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  • 1.
    Aadland, Katarina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Copingstrategier för att hantera stress och oro hos KBT- och övriga studenter2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    How stress and anxiety are handled is vital to health. To develop knowledge about coping this study aims to investigate differences in the prevalence and correlation between problemfocused, emotionfocused and avoidanceoriented coping and also in defensive pessimism. A quantitative survey was conducted with 62 CBT-students and 87 other students from different courses. The results showed that CBT students use problemfocused coping more than other students, that other students use emotionfocused coping more than CBT-students and that older CBT-students use defensive pessimism less than younger CBT-students. A negative correlation was also found between problemfocused and emotionfocused coping and a positive correlation between emotionfocused coping and defensive pessimism. In summary, the study shows that there are correlations between, as well as age- and educational differences in the use of different coping strategies.

  • 2. Aafjes-van Doorn, Katie
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Cooper, Angela
    McDonald, James
    Falkenström, Fredrik
    Patients’ Affective Processes Within Initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy Sessions2016In: Psychotherapy, ISSN 0033-3204, E-ISSN 1939-1536Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Research has indicated that patients’ in-session experience of previously avoided affects may be important for effective psychotherapy. The aim of this study was to investigate patients’ in-session levels of affect experiencing in relation to their corresponding levels of insight, motivation, and inhibitory affects in initial Experiential Dynamic Therapy (EDT) sessions. Four hundred sixty-six 10-min video segments from 31 initial sessions were rated using the Achievement of Therapeutic Objectives Scale. A series of multilevel growth models, controlling for between-therapist variability, were estimated to predict patients’ adaptive affect experiencing (Activating Affects) across session segments. In line with our expectations, higher within-person levels of Insight and Motivation related to higher levels of Activating Affects per segment. Contrary to expectations, however, lower levels of Inhibition were not associated with higher levels of Activating Affects. Further, using a time-lagged model, we did not find that the levels of Insight, Motivation, or Inhibition during one session segment predicted Activating Affects in the next, possibly indicating that 10-min segments may be suboptimal for testing temporal relationships in affective processes. Our results suggest that, to intensify patients’ immediate affect experiencing in initial EDT sessions, therapists should focus on increasing insight into defensive patterns and, in particular, motivation to give them up. Future research should examine the impact of specific inhibitory affects more closely, as well as between-therapist variability in patients’ in-session adaptive affect experiencing.

  • 3.
    Aakko, Noora
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Öngörür, Gazal
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Kraften av beröring: Beröring som komplementär metod för att minska stress på arbetsplatsen2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Arbetsmarknadens förändringar i form av högre arbetstakt, tillfälliga anställningar och krav på flexibla arbetsvillkor, gör att allt fler upplever stress i arbetslivet. Långvarig stress medför stora hälsorisker för individen. Eftersom många av dagens sjukskrivningar beror på stressrelaterade sjukdomar, såsom depression och utmattning är det viktigt att studera metoder för stresshantering på arbetsplatsen. Beröring i form av massage kan minska stress hos individer samt fungerar som ett komplement i behandlingen för stressrelaterade sjukdomar. Ett fältexperiment med 28 tjänstemän utfördes för att undersöka om en kortvarig massage på arbetstid kunde inverka positivt på den arbetsrelaterade stressen jämfört med en avslappningsövning och vanlig rast. Studien visade signifikant minskning av stressnivån efter massageinterventionen. Resultatet ger en antydan om att upplevelsen av stress går att reducera med hjälp av fysisk beröring. Stickprovets storlek samt förväntnings- effektens inverkan på resultatet diskuteras.

  • 4. Aaltonen, Olli
    et al.
    Hellström, Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Peltola, Maija S.
    Savela, Janne
    Tamminen, Henna
    Lehtola, Heidi
    Brain responses reveal hardwired detection of native-language rule violations2008In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, E-ISSN 1872-7972, Vol. 444, no 1, 56-59 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Mismatch negativity (MMN) is a neural correlate of the preattentive detection of any change in the acoustic characteristics of sounds. Here we provide evidence that violations of a purely phonological constraint in a listener's native language can also elicit the brain's automatic change-detection response. The MMN differed between Finnish and Estonian listeners, conditions being equal except for the native language of the listeners. We used two experimental conditions: synthetic vowels in isolation and the same vowels embedded in a pseudo-word context. MMN responses to isolated vowels were similar for Finns and Estonians, while the same vowels in a pseudoword context elicited different MMN patterns depending on the listener's mother tongue.

  • 5. Aardema, Frederick
    et al.
    Johansson, Petter
    Uppsala University, The Swedish Collegium for Advanced Study in the Social Sciences (SCASSS).
    Hall, Lars
    Paradisis, Stella-Marie
    Zidani, Melha
    Roberts, Sarah
    Choice Blindness, Confabulatory Introspection, and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms: A New Area of Investigation2014In: International Journal of Cognitive Therapy, ISSN 1937-1209, Vol. 7, no 1, 83-102 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The current study is the first to investigate confabulatory introspection in relation to clinical psychological symptoms utilizing the Choice Blindness Paradigm (CBP). It was hypothesized that those with obsessive-compulsive symptoms are more likely to confabulate mental states. To test this hypothesis, an experimental choice blindness task was administered in two nonclinical samples (n = 47; n = 76). Results showed that a confabulatory introspection is significantly related to obsessive-compulsive symptoms. There was evidence for its specificity to symptoms of OCD depending on the obsessional theme addressed in the choice blindness task. However, confabulatory introspection was also found to be relevant to other symptoms, including depression and schizotypy. The results highlight a potentially fruitful new area of clinical investigation in the area of insight and self-knowledge, not limited to OCD alone, but potentially other disorders as well.

  • 6.
    Aare, Therese
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Wernh, Weronica
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology.
    Emotionella upplevelser och emotionsreglering i samband med en nedskärningsprocess2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate emotions and emotion regulation of a downsizing in an industrial company. The sample consisted of persons who had experienced a downsizing but have kept the employment, within a same position or being transferred to another one. Data consisted of two focus group interviews, analysed by an inductive thematic analysis. The results have indicated that emotional reactions changed over time as well the emotional regulation did during the different phases. The groups differed in emotional reaction related to the time of decision regarding the retention of employment. One conclusion is that fast and accurate information during the different phases of a downsizing process may lead to more positive emotional reactions, which in consequence may result in a positive experience of the reduction process as a whole. The confidence in management increased across the time, due to its decisiveness during the process of downsizing.

