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  • 1.
    Abolhosseini, Shahrouz
    et al.
    College of Engineering, TEMEP, Seoul National University, Seoul, South Korea.
    Heshmati, Almas
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Economics, Finance and Statistics.
    The main support mechanisms to finance renewable energy development2014In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 40, p. 876-885Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Considering that the major part of greenhouse gases is carbon dioxide, there is a global concern aimed at reducing carbon emissions. In addition, major consumer countries are looking for alternative sources of energy to avoid the impact of higher fossil fuel prices and political instability in the major energy supplying countries. In this regard, different policies could be applied to reduce carbon emissions, such as enhancing renewable energy deployment and encouraging technological innovation and the creation of green jobs. This study compares three main support mechanisms employed by governments to finance renewable energy development programs: feed-in-tariffs, tax incentives, and tradable green certificates. Considering that many of the promising technologies to deploy renewable energy require investment in small-scale energy production systems, these mechanisms could be used to enhance renewable energy development at the desired scale. Employing a carbon emission tax or emission trading mechanism could be considered ideal policies to mitigate emissions at the lowest cost. The comparison of feed-in-tariffs and renewable portfolio standard policies showed that the former is good when a policy to develop renewable energy sources with a low level of risk for investors is considered. However, the latter is an appropriate policy when a market view policy is applied by the government. Finally, considering technological progress and the cost reduction for power generation by renewable energy sources, we suggest that support mechanism policies should be reconsidered from the financial point of view. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 2.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, p. 1-14Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 3. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Borjesson, G.
    Mattsson, L.
    Identification and quantification of organic phosphorus forms in soils from fertility experiments2013In: Soil use and management, ISSN 0266-0032, E-ISSN 1475-2743, Vol. 29, p. 24-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of soil type, crop rotation, fertilizer type and application rate on the composition of organic phosphorus (P) compounds in soils from four sites in a Swedish long-term fertilizer experiment were investigated with 31P-NMR. Soil textures investigated were loamy sand, sandy loam, silty clay loam and clay. Phosphorus has been added to the soils since the 1950s and 1960s at four different rates in the form of either mineral fertilizer or a combination of manure and mineral fertilizer. Results show that in soils receiving no P addition, most of the soil P was present in the form of phosphate monoesters (6070%, depending on soil type). However, a P addition equivalent to the amount of P removed annually by harvest altered this relationship so that the soils were dominated by orthophosphate instead. This trend became more obvious with increasing P addition. At the greatest P application rate, orthophosphate comprised 70% or more of the total extracted P in all the soils. These changes in the soil were due entirely to increase in orthophosphate, because the amounts of monoesters did not change with increasing P additions. This was true both for mineral fertilizer and the combination of manure and mineral fertilizer P. Soil type and crop rotation did not influence the results. The results indicate that there is no apparent build-up of organic P in the soils, but that P addition mainly affects the orthophosphate amounts in the soils regardless of form or amount of fertilizer.

  • 4. Ahlgren, Joakim
    et al.
    Djodjic, Faruk
    Wallin, Mats
    Barium as a Potential Indicator of Phosphorus in Agricultural Runoff2012In: Journal of Environmental Quality, ISSN 0047-2425, E-ISSN 1537-2537, Vol. 41, no 1, p. 208-216Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many catchments, anthropogenic input of contaminants, and in particular phosphorus (P), into surface water is a mixture of agricultural and sewage runoff. Knowledge about the relative contribution from each of these sources is vital for mitigation of major environmental problems such as eutrophication. In this study, we investigated whether the distribution of trace elements in surface waters can be used to trace the contamination source. Water from three groups of streams was investigated: streams influenced only by agricultural runoff, streams influenced mainly by sewage runoff, and reference streams. Samples were collected at different flow regimes and times of year and analyzed for 62 elements using ICP-MS. Our results show that there are significant differences between the anthropogenic sources affecting the streams in terms of total element composition and individual elements, indicating that the method has the potential to trace anthropogenic impact on surface waters. The elements that show significant differences between sources are strontium (p < 0.001), calcium (p < 0.004), potassium (p < 0.001), magnesium (p < 0.001), boron (p < 0.001), rhodium (p = 0.001), and barium (p < 0.001). According to this study, barium shows the greatest potential as a tracer for an individual source of anthropogenic input to surface waters. We observed a strong relationship between barium and total P in the investigated samples (R-2 = 0.78), which could potentially be used to apportion anthropogenic sources of P and thereby facilitate targeting of mitigation practices.

  • 5. Ahlgren, S.
    et al.
    Röös, E.
    Di Lucia, L.
    Sundberg, Cecilia
    Hansson, P. -A
    EU sustainability criteria for biofuels: Uncertainties in GHG emissions from cultivation2012In: Biofuels, ISSN 1759-7269, E-ISSN 1759-7277, Vol. 3, no 4, p. 399-411Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cultivation of raw material represents a large proportion of biofuelś GHG emissions. The EU renewable energy directive 2009/28/EC specifies a GHG emission default value for cultivation of biofuel raw material (23 g CO2-e/MJ ethanol for wheat). The aim of this study was to quantify the uncertainty in GHG emissions for wheat cultivation in Sweden, considering uncertainty and variability in data at farm level. Results: Two levels of data collection at farm level were analyzed; simple (only yield and amount of N) and advanced (also including amounts and types of energy). The 2.5-97.5 percentile uncertainty for Swedish winter wheat was 20-27 g CO 2-e/MJ, which can be considered large in the context of the Directives threshold of 23 g (to two significant figures). Conclusion: It is concluded that quantifying GHG emissions in order to regulate biofuels is a difficult task, especially emissions from cultivation, since these are biological systems with large variability.

  • 6.
    Ahlqvist, Ola
    et al.
    Department of Geography, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.
    Wästfelt, Anders
    Department of Economics, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Nielsen, Michael Meinild
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Human Geography.
    Formalized interpretation of compound land use objects – Mapping historical summer farms from a single satellite image2012In: Journal of Land Use Science, ISSN 1747-423X, Vol. 7, no 1, p. 89-107Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Notions of land cover relating to physical landscape characters are readily captured by satellite imagery. Land use on the other hand relates more to the societal aspects of a landscape. We argue that much of the spatial configuration of landscape characters is related to land use and that satellite data can be used to represent and investigate interpretations of land use. We propose and demonstrate the joint use of a novel SRPC procedure for satellite imagery together with an explicit representation of category semantics. We use these two mechanisms to identify a collection of conceptual spaces related to land use on Swedish historic summer farms. We also outline a framework for analysis of the relations between two separate ways of knowing: the machine-based knowledge and the human, mental knowledge. An evaluation demonstrates that satellite images can be used to identify land use processes as a mixture of land cover objects occurring in particular spatial contextual relationships closely tied to the land use category semantics. This opens up an unexplored possibility for research on vague spatial ontologies and questions on how to formally articulate different interpretations of space, land use, and other branches of spatial social science.

  • 7.
    Ahnström, Johan
    et al.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden; Länsstyrelsen i Uppsala län, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Bengtsson, Jan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Berg, Åke
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, The Swedish Biodiversity Centre, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Hallgren, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boonstra, Wijnand J.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Urban and Rural Development, Uppsala, Sweden; Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Björklund, Johanna
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Farmers' Interest in Nature and Its Relation to Biodiversity in Arable Fields2013In: International Journal of Ecology, ISSN 1687-9708, E-ISSN 1687-9716, article id 617352Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Biodiversity declines in farmland have been attributed to intensification of farming at the field level and loss of heterogeneity at the landscape level. However, farmers are not solely optimizing production; their actions are also influenced by social factors, tradition and interest in nature, which indirectly influence biodiversity but rarely are incorporated in studies of farmland biodiversity. We used social science methods to quantify farmers’ interest in nature on 16 farms with winter wheat fields in central Sweden, and combined this with biodiversity inventories of five organism groups (weeds, carabid beetles, bumblebees, solitary bees, and birds) and estimates of landscape composition andmanagement intensity at the field level.Agricultural intensity,measured as crop density, and farmers’ interest in nature explained variation in biodiversity, measured as the proportion of the regional species richness found on single fields. Interest in nature seemed to incorporate many actions taken by farmers and appeared to be influenced by both physical factors, for example, the surrounding landscape, and social factors, for example, social motivations.This study indicates that conservation of biodiversity in farmland, and design of new agri-environmental subsidy systems, would profit from taking farmers’ interest in nature and its relation to agricultural practices into account.

