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  • 1.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    et al.
    College of Engineering, TEMEP, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The main support mechanisms to finance renewable energy development2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 40, 876-885 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that the major part of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern aimed at reducing carbon emissions. In addition, major consumer countries are looking for alternative sources of energy to avoid the impact of higher fossil fuel prices and political instability in the major energy supplying countries. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reduce carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovation and the creation of green jobs. This study compares three main support mechanisms employed by governments to finance renewable energy development programs: feed-in-tariffs, tax incentives, and tradable green certificates. Considering that many of the promising technologies to deploy renewable energy require investment in small-scale energy production systems, these mechanisms could be used to enhance renewable energy development at the desired scale. Employing a carbon emission tax or emission trading mechanism could be considered ideal policies to mitigate emissions at the lowest cost. The comparison of feed-in-tariffs and renewable portfolio standard policies showed that the former is good when a policy to develop renewable energy sources with a low level of risk for investors is considered. However, the latter is an appropriate policy when a market view policy is applied by the government. Finally, considering technological progress and the cost reduction for power generation by renewable energy sources, we suggest that support mechanism policies should be reconsidered from the financial point of view. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Röös, E.
    Di Lucia, L.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Hansson, P. -A
    EU sustainability criteria for biofuels: Uncertainties in GHG emissions from cultivation2012In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 3, no 4, 399-411 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cultivation of raw material represents a large proportion of biofuelś GHG emissions. The EU renewable energy directive 2009/28/EC specifies a GHG emission default value for cultivation of biofuel raw material (23 g CO2-e/MJ ethanol for wheat). The aim of this study was to quantify the uncertainty in GHG emissions for wheat cultivation in Sweden, considering uncertainty and variability in data at farm level. Results: Two levels of data collection at farm level were analyzed; simple (only yield and amount of N) and advanced (also including amounts and types of energy). The 2.5-97.5 percentile uncertainty for Swedish winter wheat was 20-27 g CO 2-e/MJ, which can be considered large in the context of the Directives threshold of 23 g (to two significant figures). Conclusion: It is concluded that quantifying GHG emissions in order to regulate biofuels is a difficult task, especially emissions from cultivation, since these are biological systems with large variability.

  • 3.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Björn G.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Sweden .
    Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, 242-249 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

  • 4.
    Asperö Lind, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Biologisk behandling av matavfall med avfallskvarn: En systemanalys2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal sewage treatment plant Käppalaverket and municipally owned waste handling company SÖRAB, both located in the northern part of Stockholm Sweden, have together started the BOA project. BOA means “Biologisk behandling av Organiskt matavfall medhjälp av Avfallskvarnar” which is translated to biological treatment of organic food waste using food waste macerators. The initiative stems from one of Sweden’s national environmental goals: Saying that at least 35 percent of all the organic waste produced byhouseholds and companies shall be treated biologically by the year 2010 and that the nutrients from this waste should be used as fertilizer.

    In the first phase of the project, seven different scenarios on how to transport the food waste from the households to the digestion chamber were described. To be able to evaluate these scenarios from a societal and sustainability perspective, seven criteria were chosen:technology, environment, work environment, economy, quality, law, and acceptance. The first part of the thesis consisted of formulating indicators from these criteria, through meetings and discussions with different working groups, all consisting of people in the waste and wastewater field. After that, a review of available tools was done to find the ones that were best suited for each chosen indicator.

    For the indicators that required calculations, Substance Flow Analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, Energy Analysis and Life Cycle Costing were chosen. After the tools had been used the results were given grades depending on how big impact they would have on society. For some of the indicators calculations were not possible and instead a qualitative grading system was used, in which the different working groups graded each scenario depending on the indicator and the grades were weighted and summed together.

    Finally, a multi criteria analysis was made together with the project managers from Käppalaverket and SÖRAB, in which the different indicators were discussed and weighted depending on how important they were considered to be. The final result of the multi criteria analysis was that one scenario could be chosen as the most suited for transport of food waste, from the perspective of the chosen indicators and their given weight.

    The scenario in which food waste is collected in bins and then transported by car to a centralprocessing plant, and finally transported by car to Käppalaverkets digestion chambers, got the highest score in the multi criteria analysis and is therefore the best scenario from the perspective of the chosen indicators and given weight. But from the multi criteria analysis onecould also see that none of the scenarios were given a particularly low score. This opens upfor the possibility of combined scenarios were all the residents of the SÖRAB region are given the possibility to recycle their food waste with a bin collecting system, but were there isa will to use systems with a kitchen food waste disposer instead it can be accepted as long as they do not become too popular.

    During the work of this thesis several questions have been raised that needs further investigation. One is what happens with the food waste when it is transported in the sewagesystem and another is how it will change during storage longer than four days. Also, the final results have shown that the impact on climate change from the scenarios could besignificantly decreased if a leakage free methane production could be assured and the possibility to use renewable fuels for the collecting cars was investigated.

  • 5. Batidzirai, B.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Energy security, agro-industrial development and international trade: the case of sugarcane in southern Africa2012In: Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Evidence from Developing Nations / [ed] Alexandros Gasparatos and Per Stromberg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, 254-277 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 6. Berghel, J.
    et al.
    Frodeson, S.
    Granström, K.
    Renström, R.
    Stahl, M.
    Nordgren, D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life2013In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, 64-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Co-production of renewable polymers and ethanol from eucalyptus-based pulp mills2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 8.
    Bohman, Mattias
    et al.
    Grontmij AB.
    Berglund Odhner, Peter
    Grontmij AB.
    Schabbauer, Anna
    Grontmij AB.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Rundstedt, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Biogas i Halland: Förbehandling av substrat och simulering av biogasflöden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bioenergicentrum i Halland (BEH) är ett projekt som ligger inom ramen för EU:s strukturfondsprogram. Projektet genomförs i Region Hallands regi som är regionens välfärds- och utvecklingsorganisation. Arbetet som bedrivs inom BEH syftar speciellt till att driva utvecklingen mot en ökad produktion och användning av bioenergi till biogas och i förlängningen fordonsgas. Genom att satsa på att skapa förutsättningar för innovation, kunskapsutveckling och samverkan främjas tillväxt och hållbar utveckling.

    Vid naturbruksgymnasiet i Plönninge utanför Halmstad finns idag en biogasanläggning som beskickas med bl.a. nötgödsel och matavfall. Dessutom finns en mindre pilotanläggning som är tänkt att fungera som en del av test- och verifieringsanläggning som BEH vill bygga upp i Plönninge. Som ett led i att utveckla dessa anläggningar och kunna erbjuda möjligheten till kunskapsinsamling genomfördes projektet som beskrivs i denna rapport. Uppdraget var att genomföra försöksrötningar på labb, använda resultaten för att skapa en modell som sedan kan nyttjas som ett verktyg i det inledande arbetet med att investera i en biogasanläggning som beskickas med lantbruksbaserade substrat. Högskolan i Halmstad (HH) genomförde försöksrötningarna och Grontmij (GM) använde sedan resultaten för att skapa en modell där bl.a. substrat, förbehandlingsteknik och driftkostnader finns med.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att majs som substrat fungerar bäst med de valda förbehandlingsmetoderna; kemisk behandling, termisk behandling och ultraljudsbehandling. Alla förbehandlingsmetoder med majs som substrat visade på ett positivt resultat, d.v.s. det ökade gasutbytet och dess värde (kr/kWh) översteg kostnaderna för de olika förbehandlingarna. Vad som måste beaktas är att produktionskostnaderna överlag är höga, med och utan förbehandling.