  • 7. Aarne, Päivikki
    et al.
    Almkvist, Ove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Risholm Mothander, Pia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Tallberg, Ing-Mari
    Parent-rated socio-emotional development in children with language impairment in comparison with typically developed children2014In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 11, no 3, 279-291 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children with language impairment (LI) and children with typical development (TD) were assessed by their respective parents using The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventories (Swedish version SECDI) and Greenspan Socio Emotional Growth Chart (GSEGC). The aim was to investigate socio-emotional and language development in children with LI and TD with respect to possible differential patterns and relations between the groups. The results highlight a clear association between language and socio-emotional development. Children with LI were rated similar to young language-matched children with TD, but significantly lower relative to age-matched TD children, particularly concerning symbolic stages of development: the use of linguistic symbols as well as related areas such as symbol play and symbolic mental ability. The results are discussed in light of presumable background factors and possible consequences for children or sub-groups of children with LI.

  • 8.
    Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Long-term cognitive outcome of childhood traumatic brain injury2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    There is limited knowledge of cognitive outcome extending beyond 5 years after childhood traumatic brain injury, CTBI. The main objectives of this thesis were to investigate cognitive outcome at 6-14 years after CTBI, and to evaluate if advancements in the neurosurgical care, starting 1992, did influence long-term outcome and early epidemiology. An additional aim was to study the relationship between early brain injury parameters and early functional outcome. Study 1 evaluated cognitive progress during 14 years after CTBI, over three neuropsychological assessments in 8 patients with serious CTBI. Study 2 used patient records to investigate early epidemiology, received rehabilitation and medical follow up in two clinical cohorts, n=82 and n=46, treated neurosurgically for CTBI before and after 1992. An exploratory cluster analysis was applied to analyse the relation between early brain injury severity parameters and early functional outcome. In Study 3, participants in the two cohorts, n=18 and n=23, treated neurosurgically for CTBI before and after 1992, were subject to an extensive neuropsychological assessment, 13 and 6 years after injury, respectively. Assessment results of the two cohorts were compared with each other and with controls. Data were analysed with multivariate analyses of variance. Results and discussion. There were significant long-term cognitive deficits of similar magnitude and character in the two cohorts with CTBI, treated before and after the advancements in neurosurgical care. At 6-14 years after injury, long-term deficits in verbal intellectual and executive functions were found, and were discussed in terms of their late maturation and a decreased executive control over verbal memory-functions after CTBI. Visuospatial functions had a slightly better long-term recovery. The amount of rehabilitation received was equally low in both cohorts. The length of time spent in intensive care and the duration of care in the respirator may have a stronger relationship to early outcome than does a single measure of level of consciousness at admission. Main conclusions are that cognitive deficits are apparent at long-term follow up, 6-13 years after neurosurgically treated CTBI, even after advancements in the neurosurgical care in Sweden. Measures of verbal IQ, verbal memory and executive functions were especially low while visuospatial intellectual functions appear to have a better long-term recovery.

  • 9. Aaro Jonsson, Catherine C.
    et al.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid M.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Variability in quality of life 13 years after traumatic brain injury in childhood2014In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 37, no 4, 317-322 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the aim of describing variability in the long-term outcome of quality of life after neurosurgically treated pediatric traumatic brain injury, mostly self-reports of 21 individuals with mild or moderate/severe injury were gathered using Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory in telephone interviews 13 years aftyer injury. A majority of the participants reported brain injury-related problems. The median outcome on Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory was mild to moderate limitations. The variation within the moderate/severe group varied between relatively good outcome and moderate/severe limitations. Concentration, irritability, fatigue, and transportation were reported as the most problematic areas, whereas self-care was reported as well functioning. Societal participation appeared to be the best functional domain in this Swedish study. Examples of individual reports of the life-situation at various outcome levels were provided. Variability in outcome is large within severity groups, and research may gain by addressing both outcomes of the individuals and groups. Objective questions of outcome should be accompanied by questions of actual functioning in everyday life. To ensure long-term support for quality of life for those with remaining dysfunction after pediatric traumatic brain injury, healthcare systems should implement systematic routines for referral to rehabilitation and support.

  • 10. Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Catroppa, Cathy
    Godfrey, Celia
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Anderson, Vicki
    Cognitive Recovery and Development after Traumatic Brain Injury in Childhood: A Person-Oriented, Longitudinal Study2013In: Journal of Neurotrauma, ISSN 0897-7151, E-ISSN 1557-9042, Vol. 30, no 2, 76-83 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Influence of childhood traumatic brain injury (TBI) on cognitive recovery and subsequent development is poorly understood. In this longitudinal study we used cluster analysis to explore acute stage individual profiles of injury age and cognition in 118 children with traumatic brain injury. Repeated measures of cognitive function were conducted at 30 months, indicating recovery, and 10 years post-injury, indicating development. Nine clusters were identified. Recovery was evident in three clusters, two of them with low functioning profiles. Developmental gains occurred for three clusters and an acute profile of higher freedom from distractibility (FFD) and lower processing speed (PS) was related to positive differences. One cluster, average low functioning and especially low verbal comprehension, demonstrated a slower development than peers. This suggests that developmental change after TBI in childhood takes place on a continuum, with both chance of long-term catching up, and risk of poor development. An acute profile of higher FFD and lower PS seemed to reflect injury consequences and were followed by developmental gains. These results challenge previous findings, and warrant further investigation.