  • 8.
    Ajjan Godoy, Fátima Nadia
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biomolecular and Organic Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Biohybrid Polymer Electrodes for Renewable Energy Storage2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Daily and seasonally fluctuating energy supply and demand requires adequate energy storage solutions. In recent years electrochemical supercapacitors have attracted considerable attention due to their ability to both store and deliver electrical energy efficiently. Our efforts are focused on developing and optimizing sustainable organic electrode materials for supercapacitors based on renewable bioorganic materials, offering a cheap, environmentally friendly and scalable alternative to store energy. In particular, we are using the second most abundant biopolymer in nature, lignin (Lig), which is an insulating material. However, when used in combination with electroactive and conducting polymers such as polypyrrole (PPy) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT), the biohybrid electrodes PPy/Lig and PEDOT/Lig display significantly enhanced energy storage performance as compared to the pristine conducting polymers without the lignin. Redox cyclic voltammetry and galvanostatic charge/discharge measurements indicate that the enhanced performance is due to the additional pseudocapacitance generated by the quinone moieties in lignin. Moreover, a conjugated redoxpolymer poly(aminoanthraquinone) PAAQ, with intrinsic quinone functions and excellentstability, has been combined with lignin and PEDOT resulting in a trihybrid bioelectrode. PEDOT compensates the low conductivity of PAAQ and provides electrical pathways to the quinone groups. The electrochemically generated quinones undergo a two electron, two protonredox process within the biohybrid electrodes as revealed by FTIR spectroelectrochemistry.These remarkable features reveal the exciting potential of a full organic energy storage device with long cycle life. Therefore, supercapacitor devices were designed in symmetric or asymmetric two electrode configuration. The best electrochemical performance was achieved by the asymmetric supercapacitor based on PEDOT+Lignin/PAAQ as the positive electrode and PEDOT/PAAQ as the negative electrode. This device exhibits superior electrochemical performance and outstanding stability after 10000 charge/discharge cycles due to the synergistic effect of the two electrodes. Finally, we have characterized the response of this supercapacitor device when charged with the intermittent power supply from an organic photovoltaic module. We have designed charging/discharging conditions such that reserve power was available in the storage device at all times. This work has resulted in an inexpensive fully organic system witht he dual function of energy conversion and storage.

  • 9.
    al Rawaf, Rawaf
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Social-Ecological Urbanism: Lessons in Design from the Albano Resilient Campus2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Currently there is a demand for practical ways to integrate ecological insights into practices of design, which previously have lacked a substantive empirical basis. In the process of developing the Albano Resilient Campus, a transdisciplinary group of ecologists, design scholars, and architects pioneered a conceptual innovation, and a new paradigm of urban sustainability and development: Social-Ecological Urbanism.  Social-Ecological Urbanism is based on the frameworks of Ecosystem Services and Resilience thinking. This approach has created novel ideas with interesting repercussions for the international debate on sustainable urban development. From a discourse point of view, the concept of SEU can be seen as a next evolutionary step for sustainable urbanism paradigms, since it develops synergies between ecological and socio-technical systems. This case study collects ‘best practices’ that can lay a foundational platform for learning, innovation, partnership and trust building within the field of urban sustainability. It also bridges gaps in existing design approaches, such as Projective Ecologies and Design Thinking, with respect to a design methodology with its basis firmly rooted in Ecology.

  • 10.
    Ali, Muatasem Latif
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Riskkommunikation generellt exemplifierat genom branden i Halmstad 20122017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    A chemical accident can cause damage in individuals, groups or entire communities. The injury may concern human life, property or the environment. An accident can affect a large part of society and requires cooperation between the actors involved. Different stakeholders need to be informed, but it is not certain how a message should be delivered and who should do it.

    The study's purpose is to study risk communication generally, as exemplified by the accident in Halmstad September 21, 2012, when a fire broke out in a warehouse in Halmstad harbor. How the involved persons experienced communication,

    What factors could affect the communication at such types of critical situations.

    In the study, two methods have been used. The first used method was a web-survey of people working in civil protection in Halmstad municipality, environmental office in Halmstad, the public living in the municipality, police, Coast Guard, industries and media. The second method was semi-structured interviews addressed to some of those affected who worked in media, police, coast guard, the company, emergency services and the local authority.

    This study showed that there were differences between the respondents' answers on how respondents perceived that there were risks to human health or the environment in this accident. Many of the respondents who responded to the survey felt that the risk communication worked well after the fire. This survey and semi- structured interviews showed that respondents felt that the municipality's website was a good information channel and the internet and social media could be a good source for the responsible authorities to quickly disseminate information to the public. This study showed that the municipality and emergency services were actors most concerned in this context when it came to communicating risks in major accidents where chemicals were involved and all respondents had great confidence to the emergency services and municipality. 

  • 11.
    Allard, Bert
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, HansLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.Grimvall, AndersLinköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 19891991Conference proceedings (editor) (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The state of the art on isolation techniques, ion binding theory, biologic activity in the aquatic environment as well as the formation of mutagenic compounds from chlorination is reviewed by worldwide-known experts. Additional papers describe current research on the topics: isolation, fractionation and characterization; biological and chemical transformation and degradation; complex formation and interactions with solids; biologic activity, halogenation of humic substances.

  • 12.
    Amiri, Shahnaz
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Energy engineering. Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden.
    Henning, Dag
    Optensys Energianalys, Linköping, Sweden .
    Karlsson, Björn G.
    Department of Management and Engineering, Division of Energy Systems, Linköping University, Linköping, Sweden .
    Simulation and introduction of a CHP plant in a Swedish biogas system2013In: Renewable energy, ISSN 0960-1481, E-ISSN 1879-0682, Vol. 49, p. 242-249Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objectives of this study are to present a model for biogas production systems to help achieve a more cost-effective system, and to analyse the conditions for connecting combined heat and power (CHP) plants to the biogas system. The European electricity market is assumed to be fully deregulated. The relation between connection of CHP. increased electricity and heat production, electricity prices, and electricity certificate trading is investigated. A cost-minimising linear programming model (MODEST) is used. MODEST has been applied to many energy systems, but this is the first time the model has been used for biogas production. The new model, which is the main result of this work, can be used for operational optimisation and evaluating economic consequences of future changes in the biogas system. The results from the case study and sensitivity analysis show that the model is reliable and can be used for strategic planning. The results show that implementation of a biogas-based CHP plant result in an electricity power production of approximately 39 GW h annually. Reduced system costs provide a profitability of 46 MSEK/year if electricity and heat prices increase by 100% and electricity certificate prices increase by 50%. CO2 emission reductions up to 32,000 ton/year can be achieved if generated electricity displaces coal-fired condensing power.

  • 13.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Toledo-Cervantes, A.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Posadas, E.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Rojo, E. M.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Lebrero, R.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    González-Sánchez, A.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Muñoz, R.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Continuous photosynthetic abatement of CO2 and volatile organic compounds from exhaust gas coupled to wastewater treatment: Evaluation of tubular algal-bacterial photobioreactor2017In: Journal of CO2 Utilization, ISSN 2212-9820, E-ISSN 2212-9839, Vol. 21, p. 353-359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous abatement of CO2 and toluene from the exhaust gas by an indigenous microalgal-bacterial consortium was investigated in a pilot tubular photobioreactor interconnected to an absorption column using diluted centrate in seawater as a free nutrient source. The removal efficiency of CO2 and toluene was maximised in the vertical absorption column by identifying an optimum liquid to gas (L/G) ratio of 15. The photobioreactor supported steady-state nitrogen and phosphorus removals of 91 ± 2% and 95 ± 4% using 15% diluted centrate at 14 and 7 d of hydraulic retention time (HRT), respectively. A decrease in the removal efficiencies of nitrogen (36 ± 5%) and phosphorus (58 ± 10%) was recorded when using 30% diluted centrate at 7 d of HRT. The volumetric biomass productivities obtained at an HRT of 7 d accounted for 42 ± 11 and 80 ± 3 mg TSS L-1 d-1 using 15 and 30% centrate, respectively. Stable CO2 (76 ± 7%) and toluene removals (89 ± 5%) were achieved at an L/G ratio of 15 regardless of the HRT or centrate dilution. Hence, this study demonstrated the potential of algal-bacterial systems for the continuous removal of CO2 and volatile organic compounds from exhaust gas coupled with the simultaneous treatment of centrate. 

  • 14.
    Anderberg, Stefan
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Assessing the Contribution of Organic Agriculture: PovertyReduction and Employment Creation in Selected Value Chains2016In: Vulnerability of Agricultural Production Networks and Global Food Value Chainsdue to Natural Disasters: Book of Abstracts / [ed] Meinhard Breiling, Anbumozhi Venkatachalam, Vienna: TU Wien , 2016, p. 23-24Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Organic agriculture (OA) is increasingly viewed as an economic opportunity for farmers allover the world. This paper addresses the effects of OA in terms of income, vulnerability andpoverty alleviation in rural areas in developing countries. It is based on a literature reviewwith emphasis on two value chains: cotton and coffee, which both involve smallholders indeveloping regions, and growing organic markets, but differ in terms of value chain structuresand geographical patterns.