    Modellen har konstruerats på ett sådant sätt att den ska vara användarvänlig och med möjlighet att enkelt lägga till ytterligare substrat och förbehandlingsmetoder. Upprepningar av de försöksrötningar som genomförts kommer att öka tillförlitligheten hos modellen. Den fungerar som ett verktyg i att beräkna investeringsmarginalen för förbehandlingsutrustningen baserat på det valda substratet. På detta vis kan intressenter få en första indikation på om det är ekonomiskt rimligt att gå vidare med det tänkta substratet, den valda förbehandlingsmetoden, de planerade mängderna substrat etc.

    En investeringskalkyl har tagits fram för en gårdsanläggning som hanterar 5 000 ton substrat eller gödsel årligen. Det motsvarar 2-3 stycken medelstora mjölkgårdar. Kalkylen är översiktlig och syftar till att ge en första indikation på kostnader för de stora komponenterna såsom substratlager, rötkammare och rötrestlager. Kringarbeten såsom utredningar, markarbeten och geoundersökningar är inte med i kalkylen då dessa omkostnader till stor del avgörs av lokalisering och de förutsättningar som finns på platsen redan från start. Generellt kan dock sägas att den absolut billigaste och enklaste gårdsbaserade biogasanläggningen innebär en investering på 2,7-4 MSEK för flytgödsel från 100-300 mjölkkor.

    För BEH är det viktigt att skapa en plattform där intressenter kan komma för att genomföra försöksrötningar, byta erfarenheter och samla kunskap. För att uppnå detta är det nödvändigt att kunna erbjuda kunden kompletta och kompetenta lösningar på en och samma plats. Detta innebär ett erbjudande som innefattar försöksrötningar på labb-, pilot och fullskala. Ett förslag på konstruktion av pilotanläggning med övergripande principskiss ingår i denna rapport och fungerar som ett inledande arbete i projekteringen av en större pilotanläggning. Nödvändiga driftanalyser av rötrest ska kunna göras på plats i Plönninge på laboratoriet; analyser såsom enskilda organiska syror ska kunna skickas till lämpligt laboratorium. Personal ska kunna tillhandahållas för att driva och optimera rötningen enligt kundens syften och önskemål. På detta vis fungerar Region Halland som en länk mellan teori ochpraktik, mellan liten och stor skala och mellan aktörer från olika discipliner och geografiska områden.

  • 9.
    Bozaghian, Marjan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Rebbling, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Larsson, Sylvia H.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Xiong, Shaojun
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Forest Biomaterials and Technology.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Combustion characteristics of barley straw stored with CaCO3 using olivine and quartz as bed materials in fluidized bed combustion2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Usage of Biofuels in Sweden2013In: CSR-2 Catalyst for renewable sources: Fuel, Energy, Chemicals Book of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibrisk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, 5-7 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Sweden, biofuels have come into substantial use, in an extent that are claimed to be bigger than use of fossil oil. One driving force for this have been the CO2-tax that was introduced in 1991 (1). According to SVEBIO:s calculations (2) based on the Swedish Energy Agency´s prognosis, the total energy consumption in Sweden 2012 was 404 TWh. If the figure is broken down on the different energy sources (figure 1) one can see that the consumption roughly distribute in three different, equally sized, blocks, Biofuels, fossil fuels and water & nuclear power. The major use of the fossil fuels is for transport and the water & nuclear power is used as electric power. The main use of the biofuels is for heating in the industrial sector and as district heating. In 2009 the consumption from those two segments was 85 TWh, and 10 TWh of bio power was co-produced giving an average biomass to electricity efficiency of 12%. This indicates a substantial conversion potential from hot water production to combined heat and power (CHP) production. in Sweden 2013 broken down on the different energy sources. In 2006 the pulp, paper and sawmill industry accounted for 95% of the bio energy consumption in the industrial sector, and the major biofuel consumed was black liquor (5). However, the pulp and paper industries also produced the black liquor in their own processes. The major energy source (58%) for district heating during 2006 was woody biomass (chips, pellets etc.) followed by waste (24%), peat (6%) and others (12%) (5). The use of peat has probably decreased since 2006 since peat is no longer regarded as a renewable energy source. While the use of biofuel for heating purpose is well developed and the bio-power is expected to grow, the use in the transport sector is small, 9 TWh or 7% in 2011. The main consumption there is due to the mandatory addition (5%) of ethanol to gasoline and FAME to diesel (6). The Swedish authorities have announced plans to increase the renewable content to 7.5 % in 2015 on the way to fulfill the EU’s goal of 10 % renewable transportation fuels in 2020. However the new proposed fuel directive in EU says that a maximum of 5% renewable fuel may be produced from food sources like sugars and vegetable oils. Another bothersome fact is that, in principle, all rape seed oil produced in Sweden is consumed (95-97%) in the food sector, and consequently all FAME used (in principle) in Sweden is imported as FAME, rape seed oil or seed (6). In Sweden a new source of biodiesel have emerged, tall oil diesel. Tall oil is extracted from black liquor and refined into a diesel fraction (not FAME) and can be mixed into fossil diesel, i.e. Preem Evolution diesel. The SUNPINE plant in Piteå have a capacity of 100 000 metric tons of tall oil diesel per annum, while the total potential in all of Sweden is claimed to be 200 000 tons (7). 100 000 tons of tall oil corresponds to 1% of the total diesel consumption in Sweden. in Sweden for 2010 and a prognosis for 2014. (6). Accordingly, the profoundest task is to decrease the fossil fuel dependency in the transport sector, and clearly, the first generation biofuels can´t do this on its own. Biogas is a fuel gas with high methane content that can be used in a similar way to natural gas; for instance for cooking, heating and as transportation fuel. Today biogas is produced by fermentation of waste (municipal waste, sludge, manure), but can be produced by gasification of biomass, for instance from forest residues such as branches and rots (GROT in Swedish). To get high efficiency in the production, the lower hydrocarbons, mainly methane, in the producer gas, should not be converted into synthesis gas. Instead a synthesis gas with high methane content is sought. This limits the drainage of chemically bonded energy, due to the exothermic reaction in the synthesis step (so called methanisation). In 2011 0.7 TWh of biogas was produced in Sweden by fermentation of waste (6) and there were no production by gasification, at least not of economic importance. The potential seems to be large, though. In 2008 the total potential for biogas production, in Sweden, from waste by fermentation and gasification was estimated to 70 TWh (10 TWh fermentation and 60 TWh gasification) (8). This figure includes only different types of waste and no dedicated agricultural crops or dedicated forest harvest. Activities in the biogas sector, by gasification, in Sweden are the Göteborgs energi´s Gobigas project in Gothenburg and Eon´s Bio2G-project, now pending, in south of Sweden. If the producer gas is cleaned and upgraded into synthesis gas also other fuels could be produced. In Sweden methanol and DME productions are planned for in the Värmlands metanol-project and at Chemrecs DME production plant in Piteå.