  • 11.
    Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Horneman, Göran
    Department of Psychology, Gothenburg University, Sweden.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Institute for the Health of Women and Children, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg.
    Neuropsychological progress during 14 yearsafter severe traumatic brain injury in childhoodand adolescence2004In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301x, Vol. 18, no 9, 921-934 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To investigate the impact of time since injury on  neuropsychological and psychosocial outcome after serious TBI in childhood or adolescence. Methods: The subjects were eight patients with serious TBI sustained at a mean age of 14 years who had been assessed neuropsychological at one, seven and 14 years after TBI. A retrospective longitudinal design was chosen to describe the development in six neuropsychological domains on basis of the assessments. Psychosocial data were gathered from clinical knowledge and a semi-structured interview at 14 years after TBI. Results: Performance of verbal IQ shows a declining trend over the three assessments, that the performance of attention and working memory is low and that verbal learning is the cognitive domain, which exhibits the largest impairments. The main psychosocial result is that three of the eight subjects go from a school situation with no adjustments to adult life with an early retirement. Conclusions: Time since insult is an important factor when assessing outcome after TBI in childhood and adolescence and that assessment of final outcome should not be done before adulthood.

  • 12.
    Aaro Jonsson, Catherine
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Smedler, Ann-Charlotte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Leis Ljungmark, Mia
    Institution for clinical sciences, Dept. of pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Emanuelson, Ingrid
    Institution for clinical sciences, Dept. of pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Academy at Göteborg University.
    Long-term cognitive outcome after neurosurgically treated childhood traumatic brain injury2009In: Brain Injury, ISSN 0269-9052, E-ISSN 1362-301x, Vol. 23, no 13-14, 1008-1016 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To explore the cognitive long term outcome of two cohorts of patients neurosurgically treated for childhood traumatic brain injury (CTBI), either in 1987-1991 according to an older concept, or 1997-2001 with a stronger emphasis on volume targeted interventions. Research design and methods: Participants in the two cohorts were subject to an extensive neuropsychological assessment, 13.2 and 6.1 years post injury, respectively. In a between group design, assessment results of the two cohorts, n 18 and n 23, were compared to each other and to controls. Data were analyzed with multivariate analyses of variance. Results: Long-term cognitive deficits for both groups of similar magnitude and character were observed in both groups. Abilities were especially low regarding executive and memory function and verbal IQ. The cognitive results are discussed in terms of  vulnerability of verbal functions and decreased executive control over memory-functions. Conclusions: There is a definite need for long term follow up of cognitive deficits after neurosurgically treated CTBI, also with the newer neurosurgical concept. Verbal learning and the executive control over memory functions should be addressed with interventions aimed at restoration, coping and compensation.

  • 13. Aarts, Alexander A.
    et al.
    Nilsonne, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Zuni, Kellylynn
    Estimating the reproducibility of psychological science2015In: Science, ISSN 0036-8075, E-ISSN 1095-9203, Vol. 349, no 6251Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Reproducibility is a defining feature of science, but the extent to which it characterizes current research is unknown. We conducted replications of 100 experimental and correlational studies published in three psychology journals using high-powered designs and original materials when available. Replication effects were half the magnitude of original effects, representing a substantial decline. Ninety-seven percent of original studies had statistically significant results. Thirty-six percent of replications had statistically significant results; 47% of original effect sizes were in the 95% confidence interval of the replication effect size; 39% of effects were subjectively rated to have replicated the original result; and if no bias in original results is assumed, combining original and replication results left 68% with statistically significant effects. Correlational tests suggest that replication success was better predicted by the strength of original evidence than by characteristics of the original and replication teams.

  • 14.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Paulin, Johan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Madison, Guy
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, bi-weekly body conditioning classes in sedentary women2017In: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, ISSN 1064-8011, E-ISSN 1533-4287, Vol. 31, no 2, 451-461 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aims of the study were (1) to investigate the effects of participation in low impact body conditioning classes on physical fitness in sedentary women at different ages and (2) to examine the correspondence between physical self-concept and participation in, and fitness change after, the participation. Ninety-two sedentary women (mean age 44.2 years) participated in 11-weeks of bi-weekly classes that included cardiovascular, strength, core, endurance and mobility exercises, all performed in synchrony with music. Cardiorespiratory fitness, maximal lifting strength, mobility and balance tests were performed pre- and post the exercise period and the short-form Physical Self-Description Questionnaire (PSDQ-S) was completed. Zero-order Spearman correlation analyses showed that women who rated the PSDQ-S dimension Sport competence higher participated in a larger number of sessions (rs=0.24, p=0.040). At post-tests, all participants had increased their balance, the participants aged 20-34 years had increased their lifting strength, and the participants aged 35-65 years had increased their cardiorespiratory fitness and mobility. Most PSDQ-S dimensions did not affect performance change, but the perception of being physically active was related to increased cardiovascular fitness. We conclude that women with a sedentary lifestyle who wish to increase their physical capacity benefit from music exercise and that inquiries about perceived sport competence and physical activity can improve recommendations made by strength and conditioning professionals.

  • 15.
    Aasen, Linn
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Thunberg, Maria
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    En utvärdering av arbetspsykologiska testet Shapes med test-retestmetod2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Många rekryteringsmetoder som används i dag, som CV och referenstagning, har enligt studier låg validitet, däremot visar många studier att personlighet är stabilt över tid och därför är en mer valid prediktor för att kunna predicera arbetsprestation. Studiens syfte var att undersöka Shapes, ett internetbaserat personlighetstest, och dess arton kompetensdimensioner med test-retest utifrån tre frågeställningar. En datainsamling med 91 deltagare (29 män och 62 kvinnor) gjordes vid två tillfällen med tre veckors mellanrum. Deltagarna delades upp i kön- och åldersgrupper för att se skillnad över tid inom grupperna. Medelvärdesskillnader och korrelationer över tid jämfördes där resultatet visade att det fanns positiva samband mellan båda testtillfällena på samtliga dimensioner. Sju av de arton dimensionerna hade skillnader på medelvärde från testtillfälle ett och testtillfälle två. Detta skulle kunna bero på att Shapes inte är tillräckligt tillförlitligt för att mäta dessa dimensioner eller att dessa dimensioner inte är stabila över tid.  