  • 15. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Comparing mail-in, interview and tournament catch rates for a recreational salmonid fisheryManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 16. Andersson, Anders
    et al.
    Greenberg, Larry
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Bergman, Eva
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Su, Zhenming
    Andersson, Magnus
    Piccolo, John
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Environmental and Life Sciences.
    Estimating effort and catch of a recreational trolling fishery in one of Europe’s largest lakesManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract
  • 17.
    Andersson Djurfeldt, Agnes
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Sircar, Srilata
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden.
    Westholm, Lisa
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Ostwald, Madelene
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research, CSPR. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wetterlind, Johanna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Wiklund, Jonna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Marstorp, Håkan
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Boqvist, Sofia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Förster, Sofia
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Kongmanila, Daovy
    National University Of Laos, Vientiane, Lao Pdr.
    Nassuna-Musoke, Maria
    Makerere University, Kampala, Uganda.
    Magnusson, Ulf
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gender issues in contemporary research on agriculture for food security - Knowledge gaps and key issues across the AgriFoSe2030 themes2018Other (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Foreword

    Agriculture in low- and middle-income countries faces considerable challenges, ranging from increased food demand to climate change impacts, with rapidly evolving scope and complexity. At the same time, the opportunities to address these challenges are significant, which brings optimism that efforts

    in agricultural research can succeed. One major barrier, however, threatens to inhibit the impacts of agricultural research: the low level of gender equity in low- and middle-income countries. This is problematic on many levels and across entire crop and livestock value chains, all the way to landscape management. 

  • 18.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden .
    Barthel, Stephan
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering, Environmental engineering. Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Memory carriers and stewardship of metropolitan landscapes2016In: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 70, p. 606-614Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    History matters, and can be an active and dynamic component in the present. We explore social-ecological memory as way to diagnose and engage with urban green space performance and resilience. Rapidly changing cities pose a threat and a challenge to the continuity that has helped to support biodiversity and ecological functions by upholding similar or only slowly changing adaptive cycles over time. Continuity is perpetuated through memory carriers, slowly changing variables and features that retain or make available information on how different situations have been dealt with before. Ecological memory carriers comprise memory banks, spatial connections and mobile link species. These can be supported by social memory carriers, represented by collectively created social features like habits, oral tradition, rules-in-use and artifacts, as well as media and external sources. Loss or lack of memory can be diagnoses by the absence or disconnect between memory carriers, as will be illustrated by several typical situations. Drawing on a set of example situations, we present an outline for a look-up table approach that connects ecological memory carriers to the social memory carriers that support them and use these connections to set diagnoses and indicate potential remedies. The inclusion of memory carriers in planning and management considerations may facilitate preservation of feedbacks and disturbance regimes as well as species and habitats, and the cultural values and meanings that go with them.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Erik
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet.
    Barthel, Stephan
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ahrné, K
    SLU.
    Measuring social–ecological dynamics behind the generation of ecosystem services2007In: Ecological Applications, ISSN 1051-0761, E-ISSN 1939-5582, Vol. 17, no 5, p. 1267-1278Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The generation of ecosystem services depends on both social and ecological features. Here we focus on management, its ecological consequences, and social drivers. Our approach combined (1) quantitative surveys of local species diversity and abundance of three functional groups of ecosystem service providers (pollinators, seed dispersers, and insectivores) with (2) qualitative studies of local management practices connected to these services and their underlying social mechanisms, i.e., institutions, local ecological knowledge, and a sense of place. It focused on the ecology of three types of green areas (allotment gardens, cemeteries, and city parks) in the city of Stockholm, Sweden. These are superficially similar but differ considerably in their management. Effects of the different practices could be seen in the three functional groups, primarily as a higher abundance of pollinators in the informally managed allotment gardens and as differences in the composition of seed dispersers and insectivores. Thus, informal management, which is normally disregarded by planning authorities, is important for ecosystem services in the urban landscape. Furthermore, we suggest that informal management has an important secondary function: It may be crucial during periods of instability and change as it is argued to promote qualities with potential for adaptation. Allotment gardeners seem to be the most motivated managers, something that is reflected in their deeper knowledge and can be explained by a sense of place and management institutions. We propose that co-management would be one possible way to infuse the same positive qualities into all management and that improved information exchange between managers would be one further step toward ecologically functional urban landscapes.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Johan
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    Nordberg, Åke
    SLU, Sweden.
    Westin, Gunnar
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioeconomy, Processum.
    Askfilter för rening av svavelväte i deponigas2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Landfill gas is formed under anaerobic conditions in landfills by microbial degradation of organic material. The gas composition can vary, but at Swedish landfills the gas generally consists of 40-60% methane, 30-40% carbon dioxide and 5-20% nitrogen. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) is a highly toxic and corrosive gas, which occur in landfill gas in varying concentrations, from 10 to 30,000 ppm (equivalent to 0.001 to 3.0%). It is desirable that the landfill gas is used for electricity and/or heat production, but to do that there is a need to clean the gas to reach <200 ppm H2S. High levels of H2S increases wear on the engine/boiler and thus the frequency of servicing. This leads to expensive maintenance costs, and ultimately shortens the economic life of the plant. To reduce corrosion, it is common to adjust the flue gas temperature, but this also leads to a lower efficiency and thus reduces the energy utilization of the gas. In some cases the gas concentration of H2S is judged to be too high to be used for energy production at all. In 2015, approximately 53 GWh of landfill gas was flared in Sweden, which in many cases is due to problems with high levels of H2S.

     

    Cleaning of landfill gas from H2S leads to several values; the gas energy is used efficiently, maintenance and service costs of the engines/boiler are reduced, and emissions of acidifying sulphur dioxide from combustion of landfill gas decreases. There are commercial cleaning technologies for H2S but they are expensive, both in terms of capital cost and operating cost. Thus, there is a need to develop new cost efficient cleaning technologies that improve the economic outcome at landfills and that enables landfill gas with high H2S concentrations to be utilized for valuable energy transformation.

     

    RISE (formerly JTI – Swedish Institute of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering) together with SLU develops new, potentially cost-efficient methods for upgrading biogas to fuel quality. One of the methods is based on the gas passing through a bed of moist ash (a so-called ash filter), where carbon dioxide and H2S are fixed. The hypothesis of this project was that ashes originating from the incineration of waste, recycled waste wood etc., can be used to clean the high levels of H2S in landfill gas. This type of ashes will usually be disposed of in landfills anyway and if the treatment effect is good, it would generate synergy effects in the form of the ash first being used to clean landfill gas from sulphur before it is used as a construction material at landfills.

     

    This project performed two trials in pilot scale at a Swedish landfill with very high concentration of H2S, approximately 15,000 ppm. Different gas flow rates were studied (0.7 to 7.6 m3 / h), while the volume of ash used were similar in the two trials, 0,37 m3. The concentration of H2S in the cleaned gas was consistently very low during treatment, < 10 ppm at low gas flow rates and < 200 ppm at high gas flow rates. Two types of ash were investigated and both proved to have very good capacity to fix H2S, 44-61 g H2S/kg dry ash. In comparison with literature values, there is only one study showing an uptake capacity in the same order. Other studies report an order of magnitude lower uptake capacity.

    Based on the experimental results, the technical and economic potential for an ash filter as the cleaning method was assessed. The calculations were made for various typical landfills to cover the different range of landfills. For normal sized landfills with gas flow rates of 100-1 000 m3/h and H2S concentrations between 100 and 1 000 ppm, the amount of ash needed is 10-130 tons of dry ash per year. For the special case where the H2S concentration is extremely high, the amount of ash increases and a plant with 15 000 ppm H2S and a gas flow rate of 200 m3/h requires approximately 800 tons of dry ash per year. However, overall modest amounts of ash is required and considering all Swedish landfills the requirement of ash would be only 0.2-0.3% of the annual production of ash in Sweden.

     

    The economic calculations show that the ash filter is a competitive method for removal of H2S. For the special case of extremely high levels of H2S, it turned out that the cost of the ash filter is approximately 20% lower in comparison with the cheapest feasible conventional cleaning technology on the market. Also for the cleaning of landfill gas at more normal levels of H2S, the ash filter is competitive. At low gas flow rates (100 m3/h), the ash filter is clearly competitive compared to literature values for conventional cleaning technologies. The economy of scale seems to be higher for the conventional cleaning technologies, and consequently the difference between the cost of ash filter cleaning and other technologies is less at higher gas flow rates.