  • 11.
    Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Building and Energy Technology.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    Lunds Tekniska Högskola .
    Leveau, Andreas
    Biofuel-Solutions AB.
    Selective Catalysts for Glycerol Dehydration2013In: CRS-2, Catalysis for Renewable Sources: Fuel,Energy,ChemicalsBook of Abstracts / [ed] Vadim Yakovlev, Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk, Russia: Boreskov Institute of Catalysis , 2013, 17-18 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     There has been an increased interest over the last decade for replacing fossil based feedstock’s with renewable ones. There are several such feedstock’s that are currently being investigated such as cellulose, lignin, hemicellulose, triglycerides etc. However, when trying to perform selective reactions an as homogeneous feedstock as possible is preferable. One such feedstock example is glycerol, a side-product from biofuels production, which is a tri-alcohol and thus has much flexibility for reactions, e.g. dehydration, hydrogenation, addition reactions etc. Glycerol in itself is a good starting point for fine chemicals production being non-toxic and available in rather large quantities [1-2]. A key reaction for glycerol valorisation is the dehydration of glycerol to form acrolein, an unsaturated C3 aldehyde, which may be used for producing acrylic acid, acrylonitrile and other important chemcial products. It has recently been shown that pore-condensation of glycerol is an issue under industrial like conditions, leading to liquid-phase reactions and speeding up the catalyst activity and selectivity loss [3]. To address this issue, modified catalyst materials have been prepared where the relevant micro and meso pores have been removed by thermal sintering; calculations have shown that pores below 45 Å may be subject to pore condensation. The catalyst starting material was a 10% WO3 by weight supported on ZrO2 in the form of beads 1–2 mm and it was thermally treated at 400°C, 500°C, 600°C, 700°C, 700°C, 800°C, 850°C, 900°C and 1000°C for 2 hours. The catalysts were characterised using nitrogen adsorption, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), Raman spectroscopy and ammonia temperature programmed desorption. The thermal sintered catalysts show first of all a decreasing BET surface area with sintering commencing between 700°C and 800°C when it decreases from the initial 71 m2/g to 62 m2/g and at 1000°C there is a mere 5 m2/g of surface area left. During sintering, the micro and meso-porosity is reduced as evidenced by MIP and depicted in figure 1. As may be seen in the figure, sintering decrease the amount of pores below and around 100 Å is reduced at a sintering temperature of 800°C and above. The most suitable catalyst based on the MIP appears to be the one sintered at 850°C which is further strengthened by the Raman analysis. There is a clear shift in the tungsten structure from monoclinic to triclinic between 850°C and 900°C and it is believed that the monoclinic phase is important for activity and selectivity. Further, the heat treatment shows that there is an increase in catalyst acidity measured as mmol NH3/(m2/g) but a decrease in the acid strength as evidenced by a decrease in the desorption peak maximum temperature.

     

  • 12.
    Celander, Filip
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Haglund, Johan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Energy and nutrient recovery from dairy manure: Process design and economic performance of a farm based system2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis assessed the technical and economic premises for installing systems that process manure in order to recover nutrients and inherent energy. The main purpose of recovering nutrients was to extract phosphorus from the manure, so as to be able to distribute more of the manure on the farm without exceeding the phosphorus regulation. Three other scenarios were included as reference; conventional manure handling, solid-liquid separation only and solid-liquid separation including energy recovery. Since most important parameters for modeling scenarios in agriculture are site-specific (e.g. soil type, crop rotation and manure composition), the thesis results were based on a case farm. The case farm is a 675 ha dairy farm with approx. 1400 milking cows, located in Östergötland, Sweden.

    As for the results, it was first concluded that the central characteristics of manure were the content of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). The higher the DM content, the more fuel for energy recovery, and the higher the N:P-ratio, the more on-farm N can be utilized before having to consider the P regulation. The technical premises for farm-scale nutrient recovery were limited to commercial techniques from companies operating in Sweden, and included various possible processing methods, such as; pH modification, anaerobic digestion, coagulation-flocculation, precipitation, filtration and reverse osmosis. However, most methods were either too costly or simply not realistic to install on stand-alone farms, resulting in only two feasible options; struvite precipitation and secondary solid-liquid separation with a decanter centrifuge.

    The comparison in economic performance for all scenarios resulted as follows: nutrient recovery by struvite precipitation was the most profitable scenario of all, if struvite was allowed to replace mineral P fertilizer (i.e. end-product on-farm utilization). If not, it was more profitable to invest in only energy recovery, as nutrient recovery by secondary solid-liquid separation or struvite precipitation with end-product sales were not as profitable. However, the absolutely largest increase in profitability lies within investing in a primary solid-liquid separation. As for the case farm, this investment reduced costs by more than 2 MSEK, while any of the latter scenarios reduce costs by 0,1-0,2 MSEK. Furthermore, the possible utilization of the waste heat from energy recovery increased profitability by a factor of ten.

  • 13. Celaya, J.
    et al.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Fast pyrolysis bio-oil production from Scandinavian forest residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14. Celaya, J.
    et al.
    Bridgwater, A.V.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Fast pyrolysis bio-oil production from Scandinavian forest residues2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 15. Cerutti, P. O.
    et al.
    Sola, P.
    Chenevoy, A.
    Iiyama, M.
    Yila, J.
    Zhou, W.
    Djoudi, H.
    Atyi, R. E.
    Gautier, D. J.
    Gumbo, D.
    Kuehl, Y.
    Levang, P.
    Martius, C.
    Matthews, R.
    Nasi, R.
    Neufeldt, H.
    Njenga, M.
    Petrokofsky, G.
    Saunders, M.
    Shepherd, G.
    Sonwa, D. J.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Van Noordwijk, M.
    The socioeconomic and environmental impacts of wood energy value chains in Sub-Saharan Africa: A systematic map protocol2015In: Environmental Evidence, ISSN 2047-2382, E-ISSN 2047-2382, Vol. 4, no 1, 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The vast majority of households in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) depend on wood energy - comprising firewood and charcoal - for their daily energetic needs. Such consumption trends are expected to remain a common feature of SSA's wood energy production and supply chains, at least in the short- to medium-terms. Notwithstanding its importance, wood energy generally has low priority in SSA national policies. However, the use of wood energy is often considered a key driver of unsustainable management and negative environmental consequences in the humid and dry forests. To date, unsystematic assessments of the socio-economic and environmental consequences of wood energy use have underplayed its significance, thus further hampering policy debates. Therefore, a more balanced approach which considers both demand and supply dynamics is needed. This systematic map aims at providing a comprehensive approach to understanding the role and impacts of wood energy across all regions and aspects in SSA. Methods: The objective of this systematic map is to collate evidence from studies of environmental and socio-economic impacts of wood energy value chains, by considering both demand and supply within SSA. The map questions are framed using a Populations, Exposure, Comparators and Outcomes (PECO) approach. We name the supply and demand of wood energy as the "exposure," composed of wood energy production, harvesting, processing, and consumption. The populations of interest include both the actors involved in these activities and the forest sites where these activities occur. The comparator is defined as those cases where the same wood energy activities occur with i) available/accessible alternative energy sources, ii) regulatory frameworks that govern the sector and iii) alternative technologies for efficient use. The outcomes of interest encompass both socioeconomic and environmental impacts that can affect more than the populations named above. For instance, in addition to the direct socioeconomic impacts felt by participants in the wood energy value chain, forest dwellers may experience livelihood changes due to forest degradation caused by external harvesters. Moreover, intensified deforestation in one area may concurrently lead to forest regeneration in another.