  • 16. Aasmundsen, Wibeke
    et al.
    Flodman, Hjördis
    Bedömning av begåvningsmässigt funktionshinder i vuxen ålder: en studie av neuropsykologers metoder2012Report (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Abadir Guirgis, Georg
    et al.
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Peters, Björn
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Lidström, Mats
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Vehicle technology and simulation.
    Lokförarutbildning i Sverige: simulatoranvändning och ERTMS2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report, which provides an overview of the compulsory basic training for train drivers in Sweden, highlights the occurrence of simulator-based training in education, along with the training efforts being made with regards to the future introduction of ERTMS/ETCS. The report also shows the possibilities and limitations of increased use of simulators in driver training and describes the most important governing documents for train drivers and train driver training. Furthermore, the Swedish Transport Agency curriculum for train driver licenses is presented along with the institutions engaged in basic education, training and examination of train driver’s. Also, the Swedish Transport Administration’s E-learning tool for ERTMS, the ERSA-simulator and company specific ERTMS education at SJ and Green Cargo are described. Moreover, Swedish train companies’ and educators’ current use and future needs of simulators for train driver training were examined. Examples from other domains where simulators are used in a training context are also presented.

  • 18.
    Abarzúa Gonzalez, Roberto
    Ersta Sköndal University College, St Lukas Educational Institute.
    Motivationsfaktorer för förändring av våldsbeteende: Tre män berättar om sin motivationsprocess före, under och i slutet av behandlingen2010Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna studie var att genom intervjuer beskriva olika betingelser som motiverar män att söka hjälp för sitt våldsutövande i nära relationer samt beskriva olika betingelser som är avgörande för om man fullföljer den planerade behandlingen eller inte. Den tredje frågeställning var om de här beskrivningarna kunde ge idéer om vilka behandlingsinslag som bidrar till att män fullföljer behandlingen som syftar till att man slutar använda våld. Tre män intervjuades tre gånger under sin behandling, det vill säga i början, i mitten och i slutet av behandlingen. Intervjuerna genomfördes under sammanlagt sex månader. Intervjuerna följde en intervjuguide och var halvstrukturerade.

    Gemensamt för alla tre män som är avgörande för att de söker hjälp och fullföljer sin behandling är när de upplevde att deras våldshandlingar fick allvarliga konsekvenser både för sig själva och för sin omgivning.

    En annan avgörande motiverande faktor för dessa män var att de upplevde att gruppledarna för behandlingsgruppen gav utrymme för allas berättelser. Männen uttrycker att de får ett utrymme för att själva reflektera över den situation som de befinner sig i utan en alltför styrande, kontrollerande attityd från gruppledarna. Detta förhållningssätt från gruppledarna verkar stärka männens motivation till att fortsätta behandlingen och därmed göra förändringen möjligt.

     Mötet med de andra deltagarna är en central motivationsfaktor för att genomföra behandlingen. Känslan att man inte är ensam, att man delar med sig av sina egna erfarenheter, att man känner igen sig, att se värre konsekvenser för andra deltagare är viktiga faktorer i förändringsarbetet.

    Motivationen verkar vara motorn eller drivkraften i själva förändringsarbetet. Denna undersökning pekar i riktning att motivationen verkligen är en dynamisk och föränderlig process som påverkas av många olika komponenter, inte minst i relation till andra människor.

  • 19. Abayhan, Yasemin
    et al.
    Aktaş, Vezir
    Hacettepe University.
    Gülüm, İsmail Volkan
    “Bir standardizasyon çalışması: İntihara yönelik tutumlar ölçeği’nin Türk kültürüne uyarlanması” (The Application of Suicide Opinion Questionnaire to Turkish Culture), Istanbul/Turkey, September, 3-5 20082008Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Abbas, Rasha
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    Kurbegovic, Dijana
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies.
    En uppsats om hur anknytning och självkänsla samverkar med mobbningsbeteendet bland tonåringar2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the last few years bullying has started to get more attention. Bullying often takes place in schools in the forms of harassment, abuse, verbal and physical. This study aims at investigating the relationship between bullying, attachment and self-esteem, and how parent's attachment and self-esteem relate bullying. Results concerning bullying in this study have shown that there is a correlation between self-esteem, attachment and bullying. Further analyses showed that bullying behavior was significantly more frequent among boys than among girls. Regression analysis showed that only self-esteem has collaboration on bullying among boys, while among girls, both attachment to the parents and self-esteem had collaboration on bullying.

  • 21.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Institutionen för samhällsvetenskap.
    Hellgren, Carina
    International Programme Office, Stockholm.
    Working Conditions for Female and Immigrant Cleaners in Stockholm County: An Intersectional Approach2012In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 2, no 3, 161-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Abbasian, Saeid
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hellgren, Carina
    International Programme Office.
    Working Conditions for Female and Immigrant Cleaners in Stockholm County: An Intersectional Approach2012In: Nordic Journal of Working Life Studies, ISSN 2245-0157, E-ISSN 2245-0157, Vol. 2, no 3, 161-181 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 23. Abbass, Allan
    et al.
    Lilliengren, Peter
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Town, Joel
    On Paolo Migione's "What Does Brief Mean?"2014In: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, ISSN 0003-0651, E-ISSN 1941-2460, Vol. 62, no 5, NP18-NP22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Abdessadki, Fadila
    Örebro University, Department of Behavioural, Social and Legal Sciences.
    Blivande adoptivföräldrars upplevelser under adoptivprocessen2007Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 25.
    Abdi Alipour, Seyran
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Social and Psychological Studies.
    Copingstrategier och livstillfredsställelse: En kvantitativ studie bland universitetsstudenter2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present study was to examine coping strategies for stress and life satisfaction among students. A further aim was partly to investigate possible differences between men and women regarding the coping strategies used, and differences in the relationship between coping strategies and subjective well-being. The survey was conducted by an electronic poll. The selection was a coincidence sample of women and men aged 18- 47 who studied at a university. Total 128 participants, 44 men and 84 women. The participants answered a questionnaire that consisted of background questions and gauge which measured stress and life satisfaction. The result showed that the most used coping strategies were active coping, planning and acceptance. The conclusion is that men and women differ in terms of coping strategies and that life satisfaction correlates with coping strategies.

