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  • 1.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 2. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Borjesson, G.
    Mattsson, L.
    Identification and quantification of organic phosphorus forms in soils from fertility experiments2013In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 29, 24-35 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of soil type, crop rotation, fertilizer type and application rate on the composition of organic phosphorus (P) compounds in soils from four sites in a Swedish long-term fertilizer experiment were investigated with 31P-NMR. Soil textures investigated were loamy sand, sandy loam, silty clay loam and clay. Phosphorus has been added to the soils since the 1950s and 1960s at four different rates in the form of either mineral fertilizer or a combination of manure and mineral fertilizer. Results show that in soils receiving no P addition, most of the soil P was present in the form of phosphate monoesters (6070%, depending on soil type). However, a P addition equivalent to the amount of P removed annually by harvest altered this relationship so that the soils were dominated by orthophosphate instead. This trend became more obvious with increasing P addition. At the greatest P application rate, orthophosphate comprised 70% or more of the total extracted P in all the soils. These changes in the soil were due entirely to increase in orthophosphate, because the amounts of monoesters did not change with increasing P additions. This was true both for mineral fertilizer and the combination of manure and mineral fertilizer P. Soil type and crop rotation did not influence the results. The results indicate that there is no apparent build-up of organic P in the soils, but that P addition mainly affects the orthophosphate amounts in the soils regardless of form or amount of fertilizer.

  • 3. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Wallin, Mats
    Barium as a Potential Indicator of Phosphorus in Agricultural Runoff2012In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 41, no 1, 208-216 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p < 0.001), calcium (p < 0.004), potassium (p < 0.001), magnesium (p < 0.001), boron (p < 0.001), rhodium (p = 0.001), and barium (p < 0.001). According to this study, barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R-2 = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices.

  • 4.
    Ahlqvist, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Formalized interpretation of compound land use objects – Mapping historical summer farms from a single satellite image2012In: Journal of Land Use Science, ISSN 1747-423X, Vol. 7, no 1, 89-107 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of land cover relating to physical landscape characters are readily captured by satellite imagery. Land use on the other hand relates more to the societal aspects of a landscape. We argue that much of the spatial configuration of landscape characters is related to land use and that satellite data can be used to represent and investigate interpretations of land use. We propose and demonstrate the joint use of a novel SRPC procedure for satellite imagery together with an explicit representation of category semantics. We use these two mechanisms to identify a collection of conceptual spaces related to land use on Swedish historic summer farms. We also outline a framework for analysis of the relations between two separate ways of knowing: the machine-based knowledge and the human, mental knowledge. An evaluation demonstrates that satellite images can be used to identify land use processes as a mixture of land cover objects occurring in particular spatial contextual relationships closely tied to the land use category semantics. This opens up an unexplored possibility for research on vague spatial ontologies and questions on how to formally articulate different interpretations of space, land use, and other branches of spatial social science.

  • 5.
    Ahnström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden; Länsstyrelsen i Uppsala län, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Åke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boonstra, Wijnand J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields2013In: International Journal of Ecology, ISSN 1687-9708, E-ISSN 1687-9716, 617352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity declines in farmland have been attributed to intensification of farming at the field level and loss of heterogeneity at the landscape level. However, farmers are not solely optimizing production; their actions are also influenced by social factors, tradition and interest in nature, which indirectly influence biodiversity but rarely are incorporated in studies of farmland biodiversity. We used social science methods to quantify farmers’ interest in nature on 16 farms with winter wheat fields in central Sweden, and combined this with biodiversity inventories of five organism groups (weeds, carabid beetles, bumblebees, solitary bees, and birds) and estimates of landscape composition andmanagement intensity at the field level.Agricultural intensity,measured as crop density, and farmers’ interest in nature explained variation in biodiversity, measured as the proportion of the regional species richness found on single fields. Interest in nature seemed to incorporate many actions taken by farmers and appeared to be influenced by both physical factors, for example, the surrounding landscape, and social factors, for example, social motivations.This study indicates that conservation of biodiversity in farmland, and design of new agri-environmental subsidy systems, would profit from taking farmers’ interest in nature and its relation to agricultural practices into account.

  • 6.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 7.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, HansLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Grimvall, AndersLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 19891991Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art on isolation techniques, ion binding theory, biologic activity in the aquatic environment as well as the formation of mutagenic compounds from chlorination is reviewed by worldwide-known experts. Additional papers describe current research on the topics: isolation, fractionation and characterization; biological and chemical transformation and degradation; complex formation and interactions with solids; biologic activity, halogenation of humic substances.

  • 8.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, 606-614 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 9.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ahrné, K
    SLU.
    Measuring social–ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, no 5, 1267-1278 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  • 10.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Palme, Ulrika
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Markanvändningens effekter på växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vatten2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten fokuserar på skötselmetoder inom skogsoch jordbruk och vilka effekter de får för växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vattenkvalitet/kvantitet. Skogen spelar en allt större roll i klimatarbetet för att minska atmosfärens halter av växthusgaser, främst koldioxid. För den fysiska samhällsplaneringen är det viktigt att kunna diskutera olika utfall för olika markanvändning, både i tid och rum. Rapporten visar genom en systemanalytisk ansats att: De flesta skötselmetoder kan möta målen för växthusgasminskning, minimera påverkan på biologisk mångfald och vattensäkerhet, med undantag för intensivskogsbruk. Rapporten kan användas som diskussionsunderlag när olika miljömål konkurrerar.

  • 11.
    Andersson, Ramon
    Halmstad University.
    Hållbart jordbruk inom vattenskyddsområde: En studie om Sverige, Danmark, Frankrike och Tyskland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To guarantee protection of our drinking water, water catchment protections are established. These are divided into three different zones and in the first zone it is most likely that an activity, such as agriculture, will contaminate the water resource. Hence the activities are strongly regulated or banned. The EU communion is working towards a sustained water quality through several directives; Nitrate Directive, Waterframwork directives and Sustainable use of pesticide directive. The main purpose is to regulate the diffuse pollution from agriculture.This thesis is about how Denmark, Germany and France are working towards a sustainable agriculture within water protection areas. Sweden is also discussed but mainly about two different methods applied in Linköpings and Ljungbys municipalties.How the different countries work is mainly the same due to the directives. However, there are some interesting water management methods to observe such as voluntary agreements between water companies and farmers. Moreover, the sustainability perspective is approached in a larger scale where you and I as consumers also contribute via consumer-pays-principle. Therefore, we are, by our demand for water, the problem but also the solution and together we can contribute with good social, economic and ecological conditions for ourselves and the farmer.