  • 16. Chacha, N.
    et al.
    Toven, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Mtui, G.
    Katima, J.
    Mrema, G.
    Steam pretreatment of pine (Pinus patula) for fuel ethanol production in Tanzania2011Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 17.
    Dererie, Debebe Yilma
    et al.
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Trobro, Stefan
    Institutionen för Molekylärbiologi, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    Momeni, Majid Haddad
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Hansson, Henrik
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Blomqvist, Johanna
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Passoth, Volkmar
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Schnürer, Anna
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Sandgren, Mats
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Ståhlberg, Jerry
    Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Improved bio-energy yields via sequential ethanol fermentation and biogas digestion of steam exploded oat straw2011In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 102, no 6, 4449-4455 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Using standard laboratory equipment, thermochemically pretreated oat straw was enzymatically saccharified and fermented to ethanol, and after removal of ethanol the remaining material was subjected to biogas digestion. A detailed mass balance calculation shows that, for steam explosion pretreatment, this combined ethanol fermentation and biogas digestion converts 85-87% of the higher heating value (HHV) of holocellulose (cellulose and hemicellulose) in the oat straw into biofuel energy. The energy (HHV) yield of the produced ethanol and methane was 9.5-9.8 MJ/(kg dry oat straw), which is 28-34% higher than direct biogas digestion that yielded 7.3-7.4 MJ/(kg dry oat straw). The rate of biogas formation from the fermentation residues was also higher than from the corresponding pretreated but unfermented oat straw, indicating that the biogas digestion could be terminated after only 24 days. This suggests that the ethanol process acts as an additional pretreatment for the biogas process.

  • 18. Dyrset, N.
    et al.
    Øyaas, K.
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hobley, T.J.
    Alfrén, J.
    Hreggvidson, G.
    Uusitalo, J.
    Schenck, A.V.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Sustainable Biofuel: Innovations in Bioethanol Production Technologies (SusBioFuel)2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19. Dyrset, Nils
    et al.
    Öyaas, Karin
    RISE, Innventia, PFI – Paper and Fiber Research Institute.
    Hobley, Timothy John
    Alfthen, Johan
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hreggvidsson, Gudmundir
    Uusitalo, Jaana
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Ochoa-Fernandez, Esther
    Einen, Jörn
    Sustainable biofuel: innovations in bioethanol production technologies (SusBioFuel)2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Egeskog, Andrea
    et al.
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Barretto, Alberto
    Brazilian Bio-ethanol Science and Technology Laboratory(CTBE).
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University, Energy and Environment.
    Freitas, Flavio L. M.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Holmén, Magnus
    echnology Management and Economics and connected to Center for Business Innovation.
    Sparovek, G.
    Torén, Johan
    SP Technical Research Institute of Sweden.
    Actions and opinions of Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane: an interview-based assessment with discussion of implications for land-use change2016In: Land use policy, ISSN 0264-8377, E-ISSN 1873-5754, Vol. 57, 594-604 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sugarcane ethanol systems can deliver large greenhouse gas emissions savings if emissions associated with land-use change are kept low. This qualitative study documents and analyzes actions and opinions among Brazilian farmers who shift to sugarcane production. Semi-structured interviews were held with 28 actors associated with sugarcane production in three different regions: one traditional sugarcane region and two regions where sugarcane is currently expanding. Most farmers considered sugarcane a land diversification option with relatively low economic risk, although higher risk than their previous land use. Beef production was considered a low-risk option, but less profitable than sugarcane. In conjunction with converting part of their land to sugarcane, most farmers maintained and further intensified their previous agricultural activity, often beef production. Several farmers invested in expanded production in other regions with relatively low land prices. Very few farmers in the expansion regions shifted all their land from the former, less profitable, use to sugarcane. Very few farmers in this study had deforested any land in connection with changes made when shifting to sugarcane. The respondents understand "environmental friendliness" as compliance with the relevant legislation, especially the Brazilian Forest Act, which is also a requirement for delivering sugarcane to the mills. Indirect land-use change is not a concern for the interviewed farmers, and conversion of forests and other native vegetation into sugarcane plantations is uncontroversial if legal. We derive hypotheses regarding farmers' actions and opinions from our results. These hypotheses aim to contribute to better understanding of what takes place in conjunction with expansion of sugarcane and can, when tested further, be of use in developing, e.g., policies for iLUC-free biofuel production.

  • 21. Ek, M.
    et al.
    Chirat, C.
    Fogelström, L.
    Iversen, T.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Li, D.
    Malmström, E.
    Norström, E.
    Sixta, H.
    Testova, L.
    Wawro, D.
    Wobama - Wood based materials and fuels2014In: Cellulose Chemistry and Technology, ISSN 0576-9787, Vol. 48, no 9-10, 773-779 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Marielle
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Truong, Xu-Bin
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Biogas Research Center. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Sweden.
    High-rate anaerobic digestion of kraft mill fibre sludge by CSTRs with sludge recirculation.2016In: Waste Management, ISSN 0956-053X, E-ISSN 1879-2456, Vol. 56, 166-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Kraft fibre sludge from the pulp and paper industry constitutes a new, widely available substrate for thebiogas production industry, with high methane potential. In this study, anaerobic digestion of kraft fibresludge was examined by applying continuously stirred tank reactors (CSTR) with sludge recirculation.Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 800 days, one on fibre sludge (R1), and the other on fibre sludgeand activated sludge (R2). Additions of Mg, K and S stabilized reactor performance. Furthermore, theCa:Mg ratio was important, and a stable process was achieved at a ratio below 16:1. Foaming was abatedby short but frequent mixing. Co-digestion of fibre sludge and activated sludge resulted in more robustconditions, and high-rate operation at stable conditions was achieved at an organic loading rate of 4 gvolatile solids (VS) L1 day1, a hydraulic retention time of 4 days and a methane production of230 ± 10 Nm L per g VS.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-07-21 09:35
  • 23. Francey, S.
    et al.
    Tran, H.
    Berglin, N.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Global survey on lime kiln operation energy consumption and alternative fuel usage2011In: TAPPI Journal, ISSN 0734-1415, no 8, 19-26 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 24.
    Gömec, Görkem
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Building Rural Development Strategies Through Energy Resilience in Turkey: A Brown Revolution of Biogas and Cooperatives2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    While the growth of Turkey brings many prosperities, the required energy for this development creates a dependency that goes up to 80% of total energy consumption. In order to have a resilient energy system that adapts to sudden changes in an area where political and social conditions are not stable, Turkey needs a renewable energy source produced by domestic resources. This study shows that the abundant resources in agriculture sector for biomass energy production, especially biogas production, can be that energy source however, this will require a new rural development model that uses cooperatives in its centre. Further research and interviews suggest that, the cooperatives have the capacity, but not all of them have the opportunity and the support to take upon this task.