     

    Key words: Stress, students, coping strategies, life satisfaction

  • 26. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Khanbani, Mehdi
    Abdollahi Ghahfarokhi, Shahyar
    Emotional intelligence moderates perceived stress and suicidal ideation among depressed adolescent inpatients2016In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 102, 223-228 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Because it remains one of the third leading causes of death among adolescents around the world, suicide is a major public health concern. This study was designed in response to this concern by examining the relationships among perceived stress, emotional intelligence, and suicidal ideation and to test the moderating role of emotional intelligence in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation. A sample of depressed adolescents (n = 202) was recruited from five hospitals in Tehran, Iran, and then asked to complete measures of patient health, suicidal ideation, perceived stress, and emotional intelligence. Structural Equation Modeling showed that depressed adolescent in-patients with high levels of perceived stress and low levels of emotional intelligence were more likely to report suicidal ideation. Multi-group analysis indicated that depressed in-patients high in both perceived stress and emotional intelligence had less suicidal ideation than others. The findings support the notion that perceived stress acts as a vulnerability factor that increase suicidal ideation among depressed inpatients. Suicidal history moderated the relationship between emotional intelligence and suicidal ideation. These findings also highlight the importance of emotional intelligence as a buffer in the relationship between perceived stress and suicidal ideation.

  • 27. Abdollahi, Abbas
    et al.
    LeBouthillier, Daniel M.
    Najafi, Mahmoud
    Asmundson, Gordon J. G.
    Hosseinian, Simin
    Shahidi, Shahriar
    Carlbring, Per
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Clinical psychology.
    Kalhori, Atefeh
    Sadeghi, Hassan
    Jalili, Marzieh
    Effect of exercise augmentation of cognitive behavioural therapy for the treatment of suicidal ideation and depression2017In: Journal of Affective Disorders, ISSN 0165-0327, E-ISSN 1573-2517, Vol. 219, 58-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Suicidal ideation and depression are prevalent and costly conditions that reduce quality of life. This study was designed to determine the efficacy of exercise as an adjunct to cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for suicidal ideation and depression among depressed individuals.

    Methods: In a randomized clinical trial, 54 mildly to moderately depressed patients (54% female, mean age=48.25) were assigned to a combined CBT and exercise group or to a CBT only group. Both groups received one weekly session of therapy for 12 weeks, while the combined group also completed exercise three times weekly over the same period. Self-reported suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living were measured at the beginning and the end of treatment.

    Results: Multilevel modelling revealed greater improvements in suicidal ideation, depression, and activities of daily living in the combined CBT and exercise group, compared to the CBT only group.

    Limitations: No follow-up data were collected, so the long-term effects (i.e., maintenance of gains) is unclear.

    Conclusions: The findings revealed that exercise adjunct to CBT effectively decreases both depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation in mildly to moderately depressed individuals.

  • 28.
    Abdu, Hayat
    University of Skövde, School of Technology and Society.
    Vilka ungdomar är det som tar SMS-lån och varför?2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SMS-lån är ett samhällsproblem där olika aktörer är inblandade. Utifrån treforskningsmetoder; kvantitativ- och kvalitativ undersökning samt innehållsanalys av tidningsartiklarna, har synsättet på fenomenet vidgats. Undersökningspopulationen som består av unga SMS-låntagare mellan 18-25 år, var en väldigt svår grupp att nå. Av allt att döma berodde detta på att de är en utsatt och sårbar grupp med ekonomiska svårigheter. SMS-lånet är ett snabbt och lättillgängligt lån vilket stärker ungdomarnas tendens att agera utifrån begär, som i enlighet med Maslows motivationsteori saknar en kognitiv förbindelse. Variationen var stor mellan respondenterna i fråga om vad pengarna användes till, där en del befann sig i den nedersta delen i behovstrappan för att kunna tillgodose de fysiologiska behoven, medan andra konsumerade över sina tillgångar. Låneföretagens systematiska marknadsföring förenklar för ungdomar att ta ett sådant lån med korta återbetalningstider. De ungdomar som inte betalar tillbaka lånet i tid hamnar i ekonomiska svårigheter, vilket påverkar deras liv för flera år framåt i tiden.

  • 29.
    Abdulahovic, Emina
    et al.
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Nemec, Iris
    University West, Department of Social and Behavioural Studies, Psychology and organization studies.
    Socialt samspel och säkerhet: en kvalitativ studie utifrån brandmäns föreställningar2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Human beings spend a large part of their lives in the workplace. For her to feel good it requires a good working environment; one important factor for this is that she should feel a physical and emotional safety in the workplace. Firefighters are an occupational group whose work is often the site of an accident or fire where large risks may occur. It has been shown that a functioning social interaction within the working group contributes to the likelihood of personal safety. Based on the purpose to study and understand the firefighters' beliefs about how social interactions affect their safety, a qualitative study was conducted. The research participants were six male firefighters between the ages of 28-46 who have been working for 3-15 years. Each participant has a Swedish firefighter training (SMO). Semi-structured interviews were conducted using an interview guide. The material was processed and analyzed with thematic analysis with the help of riskhomeostas theory and FIRO-theory. Based on the thematic analysis four themes emerged: (1) Perceived control leads to perceived safety (2) The importance of roles in the team (3) The significance of open communication (4) Trusting each other. The results showed that the firefighters felt that they were the most secure in the workplace when they had a perceived control. The results also showed that they believed that social interaction was important for their safety. The factors that stood out when it came to social interaction were open communication, clear roles within the work group and to have trust in each other. The conclusion that was drawn was that the firefighters felt that social interaction has an impact on safety.