  • 12.
    Angeler, David G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Allen, Craig R.
    Garmestani, Ahjond S.
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, e0146053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  • 13.
    Arsenie, Irina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of Gamma Irradiation on an Aquatic Fulvic Acid1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, 233-241 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aquatic fulvic acid was irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60Co-source (dose range 0-48 Mrad), as part of a larger study of the transformation and decomposition of humic substances in natura! aquatic systems. Experiments were performed at two concentrations (1000 mg/l and 100 mg/l) and at various pH-values (2-10). The fulvic acid transformation was studied by monitoring optical density (UV-spectroscopy ), molecular weight distribution (GPC-technique) and total dissolved organic carbon (TOC). A general decrease in TOC with increasing radiation dose was observed: the initial G-value of about 5 decreased with the increasing dose to a minimum value of 0.2-0.3. A simultaneous increase in molecular weight (Mn rose from approximately 2000 to a maximum of about 4000) was observed in the acidic samples (pH 2-4) at a dose below 10 Mrad. Natural background radiation can significantly contribute to the degradation of dissolved humic substances in deep groundwaters, considering the observed G-value for low doses (about 5) and the otherwise high chemical stability of the fulvic acid fraction even after long residence times (103-104 y) in the ground.

  • 14.
    Asplund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Soil Peroxidase-Mediated Chlorination of Fulvic Acid1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, 474-483 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humic matter has recently been shown to contain considerable quantities of naturally produced organohalogens. The present study investigated the possibility of a non-specific, enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil. The results showed that, in the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme chloroperox1dase (CPO) from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes chlorination of fulvic acid. At pH 2.5 - 6.0, the chlorine to fulvic acid ratio in the tested sample was elevated from 12 mg/g to approximately 40-50 mg/g. It was also shown that this reaction can take place at chloride and hydrogen peroxide concentrations found in the environment. An extract from spruce forest soil was shown to have a measurable chlorinating capacity. The activity of an extract of 0.5 kg soil corresponded to approximately 0.3 enzyme units, measured as CPO activity. Enzymatically mediated halogenation of humic substances may be one of the mechanisms explaining the w1despread occurrence of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in soil and water.

  • 15. Bager, S. L
    et al.
    Dinesh, D
    Olesen, A.S
    Andersen, S.P
    Eriksen, S.L
    Friis, A
    Scaling-Up Climate Action in Agriculture: Identifying Successes and Overcoming Challenges2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing food production in the face of a growing population, while adapting to and mitigating climate change constitutes a main challenge for the global agricultural sector. This study identifies, analyses and contextualizes regional initiatives related to agriculture and climate change in developing countries. In order to identify needs for improvements and possibilities for replication or scale-up, a review of recently launched initiatives is combined with a SWOT analysis. Moreover, the study places initiatives in the context of INDCs of Sub-Saharan African countries submitted under the UNFCCC. As a result, recommendations on how to develop and implement best practice agriculture climate change initiatives are presented.

  • 16. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rogner, Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Arent, Douglas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Mueller, Alexander
    Komor, Paul
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Yumkella, Kandeh K.
    Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, Vol. 39, no 12, 7896-7906 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The areas of energy, water and food policy have numerous interwoven concerns ranging from ensuring access to services, to environmental impacts to price volatility. These issues manifest in very different ways in each of the three "spheres", but often the impacts are closely related. Identifying these interrelationships a priori is of great importance to help target synergies and avoid potential tensions. Systems thinking is required to address such a wide swath of possible topics. This paper briefly describes some of the linkages at a high-level of aggregation - primarily from a developing country perspective - and via case studies, to arrive at some promising directions for addressing the nexus. To that end, we also present the attributes of a modelling framework that specifically addresses the nexus, and can thus serve to inform more effective national policies and regulations. While environmental issues are normally the 'cohesive principle' from which the three areas are considered jointly, the enormous inequalities arising from a lack of access suggest that economic and security-related issues may be stronger motivators of change. Finally, consideration of the complex interactions will require new institutional capacity both in industrialised and developing countries.

  • 17.
    Bengtsson, Mikael
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Märgelgravar i Åstorps kommun: Förändringar i förekomst över tid och lokalisering i landskapet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Märgelgravar är småbiotoper i odlingslandskapet som ofta hyser höga naturvärden och är viktiga för bevarandet av den biologiska mångfalden i slättlandskapet. De utgör också synliga kulturlämningar från 1800 - talets jordbruk och den agrara utveckling som skedde då. Märgelgravarna är idag skyddade som generella biotopskyddsområden. Biotopskyddsområdena bidrar till att uppfylla de svenska miljökvalitetsmålen samt FN - konventionen om biologisk mångfald. Märglingen var som mest omfattande mellan cirka 1850 fram till 1890 i södra Sveriges slättbygd. Märgeln användes som jordförbättringsmedel och grävdes upp där det fanns kalkhaltig lera. Där den bröts bildades bestående gravar som ofta vattenfylldes. Syftet med studien är att kartlägga hur många märgelgravar som försvunnit i Åstorps kommun, var de ursprungligen placerades och vad som kännetecknar de som finns kvar idag. Undersökningen grundas på kartmateriel från ca. 1930, ca. 1970 och 2015 som bearbetats och analyserats i ett GIS - program. Resultaten visar att endast 23% av märgelgravarna finns kvar 2015 jämfört med 1930 och att de ursprungligen grävdes i lerjordar nära bebyggelse, men att de som finns kvar idag i högre utsträckning ligger längre ifrån bebyggelse och till större del i sluttningar. Borttagandet av märgelgravarna tros bero på de omfattande rationaliseringar som jordbruket genomgick speciellt efter andra världskriget, då de sågs som odlingshinder eller som lämpliga platser att dumpa sopor och rivningsmateriel i. 

  • 18.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Regulation versus deregulation: Policy divergence between Swedish forestry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry after the 1990s2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 73, 10-17 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the divergence of environmental regulatory arrangements in the Swedish forestry sector in relation to the closely-linked Swedish pulp and paper industry. The study finds that while the Swedish forestry sector was deregulated in 1993, with decreased state intervention in forest management, the pulp and paper sector has remained controlled by strong national mandatory requirements which have been further strengthened by European Union Directives after the 1990s. We suggest that one reason for the persistent, strict mandatory regulation of the pulp and paper sector is that conflicting goals between environmental protection and production growth have been aligned through technological change, while such a strong alignment of conflicting interests has not been possible to achieve in the forestry sector. Thus, policy divergence between the forestry and the pulp and paper industries may be explained by the success of established regulatory paths in the case of the pulp and paper industry, while in forestry deregulation has instead been used to, at least formally, increase focus on protection of the environment while maintaining a high level of productivity. Further studies in other sectors and countrieswill be necessary to clarify the specific role of, for example, discourses of deregulation and concepts of competitive advantage concerning e.g. particular actor's roles in specific elements of regulative change.