  • 25.
    Göransson, Malena
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    OXIDATIV FÖRBEHANDLING AV MESOFILT RÖTAT SLAM FÖR ÖKAD BIOGASPRODUKTION2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis which was conducted in 2011 at the Käppala wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) has investigated the possibility to use the chemical conditioning process KemiCond® as a pre-treatment method to anaerobic digestion for increased biogas production. A previous investigation showed that sludge treated with the Kemicond process has a higher gas potential than untreated sludge. The experiment was conducted using a lab scale batch process. The influence of the unfavourable conditions (low alkalinity, low pH and high sulphate concentration) caused by the Kemicond-process were however not investigated. The objective of this master thesis was thus to further examine these previous results.

    In this master thesis two lab scale experiments have been conducted, one batch and one continuous. In the batch experiment two different concentrations of wet and dewatered Kemicond treated sludge were investigated. Untreated sludge from the anaerobic digesterR200 at Käppala waste water treatment plant was used as a reference and also to dilute the Kemicond treated sludge to the desired dry matter concentration. The experiment showed that both wet and dewatered sludge resulted in a faster gas production in the beginning of the anaerobic digestion, and for the dewatered sludge the amount of gas produced exceeded that of the reference. In the experiment with the wet Kemicond treated sludge the gas production decreased or halted after the initial faster phase.

    In the continuous experiment the concentration of dewatered sludge which gave the best result in the batch experiment was used. Sludge from R200 was used as a reference. The results indicated that the gas production increased in the reactor with the dewatered sludge compared to the reference. A stable process was obtained.

    A rough calculation has been performed to investigate a possible process layout in full scale. This showed that the largest benefits except for the increased biogas production are associated with a decreased use of chemicals when less sludge is treated with the Kemicond process.

  • 26. Hammar, T.
    et al.
    Ericsson, N.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hansson, P. -A
    Climate Impact of Willow Grown for Bioenergy in Sweden2014In: Bioenergy Research, ISSN 1939-1234, Vol. 7, no 4, 1529-1540 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Short-rotation coppice willow (SRCW) is a fast-growing and potentially high-yielding energy crop. Transition to bioenergy has been identified in Sweden as one strategy to mitigate climate change and decrease the current dependency on fossil fuel. In this study, life cycle assessment was used to evaluate and compare the climate impacts of SRCW systems, for the purpose of evaluating key factors influencing the climate change mitigation potential of SRCW grown on agricultural land in Sweden. Seven different scenarios were defined and analysed to identify the factors with the most influence on the climate. A carbon balance model was used to model carbon fluxes between soil, biomass and atmosphere under Swedish growing conditions. The results indicated that SRCW can act as a temporary carbon sink and therefore has a mitigating effect on climate change. The most important factor in obtaining a high climate change-mitigating effect was shown to be high yield. Low yield gave the worst mitigating effect of the seven scenarios, but it was still better than the effect of the reference systems, district heating produced from coal or natural gas.

  • 27.
    Henders, Sabine
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Palm, Matilda
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Englund, Oskar
    Physical Resource Theory, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg.
    Sustainability criteria for land use activities in the carbon market2011Report (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB ( Lund University/ Chemical Engineering) .
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Method for Hydrogenating 1,2-Unsaturated Carbonylic Compounds2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a method of hydrogenating an1,2-unsaturated carbonylic compound to obtain the corresponding saturated carbonylic compound in the presence of a palladium catalyst with heterogeneous distribution of palladium

  • 29.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB (Lund University/Chemical engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    A Process for Producing Acrolein2012Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Disclosed is a process for dehydrating glycerol into acrolein over an acidic catalyst in gas phase in the presence of hydrogen, minimizing side reactions forming carbon deposits on the catalyst.

  • 30.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-solution I Malmö AB (Lund University/ Chemical Engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-Solution i Malmö AB.
    Process for Preparing Lower Hydrocarbons from Glycerol2011Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    The present invention relates to a process of preparing hydrocarbons from oxygenated hydrocarbons by use of at least two catalysts.

  • 31.
    Hulteberg, Christian
    et al.
    Biofuel-solution i Malmö AB (Lund University/Chemical Engineering).
    Brandin, Jan
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering. Biofuel-solution i Malmö AB.
    Woods, Richard Root
    Primafuel Inc. (US).
    Porter, Brook
    Primafuel inc. (US).
    Gas Phase Process for Monoalcohol Production from Glycerol2008Patent (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    A method of producing short chain alcohols from glycerol generated as a byproduct of biodiesel production is provided.

  • 32.
    Jansson, Mikael
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Larsson, M
    The value chain for biomethane from the forest industry2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33.
    Johnson, Francis X
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Diaz-Chavez, Rocio
    Imperial College London.
    Israilava, Alesia
    Swedish Energy Agency.
    Rosillo-Calle, Frank
    Imperial College London.
    Takama, Takeshi
    Japan International Cooperation Agency.
    Tella, Patricia
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    The Achievable Potential of Wood Fuels for Climate Mitigation at Regional and Global Levels: Reviewing the Scope for Technical, Economic and Financial Implementation2010In: Proceedings of the 18th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition / [ed] WIP/ETA, 2010Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Bioenergy from wood is the oldest energy source but at the same time there are new opportunities for wood energy to make substantial contributions to climate mitigation while also helping to improve the quality of energy services and contribute to development and energy security objectives. The potential for wood fuels for climate mitigation in the near-term are probably concentrated in the area of biomass co-firing with coal, due to the low cost and the major growth in coal-fired generation in countries such as China. There are also options for climate mitigation in the traditional biomass sector, through improved stoves and through more efficient charcoal production. Other options include substitution for coal in steel-making. The socio-economic implications are somewhat complex compared to other energy sources, since they relate closely to rural development but also create new allied industries, such as the wood pellets industry. Financial aspects in terms of carbon finance can be distinguished by the relatively straightforward case of larger-scale substitution projects vs. the complex small projects that are more difficult to measure and monitor.

  • 34.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Virgin, Ivar
    Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Future Trends in markets for food, feed, fibre and fuel2010In: Food versus Fuel: An informed introduction to biofuels / [ed] Frank Rosillo-Calle and Francis X. Johnson, London: Zed Books, 2010Chapter in book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A fundamental transformation is underway in the use of biomass resources for food, feed, fuel, fibre and many other uses. This transformation arises from the combination of three key drivers over the coming decades: the need to substitute renewable resources for the non-renewable ones on which economic growth has been predicated; the need to adapt to a changing climate by using resources more wisely and investing in the technology for biofuels that are carbon-negative; and the resource requirements of a growing world population with increasing demands for food, feed and fuel. There is wide scope for reconciling expanded biofuel production with food security and even for deploying biofuels in a way that support sustainable development and helps to revive rural economies. In order to realise the potential for synergies rather than conflicts between food and fuel, substantial investment in research and development is needed, as is a rejection of subsidies for unsustainable agricultural practices and a wide adoption of policies that support integrated and highly productive biomass platforms. Future trends in demand and supply reveal the importance of avoiding the view that food security and biofuel development are competing objectives: the biomass resources that support food and fuel—as well as feed, fibre, fertiliser and other uses—can and must be used synergistically to address the energy and climate challenge of the coming decades.