     

    The low treatment cost of the ash filter reveals opportunities for landfills that currently do not clean the gas from H2S. During the project 15 Swedish landfills was contacted and none of these reported any form of H2S cleaning. When using cleaning, the landfill gas can be used effectively, i.e. reduced flaring, increased efficiency of electricity and heat production with reduced wear on boilers and combustion equipment as well as reduced emissions of sulphur into the atmosphere, which also reduces the potential odour problems around the landfill.

     

    For further development, the design of an ash filter module prototype at full-scale is important. Furthermore, the treated ashes should be analysed for leaching characteristics, storability and usability as construction materials or as cover landfills along with an assessment of the overall environmental impact. Further tests at full scale should be made at other landfills with various gas flow rates and H2S concentrations to verify the performance of the conducted pilot tests.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Petra
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet.
    Palme, Ulrika
    Chalmers tekniska högskola.
    Markanvändningens effekter på växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vatten2012Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten fokuserar på skötselmetoder inom skogsoch jordbruk och vilka effekter de får för växthusgaser, biologisk mångfald och vattenkvalitet/kvantitet. Skogen spelar en allt större roll i klimatarbetet för att minska atmosfärens halter av växthusgaser, främst koldioxid. För den fysiska samhällsplaneringen är det viktigt att kunna diskutera olika utfall för olika markanvändning, både i tid och rum. Rapporten visar genom en systemanalytisk ansats att: De flesta skötselmetoder kan möta målen för växthusgasminskning, minimera påverkan på biologisk mångfald och vattensäkerhet, med undantag för intensivskogsbruk. Rapporten kan användas som diskussionsunderlag när olika miljömål konkurrerar.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Ramon
    Halmstad University.
    Hållbart jordbruk inom vattenskyddsområde: En studie om Sverige, Danmark, Frankrike och Tyskland2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To guarantee protection of our drinking water, water catchment protections are established. These are divided into three different zones and in the first zone it is most likely that an activity, such as agriculture, will contaminate the water resource. Hence the activities are strongly regulated or banned. The EU communion is working towards a sustained water quality through several directives; Nitrate Directive, Waterframwork directives and Sustainable use of pesticide directive. The main purpose is to regulate the diffuse pollution from agriculture.This thesis is about how Denmark, Germany and France are working towards a sustainable agriculture within water protection areas. Sweden is also discussed but mainly about two different methods applied in Linköpings and Ljungbys municipalties.How the different countries work is mainly the same due to the directives. However, there are some interesting water management methods to observe such as voluntary agreements between water companies and farmers. Moreover, the sustainability perspective is approached in a larger scale where you and I as consumers also contribute via consumer-pays-principle. Therefore, we are, by our demand for water, the problem but also the solution and together we can contribute with good social, economic and ecological conditions for ourselves and the farmer.

  • 23.
    Andreas, Seiler
    et al.
    SLU.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut och Calluna AB.
    Mörkertal i viltolycksstatistiken: resultat från enkätundersökning och analyser av olycksdata2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hidden statistics in wildlife-vehicle collision data – results from a drivers’ questionnaire and database analyses

    Among the most common causes of road accidents in Sweden are collisions with wild animals, especially ungulates. Over 50,000 ungulate accidents per year have been reported during the past 5 years and the numbers are steadily in-creasing since the 1970-ies. Despite regular campaigns, extensive investment in wildlife fencing and other preventive measures, and in contrast to declining game bag in moose and roe deer, accident statistics increase faster than what can be expected from increased traffic alone. It is obvious that wildlife-vehicle accidents in Sweden are not under control. Major contributing factors are defi-ciencies in data and uncertainty in statistics. It is well known that not all accidents are reported or show up in the official statistics, but the correction factor still used by the Swedish Transport Administration is based on over 35 years old data when traffic and wildlife conditions had been different. A better knowledge of where and when and how frequent wildlife-vehicle collisions occur is needed to more effectively plan and target mitigation actions.

    This project provides updated estimates of the hidden statistics in wildlife-vehi-cle collision data and identifies uncertainties and problems in current statistics. This was done by: i. a survey with car drivers, ii. an analysis of wildlife-related accident statistics on human injuries in the Swedish Traffic Accident Data Ac-quisition (STRADA), and iii. a comparative analysis of accident report statistics from the police and from hunters provided by the National Council on Wildlife-Vehicle Collisions (Nationella Viltolycksrådet).

    To estimate how often drivers do report and refrain from reporting wildlife-ve-hicle accidents to the police, we conducted a publicly available online-survey during Nov. 2013 to Dec. 2014 that was answered by 3981 respondents. We asked the respondents about their knowledge of and experience with wildlife-ve-hicle accidents and requested details on the most recent incident they experi-enced after 2004. More than half of all respondents (65%) reported to have been involved in wildlife-vehicle collisions at any time and around 20 % of these indi-cated that the accident was never reported to the police. About 45% of the re-spondents declared that they experienced traffic accidents with wildlife after 2004, and the proportion of non-reported incidents was estimated to between 9% (public respondents) and 19 % (control groups). We recommend therefore assuming that about 15% (± 5%) of the incidents will not be known by the police. Compared to studies from the late 1970-ies, these hidden statistics appear hence much smaller today.

    After that an incident has been reported to the police, however, there are further important sources of data loss. Depending on how the incident has been classified in the report, the records are manually transferred to secondary databases such as the traffic accident register (T-RAR). Incidents where wildlife was not the immediate cause of the accident may not be classified as wildlife-vehicle collision and thus not be found in the of-ficial police statistics. This loss has not been quantified but is estimated to be around 2%.

    Traffic accidents with human injuries (about 1.6% of all wildlife accidents) are reported to the database STRADA. Our analysis showed that on average 37% of all game-related injury accidents during 2003- 2012 was not classified as a wild-life accident and therefore probably neither was listed as such in the official police statistics.

    In most cases (74%) when an accident with wildlife is reported to the police, they notify a contracted hunter to take care of the injured animal. The hunter in turn issues a report with detailed information on the location, time and animal species. Not all of the reports (84%), however, contain complete and accurate in-formation that can be used for spatial analyses of accidents. In addition, hunt-ers’ reports seem to be biased towards larger roads and underestimate the num-ber of accidents on private and tertiary roads by about 12%.

    Technical problems in the police data system during 2012-2015 resulted in the loss of an unknown number of reported wildlife-vehicle accidents. This is why in some regions and in some years, more hunter reports were issued than police records exist. We estimate that this loss may accede 11% on average.

    In simplified terms, police statistics on wildlife-vehicle accidents during 2010 - 2015 may stand for about two-thirds of the truly occurred accidents, while hunter reports that are used in spatial analyses represent about half of the true accident frequency. However, this rule of thumb should be used cautiously as there are substantial differences in the hidden and lost statistics between the years, counties and species.

    Thus, the various shortfalls in these statistics have a significant impact on the overall estimate of wildlife-vehicle collision numbers. Depending on the data sources and on how statistics are used, different biases and data losses must be considered. Some of the causes can be easily overcome as they relate to deficien-cies in registration routines and database management. We therefore recom-mend a systematic check of the databases and improved control during registra-tion and classification of reported cases. We advocate that the different inde-pendent databases are linked through a common event ID. We also suggest de-tailed studies of how accidents are recorded and interpreted in order to better prevent future data loss.

  • 24.
    Angeler, David G.
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Sweden.
    Allen, Craig R.
    Garmestani, Ahjond S.
    Gunderson, Lance H.
    Hjerne, Olle
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Winder, Monika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences.
    Quantifying the Adaptive Cycle2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 12, article id e0146053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The adaptive cycle was proposed as a conceptual model to portray patterns of change in complex systems. Despite the model having potential for elucidating change across systems, it has been used mainly as a metaphor, describing system dynamics qualitatively. We use a quantitative approach for testing premises (reorganisation, conservatism, adaptation) in the adaptive cycle, using Baltic Sea phytoplankton communities as an example of such complex system dynamics. Phytoplankton organizes in recurring spring and summer blooms, a well-established paradigm in planktology and succession theory, with characteristic temporal trajectories during blooms that may be consistent with adaptive cycle phases. We used long-term (1994-2011) data and multivariate analysis of community structure to assess key components of the adaptive cycle. Specifically, we tested predictions about: reorganisation: spring and summer blooms comprise distinct community states; conservatism: community trajectories during individual adaptive cycles are conservative; and adaptation: phytoplankton species during blooms change in the long term. All predictions were supported by our analyses. Results suggest that traditional ecological paradigms such as phytoplankton successional models have potential for moving the adaptive cycle from a metaphor to a framework that can improve our understanding how complex systems organize and reorganize following collapse. Quantifying reorganization, conservatism and adaptation provides opportunities to cope with the intricacies and uncertainties associated with fast ecological change, driven by shifting system controls. Ultimately, combining traditional ecological paradigms with heuristics of complex system dynamics using quantitative approaches may help refine ecological theory and improve our understanding of the resilience of ecosystems.