  • 19.
    Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helander, Björn
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    9. Contaminants and Health of Aquatic Wildlife2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, 73-85 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 20.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Eksvärd, Karin
    Inspire and action research ab.
    Schaffer, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm,. Sverige.
    Assessing ecosystem services in perennial intercropping systems: participatory action research in Swedish modern agrofores2014In: Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies / [ed] Schobert, H., Riecher, M.-C., Fischer, H. Aenis, T. & Knierim, 2014, 112-113 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is on how to assess ecosystem services in complex agroforestry systems using a case of edible forest gardens. Benefits of doing these assessments in a participatory learning and action research (PLAR) context are elaborated, as well as difficulties and questions that this has raised. The PLAR group comprised farmers on 13 smallholdings, researchers and a facilitator, which through collaboration and participatory methods have developed a general design of a forest garden, 60 m2 in size and established it on all 13 participating farms. Important values of the work are that ecosystem services are related to specific local contexts and that methodology for multi-criteria assessments of the generation of ecosystem services on a farm scale are being developed. Farmers engaged in formulating research questions, development of field trial designs, sampling and analysis of results improves the relevance and quality of the research as well as advance the adoption of new knowledge.

  • 21.
    Bladby, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wersäll, Johanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    A meat free society: The different substitutes for meat, their future and their environmental and health impact compared to meat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide consumption of meat continues to increase and in Sweden the annual consumption has gone from 24 kg/person in 1990 to about 78 kg/person in 2005. This contributes to large environmental impacts such as an increase of greenhouse gas emissions, unsustainable land and resource use and shortage of water. A solution to the problem is to change our diets to be more sustainable. The purpose with this research is therefore to study the positive environmental and health aspects of alternative protein rich products based on soya, grown meat, algae and insects in comparison with meat. The goal is then to compare the environmental impacts from these products by studying different LCA-studies. Furthermore, also to understand how the future will be developed by interviewing producers of meat substitutes in Sweden. Some difficulties of comparing different LCA-studies are the choice of system boundaries, functional units and environmental aspects in the studies. Nevertheless, after studying a large amount of reports and articles about the products conclusions could yet be drawn. The carbonfootprint from beef is up to 20 times larger than from the substitutes and the land use is up to 125 times larger for beef compared to substitutes. Pork and chicken have lower impact but the lowest impact seems to come from producing substitutes based on soya beans. Insects and algae also have a low impact, but the products are still in the stage of development in Sweden due to laws, regulations and lack of knowledge. Regarding the health aspects substitutes could possibly replace meat since both insects and soya are rich of protein. Insects are also rich oniron and other nutrition. Algae consist as well of good nutrition. The companies interviewed in this study were Kung Markatta, Ekko gourmet and Veggi. They had some different opinions on future products, but they could all agree on that we need to eat less meat and more substitutes. The conclusions of this research are that the environmental aspects considered in the analysed LCA-studies are mostly carbon footprint and land use. They show that beef have a larger environmental impact than meat substitutes. It is however recommended to do new studies on products with the same system boundaries and functional units to get a more accurate and comparable result.

  • 22. Blanchet, Guillaume
    et al.
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Sinaj, Sokrat
    Responses of soil properties and crop yields to different inorganic and organic amendments in a Swiss conventional farming system2016In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 230, 116-126 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In agro-ecosystems, fertilization practices are crucial for sustaining crop productivity. Here, based on a 50-year long-term experiment, we studied the influence of fertilization practices (inorganic and/or organic) and nitrogen (N) application rates on (i) soil physicochemical properties, (ii) microbial and earthworm communities and (iii) crop production. Our results showed that soil organic carbon content was increased by incorporation of crop residues (+2.45%) and farmyard manure application (+6.40%) in comparison to the use of mineral fertilizer alone. In contrast, soil carbon stock was not significantly affected by these fertilization practices. Overall, only farmyard manure application improved soil physicochemical properties compared to mineral fertilization alone. Soil microbial population was enhanced by the application of organic amendments as indicated by microbial biomass and phospholipid-derived fatty acids contents. The fertilization practices and the N application rates affected significantly both the biomass and composition of earthworm populations, especially the epigeic and endogeic species. Finally, farmyard manure application significantly increased crop yield (+3.5%) in comparison to mineral fertilization alone. Crop residue incorporation rendered variable but similar crop yields over the 50-year period. The results of this long-term experiment indicate that the use of organic amendments not only reduces the need for higher amount of mineral N fertilizer but also improves the soil biological properties with direct effects on crop yield.

  • 23.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Angelstam, Per
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Axelsson, Robert
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Skorupski, Maciej
    Poznan University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry.
    Wegiel, Andrzej
    Poznan University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry.
    The Polish Promotional Forest Complex: objectives, implementation and outcomes towards sustainable forest management?2012In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 23, 28-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Blixt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies2015In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 69, 71-77 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Butterfly conservation in Europe is mainly focused on well-defined grassland habitat patches. Such anapproach ignores the impact of the surrounding landscape, which may contain complementary resourcesand facilitate dispersal. Here, we investigated butterfly species richness and abundance in a habitatnormally regarded as unsuitable matrix: production forestry clear-cuts. Butterflies were recorded in 48clear-cuts in southern Sweden differing with regards to the time since clear-cutting and land-use history(meadow or forest based on historical maps from the 1870s). All clear-cuts had been managed as productionforests for at least 80e120 years. A total of 39 species were found in clear-cuts of both land-usehistories, but clear-cuts with a history as meadow had on average 34% higher species richness and 19%higher abundance than did clear-cuts with a history as forest. No effect of the time since clear-cuttingwas found, irrespective of land-use history, which was likely due to the narrow timespan sampled (<8years). The absence of temporal effect suggests that clear-cuts may provide butterflies with valuableresources for 10e15 years. Assuming a 100 year forest rotational cycle, this means that 10e15% of thetotal forested area are made up by clear-cuts valuable to butterflies, which corresponds to an area aboutfour times as large as that of species-rich semi-natural grasslands. The study illustrates the importance ofconsidering land-use legacies in ecological research and question the landscape-ecological view thatclear-cuts make up an unsuitable matrix for butterflies. Moreover, forest conservation management withspecial attention to land-use history may increase the quality of the landscape, thus facilitating butterflymetapopulation persistence. Given their large area and assets of nectar and host plant resources, clearcutsmust be considered as a butterfly habitat in its own right. Being a man-made environment withshort history, we might call it a neo-habitat.