  • 35.
    Jonsdottir, Rakel J.
    et al.
    Norðurlandsskógar, Krókeyri, IS-600, Akureyri, Iceland.
    Sigurdsson, Bjarni D.
    Faculty of Environmental Sciences, Agricultural University of Iceland, Hvanneyri, IS-311, Borgarnes, Iceland.
    Lindström, Anders
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Forest and Wood Technology. School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Box 43, 739 21 Skinnskatteberg, Sweden.
    Effects of nutrient loading and fertilization at planting on growth and nutrient status of Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii) seedlings during the first growing season in Iceland2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, ISSN 0282-7581, Vol. 28, no 7, 631-641 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The low availability of nitrogen (N) is believed to be one of the major limiting factors of forest regeneration inIceland and frequently under Boreal conditions. Lutz spruce (Picea x lutzii Littl.) seedlings were nutrient loadedusing four fertilization regimes in the end of nursery rotation in autumn 2008 and planted in the following spring,with or without a single dose of fertilizer, on two treeless sites in N-Iceland with contrasting soil fertility.Measurements were made after one growing season. The highest loading level without additional field fertilizationincreased new needle mass by 122% and 152%, for the poor and more fertile site, respectively. The highest loadinglevel with field fertilization increased new needle mass equally, by 188% and 189%, for the poor and more fertilesite, respectively. Retranslocation of N, from old needles to current needles, increased with more loading.However, it was clear that nutrient loading could not replace field fertilization, as the seedlings generally showedan additive response to field fertilization and nutrient loading; doing both always gave the best results in seedlingperformance. As the study only covers field establishment during the first year, the long-term effect of nutrientloading of Lutz spruce cannot be predicted. However, it was concluded that loading might provide an additionalinput for faster plantation establishment during the first growing season after planting.

  • 36.
    Jonsson, Daniel
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.).
    Gårdsverk i Skåne2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    45 metre high, 45 kW wind turbines are small enough to be considered small-scale wind power under Swedish regulations (requiring only a simple building permit), but powerful enough to significantly reduce the energy bill for a large farm.

    Several actors on the market have identified this business opportunity, and there seems to be an interest from potential customers. But how well does this new type of turbine align with municipal planning goals? Is it possible to get permits for them?

    In this thesis, the conditions for building these turbines in all 33 municpipalities in the county of Scania in southern Sweden are discussed. After an initial investment appraisal, wind, landscape and market conditions are discussed to determine where one might want to erect these turbines.

    Then, focus is shifted towards where it would possible to get a permit. The comprehensive plans of the municipalities are compared to the permits they have granted. This is supplemented by interviews where possible.

    Finally, everything is compiled and a few distinct areas emerge. The forest in the north­eastern parts of the county makes the turbines unprofitable. With a few exceptions, the southern part of the county is an excellent place to market these turbines while the political question seems to remain open in the northwest.

  • 37.
    Kalén, Jonas
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Åkerlund, Nathan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Energiteknik.
    Gårdsbaserad biogas på Nya Skottorp: utvärdering och optimering av anläggningen och uppgradering av biogasen2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Biogas is an expanding sector within the broad field of agriculture and animal production. Small-scale biogas offers local combined power and heating production and the substrate is transformed into high-quality biological fertilizer. This bachelor thesis focuses on a pig farm in south-western Sweden, where biogas is produced from pig manure, evaluates and suggests ways of optimizing the process and investigates whether investing in an upgrading plant would be a feasible and more cost-efficient option. The results show that the biogas plant is working well, although the production differs from the original plans. This shows in turn that planning and examining the basic conditions before making the investment is of great importance, as well as monitoring and keeping detailed statistics of the running process. Logistical factors make optimizing the process through additional substrates difficult. The thesis shows that investing in a Biosling upgrading plant would be a profitable option, supposing that the upgraded gas is sold via the natural gas infrastructure. Furthermore, many farmers are interested in producing their own fuel for tractors and other machines, which offers more future alternatives for the upgraded biogas. However, biogas producers in Sweden today are not offered any particular subsidies, which makes it especially hard for small-scale producers.

  • 38.
    Kantarelis, Efthymios
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Yang, Weihong
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Blasiak, Wlodzimierz
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Materials Science and Engineering, Energy and Furnace Technology.
    Biomass pyrolysis  for energy and fuels production2013In: Technologies for Converting Biomass to Useful Energy: Combustion, Gasification, Pyrolysis, Torrefaction and Fermentation / [ed] Erik Dahlquist, CRC Press, 2013, 245-277 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Karlsson, Sara
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Sustainable use of Baltic Sea natural resources based on ecological engineering and biogas production: System analysis and case study Trelleborg2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Eutrophication is one of the most serious environmental problems in the Baltic Sea due to factors such as nutrient discharges from different sources and long residence time. Eutrophication gives rise to increased primary production, often followed by oxygen depletion and disruption of important ecosystems. An action plan has been created by the Helsinki Commission (HELCOM) in order to achieve good ecological status of the Baltic Sea in the year of 2021. According to the action plan, 21 000 tonnes of nitrogen and 290 tonnes of phosphorus shall be decreased of the annual discharge from Sweden.

    The aim of methods within ecological engineering is to solve environmental problems, and the applications ranging from the harvesting of existing ecosystems to the construction of new ecosystems. This study evaluates if harvest of algae, reed, and mussels can help meeting the goals of the action plan considerably, in accordance with areas and biomass amounts that need to be harvested, and to assess the efficiency of the three biomasses with regards to nutrient reduction. The potential of harvested biomasses as substrates in biogas production and as fertilizers is investigated, and how much fossil CO2 that can be saved from being released to the atmosphere if net energy benefits, calculated from energy budgets in the biogas process, replaces fossil fuels.

    Life cycle inventories which extend from the harvest (i.e. from the Baltic coast of Sweden) to the production of biogas have been made in order to investigate the biogas potential of algal, reed, and mussel biomass. Suitability of the three biomasses as fertilizers has been assessed through comparison between nutrient sufficiency of crops and nutrient contents of the three biomasses (i.e. based on quotients of nitrogen).

    The quantity of biomass in the areas that can be harvested can help meeting the goals of the action plan drawn up by HELCOM, and mussels show to be most efficient with regards to nutrient reduction efficiency. Reed has the highest net energy benefit followed by algae, and both biomasses show potential of further investigation as substrates in the biogas production process. Mussels have low net energy benefit and thus are not a suitable substrate in biogas production. The three biomasses are suitable as fertilizers with respect to contents of nitrogen but the content of phosphorus occurs under the sufficiency levels for the crops (i.e. peas, grain, and sugar beets). For algae and reed, the potassium contents occur above the sufficiency level for peas and grain but under the level for sugar beets, mussels contain lower levels of potassium than the need of the investigated crops.

  • 40.
    Karlsson, Tommy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Biogasrötning av socker- och foderbetor: Jämförelse av färska, stuklagrade samt ensilerade betor i laboratorieskala2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Fossil fuels are affecting our climate negatively and there is a limited amount of them in the world, which leads to the importance of finding alternative fuels. One alternative is biogas, which is produced though a digestion process of different organic materials in a biogasreactor. Organic substrate that comes from farms has the biggest potential to increase the production of biogas in Sweden. Primarily crops from farms, but also waste products like manure are of great importance.