  • 25.
    Arsenie, Irina
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Allard, Bert
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Effects of Gamma Irradiation on an Aquatic Fulvic Acid1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, p. 233-241Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An aquatic fulvic acid was irradiated with gamma radiation from a 60Co-source (dose range 0-48 Mrad), as part of a larger study of the transformation and decomposition of humic substances in natura! aquatic systems. Experiments were performed at two concentrations (1000 mg/l and 100 mg/l) and at various pH-values (2-10). The fulvic acid transformation was studied by monitoring optical density (UV-spectroscopy ), molecular weight distribution (GPC-technique) and total dissolved organic carbon (TOC). A general decrease in TOC with increasing radiation dose was observed: the initial G-value of about 5 decreased with the increasing dose to a minimum value of 0.2-0.3. A simultaneous increase in molecular weight (Mn rose from approximately 2000 to a maximum of about 4000) was observed in the acidic samples (pH 2-4) at a dose below 10 Mrad. Natural background radiation can significantly contribute to the degradation of dissolved humic substances in deep groundwaters, considering the observed G-value for low doses (about 5) and the otherwise high chemical stability of the fulvic acid fraction even after long residence times (103-104 y) in the ground.

  • 26.
    Asperö Lind, Mikael
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Biologisk behandling av matavfall med avfallskvarn: En systemanalys2009Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal sewage treatment plant Käppalaverket and municipally owned waste handling company SÖRAB, both located in the northern part of Stockholm Sweden, have together started the BOA project. BOA means “Biologisk behandling av Organiskt matavfall medhjälp av Avfallskvarnar” which is translated to biological treatment of organic food waste using food waste macerators. The initiative stems from one of Sweden’s national environmental goals: Saying that at least 35 percent of all the organic waste produced byhouseholds and companies shall be treated biologically by the year 2010 and that the nutrients from this waste should be used as fertilizer.

    In the first phase of the project, seven different scenarios on how to transport the food waste from the households to the digestion chamber were described. To be able to evaluate these scenarios from a societal and sustainability perspective, seven criteria were chosen:technology, environment, work environment, economy, quality, law, and acceptance. The first part of the thesis consisted of formulating indicators from these criteria, through meetings and discussions with different working groups, all consisting of people in the waste and wastewater field. After that, a review of available tools was done to find the ones that were best suited for each chosen indicator.

    For the indicators that required calculations, Substance Flow Analysis, Life Cycle Analysis, Energy Analysis and Life Cycle Costing were chosen. After the tools had been used the results were given grades depending on how big impact they would have on society. For some of the indicators calculations were not possible and instead a qualitative grading system was used, in which the different working groups graded each scenario depending on the indicator and the grades were weighted and summed together.

    Finally, a multi criteria analysis was made together with the project managers from Käppalaverket and SÖRAB, in which the different indicators were discussed and weighted depending on how important they were considered to be. The final result of the multi criteria analysis was that one scenario could be chosen as the most suited for transport of food waste, from the perspective of the chosen indicators and their given weight.

    The scenario in which food waste is collected in bins and then transported by car to a centralprocessing plant, and finally transported by car to Käppalaverkets digestion chambers, got the highest score in the multi criteria analysis and is therefore the best scenario from the perspective of the chosen indicators and given weight. But from the multi criteria analysis onecould also see that none of the scenarios were given a particularly low score. This opens upfor the possibility of combined scenarios were all the residents of the SÖRAB region are given the possibility to recycle their food waste with a bin collecting system, but were there isa will to use systems with a kitchen food waste disposer instead it can be accepted as long as they do not become too popular.

    During the work of this thesis several questions have been raised that needs further investigation. One is what happens with the food waste when it is transported in the sewagesystem and another is how it will change during storage longer than four days. Also, the final results have shown that the impact on climate change from the scenarios could besignificantly decreased if a leakage free methane production could be assured and the possibility to use renewable fuels for the collecting cars was investigated.

  • 27.
    Asplund, Gunilla
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borén, Hans
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlsson, Uno
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Grimvall, Anders
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Soil Peroxidase-Mediated Chlorination of Fulvic Acid1991In: Humic substances in the aquatic and terrestrial environment : proceedings of an international symposium, Linköping, Sweden, August 21-23, 1989 / [ed] B. Allard, H. Borén and A. Grimvall, Berlin Heidelberg New York: Springer, 1991, p. 474-483Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Humic matter has recently been shown to contain considerable quantities of naturally produced organohalogens. The present study investigated the possibility of a non-specific, enzymatically mediated halogenation of organic matter in soil. The results showed that, in the presence of chloride and hydrogen peroxide, the enzyme chloroperox1dase (CPO) from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago catalyzes chlorination of fulvic acid. At pH 2.5 - 6.0, the chlorine to fulvic acid ratio in the tested sample was elevated from 12 mg/g to approximately 40-50 mg/g. It was also shown that this reaction can take place at chloride and hydrogen peroxide concentrations found in the environment. An extract from spruce forest soil was shown to have a measurable chlorinating capacity. The activity of an extract of 0.5 kg soil corresponded to approximately 0.3 enzyme units, measured as CPO activity. Enzymatically mediated halogenation of humic substances may be one of the mechanisms explaining the w1despread occurrence of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) in soil and water.

  • 28.
    Baas, Leenard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Mirata, Murat
    Linköping University, Department of Management and Engineering, Environmental Technology and Management. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bio-resource production on the basis of Industrial Ecology in four European harbours, harbour cities and their region2015In: Économie Circulaire et Écosystémes Portuaires (Circular Economy and Port Ecosystems) / [ed] Yann Alix, Nicolas Mat, Juliette Cerceau, Paris: Foundation Sefacil , 2015, 1, p. 223-242Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This chapter re ects the design and starting performance of the Symbiotic bio- Energy Port Integration with Cities by 2020 project (EPIC 2020). The EPIC 2020 project is coordinated by the city of Malmö and is performed in four harbour cities: Malmö in Sweden, Mantova in Italy, Navipe-Akarport in Greece, and Wismar (including Rostock) in Germany. A number of expert organisations and energy companies also take part in the project.

    The overall objectives of EPIC 2020 are to build operational and strategic capacity and know-how to promote ef cient use of available bioenergy resources, ef cient conversion technologies and interactions between different biomass supply chains. EPIC 2020 targets the untapped bioenergy resource potential of ports and port regions and the challenge of generating urban economic growth based on bioenergy resources. The project applies the industrial symbiosis approach to achieve its overall objectives.

    Ports provide crossing points between transport modes of goods and resources, with connections to hinterland and on-site industrial activities and a nearby urban setting. This means that ports, despite their limited areal footprint, have access to signi cant quantities of bio wastes, surrounding bioenergy resources, biomass from crossing supply chains and energy from intensive activities. The aim is to create platforms for the transformation of port areas to ef cient and carbon-neutral urban-integrated energy systems, where residual bio and energy resources and linear biomass supply chains are utilized as local and network resources.

    The EPIC 2020 project is halfway the 3-year performance framework. Re ection to primary results is provided. 

  • 29. Backstrom, Tobias
    et al.
    Heynen, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Brannas, Eva
    Nilsson, Jan
    Winberg, Svante
    Magnhagen, Carin
    Anaesthesia and handling stress effects on pigmentation and monoamines in Arctic charr2017In: Environmental Biology of Fishes, ISSN 0378-1909, E-ISSN 1573-5133, Vol. 100, no 5, p. 471-480Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stress responsiveness differs between individuals and is often categorized into different stress coping styles. Using these stress coping styles for selection in fish farming could be beneficial, since stress is one main factor affecting welfare. In Arctic charr (Salvelinus alpinus) carotenoid pigmentation is associated with stress responsiveness and stress coping styles. Thus this could be an important tool to use for selection of stress resilient charr. However, anaesthetics seem to affect carotenoid pigmentation, and it would be better if the method for selection could be implemented during normal maintenance, which usually includes anaesthetics. Therefore, this study investigated how the use of anaesthetics affected carotenoid pigmentation, i.e. number of spots, over time compared to no-anaesthetic treatment. Additionally, the stress indicators monoamines and glucocorticoids were investigated. The results indicate that the anaesthetic MS-222 affects number of spots on the right side. This anaesthetic also increased dopaminergic activity in the telencephalon. Both brain dopaminergic and serotonergic activity was associated with spottiness. Further, behaviour during anaesthetization was associated with spots on the left side, but not the right side. Repetition of the same treatment seemed to affect spot numbers on the right side. In conclusion, this study shows that inducing stress in charr affects the carotenoid spots. Thus, it is possible to use anaesthetics when evaluating spottiness although careful planning is needed.