  • 25.
    Boklund, Ingrid
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Ekosystemtjänster & grönstrukturplanering: Att synliggöra ekosystemtjänsternas nytta och värde i den kommunala planeringen med hjälp av ArcGIS-verktyget Matrixgreen2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ecosystem services are the direct and indirect contributions of ecosystems to human well-being. Clean air, clean water, pollination and biodiversity are all examples of ecosystem services that humans depend on and whose value needs to be integrated into decision-making processes in all different levels of society. Local authorities have an important role in this as they at local level through spatial planning have the possibility to steer development towards more sustainable solutions.

    The aim of this thesis is to make ecosystem services in Knivsta municipality visible through the green structure plan and to analyze the ecological connectivity between the ecological structures using the ArcGIS-tool Matrixgreen. A literature study laid the foundation for further work and was followed by a workshop where important ecosystem services to the municipality of Knivsta were identified. Ecological profiles were created where 11 of the 18 prioritized ecosystem services were associated with specific biotopes which in turn could be linked to a biological species or species groups, called target species, with the specific biotope as possible habitat. The habitat preferences of the target species (size requirements and distribution patterns) worked as a framework for how to analyze the connectivity for each biotope. This was followed by gathering of maps and the making of ecological networks in Matrixgreen. The networks were analyzed with respect to position of the patches in the network (Betweenness Centrality analysis) and the overall connectivity in the municipality (Component analysis).

    Common to the four selected biotopes (wetland, grassland, coniferous and deciduous forest) is that they indirectly provide us with the prioritized supporting ecosystem services habitats and biodiversity. The prioritized ecosystem services water treatment, flow regulation and flood control were linked to the biotope wetlands and materials (ornamental) and pollination were linked to the biotope grasslands. The biotopes coniferous and deciduous forest could be linked to the prioritized ecosystem services food (domestic and wild animals, wild plants), raw materials (fiber), bio-energy and climate control. The network analyses show good connectivity for wetland areas and coniferous forest in the municipality. The total connectivity for grasslands and deciduous forest is limited. The analyzes also show that for each biotope a couple of areas are especially important for the overall connectivity. These areas have a high Betweenness Centrality value.

    The ecological profiles upon which the analyzes are based are theoretical profiles, no site visits or surveys have been done to investigate how reality matches theory. The constructed and analyzed networks in this thesis are therefore to be seen mainly as a guide to where in the municipality the selected ecosystem services are available. The networks do not constitute adequate habitats for the selected target species and no conclusions can be drawn as to where in the municipality a specific species exists or not. Biodiversity is an ecosystem service itself but also represents an insurance for the ecosystem that becomes more resilient, i.e. more stable and resilient to external shocks. Resilient ecosystems are essential for the ecosystem services that have been studied. Lack of connectivity in the landscape could lead to increased fragmentation and eventually risk biodiversity depletion.

  • 26. Bossio, Deborah
    et al.
    Erkossa, Teklu
    Dile, Yihun
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    McCartney, Matthew
    Killiches, Franziska
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Hoff, Holger
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute. Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, Germany.
    Water implications of foreign direct investment in Ethiopia’s agricultural sector2012In: Water Alternatives, ISSN 1965-0175, Vol. 5, no 2, 223-242 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ethiopia is often highlighted as a country in which a lot of foreign land acquisition is occurring. The extent to which these investments also constitute significant acquisitions of water is the subject of this paper. It is apparent that water availability is a strong driver of the recent surge of investments in agricultural land globally, and in general the investments occur in countries with significant 'untapped' water resources. Ethiopia is no exception. We propose that the perception of unused and abundant water resources, as captured in dominant narratives, that drives and justifies both foreign and domestic investments, fails to reflect the more complex reality on the ground. Based on new collections of lease information and crop modelling, we estimate the potential additional water use associated with foreign investments at various scales. As a consequence of data limitations our analyses provide only crude estimates of consumptive water use and indicate a wide range of possible water consumption depending on exactly how foreign direct investment (FDI) development scenarios unfold. However, they do suggest that if all planned FDI schemes are implemented and expanded in the near future, additional water consumption is likely to be comparable with existing water use in non-FDI irrigation schemes, and a non-trivial proportion of the country’s water resources will be effectively utilised by foreign entities. Hence, additional water use as well as local water scarcity ought to be strong considerations in regulating or pricing land leases. If new investments are to increase local food and water security without compromising local and downstream water availability they should be designed to improve often very low agricultural water productivity, and to safeguard access of local populations to water.

  • 27.
    Brawn, Jeffrey D.
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign,.
    3. Maintaining and Restoring Avian Habitat in Agricultural Landscapes2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, 39-41 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 28.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Predator related oviposition site selection of aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) and effects on offspring life-history2006In: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 51, no 7, 1277-1285 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Theory predicts that natural selection should favour females that are able to correctly assess the risk of predation and then use that information to avoid high-risk oviposition sites to reduce the risk of offspring predation. Despite the potential significance of such behaviour on individual fitness, population dynamics and community structure, relatively few studies of oviposition behaviour connected to the risk of predation have been carried out.

    2. However, some recent studies suggest that oviposition site selection in response to risk of predation may be a common phenomenon, at least among amphibians and mosquitoes. A vast majority of previous studies have, however, neglected to investigate how the offspring are affected, in terms of fitness related parameters, by the maternal oviposition site choice.

    3. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment we tested the oviposition site selection of female aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) in relation to the presence or absence of a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we monitored how the oviposition site selection affected the behaviour, growth and food resource of the progeny.

    4. We show that free-flying females of the aquatic beetles Hydroporus incognitus and H. nigrita prefer to oviposit in waters without fish compared with waters with fish. Larval activity of Hydroporus spp. was unaffected by fish presence. Our results indicate that beetle larvae from females that do lay eggs in waters with fish show increased growth compared with larvae in waters without fish. We explain this difference in growth by a higher per-capita food supply in the presence of a fish predator. This finding may have important implications for our understanding of how the variance of oviposition site selection in a population is sustained.

  • 29. Brånhult, Anna
    et al.
    Nord, Jenny
    Persson, Erik
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Centrum för biologisk mångfald.
    Kartanalys för Sydsveriges agrara landskap: metodstudie om den genetiska mångfalden och det genetiska kulturarvet i dagens landskap / rapport från projektet Genetisk variation som kulturarv i Sydsveriges agrara landskap (GRAAL)2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    “Genetic variation as cultural heritage of the agricultural landscape in southern Sweden” (GRAAL) is a project which has recently been initiated and is carried out in cooperation by the Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU); Swedish Biodiversity Centre (CBM) and Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen). The project´s objective is to study the genetic diversity and propose conservation measures relating to the genetic heritage of trees and shrubs in the landscape. The project thus intends to identify and assess the genetic variety of coppiced threes in the Scanian cultural landscape. The project also intends, as part of this work, to develop an interdisciplinary and cross-sectorial approach where modern genetic analysis interact with new archaeological and historical methods and landscape analysis. This report presents a historical study of maps which aims to identify areas where the old coppiced trees with large sockets can be found.