    Today there is a calculated theoretical potential for biogasproduction of 14TWh per year, which is around ten times larger than Sweden’s production today. This potential depends on how much arable land that is used to produce crops for biogas though, and can be much larger. The biggest contributor to increase the biogasproduction is crops from farms and manure3. The reason for this is because sugar- and fodderbeets contain the highest amount of energy per hectare arable land for crops, and therefore it is interesting to study how to optimize the use of this energy.

    Usually the beets have to be stored after the harvest since the most of the beets cannot be used directly, and a consistent feed to the biogas reactors is favorable. The most common way to store the beets today is in covered storage or silage. The beets are usually in need of being co-digested together with another substrate since the amount of nitrogen that the beets contain are relatively low, and therefore the beets may be in need of co-digest with a substrate that contains a higher amount of nitrogen. For example are manure or slaughterwaste substrates containing high amounts of nitrogen, and therefore are co-digestion between beets and these kinds of substrates improving the ratio between carbon and nitrogen, which improves the digestion process. This is the reason why the beets were co-digested with manure from cattle during this study.

    The goal with this study were to compare newly harvested sugar- and fodderbeets potential for biogasproduction, with the production from beets that were placed in covered storage respectively silage. Another goal was to decide which type of beet, storage method and pre-treatment method that are the most optimal for co-digestion with manure from cattle.

    The tests showed that when newly harvested sugar- and fodderbeets were added the part size were a more important factor then when the beets had been stored or ensilaged. For newly harvested sugarbeets the biggest part size gave the highest production, while the newly harvested fodderbeets of the same size did not have time to digest properly, which resulted in that their production were the lowest. When the haulm from sugarbeets were added together with sugarbeets and co-digested with manure from cattle the results were more like the results from the fodderbeets.

    During the tests ensilaged beets had a higher production than the newly harvested and the beets that were stored covered. Even though the results from the ensilaged beets were modified since losses occurred from the ensilation process. Comparison between the groups showed no bigger differences in production for the sugarbeets, while for fodderbeets the second largest part size had a higher production than the others with fodderbeets. With ensilaged sugarbeets together with the haulm there was shown that the group with the second most amount of haulm gave a higher production than the rest of the groups that were co-digested with haulm.

    The tests can be concluded by that newly harvested and the sugarbeets that were stored covered are more suitable to be co-digested together with manure from cattle than fodderbeets when looking at these percentage admixtures and preconditions. When the beets have been ensilaged is it more favorably to use fodderbeets then sugarbeets together with manure from cattle. The part size was shown to have no bigger significance. To sum up ensilaged beets over all seem to be more favorably to co-digest with cattle manure than newly harvested or beets that were in covered storage. The production per gram VS were significantly higher although correction calculations.

  • 41.
    Karpenja, Tatjana
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Jansson, Mikael
    RISE, Innventia.
    Bergnor, Elisabeth
    RISE, Innventia.
    Environmental results from EU project BioCoup and LignoFuel project: co-processing pyrolysis oil in a traditional oil refinery unit2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Khan, Ershad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Mainali, Brijesh
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Techno-Economic Analysis of Small Scale Biogas Based Poly generation Systems in Bangladesh2012Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to electricity, clean drinking water andclean cooking gas services are genuine needs of the rural poor in order to improvetheir living conditions. One can think of addressing these needs individually orinstead use an integrated approach. Looking for solutions using a holisticapproach should always have a better impact. A small scale and distributedbiogas based poly generation system could be an effective solution to bringsustainable development to remote and rural areas of Bangladesh. Biogasdigesters are a popular and promising rural energy technology and the integrationof biogas production with power generation and water purification is aninnovative approach. This paper discusses such an integrated poly generationsystem and analyzes the techno-economic performance of the scheme for meetingthe demand of electricity, cooking energy and safe drinking water of 30households in a rural village of Bangladesh. The mass flows and energy balance,life cycle cost (levelized cost) of producing electricity, cooking gas and safedrinking water as well as the payback period of such a poly generation system wereestimated. In this study, it has been found that this poly generation system ismuch more competitive and promising than other available technologies whenattempting to solve the energy and arsenic-related problems in Bangladesh. Thedeterminant factors influencing the performance of the system and their impacton the cost have been looked at under different conditions. This paper willserve as a background paper in order to expand research further in thedirection of making biogas based poly generation system as a successfulbusiness solution in rural areas.

  • 43.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Optimizing ethanol and bioelectricity production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil2012Report (Other academic)
  • 44.
    Khatiwada, Dilip
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS. International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Sylvain, Leduc
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    McCallum, Ian
    Ecosystems Services & Management (ESM) program, International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA), Austria.
    Silveira, Semida
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy and Climate Studies, ECS.
    Optimizing second generation bioethanol production in sugarcane biorefineries in Brazil2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 45.
    Kimani, Duane
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Biodiesel and Hydrogen Production: A Study of Nostoc sp. in Pulp and Paper Wastewater2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The modernized world is over-consuming low-cost energy sources that strongly contributes to environmental stress. As a consequence, the interest for environmentally friendly alternatives has increased immensely. One such alternative is utilizing the diazotrophic nature of the heterocystous filamentous cyanobacteria Nostoc sp. as feedstock for biodiesel and hydrogen production using pulp and paper wastewater – a phosphorous and nitrogen deficient medium. In this work, biodiesel and hydrogen production was studied with respect to three main aspects: biodiesel quality properties, lipid content and hydrogen production coupled with a preliminary study investigating the luminous effects on the biomass and biodiesel quality properties when exposed to low (50 μEm-2s-1), medium (150 μEm-2s-1) and high light (300 μEm-2s- 1).

    The preliminary study showed that an increase of light intensity was associated with parabolic results for biomass following the 10-day cultivation period, with the medium light intensity showing an average dried weight of at the most 203% greater than the two other light intensities. When analysing the FAME- composition, similar results were demonstrated for the fatty acid constituents preferred for biofuel applications, C18:1 and C18:2 fatty acids, where the low, medium and high light showed an accumulative 34.65, 43.1 and 31.6 dwt % respectively.

    The strain could be of interest as feedstock for biodiesel when cultivated in pulp and paper wastewater, due to the positive results pertaining to the lipid content and biodiesel quality properties. Following the 10-day cultivation period the lipid content obtained was 35.9 dwt %. The biodiesel quality properties were tested to assess the strains suitability for biodiesel and were tested to ensure its accordance to the standards on commercial biodiesel quality; European Standard for Biodiesel as heating oil (EN 14213) and European Biodiesel Standard (EN 14214). The critical parameters tested were the regulated (iodine value, cetane number, density, viscosity, pour point, cold filter plugging point, oxidative stability) and unregulated (FAME-composition) fuel properties. Results obtained showed values within the regulated values set by the different standards. However, due to a high saturated fatty acid content, the strain showed inadequate low temperature flow properties (cloud point, pour point and the cold filter plugging point).