  • 30. Bager, S. L
    et al.
    Dinesh, D
    Olesen, A.S
    Andersen, S.P
    Eriksen, S.L
    Friis, A
    Scaling-Up Climate Action in Agriculture: Identifying Successes and Overcoming Challenges2017Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Increasing food production in the face of a growing population, while adapting to and mitigating climate change constitutes a main challenge for the global agricultural sector. This study identifies, analyses and contextualizes regional initiatives related to agriculture and climate change in developing countries. In order to identify needs for improvements and possibilities for replication or scale-up, a review of recently launched initiatives is combined with a SWOT analysis. Moreover, the study places initiatives in the context of INDCs of Sub-Saharan African countries submitted under the UNFCCC. As a result, recommendations on how to develop and implement best practice agriculture climate change initiatives are presented.

  • 31.
    Barjolle, Dominique
    et al.
    Swiss Institute of Organic Agriculture.
    Belletti, Giovanni
    University of Florence.
    Marescotti, Andrea
    University of Florence.
    Casabianca, Francois
    INRA.
    Cristóvão, Artur
    De Rosa, Marcello
    University of Cassino del Lazio Meridionale.
    Rytkönen, Paulina
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies, Meal Sciences. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, ENTER forum.
    Prologue. The Role of Localised Agrifood Systems in a Globalised Europe2014In: International Agricultural Policy, ISSN 1722-4365, Vol. 1, p. 7-10Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32. Batidzirai, B.
    et al.
    Johnson, Francis X.
    Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Stockholm Environment Institute.
    Energy security, agro-industrial development and international trade: the case of sugarcane in southern Africa2012In: Socioeconomic and Environmental Impacts of Biofuels: Evidence from Developing Nations / [ed] Alexandros Gasparatos and Per Stromberg, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2012, p. 254-277Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 33. Bazilian, Morgan
    et al.
    Rogner, Holger
    Howells, Mark
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Hermann, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Energy Systems Analysis.
    Arent, Douglas
    Gielen, Dolf
    Steduto, Pasquale
    Mueller, Alexander
    Komor, Paul
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Yumkella, Kandeh K.
    Considering the energy, water and food nexus: Towards an integrated modelling approach2011In: Energy Policy, ISSN 0301-4215, E-ISSN 1873-6777, Vol. 39, no 12, p. 7896-7906Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The areas of energy, water and food policy have numerous interwoven concerns ranging from ensuring access to services, to environmental impacts to price volatility. These issues manifest in very different ways in each of the three "spheres", but often the impacts are closely related. Identifying these interrelationships a priori is of great importance to help target synergies and avoid potential tensions. Systems thinking is required to address such a wide swath of possible topics. This paper briefly describes some of the linkages at a high-level of aggregation - primarily from a developing country perspective - and via case studies, to arrive at some promising directions for addressing the nexus. To that end, we also present the attributes of a modelling framework that specifically addresses the nexus, and can thus serve to inform more effective national policies and regulations. While environmental issues are normally the 'cohesive principle' from which the three areas are considered jointly, the enormous inequalities arising from a lack of access suggest that economic and security-related issues may be stronger motivators of change. Finally, consideration of the complex interactions will require new institutional capacity both in industrialised and developing countries.

  • 34.
    Behrens, Thomas
    et al.
    Bremen Institute of Prevention Research & Social Medicine, Bremen, Germany; Institute of Prevention & Occupational Medicine of German Social Accidents Insurance, Bochum, Germany.
    Lynge, Elsebeth
    Inst Publ Hlth, Univ Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Cree, Ian
    Inst Ophthalmol, University College London (UCL), London, England.
    Lutz, Jean-Michel
    National Institute for Cancer Epidemiology and Registration (NICER), Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland.
    Eriksson, Mikael
    Dept of Oncology, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden..
    Guenel, Pascal
    Centre de recherche en épidémiologie et santé des populations (CESP), French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), Villejuif, France; Univ Paris Sud, Villejuif, France.
    Merletti, Franco
    Cancer Epidemiology Unit, Univ Turin, Piemonte, Italy; ll Centro di Riferimento per l'Epidemiologia e la Prevenzione Oncologica (CPO), Piemonte, Italy.
    Morales-Suarez-Varela, Maria
    Dept of Prevention Medicine, Unit Public Health & Environmental Care, University Valencia, Valencia, Spain; CIBER Act Epidemiology & Public Health, Res Grp CIBER CB06, Valencia, Spain; Center Public Health Research CSISP, Valencia, Spain.
    Afonso, Noemia
    Med Oncol Serv, Inst Portugues Oncol Francisco Gentil, Oporto, Portugal.
    Stengrevics, Aivars
    Latvia Canc Registry, Riga, Latvia.
    Fevotte, Joelle
    Umrestte UCB Lyon 1 InVS Inrets, Lyon, France.
    Sabroe, Svend
    Dept Epidemiol, Univ Aarhus, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Llopis-Gonzalez, Agustin
    Dept Prevent Med, Unit Publ Hlth & Environm Care, Univ Valencia, Valencia, Spain; CIBER Act Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Res Grp CIBER CB06, Valencia, Spain.
    Gorini, Giuseppe
    Environm & Occupat Epidemiol Unit, ISPO Canc Prevent & Res Inst, Florence, Italy.
    Hardell, Lennart
    Department of Oncology, Örebro University Hospital, Region Örebro län, Örebro, Sweden.
    Stang, Andreas
    Inst Clin Epidemiol, Univ Halle Wittenberg, Halle, Germany; Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Univ Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany..
    Ahrens, Wolfgang
    Bremen Inst Prevent Res & Social Med, Bremen, Germany; Inst Med Informat Biometry & Epidemiol, Univ Duisburg Essen, Essen, Germany.
    Pesticide exposure in farming and forestry and the risk of uveal melanoma2012In: Cancer Causes and Control, ISSN 0957-5243, E-ISSN 1573-7225, Vol. 23, no 1, p. 141-151Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since pesticides are disputed risk factors for uveal melanoma, we studied the association between occupational pesticide exposure and uveal melanoma risk in a case-control study from nine European countries.

    Incident cases of uveal melanoma and population as well as hospital controls were included and frequency-matched by country, 5-year age groups and sex. Self-reported exposure was quantified with respect to duration of exposure and pesticide application method. We calculated the exposure intensity level based on application method and use of personal protective equipment. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were estimated by unconditional logistic regression analyses and adjusted for several potential confounders.

    293 case and 3,198 control subjects were interviewed. We did not identify positive associations with activities in farming or forestry, pesticide application or pesticide mixing. No consistent positive associations were seen with exposure intensity level scores either. The only statistically significantly raised association in this study was for exposure to chemical fertilizers in forestry (OR = 8.93; 95% CI 1.73-42.13), but this observation was based on only six exposed subjects. Results did not change when we restricted analyses to morphologically verified cases and excluded proxy interviews as well as cancer controls. We did not observe effect modification by sex or eye color.

    Risk estimates for pesticide exposures and occupational activities in agriculture and forestry were not increased and did not indicate a hormonal mechanism due to these exposures.

  • 35.
    Bengtsson, Mikael
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Märgelgravar i Åstorps kommun: Förändringar i förekomst över tid och lokalisering i landskapet2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Märgelgravar är småbiotoper i odlingslandskapet som ofta hyser höga naturvärden och är viktiga för bevarandet av den biologiska mångfalden i slättlandskapet. De utgör också synliga kulturlämningar från 1800 - talets jordbruk och den agrara utveckling som skedde då. Märgelgravarna är idag skyddade som generella biotopskyddsområden. Biotopskyddsområdena bidrar till att uppfylla de svenska miljökvalitetsmålen samt FN - konventionen om biologisk mångfald. Märglingen var som mest omfattande mellan cirka 1850 fram till 1890 i södra Sveriges slättbygd. Märgeln användes som jordförbättringsmedel och grävdes upp där det fanns kalkhaltig lera. Där den bröts bildades bestående gravar som ofta vattenfylldes. Syftet med studien är att kartlägga hur många märgelgravar som försvunnit i Åstorps kommun, var de ursprungligen placerades och vad som kännetecknar de som finns kvar idag. Undersökningen grundas på kartmateriel från ca. 1930, ca. 1970 och 2015 som bearbetats och analyserats i ett GIS - program. Resultaten visar att endast 23% av märgelgravarna finns kvar 2015 jämfört med 1930 och att de ursprungligen grävdes i lerjordar nära bebyggelse, men att de som finns kvar idag i högre utsträckning ligger längre ifrån bebyggelse och till större del i sluttningar. Borttagandet av märgelgravarna tros bero på de omfattande rationaliseringar som jordbruket genomgick speciellt efter andra världskriget, då de sågs som odlingshinder eller som lämpliga platser att dumpa sopor och rivningsmateriel i. 