  • 30.
    Abdullah, Semko
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Styrman, Sofie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hur personlighet, konflikter och coping relateras till hälsa i arbetslivet2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 31.
    Abdullahi, Amina
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Förlossningsrädsla och skillnader i nedstämdhet, ångest, sömn och livstillfredsställelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Abrahamsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Lifbom, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Ordförståelse hos äldre vuxna: En valideringsstudie av två test för ordförståelse2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The ability to measure vocabulary is important both in research and clinical settings. This paper has three purposes. The first is to study the psychometric properties of two newly developed parallel tests of vocabulary in a group of old adults. The second purpose of this paper is to investigate age differences in vocabulary. The third purpose is to examine whether the correlations between cognitive abilities grow as a function of increasing age. The present study has used data from a total of 440 participants, of whom 222 have completed Ordprovet A and 218 have completed Ordprovet B. The results of the study have shown that Ordprovet A and B have satisfactory psychometric properties with respect to internal consistency as well as construct and criterion validity. However, the tests seem to suffer from a ceiling effect within this older sample. The results have shown no evidence of age differences in vocabulary or increasing correlations between cognitive abilities as a function of age. This study states that Ordprovet A and B are promising instruments for measuring vocabulary. However, some minor changes could improve the tests further.

  • 33.
    Abrahamsson, Linda
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Ramström, Linnéa
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Normer och värderingar inom vänskap2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    What kind of norms and values determine a good friendship? In aqualitative study three men and three women aged 20-30 years oldwere interviewed. The respondents who were recruited through aconvenience sampling were asked to answer questions concerningtheir view about friendship. After analyzing the interview protocol,three common themes were identified: trust acceptance and intimacy.Friendship showed to be a significant part when it came to people andtheir wellbeing. The study also showed that men and women haddifferent expectations for what that friendship will entail and thesedifferences were based on norms and values. It seems that norms andvalues are developed through the existing culture in society and inover time.

  • 34.
    Abrahamsson, Linn
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Dammström, Per
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Mental träning på schemat: Hör tankens kraft hemma i skolan?2005Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim with this study was to acquire knowledge of mental training and if you can use it in the elementary school to increase in a short period of time the performance in a coordination test. Furthermore we wanted to investigate teachers understanding of the possibilities to perform this kind of training in the elementary school, and if there is support for this in the school regulation.

    Method

    As method we have used a combination of a literature pre-study, interview and at the end an experiment. Before the experiment and interviews could take place we studied literature about mental training to get a basic knowledge of the subject. The facts we learned from our pre-study and interviews gave us the base for our experiment. The experiment group included 23 pupils in a third class at school situated in Stockholm. The pupils were tested in a coordination test before and after different types of preparations. One group of pupils were prepared by mental training, one group by practising the test and one control group which didn’t get any preparation at all other than ordinary physical education. Two physical education teachers and one regular school teacher in Stockholm, Sweden were interviewed. Furthermore one interview was made with a psychiatrist, also situated in Stockholm.

    Results and conclusions

    Our results show that a lack of motivation and concentration often leads to a bad performance. All people have a basic tension naturally in the body to function normally. If the tension is increasing in the body there are a lot of negative effects occurring, for example poor concentration. Stress is one of the reasons to this increased elevation of tension in the body. Mental training can in an efficient way decrease the negative eccentricity in the body and increase the self-esteem in the individual. Our investigation has shown that a short time of mental training can increase the performance in a co-ordination test performed in the regular school. We are of the opinion that this kind of training is possible to involve in the regular school education if you look at what is written in the school regulations.

  • 35.
    Abrahamsson, Nina Sofia
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    Sandström, Anna
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning.
    "Jag känner mig ju hel med extra tillagt liksom": En diskursanalytisk intervjustudie med personer som kan kategoriseras som mixed race i dagens Sverige2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 36.
    Abrahamsson, Stephanie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Hermansson, Matilda
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Vilka faktorer upplevs som begränsande för unga kvinnors sexualitet utifrån ett genuspsykologiskt perspektiv?: En studie med tio intervjuer av kvinnor i åldrarna 25-30 år2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med föreliggande studie var att undersöka om och i sådana fall vilka faktorer som unga heterosexuella kvinnor upplevde som begränsande för sin sexualitet. Med hjälp av semistrukturerade intervjuer undersöktes i denna kvalitativa studie hur dessa deltagare upplevde sin sexualitet utifrån tre huvudområden; sociala strukturer, normer samt psykisk hälsa. Teorin “sexual scripting theory” applicerades på de tre huvudområdena, då paralleller drogs mellan dessa och teorins tre huvudbegrepp “cultural scripts”, “interpersonal scripts” och “intrapsychic scripts”. Resultatet av denna studie visade att patriarkala strukturer, samhällsideal, jämförelser med andra, förväntningar och föreställningar om kvinnans utseende samt beteende var hämmande för deltagarnas sexualitet. Resultatet visade även att det fanns tydliga samband mellan sexualiteten och den psykiska hälsan. Negativa sexuella erfarenheter upplevdes påverka deltagarnas psykiska hälsa och blev hämmande för framtida sexuella upplevelser. Många begränsande faktorer identifierades utifrån resultatet i denna studie och en inblick i deltagarnas förhållande till sin sexualitet utforskades. 

  • 37.
    Abrahamsson, Therese
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Hedström, Johanna
    Mälardalen University, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology.
    Självkänsla hos unga i relation till riskbeteenden vid alkoholkonsumtion2010Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Svenska ungdomar i årskurs ett på gymnasiet som har konsumerat alkohol uppgår till 90 % (Ahlström & Österberg, 2003). Alkoholkonsumtionen ökar medan självkänslan minskar (Scheier, Botvin, Griffin och Diaz, 2000) men tidigare studier går isär gällande sambandet mellan alkoholkonsumtion och själv­känsla. Studiens syfte har varit att undersöka sambanden mellan självkänsla och riskbeteende vid alkoholförtäring, hos ungdomar i årskurs ett på gymna­siet.  En enkät som mäter Johnsons bassjälvkänsla (1996), Rosenbergs glo­bala självkänsla (1965), AUDIT´s (1994) frekvens och mängd samt risk­beteende, delades ut till 166 elever, 99 var män. Bassjälvkänslan visade ett signifikant samband med alkoholkonsumtion. Låg självkänsla visade mer problem med föräldrar samt försämrade prestationer i skolan/arbetet, medan en hög självkänsla visade fler oskyddade samlag. Högre alkoholkonsumtion visar på högre riskbeteende. Könsskillnader kunde avläsas vid problem med föräldrar och oskyddat samlag samt visar unga män en högre självkänsla. Resultatet stödjer delvis tidigare studier om signifikanta samband mellan självkänsla och riskbeteende vid alkoholkonsumtion.

