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  • 1.
    Ackerley, R
    et al.
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Badre, G
    Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Olausson, Håkan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, University of Gothenburg, Sweden / SDS Clinic, ESRS accredited Sleep Research Laboratory, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Positive Effects of a Weighted Blanket on Insomnia2015In: Journal of Sleep Medicine & Disorders, ISSN 2379-0822, Vol. 2, no 3, 1-7 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insomnia is a common occurrence and can have a negative impact on physiological, psychological and social well-being. There is a need for simple, effective solutions to increase sleep quality. It has been suggested that weighted blankets and vests can provide a beneficial calming effect, especially in clinical disorders. Hence, we aimed to investigate the effects of a chain weighted blanket on insomnia, using objective and subjective measures. Objectively, we found that sleep bout time increased, as well as a decrease in movements of the participants, during weighted blanket use. Subjectively, the participants liked sleeping with the blanket, found it easier to settle down to sleep and had an improved sleep, where they felt more refreshed in the morning. Overall, we found that when the participants used the weighted blanket, they had a calmer night’s sleep. A weighted blanket may aid in reducing insomnia through altered tactile inputs, thus may provide an innovative, non-pharmacological approach and complementary tool to improve sleep quality.

  • 2.
    Ader, Ulla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Lundblad Danielsson, Inga
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Att lyssna till tonårsröster: Psykisk hälsa hos ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med fördjupningsarbetet har varit att via en pilotstudie öka kunskapen om ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning i Umeå, med avseende på psykisk hälsa, och på hur de upplever sin vardag i skolan, med kamrater och i familjen. Psykisk hälsa undersöktes genom att ungdomar med funktionsnedsättning som går i specialklasser (grundsärskolans högstadium, högstadium för ungdomar med Asperger, högstadium för ungdomar med rörelsenedsättningar), fick besvara en enkät under skoltid. För att kunna relatera till den undersökning som Statens Folkhälsoinstitut genomförde hos ungdomar i Sverige 2009 har samma enkät använts.

     

    Resultatet visar att de flesta ungdomar har angett att de mår bra, trivs i skolan, har bra kontakt med sina lärare och med sina föräldrar. Majoriteten mår lika bra som de flesta ungdomar i landet och t.om bättre än de ungdomar i Folkhälsoinstitutets undersökning, som angett att de hade någon funktionsnedsättning.

     

    Inom några områden visades dock lägre resultat. Ungdomarna i vår undersökning uppgav att deras svårigheter påverkade deras vardag i familjen och vid fritidsaktiviteter. De umgås mer sällan med kamrater, motionerar mindre och har färre fritidsaktiviteter. Ungdomar med Asperger skiljer ut sig mest i vår undersökning, de är mindre nöjda med livet och med sig själva, känner sig mer ensamma,  umgås mer sällan med kamrater och har mindre kul, jämfört med ungdomar i grundsärskolan.

     

    Det finns områden där stödet ifrån Barn- och ungdomshabiliteringen kan förbättras, som att utveckla metoder för socialt samspel och stärka ungdomarnas identitet och i samarbete med andra aktörer öka delaktigheten till en mer aktiv fritid.

  • 3.
    Adolfsson, Päivi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Disability Research.
    Food security and people with intellectual disabilities living in community residences in Sweden2012In: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research 56; 7/8, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 4. Aeinehband, Shahin
    et al.
    Lindblom, Rickard P F
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Thoracic Surgery.
    Al Nimer, Faiez
    Vijayaraghavan, Swetha
    Sandholm, Kerstin
    Khademi, Mohsen
    Olsson, Tomas
    Nilsson, Bo
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Nilsson, Kristina Ekdahl
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Darreh-Shori, Taher
    Piehl, Fredrik
    Complement Component C3 and Butyrylcholinesterase Activity Are Associated with Neurodegeneration and Clinical Disability in Multiple Sclerosis2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Dysregulation of the complement system is evident in many CNS diseases but mechanisms regulating complement activation in the CNS remain unclear. In a recent large rat genomewide expression profiling and linkage analysis we found co-regulation of complement C3 immediately downstream of butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE), an enzyme hydrolyzing acetylcholine (ACh), a classical neurotransmitter with immunoregulatory effects. We here determined levels of neurofilament-light (NFL), a marker for ongoing nerve injury, C3 and activity of the two main ACh hydrolyzing enzymes, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and BuChE, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients with MS (n = 48) and non-inflammatory controls (n = 18). C3 levels were elevated in MS patients compared to controls and correlated both to disability and NFL. C3 levels were not induced by relapses, but were increased in patients with >= 9 cerebral lesions on magnetic resonance imaging and in patients with progressive disease. BuChE activity did not differ at the group level, but was correlated to both C3 and NFL levels in individual samples. In conclusion, we show that CSF C3 correlates both to a marker for ongoing nerve injury and degree of disease disability. Moreover, our results also suggest a potential link between intrathecal cholinergic activity and complement activation. These results motivate further efforts directed at elucidating the regulation and effector functions of the complement system in MS, and its relation to cholinergic tone.