  • 36. Berghel, J.
    et al.
    Frodeson, S.
    Granström, K.
    Renström, R.
    Stahl, M.
    Nordgren, D.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Tomani, P.
    RISE, Innventia.
    The effects of kraft lignin additives on wood fuel pellet quality, energy use and shelf life2013In: Fuel processing technology, ISSN 0378-3820, E-ISSN 1873-7188, p. 64-69Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Berglin, Niklas
    et al.
    RISE, Innventia.
    von Schenck, Anna
    RISE, Innventia.
    Hoffstedt, Christian
    RISE, Innventia.
    Co-production of renewable polymers and ethanol from eucalyptus-based pulp mills2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 38.
    Bergquist, Ann-Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Keskitalo, E. Carina H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Geography and Economic History.
    Regulation versus deregulation: Policy divergence between Swedish forestry and the Swedish pulp and paper industry after the 1990s2016In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 73, p. 10-17Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article reviews the divergence of environmental regulatory arrangements in the Swedish forestry sector in relation to the closely-linked Swedish pulp and paper industry. The study finds that while the Swedish forestry sector was deregulated in 1993, with decreased state intervention in forest management, the pulp and paper sector has remained controlled by strong national mandatory requirements which have been further strengthened by European Union Directives after the 1990s. We suggest that one reason for the persistent, strict mandatory regulation of the pulp and paper sector is that conflicting goals between environmental protection and production growth have been aligned through technological change, while such a strong alignment of conflicting interests has not been possible to achieve in the forestry sector. Thus, policy divergence between the forestry and the pulp and paper industries may be explained by the success of established regulatory paths in the case of the pulp and paper industry, while in forestry deregulation has instead been used to, at least formally, increase focus on protection of the environment while maintaining a high level of productivity. Further studies in other sectors and countrieswill be necessary to clarify the specific role of, for example, discourses of deregulation and concepts of competitive advantage concerning e.g. particular actor's roles in specific elements of regulative change.

  • 39.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Agricultural water institutions in East Africa2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is causing growing variability and uncertainty in rainfall in Africa. Since the continent's food production systems are dominantly rain-fed, these changes are putting food security at even higher risk. In order to reduce this dependency, institutional reforms in the agricultural water sectors have become a priority in research and policy.

    In this report, Atakilte Beyene, senior researcher at the Nordic Africa Institute, together with twelve researchers based in Africa, studies current agricultural water reforms in Kenya, Tanzania, Uganda, and other East African countries. The report consists of four case studies and an introductory section. The first case study evaluates the performance of community participation in water resources governance in the Mount Kenya Region. It uncovers the implication of a ban on traditional institutions on water security at a catchment level. The second case analyses the prospects of introducing pro-poor water schemes in conditions where climate change and water inequality are already challenges. It identifies incentive mechanisms that enhance more efficient distribution and utilization of water resources. The third case examines impacts of competitive and intensive farming strategies, especially irrigation schemes, on water demands. The final case study explores how advances in information and communication technologies improve water-use management systems across organizational and geographic scales.

  • 40.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Agrarian Change, Property and Resources.
    Large-scale land acquisitions in Tanzania and Ethiopia: a comparative perspective2015In: Looking back, looking ahead: land, agriculture and society in East Africa : a festschrift for Kjell Havnevik / [ed] Michael Ståhl, Uppsala: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet, 2015, p. 170-181Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute.
    Ngonzo Luwesi, CushUniversity of Kwango.
    Water finance innovations in context2018Collection (editor) (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Beyene, Atakilte
    et al.
    The Nordic Africa Institute, Research Unit.
    Sandström, Emil
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Emerging water frontiers in large-scale land acquisitions and implications for food security in Africa2016In: Water and food: from hunter-gatherers to global production in Africa / [ed] Terje Tvedt and Terje Oestigaard, London: I.B. Tauris, 2016, p. 502-520Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Bignert, Anders
    et al.
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bäcklin, Britt-Marie
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Helander, Björn
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Roos, Anna
    Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm, Sweden.
    9. Contaminants and Health of Aquatic Wildlife2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 73-85Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 44.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eksvärd, Karin
    Inspire and action research ab.
    Schaffer, Christina
    Stockholms universitet, Stockholm,. Sverige.
    Assessing ecosystem services in perennial intercropping systems: participatory action research in Swedish modern agrofores2014In: Farming systems facing global challenges: Capacities and strategies / [ed] Schobert, H., Riecher, M.-C., Fischer, H. Aenis, T. & Knierim, 2014, p. 112-113Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The focus of this paper is on how to assess ecosystem services in complex agroforestry systems using a case of edible forest gardens. Benefits of doing these assessments in a participatory learning and action research (PLAR) context are elaborated, as well as difficulties and questions that this has raised. The PLAR group comprised farmers on 13 smallholdings, researchers and a facilitator, which through collaboration and participatory methods have developed a general design of a forest garden, 60 m2 in size and established it on all 13 participating farms. Important values of the work are that ecosystem services are related to specific local contexts and that methodology for multi-criteria assessments of the generation of ecosystem services on a farm scale are being developed. Farmers engaged in formulating research questions, development of field trial designs, sampling and analysis of results improves the relevance and quality of the research as well as advance the adoption of new knowledge.

  • 45.
    Björklund, Johanna
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Science and Technology.
    Eksvärd, Karin
    Inspire Action and Research AB, Knivsta, Sweden.
    Schaffer, Christina
    Department of Physical Geography, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Exploring the potential of edible forest gardens: experiences from a participatory action research project in Sweden2018In: Agroforestry Systems, ISSN 0167-4366, E-ISSN 1572-9680Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To meet the environmental challenges that are presently confronting society, the narrow focus on agricultural production needs to be altered to one that places equal value on the generation of crucial ecosystem services. Current research shows that perennial intercropping systems such as agroforestry may be a feasible alternative. Based on studies during the establishment of edible forest gardens in 12 participating farms in Sweden, this paper explores the potential of utilizing multi-strata designs for food production in temperate, highincome countries. Design and species composition of such gardens, types of food they provide, and how they would best fit into the present landscape are discussed. Factors for success and major problems related to the establishment are shared. Potential benefits were found to be closely related to a thorough analysis of the social and ecological contexts before establishment. Characteristics of the site and goals of the garden need to guide species and design choices. If forest garden approaches to food production should contribute to more than local selfsufficiency, the gardens need to increase in scale. Marginal lands and transitions areas between different land uses may be appropriate. Large knowledge gaps concerning potential production, social and economic benefits, and agronomic issues were identified.

  • 46.
    Bladby, Hanna
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    Wersäll, Johanna
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Industrial Ecology.
    A meat free society: The different substitutes for meat, their future and their environmental and health impact compared to meat2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The worldwide consumption of meat continues to increase and in Sweden the annual consumption has gone from 24 kg/person in 1990 to about 78 kg/person in 2005. This contributes to large environmental impacts such as an increase of greenhouse gas emissions, unsustainable land and resource use and shortage of water. A solution to the problem is to change our diets to be more sustainable. The purpose with this research is therefore to study the positive environmental and health aspects of alternative protein rich products based on soya, grown meat, algae and insects in comparison with meat. The goal is then to compare the environmental impacts from these products by studying different LCA-studies. Furthermore, also to understand how the future will be developed by interviewing producers of meat substitutes in Sweden. Some difficulties of comparing different LCA-studies are the choice of system boundaries, functional units and environmental aspects in the studies. Nevertheless, after studying a large amount of reports and articles about the products conclusions could yet be drawn. The carbonfootprint from beef is up to 20 times larger than from the substitutes and the land use is up to 125 times larger for beef compared to substitutes. Pork and chicken have lower impact but the lowest impact seems to come from producing substitutes based on soya beans. Insects and algae also have a low impact, but the products are still in the stage of development in Sweden due to laws, regulations and lack of knowledge. Regarding the health aspects substitutes could possibly replace meat since both insects and soya are rich of protein. Insects are also rich oniron and other nutrition. Algae consist as well of good nutrition. The companies interviewed in this study were Kung Markatta, Ekko gourmet and Veggi. They had some different opinions on future products, but they could all agree on that we need to eat less meat and more substitutes. The conclusions of this research are that the environmental aspects considered in the analysed LCA-studies are mostly carbon footprint and land use. They show that beef have a larger environmental impact than meat substitutes. It is however recommended to do new studies on products with the same system boundaries and functional units to get a more accurate and comparable result.