  • 38. Abubakar, Amin
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Social connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement: moderating role of ethnic minority status on resilience processes of Roma youth2016In: European Journal of Developmental Psychology, ISSN 1740-5629, E-ISSN 1740-5610, Vol. 13, no 3, 361-376 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We examined the influence of connectedness on school engagement and life satisfaction among Roma (n = 121) and Bulgarian (n = 143) mainstream adolescents (mean age 15.89, SD = 1.18). A set of measures on family, peer, school and neighbourhood connectedness were administered alongside life satisfaction and school engagement scales. Multigroup path analysis indicated that while the relationship between connectedness, life satisfaction and school engagement was largely the same across groups, the strength of such relationship differed among groups. A closer inspection of the model indicated that when it comes to school engagement, there was a salient difference in the role of different forms of connectedness between Roma and mainstream adolescents. For Roma adolescents, familial connectedness was especially salient for school engagement. The practical and theoretical implications of our findings for strengths and adaptive processes among Roma adolescents in Bulgaria are discussed.

  • 39. Abubakar, Amina
    et al.
    Dimitrova, Radosveta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Personality, Social and Developmental Psychology.
    Tair, Ergyul
    Measurement Invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Student’s Life Satisfaction Scale Among Adolescents and Emerging Adults Across 23 Cultural Contexts2016In: Journal of Psychoeducational Assessment, ISSN 0734-2829, E-ISSN 1557-5144, Vol. 34, no 1, 28-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is hardly any cross-cultural research on the measurement invariance of the Brief Multidimensional Students’ Life Satisfaction Scales (BMSLSS). The current article evaluates the measurement invariance of the BMSLSS across cultural contexts. This cross-sectional study sampled 7,739 adolescents and emerging adults in 23 countries. A multi-group confirmatory factor analysis showed a good fit of configural and partial measurement weights invariance models, indicating similar patterns and strengths in factor loading for both adolescents and emerging adults across various countries. We found insufficient evidence for scalar invariance in both the adolescents’ and the emerging adults’ samples. A multi-level confirmatory factor analysis indicated configural invariance of the structure at country and individual level. Internal consistency, evaluated by alpha and omega coefficients per country, yielded acceptable results. The translated BMSLSS across different cultural contexts presents good psychometric characteristics similar to what has been reported in the original scale, though scalar invariance remains problematic. Our results indicate that the BMSLSS forms a brief measure of life satisfaction, which has accrued substantial evidence of construct validity, thus suitable for use in cross-cultural surveys with adolescents and emerging adults, although evaluation of degree of invariance must be carried out to ensure its suitability for mean comparisons.

  • 40.
    Abusagr, Leila
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Bozic, Milica
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Könsskillnader utifrån sexual economics theory och sexual double standards2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sexual economics theory (SET) innebär att kvinnor kan använda sin sexualitet som resurs mot mäns materiella och emotionella resurser. Sexual double standards (SDS) innebär att män och kvinnor uppmanar män men avråder kvinnor från casual sex. Ökad medvetenhet kan leda till att skillnader mellan råd till män respektive kvinnor undviks, vilket minskar SDS och främjar jämställdhet. Studien undersökte om SET har fäste i ett samhälle som anses jämställt. Ett tillgänglighetsurval på 125 kvinnor och 75 män gjordes vid en högskola i Mellansverige. Enkätundersökningen berörde råd om casual sex, aspekter som söks i en partner samt påståenden relaterade till SET. Män uppvisade SDS eftersom de uppmanade andra män mer än de uppmanade kvinnor till casual sex. Däremot visade kvinnor tendens till omvänd SDS gällande casual sex, vilket tyder på ojämställdhet i Sverige. I framtida studier rekommenderas specificering av person som får råd, då mätningen blir mer reliabel och resultat kan generaliseras.

  • 41. Achermann, Sheila
    Småsyskonstudier om AST: föräldrarnas upplevelser2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 42. Achermann, Sheila
    et al.
    Bölte, Sven
    Falck-Ytter, Terje
    Intense data collection from infant siblings of children on the autism spectrum: Is it ethical?2016Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Ackebo, Klas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Motivation och engagemang hos innebandytränare: - Ur ett Self-determination Theory-perspektiv2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    According to Self-determination Theory, people perform better when they experience inner motivation, rather than motivation sprung from external factors. This study aims to examine motivation in floorball coaches. Especially, reasons for starting to work as a coach are examined, as well as relationships between those reasons and the coaches experienced type of motivation. A web-survey was sent to 1059 floorball coaches in Sweden, wich were answered by 355 coaches. The results show 12 reasons why the coaches chose to commit themselves: Their own children, Sports interest, Contribute, Lack of coaches, Enjoyment, Their own development, A general interest, Leadership interest, Social connections, Asked to, Possessed expertise and A good cause. The results also showed that the coaches experienced inner motivation to the largest extent. Several relationships were shown between eight of the categories and the different types of motivation. Of those, the most distinct was the relationship between Contribute and self-determined motivation. This may be due to that the will to contribute can be related to the psychological need for relatedness. The study contributes to the knowledge of factors that may affect inner motivation in athletic coaches.