    This study shows that this strain has a low potential for hydrogen production, with a hydrogen production of 0.13 nmol/mg dry wt/h following the 10-day cultivation period. This low hydrogen production could be attributed to the among other things the current growth phase of the cyanobacteria.

    Chemical analyses were conducted for revealing the total nitrogen, total phosphorus and chemical oxygen demand (COD) content. Following the 10-day cultivation period, the samples showed a 22% decrease in phosphorous concentration, 11% decrease in COD concentration and 51% increase of nitrogen concentration. The probable causes for this increase is the Nostoc’s diazotrophic nature and the ammonium excretion nitrogen fixation entails, as well as the nitrogen release following the final algal growth phase – the death phase.

    In conclusion, the results showed great potential, however, further studies are recommended investigating the changes that occurs during cultivation period to further assess the strains potential as well as assessing the continuity of the results with a greater initial cellular concentration. Nonetheless, due to the positive results obtained regarding the nutrient uptake, biodiesel and hydrogen production, this study shows potential for further optimization for the use of Nostoc grown in pulp and paper wastewater for wastewater treatment, biodiesel and/or hydrogen production. 

  • 46. Kimming, M.
    et al.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Nordberg, A.
    Hansson, P. -A
    Vertical integration of local fuel producers into rural district heating systems: Climate impact and production costs2015In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 78, 51-61 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Farmers can use their own agricultural biomass residues for heat production in small-scale systems, enabling synergies between the district heating (DH) sector and agriculture. The barriers to entry into the Swedish heat market were extremely high as long as heat distribution were considered natural monopoly, but were recently lowered due to the introduction of a regulated third party access (TPA) system in the DH sector. This study assesses the potential impact on greenhouse gas emissions and cost-based heat price in the DH sector when farmers vertically integrate into the heat supply chain and introduce more local and agricultural crops and residues into the fuel mix. Four scenarios with various degree of farmer integration, were assessed using life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, and by analysis of the heat production costs. The results show that full integration of local farm and forest owners in the value chain can reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower production costs/heat price, if there is an incentive to utilise local and agricultural fuels. The results imply that farmer participation in the DH sector should be encouraged by e.g. EU rural development programmes.

  • 47.
    Kyprianidis, Konstantinos
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Skvaril, JanMälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Developments in Near-Infrared Spectroscopy2017Collection (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Over the past few decades, exciting developments have taken place in the field of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). This has been enabled by the advent of robust Fourier transform interferometers and diode array solutions, coupled with complex chemometric methods that can easily be executed using modern microprocessors. The present edited volume intends to cover recent developments in NIRS and provide a broad perspective of some of the challenges that characterize the field. The volume comprises six chapters overall and covers several sectors. The target audience for this book includes engineers, practitioners, and researchers involved in NIRS system design and utilization in different applications. We believe that they will greatly benefit from the timely and accurate information provided in this work.

  • 48.
    Landgren, Emilia
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Wallman, Sabina
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Hästavmaskningsmedels påverkan på miljö och välfärd2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Healthy, natural pastures is very valuable for biodiversity in the form of both plants and animals. An efficient use of pastures helps to preserve biodiversity, but grazing animals needs to be de-wormed to keep them healthy and to prevent harmful parasites spread on the pasture. The awareness about the environmental impact of the frequent use of deworming agents is low among the public. Some people are unaware that the absorption in horses of anthelmintics is incomplete, which make the circumstances about enviromental effect important to investigate further. The scientific evidence in this area is limited and more studies and trials are needed to deepen the knowledge about the effects of anthelmintics in the environment. Our report includes a compilation of studies conducted on anthelmintics and equine parasites, as well as an experiment which was conducted at the University of Halmstad biogaslaboratory April 2014. Anthelmintics have been shown to have negative impact on the manure ecosystem and especially against manure living fauna. Deworming routines has changed over the years as the equine industry has developed. Nevertheless, there’s still a lack of concrete approach to deworming.

  • 49.
    Lerin, Tommy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    Förutsättningar och Avsättningar för Biogas för Gröna Vessigebro: Version 1.02014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The community Vessigebro, in Falkenberg and its surrounding areas housing one percent of all dairy cattle and two percent of all pigs in Sweden. This means that there is a large amount of manure as a basis for producing biogas in the area. A number of farmers have therefore formed a cooperative named Vessigebro biogas and started the project Green Vessigebro, with the goal of creating the conditions for a more profitable and more sustainable agriculture production.

    The study deals with the conditions and sale opportunities of the feasibility study Green Vessigebro. The study has looked at the work that was previously carried out for the biogas that could be produced on the farms in Vessigebro, The main pipeline for natural gas on the Swedish west coast and its operators, the Swedish Competition Act , Electricity Act , Natural Gas Act, the District Heating Act , Sustainability Act , previously proposed measures, municipality interest in biogas from Vessigebro , possible collaborations, possible sale opportunities and perform calculations with data from the municipality Ljungby for a suggested transportation of biogas between Vessigebro and Ljungby.

    The study shows that there are several interesting sale opportunities for biogas from Vessigebro. The production and use of biogas in Sweden is increasing and the trend seems set to continue. Six gas retailers can buy gas, which EON is the most established around Vessigebro with a distribution network. EON: s distribution network runs only a few kilometers from the planned upgrading plant , in Vessigebro. An already built upgrading facility is one mil from Vessigebro. Swedegas is the only main pipeline network owner with storing and balancing responsibility on the main line that is closer than EON distribution network. A number of suppliers and industries have shown interest in purchasing the biogas and the interest from potential buyers are likely to increase when the biogas production starts. A collaboration with, for example, "Arena Bioenergy Halland" increases business intelligence and can provide an increased influence with policy proposals. The use of gas and the interest is too low for the moment for tractors, boats, trains, buses and taxis to be a possible outlet specifically for Vessigebro biogas.

    The conditions make it interesting for Vessigebro biogas to look at five different options for sale opportunities of the biogas. Three options are based on a pipeline to either the pipeline, owned by Swedegas or EON distribution line alternatively a pipeline to EON upgrading facility. One possibility is to replace vehicles that run on fossil fuels with gas-powered vehicles providing a local use and purpose and the aims of the project Green Vessigebro. The calculations made by the study with different conditions shows that a very interesting and possible sale opportunity is a transportation of biogas between Vessigebro and Ljungby.

    The conclusion from the study shows that conditions and sale opportunities are good for the planned biogas production of Green Vessigebro to become reality.

  • 50.
    Llavero Pasquina, Marcel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Microbial Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Engineered light controlled cell development for enhanced hydrogen production in Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 291332016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this thesis is to enhance heterocyst-based hydrogen production inNostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133. We envision to do so by finely regulatingthe ratio of heterocyst in order to optimize the filament energy balance. Wehereby report the development of an optogenetic synthetic switch basedon the native PcpeC promoter. The optogenetic switch featured a 24-folddynamic range when measuring reporter sfGFP fluorescence. Such a geneticgate was conceived to artificially drive the expression of hetR, the masterregulator of heterocyst development. We achieved to induce enhancedheterocyst differentiation in the presence of ammonia only by changing thechromatic properties of the light source. Thus, the natural cell developmentregulation was substituted by effectively introducing a full person-drivencontrol over the process.

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