  • 30. Buckland, Paul C.
    et al.
    Buckland, Philip I.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Archaeology and Sami Studies.
    Hughes, Damian
    Palaeoecological evidence for the Vera hypothesis?2005In: Large herbivores in the wildwood and modern naturalistic grazing systems, English Nature , 2005, 62-116 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report stems from work commissioned by English Nature into the role of largeherbivores in the post-glacial landscape of Britain and the potential for using free-ranginggrazing animals to create and maintain diverse landscape mosaics in modern conditions.Some aspects may be disputed or considered controversial; it is an active field of research.Therefore we stress that the views expressed are those of the authors at the current time.Subsequent research may confirm our views or lead us to modify them.We hope they will be useful in future discussions, both within English Nature and inconservation land-management circles more generally.

  • 31. Burdon, J.J.
    et al.
    Ericson, Lars E.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Thrall, P.H.
    Emerging plant diseases2014In: Encyclopedia of agriculture and food systems: volume 3 / [ed] Neal K. Van Alfen, San Diego: Academic Press, 2014, 2, 59-67 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Burman, Joseph
    et al.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden/Ecology Research Group, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, CT1 1QU, England, UK .
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ostrow, Suzanne
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, 801 76 Ga¨vle, Sweden.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Winde, Inis
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences,Alnarp, Sweden, Department of Biology, Lund University, So¨lvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Nyabuga, Franklin N.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden, Department of Biology, Lund University, So¨lvegatan 37, 223 62 Lund, Sweden.
    Larsson, Mattias C.
    Department of Plant Protection Biology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 102, 230 53 Alnarp, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Revealing hidden species distribution with pheromones: the caseof Synanthedon vespiformis (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) in Sweden2016In: Journal of Insect Conservation, ISSN 1366-638X, E-ISSN 1572-9753, Vol. 20, no 1, 11-21 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Synanthedon vespiformis L. (Lepidoptera:Sesiidae) is considered a rare insect in Sweden, discoveredin 1860, with only a few observations recorded until a sexpheromone attractant became available recently. This studydetails a national survey conducted using pheromones as asampling method for this species. Through pheromonetrapping we captured 439 specimens in Southern Sweden at77 sites, almost tripling the number of previously reportedrecords for this species. The results suggest that S. vespiformisis truly a rare species with a genuinely scattereddistribution, but can be locally abundant. Habitat analyseswere conducted in order to test the relationship betweenhabitat quality and the number of individuals caught. InSweden, S. vespiformis is thought to be associated with oakhosts, but our attempts to predict its occurrence by theabundance of oaks yielded no significant relationships. Wetherefore suggest that sampling bias and limited knowledgeon distribution may have led to the assumption that thisspecies is primarily reliant on oaks in the northern part ofits range, whereas it may in fact be polyphagous, similar toS. vespiformis found as an agricultural pest in Central andSouthern Europe. We conclude that pheromones canmassively enhance sampling potential for this and otherrare lepidopteran species. Large-scale pheromone-basedsurveys provide a snapshot of true presences and absencesacross a considerable part of a species national distributionrange, and thus for the first time provide a viable means ofsystematically assessing changes in distribution over timewith high spatiotemporal resolution.

  • 33.
    Buseva, Teiksma
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    The vulnerability of Latvia’s agriculture: Farm level response to climatic and non-climatic stimuli2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Agriculture is a climate sensitive sector whether it changes moderately and slowly or radicallyand rapidly. Many studies that focus on the vulnerability of agriculture, use climate scenariosand crop models to assess the potential impacts. This study seeks to identify (1) farmers‘awareness and perceptions of climate variability and change; (2) the types of adjustments theyhave made in their farming practices in response to these changes (farm responses, adaptivestrategies); and (3) other external factors (government policies, social, technological andeconomic conditions) that have significant impact on the farming activities.The results indicate that climate change and variability already have and will have mostlynegative impacts on agriculture. Prolonged dry spells and heat in the summer, less summerrain combined with higher temperatures, more heavy rainfall, more forest or grass fires andextreme weather: drought, flood, storms have been identified as highest climatic burdens toagriculture. An advanced start of the growing season is the the only truly positive change forthe majority of farmers. Apart from that several non-climatic factors were identified assignificant, among them political: high level of bureaucracy, lack of public trust in socialinstitutions, political instability; economical: incentives, for example tax exemption orreduction, access to subsidies and funds, economic growth and development, long-lastingeconomic recession; technological and infrastructural: access to advanced technologies,infrastructure and settlement development and poor road and railroad system; and social:population migration within Europa, ageing of population and population decrease. Thesesocio-economic factors play significant roles in overcoming the risks and building adaptivecapacity. This study shows that a variety of strategies and methods have been applied toreduce the vulnerability. Most often it is a farm level managerial decision, like, adjustedtiming of farm operations, changed crop variety and types, reduced number of livestock,improved technological base or increased income by off farm jobs.Finally we can conclude that even though individual farms have capacity to reducevulnerability, one must not underestimate the role of government and industry to decrease thedamages, take advantage of opportunities or cope with consequences. Farmer decision tomake changes in farming activities is rarely based on one risk alone.

  • 34.
    Börjeson, Lowe
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Berg, Johan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Cousins, Sara A. O.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Open Access to Rural Landscapes!2014In: Rural Landscapes: Society, Environment, History, ISSN 2002-0104, Vol. 1, no 1, 1-2 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The academic study of rural landscapes covers a broad range of academic disciplines and thematic, methodological and theoretical concerns and interests; including questions concerned with resource use (e.g. agriculture, forestry, water and mining), settlement, livelihoods, conflicts, conservation, culture and identity. This diversity is clearly a strength (the rich empirical and intellectual base), but also presents a challenge, as the dissemination of research findings is distributed through a plethora of publishing channels, which do not necessarily encourage exchange of results and ideas that are not already perceived as germane to already established academic networks.

