlying coaches’ interactive behaviours.

  • 40.
    Alm, Rasmus
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Cassel, Philip
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svenska tennistränares erfarenheter och upplevda kompetens av mental träning ur ett tränar filosofiskt perspektiv2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att undersöka svenska tennistränares erfarenheter och upplevd kompetens inom mental träning ifrån ett tränarfilosofiskt perspektiv. För att undersöka syftet användes tre frågeställningar: (1) Hur prioriterar svenska tennistränare mentala förberedelser jämfört med fysiska, taktiska och tekniska förberedelser? (2) Vilka erfarenheter har svenska tennistränare av mental träning? (3) Vilken upplevd kompetens av mental träning finns hos svenska tennistränare? Deltagarna i studien var 13 (M-ålder=31,5, SD-ålder=9,8) män som var tennistränare inom Västra Götaland. En semi-strukturerad intervjuguide konstruerades med fyra huvudsakliga temaområden tränarfilosofi, erfarenhet av mental träning, kompetens av mental träning och utveckling av mental träning. Resultatet visade att: (1) svenska tennistränare anser att mental träning är viktigt inom tennis men prioriterar inte det i deras tränarfilosofi (2) svenska tennistränarna har erfarenhet av mental träning genom att använda det på banan för sina spelare samt ifrån sina egna tenniskarriärer (3) tränarna upplever att de har låg eller ingen kompetens av mental träning samt att tränarna önskar att få mer kompetens. Slutsatsen från studien är att mental träning är något som svenska tennistränarna anser är viktigt men tränarna har för lite erfarenhet och låg kompetens i deras tränarroll.

  • 41.
    Al-Madani, Hashim
    et al.
    Dept. of Civil & Arch. Eng., University of Bahrain.
    Al-Janahi, Abdul Rahman
    Dept. of Civil & Arch. Eng., University of Bahrain.
    Differences in traffic signs' recognition between drivers of different nations2001In: Proceedings of the conference Traffic Safety on Three Continents: International conference in Moscow, Russia, 19-21 September, 2001 / [ed] Asp, Kenneth, Linköping: Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, 2001, Vol. 18A:2, 21- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Drivers encounter tens of signs in their daily trips. While many signs are well recognized by the drivers, many others are not. This study examines drivers' identification of 28 warning and regulatory signs. The identification rate was standardized as per sign exposure rate. Differences between nationalities are then tested. Questionnaires including these signs were distributed to 9000 drivers in Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. Over 4850 responded back (54%). The questionnaire illustrated the tested signs in color along with four selection choices. In order to have just comparisons between the drivers of the various nationalities, their educational background is controlled. Three best-identified signs by the drivers included those indicating slippery road, closed to motor vehicles and road narrows from both sides. The three least identified are those indicating not waiting, turn left ahead and turn left. The findings also showed the existence of functional problems in many regulatory signs. In fact, only one third of the signs are equally understood by Arab, Asian and Westerner drivers. The drivers poorly identified most of the signs included in this group. Furthermore, both Arab and Asian drivers identified another one third of the signs significantly less than Westerners. The signs in this group are generally well identified by the drivers. Regulatory signs indicating symbolic pictures caused greater comprehension difficulties to the drivers in this group. Finally, two thirds of the signs are poorly identified by Arab drivers compared with westerners. Warning signs are over-represented in this group.

  • 42.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Barns behov och föräldrars omsorgsförmåga2013In: Familjehemsboken: Frågor, fakta och personliga berättelser / [ed] Pipping, Lisbeth, Stockholm: Gothia Förlag AB, 2013, 2, 46-66 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 43.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Feasibility of Evidence Based Interventions  for Children Exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) in the Health and Welfare System in Sweden.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Draxler, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Project Support: En genomförbarhetsstudie av ett individuellt föräldrastöd i socialtjänsten för våldsutsatta föräldrar2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Genomförbarheten av Project Support (PS), ett individuellt föräldrastöd för våldsutsatta mammor utvecklat i USA, utvärderas inom ramen för svensk socialtjänst i denna studie. Sammanlagt trettio behandlare har utbildats i metoden, som anpassats till svenska förhållanden i samarbete med upphovsmännen. Tjugonio familjer hade inkluderats i behandling vid sttudiens avslut. Såväl behandlare som mammor uppskattade metoden och bedömde att den var en lämplig insats som förbättrade föräldrarnas samspel med sina barn. Mammornas självskattade föräldraförmåga förbättrades signifikant, och barnens symtomnivåer sänktes. Vissa svårigheter för implementering identifierades, dels metodspecifika, dels relaterade till omständigheter i socialtjänsten.

  • 45.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Georgsson, Anna
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Broberg, Anders
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Stöd till barn som upplevt att mamma utsätts för våld: Erfarenheter från en studie av barn som deltagit i Bojens grupprogram2012Report (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Almqvist, Kjerstin
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Grip, Karin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Axberg, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Broberg, Anders
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Promising but not good enough: Evaluation of communitybased interventions for children in Sweden exposed to Intimate Partner Violence (IPV) against their mother2012In: Children exposed to Intimate Partner Violence, 2012, 151-151 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 47.
    Almén, Donald
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Subjektets möjligheter: - En undersökning i den lacanska psykoanalysen.2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The essay explores the human psyche by the French psychoanalyst and psychiatrist Jacques Lacan's psychoanalytic theory. The essay examines the subject's conditions and possibilities based on Lacanian theory, and what implications it has on symptom location in clinical diagnostics. The method uses Lacanian theory and descriptions of the subject's status, the production of which is abstracted to a set of rules. The theory's validity tested in the paper on clinical case reports and other such cases. In the discussion it will be the implication of the Lacanian theory of the subject is extensive in terms of clinical diagnosis and evaluation of the symptom.

     

  • 48.
    Almén, Niclas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Stress- och utmattningsproblem: Kognitiva och beteendeterapeutiska metoder2007 (ed. 1)Book (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Almén, Niclas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Återhämtningsfokuserad stresshantering: Praktiskt och teoretisk bakgrund, samt två pilotstudier2012Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 50.
    Almén, Niclas
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    KBT-rehabilitering för stress, ångest och depression: Preliminära resultat2012Conference paper (Other academic)
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