  • 47. Blanchet, Guillaume
    et al.
    Gavazov, Konstantin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Bragazza, Luca
    Sinaj, Sokrat
    Responses of soil properties and crop yields to different inorganic and organic amendments in a Swiss conventional farming system2016In: Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, ISSN 0167-8809, E-ISSN 1873-2305, Vol. 230, p. 116-126Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In agro-ecosystems, fertilization practices are crucial for sustaining crop productivity. Here, based on a 50-year long-term experiment, we studied the influence of fertilization practices (inorganic and/or organic) and nitrogen (N) application rates on (i) soil physicochemical properties, (ii) microbial and earthworm communities and (iii) crop production. Our results showed that soil organic carbon content was increased by incorporation of crop residues (+2.45%) and farmyard manure application (+6.40%) in comparison to the use of mineral fertilizer alone. In contrast, soil carbon stock was not significantly affected by these fertilization practices. Overall, only farmyard manure application improved soil physicochemical properties compared to mineral fertilization alone. Soil microbial population was enhanced by the application of organic amendments as indicated by microbial biomass and phospholipid-derived fatty acids contents. The fertilization practices and the N application rates affected significantly both the biomass and composition of earthworm populations, especially the epigeic and endogeic species. Finally, farmyard manure application significantly increased crop yield (+3.5%) in comparison to mineral fertilization alone. Crop residue incorporation rendered variable but similar crop yields over the 50-year period. The results of this long-term experiment indicate that the use of organic amendments not only reduces the need for higher amount of mineral N fertilizer but also improves the soil biological properties with direct effects on crop yield.

  • 48.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Angelstam, Per
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Elbakidze, Marine
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Axelsson, Robert
    School for Forest Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Skorupski, Maciej
    Poznan University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry.
    Wegiel, Andrzej
    Poznan University of Life Sciences, Faculty of Forestry.
    The Polish Promotional Forest Complex: objectives, implementation and outcomes towards sustainable forest management?2012In: Forest Policy and Economics, ISSN 1389-9341, E-ISSN 1872-7050, Vol. 23, p. 28-39Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 49.
    Blixt, Torbjörn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Bergman, Karl-Olof
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Milberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Westerberg, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonason, Dennis
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Clear-cuts in production forests: From matrix to neo-habitat forbutterflies2015In: Acta Oecologica, ISSN 1146-609X, E-ISSN 1873-6238, Vol. 69, p. 71-77Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Butterfly conservation in Europe is mainly focused on well-defined grassland habitat patches. Such anapproach ignores the impact of the surrounding landscape, which may contain complementary resourcesand facilitate dispersal. Here, we investigated butterfly species richness and abundance in a habitatnormally regarded as unsuitable matrix: production forestry clear-cuts. Butterflies were recorded in 48clear-cuts in southern Sweden differing with regards to the time since clear-cutting and land-use history(meadow or forest based on historical maps from the 1870s). All clear-cuts had been managed as productionforests for at least 80e120 years. A total of 39 species were found in clear-cuts of both land-usehistories, but clear-cuts with a history as meadow had on average 34% higher species richness and 19%higher abundance than did clear-cuts with a history as forest. No effect of the time since clear-cuttingwas found, irrespective of land-use history, which was likely due to the narrow timespan sampled (<8years). The absence of temporal effect suggests that clear-cuts may provide butterflies with valuableresources for 10e15 years. Assuming a 100 year forest rotational cycle, this means that 10e15% of thetotal forested area are made up by clear-cuts valuable to butterflies, which corresponds to an area aboutfour times as large as that of species-rich semi-natural grasslands. The study illustrates the importance ofconsidering land-use legacies in ecological research and question the landscape-ecological view thatclear-cuts make up an unsuitable matrix for butterflies. Moreover, forest conservation management withspecial attention to land-use history may increase the quality of the landscape, thus facilitating butterflymetapopulation persistence. Given their large area and assets of nectar and host plant resources, clearcutsmust be considered as a butterfly habitat in its own right. Being a man-made environment withshort history, we might call it a neo-habitat.

  • 50.
    Bohman, Mattias
    et al.
    Grontmij AB.
    Berglund Odhner, Peter
    Grontmij AB.
    Schabbauer, Anna
    Grontmij AB.
    Karlsson, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Mattsson, Marie
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Rundstedt, Johan
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS).
    Biogas i Halland: Förbehandling av substrat och simulering av biogasflöden2011Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Bioenergicentrum i Halland (BEH) är ett projekt som ligger inom ramen för EU:s strukturfondsprogram. Projektet genomförs i Region Hallands regi som är regionens välfärds- och utvecklingsorganisation. Arbetet som bedrivs inom BEH syftar speciellt till att driva utvecklingen mot en ökad produktion och användning av bioenergi till biogas och i förlängningen fordonsgas. Genom att satsa på att skapa förutsättningar för innovation, kunskapsutveckling och samverkan främjas tillväxt och hållbar utveckling.

    Vid naturbruksgymnasiet i Plönninge utanför Halmstad finns idag en biogasanläggning som beskickas med bl.a. nötgödsel och matavfall. Dessutom finns en mindre pilotanläggning som är tänkt att fungera som en del av test- och verifieringsanläggning som BEH vill bygga upp i Plönninge. Som ett led i att utveckla dessa anläggningar och kunna erbjuda möjligheten till kunskapsinsamling genomfördes projektet som beskrivs i denna rapport. Uppdraget var att genomföra försöksrötningar på labb, använda resultaten för att skapa en modell som sedan kan nyttjas som ett verktyg i det inledande arbetet med att investera i en biogasanläggning som beskickas med lantbruksbaserade substrat. Högskolan i Halmstad (HH) genomförde försöksrötningarna och Grontmij (GM) använde sedan resultaten för att skapa en modell där bl.a. substrat, förbehandlingsteknik och driftkostnader finns med.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan sägas att majs som substrat fungerar bäst med de valda förbehandlingsmetoderna; kemisk behandling, termisk behandling och ultraljudsbehandling. Alla förbehandlingsmetoder med majs som substrat visade på ett positivt resultat, d.v.s. det ökade gasutbytet och dess värde (kr/kWh) översteg kostnaderna för de olika förbehandlingarna. Vad som måste beaktas är att produktionskostnaderna överlag är höga, med och utan förbehandling.

    Modellen har konstruerats på ett sådant sätt att den ska vara användarvänlig och med möjlighet att enkelt lägga till ytterligare substrat och förbehandlingsmetoder. Upprepningar av de försöksrötningar som genomförts kommer att öka tillförlitligheten hos modellen. Den fungerar som ett verktyg i att beräkna investeringsmarginalen för förbehandlingsutrustningen baserat på det valda substratet. På detta vis kan intressenter få en första indikation på om det är ekonomiskt rimligt att gå vidare med det tänkta substratet, den valda förbehandlingsmetoden, de planerade mängderna substrat etc.

    En investeringskalkyl har tagits fram för en gårdsanläggning som hanterar 5 000 ton substrat eller gödsel årligen. Det motsvarar 2-3 stycken medelstora mjölkgårdar. Kalkylen är översiktlig och syftar till att ge en första indikation på kostnader för de stora komponenterna såsom substratlager, rötkammare och rötrestlager. Kringarbeten såsom utredningar, markarbeten och geoundersökningar är inte med i kalkylen då dessa omkostnader till stor del avgörs av lokalisering och de förutsättningar som finns på platsen redan från start. Generellt kan dock sägas att den absolut billigaste och enklaste gårdsbaserade biogasanläggningen innebär en investering på 2,7-4 MSEK för flytgödsel från 100-300 mjölkkor.

    För BEH är det viktigt att skapa en plattform där intressenter kan komma för att genomföra försöksrötningar, byta erfarenheter och samla kunskap. För att uppnå detta är det nödvändigt att kunna erbjuda kunden kompletta och kompetenta lösningar på en och samma plats. Detta innebär ett erbjudande som innefattar försöksrötningar på labb-, pilot och fullskala. Ett förslag på konstruktion av pilotanläggning med övergripande principskiss ingår i denna rapport och fungerar som ett inledande arbete i projekteringen av en större pilotanläggning. Nödvändiga driftanalyser av rötrest ska kunna göras på plats i Plönninge på laboratoriet; analyser såsom enskilda organiska syror ska kunna skickas till lämpligt laboratorium. Personal ska kunna tillhandahållas för att driva och optimera rötningen enligt kundens syften och önskemål. På detta vis fungerar Region Halland som en länk mellan teori ochpraktik, mellan liten och stor skala och mellan aktörer från olika discipliner och geografiska områden.

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