  • 35.
    Börjesson, T.
    et al.
    Grain Department, Lidköping, Sweden.
    Stenberg, B.
    Precision Agriculture, Department of Soil Science, SLU, Skara, Sweden.
    Schnürer, Johan
    Department of Microbiology, SLU, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Near-infrared spectroscopy for estimation of ergosterol content in barley: A comparison between reflectance and transmittance techniques2007In: Cereal Chemistry, ISSN 0009-0352, E-ISSN 1943-3638, Vol. 84, no 3, 231-236 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fungal-specific lipid ergosterol correlates with fungal biomass and often also with the degree of mycotoxin contamination of cereals. We compared the ability of a near-infrared reflectance (NIR) instrument with a broad wavelength range (400-2500 nm) and a near-infrared transmittance (NIT) instrument with a narrower wavelength range (850-1050 nm) to predict the ergosterol content of naturally infected barley samples. The two instruments were equally good at predicting ergosterol content in Swedish samples (r(2) = 0.81 and 0.83 for NIT and NIR, respectively). The NIT instrument was then used for samples from three countries (Sweden, Ireland, UK). This model had about the same root mean-squared error (approximate to 5 mg of ergosterol/kg, db, of grain) as the dataset with only Swedish samples, although the r(2) value was lower (0.58). The investigation has shown that it is possible to predict ergosterol content in whole barley samples using NIR or NIT instrumentation, and acceptable models can be obtained using different barley cultivars and samples from different countries and harvest years. This should make it possible to routinely predict the fungal biomass at grain terminals.

  • 36. Capek, Petr
    et al.
    Diakova, Katerina
    Dickopp, Jan-Erik
    Barta, Jiri
    Wild, Birgit
    Schnecker, Jörg
    Alves, Ricardo Jorge Eloy
    Aiglsdorfer, Stefanie
    Guggenberger, Georg
    Gentsch, Norman
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Lashchinsky, Nikolaj
    Gittel, Antje
    Schleper, Christa
    Mikutta, Robert
    Palmtag, Juri
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography.
    Shibistova, Olga
    Urich, Tim
    Richter, Andreas
    Santruckova, Hana
    The effect of warming on the vulnerability of subducted organic carbon in arctic soils2015In: Soil Biology and Biochemistry, ISSN 0038-0717, E-ISSN 1879-3428, Vol. 90, 19-29 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Arctic permafrost soils contain large stocks of organic carbon (OC). Extensive cryogenic processes in these soils cause subduction of a significant part of OC-rich topsoil down into mineral soil through the process of cryoturbation. Currently, one-fourth of total permafrost OC is stored in subducted organic horizons. Predicted climate change is believed to reduce the amount of OC in permafrost soils as rising temperatures will increase decomposition of OC by soil microorganisms. To estimate the sensitivity of OC decomposition to soil temperature and oxygen levels we performed a 4-month incubation experiment in which we manipulated temperature (4-20 degrees C) and oxygen level of topsoil organic, subducted organic and mineral soil horizons. Carbon loss (C-LOSS) was monitored and its potential biotic and abiotic drivers, including concentrations of available nutrients, microbial activity, biomass and stoichiometry, and extracellular oxidative and hydrolytic enzyme pools, were measured. We found that independently of the incubation temperature, C-LOSS from subducted organic and mineral soil horizons was one to two orders of magnitude lower than in the organic topsoil horizon, both under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. This corresponds to the microbial biomass being lower by one to two orders of magnitude. We argue that enzymatic degradation of autochthonous subducted OC does not provide sufficient amounts of carbon and nutrients to sustain greater microbial biomass. The resident microbial biomass relies on allochthonous fluxes of nutrients, enzymes and carbon from the OC-rich topsoil. This results in a negative priming effect, which protects autochthonous subducted OC from decomposition at present. The vulnerability of subducted organic carbon in cryoturbated arctic soils under future climate conditions will largely depend on the amount of allochthonous carbon and nutrient fluxes from the topsoil.

  • 37. Carlsson, Georg
    et al.
    Svensson, Sven-Erik
    Emanuelsson, Urban
    Centrum för biologisk mångfald.
    Alternativa skötselmetoder för ängs- och betesmarker och användning av skördat växtmaterial2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Meadows and pastures – semi-natural grasslands – provide unique habitats and are extremely valuable for biological diversity. It is currently very challenging to maintain meadows and pastures of high quality in Sweden, mainly owing to the decreasing number of grazing animals and the decreasing demand of grasslands for animal feed production. This report summarises existing information on potential new management methods for Swedish meadow and pasture land and how harvested material can be used as a resource in society. The report is based on data obtained from scientific and popular literature, the authors’ experiences within the area and information originating from ongoing technological development work and practical applications. The challenges for conserving Swedish meadows and pastures consist mainly of identifying rational practices for managing grazing animals and for efficient collection and use of biomass. We identified the following management methods and areas of application as being particularly interesting for further analysis: 1. Flexible systems such as extensive grazing varied systems with different management methods in different years (rotation pattern), a combination of different methods such as machine cutting and burning, or mowing in combination with grazing. 2. Machine-friendly management of silvopasture and tree-meadow agroforestry systems – a combination of meadow vegetation and trees for biological diversity, carbon sequestration and production of biomass (both meadow and tree biomass). 3. Small-scale, case-specific technology – mowing and removal of biomass from small and irregular fields through a combination of motorised manual and rational solutions. This will require development of methods for cutting, collection and transport. 4. Coordination and development of systems for using meadow biomass for energy production. Use of meadow biomass as a biogas substrate provides particularly great environmental advantages and permits efficient use of resources by supplying energy and a nutrient-rich residue (biodigestate) while maintaining traditional meadows. A number of new studies show little or no differences when mowing is carried out with slicing or clipping implements (scythe and blade mowing machines) compared with rotating implements (rotary flail machines or strimmers). This finding opens up for mechanical management of meadows that would otherwise risk being abandoned.

  • 38.
    Carlsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jansson, Nicklas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ranius, Thomas
    Department of Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 7044, 750 07 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Ecology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Boxing for biodiversity: evaluation of an artificiallycreated decaying wood habitat2016In: Biodiversity and Conservation, ISSN 0960-3115, E-ISSN 1572-9710, Vol. 25, no 2, 393-405 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many saproxylic species are threatened in Europe because of habitat decline.Hollow trees represent an important habitat for saproxylic species. Artificial habitats mayneed to be created to maintain or increase the amount of habitat due to natural habitat decline.This study investigated the extent to which saproxylic beetles use artificial habitats in woodenboxes. The boxes were placed at various distances (0–1800 m) from known biodiversityhotspots with hollow oaks and studied over 10 years. Boxes were mainly filled with oak sawdust, oak leaves, hay and lucerne flour. In total, 2170 specimens of 91 saproxylic beetlespecies were sampled in 43 boxes. The abundance of species associated with tree hollows,wood rot and animal nests increased from the fourth to the final year, but species richnessdeclined for all groups. This study shows that wooden boxes can function as saproxylicspecies habitats. The artificial habitats developed into a more hollow-like environment duringthe decade long experiment with fewer but more abundant tree hollow specialists.