  • 44.
    Adam, Maurits
    et al.
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Reitenbach, Ivanina
    Euro FH Univ Appl Sci, Dept Psychol, Hamburg, Germany..
    Papenmeier, Frank
    Univ Tubingen, Dept Psychol, Tubingen, Germany..
    Gredebäck, Gustaf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Elsner, Claudia
    Max Planck Inst Human Dev, Max Planck Res Grp Naturalist Social Cognit, Berlin, Germany..
    Elsner, Birgit
    Univ Potsdam, Dept Psychol, Karl Liebknecht Str 24-25, D-14476 Potsdam, Germany..
    Goal saliency boosts infants' action prediction for human manual actions, but not for mechanical claws2016In: Infant Behavior and Development, ISSN 0163-6383, E-ISSN 1879-0453, Vol. 44, 29-37 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research indicates that infants' prediction of the goals of observed actions is influenced by own experience with the type of agent performing the action (i.e., human hand vs. non-human agent) as well as by action-relevant features of goal objects (e.g., object size). The present study investigated the combined effects of these factors on 12-month-olds' action prediction. Infants' (N=49) goal-directed gaze shifts were recorded as they observed 14 trials in which either a human hand or a mechanical claw reached for a small goal area (low-saliency goal) or a large goal area (high-saliency goal). Only infants who had observed the human hand reaching for a high-saliency goal fixated the goal object ahead of time, and they rapidly learned to predict the action goal across trials. By contrast, infants in all other conditions did not track the observed action in a predictive manner, and their gaze shifts to the action goal did not change systematically across trials. Thus, high-saliency goals seem to boost infants' predictive gaze shifts during the observation of human manual actions, but not of actions performed by a mechanical device. This supports the assumption that infants' action predictions are based on interactive effects of action-relevant object features (e.g., size) and own action experience.

  • 45.
    Adami, Melodi
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Skagerkvist, Elin
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Vägen tillbaka till mitt barn - En kvalitativ studie om hur mammor som under gerillakrig separerats från sina spädbarn, upplever återföreningen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46.
    Adamsson, Madelen
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Dahlgren, Leah
    Örebro University, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work.
    Anhörigstöd: Kvalitativ utvärdering av samverkan mellan Lindesbergs kommun och frivilliga verksamheter2008Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47. Addessi, Anna Rita
    et al.
    Anelli, Filomena
    Benghi, Diber
    Friberg, Anders
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH.
    Child-Computer Interaction at the Beginner Stage of Music Learning: Effects of Reflexive Interaction on Children's Musical Improvisation2017In: Frontiers in Psychology, ISSN 1664-1078, E-ISSN 1664-1078, Vol. 8, 65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article childrens musical improvisation is investigated through the reflexive interaction paradigm. We used a particular system, the MIROR-Impro, implemented in the framework of the MIROR project (EC-FP7), which is able to reply to the child playing a keyboard by a reflexive output, mirroring (with repetitions and variations) her/his inputs. The study was conducted in a public primary school, with 47 children, aged 6-7. The experimental design used the convergence procedure, based on three sample groups allowing us to verify if the reflexive interaction using the MIROR-Impro is necessary and/or sufficient to improve the childrens abilities to improvise. The following conditions were used as independent variables: to play only the keyboard, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro but with not-reflexive reply, the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with reflexive reply. As dependent variables we estimated the childrens ability to improvise in solos, and in duets. Each child carried out a training program consisting of 5 weekly individual 12 min sessions. The control group played the complete package of independent variables; Experimental Group 1 played the keyboard and the keyboard with the MIROR-Impro with not-reflexive reply; Experimental Group 2 played only the keyboard with the reflexive system. One week after, the children were asked to improvise a musical piece on the keyboard alone (Solo task), and in pairs with a friend (Duet task). Three independent judges assessed the Solo and the Duet tasks by means of a grid based on the TAI-Test for Ability to Improvise rating scale. The EG2, which trained only with the reflexive system, reached the highest average results and the difference with EG1, which did not used the reflexive system, is statistically significant when the children improvise in a duet. The results indicate that in the sample of participants the reflexive interaction alone could be sufficient to increase the improvisational skills, and necessary when they improvise in duets. However, these results are in general not statistically significant. The correlation between Reflexive Interaction and the ability to improvise is statistically significant. The results are discussed on the light of the recent literature in neuroscience and music education.

  • 48.
    Addo, Rebecka
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Luktfunktion hos vuxna med diagnos inom Autismspektrumet2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research has shown that individuals with a diagnosis within the autism spectrum

    (ASD) experience a greater sensory sensitivity, but few studies have investigated the olfaction

    sensitivity. The aim of the present study is to gain a deeper understanding of the olfactory

    functions in adults with ASD.16 participants with ASD (14 controls) participated in the study

    where sniffin sticks were used to evaluate the differences between the groups. All participants

    answered a questionnaire about perceived olfaction sensitivity and the adult spectrum quotient;

    AQ. Olfactory discrimination and identification (with and without cue) did not differ

    between the groups, as for olfaction sensitivity, perceived pleasantness, intensity and edibility.

    When it came to self-assessed olfactory sensitivity, differences were found. However, this

    self-rated sensitivity did not appear in the standardized odor tests, where no significant differences

    between ASD and controls odor features were detected.

  • 49.
    Addo, Rebecka N.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience. Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Nord, Marie
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Psychol, Gosta Ekman Lab, Frescati Hagvag 9A, S-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Olfactory Functions in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders2017In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, no 3-4, 530-537 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyperor hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive. In contrast, there was some evidence for no group differences on perceived edibility (BF01 = 2.69) and perceived intensity (BF01 = 2.80). These results do not provide conclusive evidence for or against differences between ASD and healthy controls on olfactory abilities. However, they suggest that there are no apparent group differences in subjective ratings of odors.

  • 50. Addo, Rebecka N.
    et al.
    Wiens, Stefan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Nord, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Larsson, Maria
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Perception and psychophysics.
    Olfactory Functions in Adults With Autism Spectrum Disorders2017In: Perception, ISSN 0301-0066, E-ISSN 1468-4233, Vol. 46, no 3-4, 530-537 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are often characterized by atypical sensory behavior (hyper- or hyporeactivity) although evidence is scarce regarding olfactory abilities in ASD; 16 adults with high-functioning ASD (mean age: 38.2, SD: 9.7) and 14 healthy control subjects (mean age: 42.0 years, SD: 12.5) were assessed in odor threshold, free and cued odor identification, and perceived pleasantness, intensity, and edibility of everyday odors. Although results showed no differences between groups, the Bayes Factors (close to 1) suggested that the evidence for no group differences on the threshold and identification tests was inconclusive. In contrast, there was some evidence for no group differences on perceived edibility (BF01 = 2.69) and perceived intensity (BF01 = 2.80). These results do not provide conclusive evidence for or against differences between ASD and healthy controls on olfactory abilities. However, they suggest that there are no apparent group differences in subjective ratings of odors.

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