  • 39. Carr, Joel A.
    et al.
    D'Odorico, Paolo
    Suweis, Samir
    Seekell, David A.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    What commodities and countries impact inequality in the global food system?2016In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, no 9, 095013Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The global distribution of food production is unequal relative to the distribution of human populations. International trade can increase or decrease inequality in food availability, but little is known about how specific countries and commodities contribute to this redistribution. We present a method based on the Gini coefficient for evaluating the contributions of country and commodity specific trade to inequality in the global food system. We applied the method to global food production and trade data for the years 1986-2011 to identify the specific countries and commodities that contribute to increasing and decreasing inequality in global food availability relative to food production. Overall, international trade reduced inequality in food availability by 25%-33% relative to the distribution of food production, depending on the year. Across all years, about 58% of the total trade links acted to reduce inequality with similar to 4% of the links providing 95% of the reduction in inequality. Exports from United States of America, Malaysia, Argentina, and Canada are particularly important in decreasing inequality. Specific commodities that reduce inequality when traded include cereals and vegetables. Some trade connections contribute to increasing inequality, but this effect is mostly concentrated within a small number of commodities including fruits, stimulants, and nuts. In terms of specific countries, exports from Slovenia, Oman, Singapore, and Germany act to increase overall inequality. Collectively, our analysis and results represent an opportunity for building an enhanced understanding of global-scale patterns in food availability.

  • 40.
    Catalán, Núria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Herrero Ortega, S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Gröntoft, H.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Hilmarsson, T. G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Bertilsson, Stefan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wu, Pianpian
    Levanoni, Oded
    Bishop, K.
    Garcia Bravo, Andrea
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Limnology.
    Effects of beaver impoundments on dissolved organic matter quality and biodegradability in boreal riverine systems2016In: Hydrobiologia, ISSN 0018-8158, E-ISSN 1573-5117, Vol. 793, no 1, 135-148 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Beaver impoundments modify the structure of river reaches and lead to changes in ecosystem function and biogeochemical processes. Here, we assessed the changes in dissolved organic matter (DOM) quality and the biodegradation patterns in a set of beaver systems across Sweden. As the effect of beaver impoundments might be transient and local, we compared DOM quality and biodegradability of both pond and upstream sections of differentially aged beaver systems. Newly established dams shifted the sources and DOM biodegradability patterns. In particular, humic-like DOM, most likely leached from surrounding soils, characterized upstream sections of new beaver impoundments. In contrast, autochthonous and processed compounds, with both higher biodegradation rates and a broader spectrum of reactivities, differentiated DOM in ponds. DOM in recently established ponds seemed to be more humic and less processed compared to older ponds, but system idiosyncrasies determined by catchment particularities influenced this ageing effect.

  • 41.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Cultural Anthropology and Ethnology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Sivaramakrishnan, K.
    Ecological Nationalisms: Claiming Nature for Making History2005In: Ecological Nationalisms: Nature, Livelihoods and Identities in South Asia, New Delhi: Permanent Black , 2005, 1-40 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Sivaramakrishnan, K.Yale University.
    Ecological Nationalisms: Nature, Livlihoods, and Identities in South Asia2006Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Institutionen för kulturantropologi och etnologi.
    Sivaramakrishnan, K.
    Ecological Nationalisms: Claiming Nature for Making History2005In: Ecological Nationalisms: Nature, Livelihoods and Identities in South Asia, New Delhi: Permanent Black , 2005, 1-40 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Cederlöf, Gunnel
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of History.
    Sivaramakrishnan, K.Yale University.
    Ecological Nationalisms: Nature, Livlihoods, and Identities in South Asia2006Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Cerin, Pontus
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Introducing Value Chain Stewardship (VCS)2006In: International Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and Economics, ISSN 1567-9764, Vol. 6, no 1, 39-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    After a decade of international negotiations to limit greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, a sufficient number of countries have ratified the Kyoto agreement. However, even with this positive development there is a formidable challenge since, according to the World Resource Institute (WRI 2004), For the most part, developed nations have failed to attain the non-binding emission reductions they committed to in the original climate treaty in 1992, Ensuring adherence to the reductions stated in the treaty by these nations may become an immense managerial task, not to mention the enforcement of sanctions. Instead of national emission targets the approach of this paper is to focus on trade within selected industry sectors - i.e. housing and transport - responsible for most of the world's GHG emissions. This paper shows that vehicle manufacturers - the design owners - may use their information advantages to influence customers to focus on other aspects of the vehicle than costs during use. Expanding the environmental responsibility of the design owners to coincide with the area of environmental impacts will convert emissions cost into a production cost. It is indicated in this paper that when applying the estimated costs for GHG emissions to the vehicle user, strong enough incentives are not given to drive technological change, but if the responsibility is allocated to the design owner the very same additional costs will be an incentive for the designer to use its information advantage to innovate away from those emissions-rendering technologies. A value chain stewardship (VCS) is, thus, established.

  • 46.
    Cidh, Malin
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Slamförädling genom kompostering: Påverkan på halten läkemedelsrester, oönskade organiska föreningar och näringsinnehåll2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The human body is only capable to take care of a fraction of the pharmaceutical compounds a person eats and the rest is excreted, mainly by urine. When the sewage water reaches the wastewater treatment plant it is treated mechanically, chemically and biologically but the wastewater treatment plants are not designed to take care of pharmaceutical residues or organic compounds  from detergents, paint, etc. Based on the chemical and physical properties of the compound it will either leave the plant with the discharge water or end up in the sewage sludge. The sludge is stabilized through anaerobic digestion, dewatered and may then be used as agricultural fertilizer.

    This study examines if composting of sewage sludge together with other organic matter can improve the sludge by resulting in less odor, high nutrient content and reduced incidence of pharmaceutical residues and undesired organic compounds.

    Three different kinds of organic matter were tested; horse manure, deep litter manure from cattle and garden compost. Also, three different methods for oxygenation were used and evaluated. In the first method drainage tubes buried in the compost was attached to a fan. The second method also included the drainage tubes but instead of using a fan the air  flowed through the tubes by natural ventilation. In the third method the compost was mixed by an excavator.

    From regular measurement of the temperature in the composts it was decided which method that generated the highest microbial activity. Before, half-way through and after composting, analyses were performed regarding nutrients and metals to see how the composition of the matter changed during the process of composting and to decide whether the products could be considered as good fertilizers.

    In the compost with the highest microbial activity analyses of pharmaceutical residues and undesired organic compounds were performed as well  and compared with a reference consisting only sewage sludge that had not been treated in any way to increase oxygenation.

    Interviews  with farmers and project staff showed that the mixed product was not odor-free but it did not smell as bad and strong as pure sludge that had been stored for an equal amount of time.

    Analyses of nutrients and metals showed that the mixed products are good fertilizers and their content of metals are below the limit for metals in fertilizers. Horse manure and deep litter manure from cattle gave the best results.

    Mixing of the compost with an excavator generated highest temperatures  and was the method preferred by the farmers since it was easier to handle the compost when it did not have tubes in it and also the choice of location is free when the operation doesn't depend on access to electricity.

    Analyses of undesired organic compounds showed that the degradation of phtalates, LAS, organophosphates, triclosan and alkyphenol/alkylphenoletoxylate were bigger in the compost consisting a mix of sludge and deep litter manure from cattle and which was oxygenated by mixing of the matter compared with the reference compost. To verify the result the examination has to be repeated multiple times.

    Further investigations must be performed on the degradation of pharmaceutical residues. The degradation was bigger in the mixed compost for a majority  of the analyzed substances but in several cases the result was the opposite and in some cases the total amount of the substance increased during composting. The latter is due to the fact that only the primary form of the substances were analyzed and not their metabolites. If a large part of the substance was in the form of a metabolite before composting and transformed back to the primary form during composting it may have looked like there was an increase in the total amount of that substance. For the same reason it is impossible to decide whether a decrease is due to decomposition of the substance or if it is due to formation of metabolites.

  • 47.
    Cvetkovic, Vladimir D.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    On the significance of hydrodynamic control for radionuclide retention in fractured porous media2004In: Coupled Thermo-Hydro-Mechanical-Chemical Processes in Geo-Systems — Fundamentals, Modelling, Experiments and Applications, Elsevier, 2004, no C, 507-511 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is demonstrated that the approximate means of quantifying hydrodynamic control of retention is reasonably accurate for low values of the transport resistance on the 100m and 1000m scales; for high values, the approximate expression may significantly underestimate retention. Our results emphasize the need for further development of practical methodologies for quantifying statistical distributions of transport resistance by effectively combining field measurements, numerical simulations and theoretical/analytical considerations.

  • 48. Da, Chau Thi
    et al.
    Phuoc, Le Huu
    Duc, Huynh Ngoc
    Troell, Max
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, Sweden.
    Berg, Håkan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Use of Wastewater from Striped Catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) Pond Culture for Integrated Rice-Fish-Vegetable Farming Systems in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam2015In: Agroecology and Sustainable Food Systems, ISSN 2168-3565, E-ISSN 2168-3573, Vol. 39, no 5, 580-597 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article investigates the feasibility of reusing wastewater from striped catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) pond culture as nutrient input for integrated rice-Nile tilapia-green bean farming systems, and to what extent this could contribute to decreasing the environmental impacts on water quality from the striped catfish industry in the Mekong Delta. Four treatments in triplicates were used to investigate the growth of rice and green bean varieties under different combinations of inorganic fertilizer and water from the river and a striped catfish pond culture. The Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) was cultured at low density without feeding in a canal adjacent to the rice field. Rice yields ranged from 3,514 to 4,023 kg ha(-1) with no significant differences between treatments (p > 0.05). The yield of green bean ranged from 2,671 to 3,282 kg ha(-1) (p < 0.05), with the highest yields for beans only receiving water from the striped catfish pond. The water quality concentrations decreased significantly when passing through the rice plots for almost all treatments (p < 0.05). Total phosphorus and nitrogen levels in the outflowing water were reduced by almost 50% compared to the inflowing water from the striped catfish pond. Overall, the results indicated that an integrated system generates both economic and environmental benefits as compared to monocultures.

  • 49. Dabrowska, B.B.
    et al.
    Vithanage, M.
    Gunaratna, Kuttuva Rajarao
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Mukherjee, A.B.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Bioremediation of arsenic in contaminated terrestrial and aquatic environments2012In: Environmental Chemistry for a Sustainable World, Springer Netherlands , 2012, Vol. 2, 475-509 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The name Arsenic is derived from the Greek word arsenikon, meaning potent. This element occurs in the ecosystem in different oxidation states of which As(III) and As(V) are most common to humans, animals, plant species. As is present in drinking water and soil from natural sources as well as a pollutant from agricultural and industrial processes. Differences in arsenic uptake by different plant species is controlled by many factors such as root surface area, root exudates, and rate of evapotranspiration. Some plant species have high affinity to accumulate arsenic in tissues above ground. Hyperaccumulator plants have a threshold arsenic content above 1,000 μg g-1 DM. We review bioremediation studies with especial emphasis on biosorption research on different arsenic species, plants and their biomass, agricultural and industry wastes, as well as the biomass of some fungi species. Bioremediation is considered as an alternative technique for the removal of As in groundwater. One of the popular methods among bioremediation techniques, phytoremediation uses living plants to remove arsenic from the environment or to render it less toxic, in bioaccumulation processes. Phytoremediation techniques often do not take into account the biosorption processes of living plants and plant litter. In biosorption techniques, contaminants can be removed by a biological substrate as a sorbent such as bacteria, fungi, algae or vascular plants. Bioremediation assures in situ treatment of polluted soils. Biosorption characteristics, equilibrium and kinetics of different biosorbents have also been addressed here. Evaluation of the current literature suggests that arsenic bioavailability and molecular level phytoremediation processes in bioremediation are crucial for designing phytoremediation technologies with improved, predictable remedial success.

  • 50.
    Dahlke, Helen E.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Easton, Zachary M.
    Walter, M. Todd
    Steenhuis, Tammo S.
    Field test of the variable source area interpretation of the curve number rainfall runoff equation2012In: Journal of irrigation and drainage engineering, ISSN 0733-9437, Vol. 138, no 3, 235-244 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN) method is a widely used empirical rainfall-runoff equation. Although the physical basis of the method has been debated, several researchers have suggested that it can be used to predict the watershed fraction that is saturated and generating runoff by saturation excess from variable source areas (VSAs). In this paper, we compare saturated runoff-contributing areas predicted with the VSA interpretation of the SCS-CN method with field-measured VSAs in a 0.5 ha hillslope in central New York State. We installed a trench below a VSA and simultaneously recorded water flux from different soil layers at the trench face and water table dynamics upslope of the trench. This setup allowed us to monitor runoff initiation and saturation-excess overland flow in response to rainfall and different water table depths in the hillslope during 16 storm events. We found that the SCS-CN method accurately predicted the observed VSA and showed best agreement if the VSA was defined as the area where the water table was within 10 cm of the soil surface. These results not only demonstrate that the VSA interpretation of the SCS-CN method accurately predicts VSA extents in small watersheds but also that the transient water table does not necessarily need to intersect the land surface to cause a storm runoff response. DOI:10.1061/(ASCE)IR.1943-4774.0000380.

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