  • 5.
    Ahlander, Britt-Marie
    et al.
    Ryhov County Hospital, Sweden.
    Årestedt, Kristofer
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Nursing Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Engvall, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Cardiovascular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Heart and Medicine Center, Department of Clinical Physiology in Linköping. Linköping University, Center for Medical Image Science and Visualization (CMIV).
    Maret, Eva
    Karolinska University Hospital, Sweden; Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Ericsson, Elisabeth
    University of Örebro, Sweden.
    Development and validation of a questionnaire evaluating patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging: the Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire (MRI-AQ)2016In: Journal of Advanced Nursing, ISSN 0309-2402, E-ISSN 1365-2648, Vol. 72, no 6, 1368-1380 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim. To develop and validate a new instrument measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire. Background. Questionnaires measuring patients anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations have been the same as used in a wide range of conditions. To learn about patients experience during examination and to evaluate interventions, a specific questionnaire measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging is needed. Design. Psychometric cross-sectional study with test-retest design. Methods. A new questionnaire, Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire, was designed from patient expressions of anxiety in Magnetic Resonance Imaging-scanners. The sample was recruited between October 2012-October 2014. Factor structure was evaluated with exploratory factor analysis and internal consistency with Cronbachs alpha. Criterion-related validity, known-group validity and test-retest was calculated. Results. Patients referred for Magnetic Resonance Imaging of either the spine or the heart, were invited to participate. The development and validation of Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire resulted in 15 items consisting of two factors. Cronbachs alpha was found to be high. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire correlated higher with instruments measuring anxiety than with depression scales. Known-group validity demonstrated a higher level of anxiety for patients undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging scan of the heart than for those examining the spine. Test-retest reliability demonstrated acceptable level for the scale. Conclusion. Magnetic Resonance Imaging-Anxiety Questionnaire bridges a gap among existing questionnaires, making it a simple and useful tool for measuring patient anxiety during Magnetic Resonance Imaging examinations.

  • 6.
    Ahlsson, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Universitetssjukhuset, Örebro, Sweden.
    Rädda synen på Bach2014In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 111, no 3-4, 100-1 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 7.
    Ahlsson, Anders
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Billroth och Brahms: en problemfylld vänskap mellan två ikoner2008In: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, Vol. 105, no 10, 755-757 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Ahlsson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Being Born Large for Gestational Age: Metabolic and Epidemiological Studies2008Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Obesity is a major health problem in the Western world. Mean birth weight has increased during the last 25 years. One explanation is that the proportion of large for gestational age (LGA) infants has increased. Such infants risk developing obesity, cardiovascular disease and diabetes later in life. Despite the risk of neonatal hypoglycemia, their postnatal metabolic adaptation has not been investigated. Our data, obtained with stable isotope labeled compounds, demonstrate that newborn LGA infants have increased lipolysis and decreased insulin sensitivity. After administration of glucagon, the plasma levels of glucose and the rate of glucose production increased. The simultaneous increase in insulin correlated with the decrease in lipolysis, indicating an antilipolytic effect of insulin in these infants.

    We also demonstrated an intergenerational effect of being born LGA, since women born LGA, were at higher risk of giving birth to LGA infants than women not born LGA. Further, the LGA infants formed three subgroups: born long only, born heavy only, and born both long and heavy. Infants born LGA of women with high birth weight or adult obesity were at higher risk of being LGA concerning weight alone, predisposing to overweight and obesity at childbearing age. In addition we found that pregnant women with gestational diabetes were at increased risk of giving birth to infants that were heavy alone. This could explain the risk of both perinatal complications and later metabolic disease in infants of this group of women.

    To identify determinants of fetal growth, 20 pregnant women with a wide range of fetal weights were investigated at 36 weeks of gestation. Maternal fat mass was strongly associated with insulin resistance. Insulin resistance was related to glucose production, which correlated positively with fetal size. The variation in resting energy expenditure, which was closely related to fetal weight, was largely explained by BMI, insulin resistance, and glucose production. Lipolysis was not rate limiting for fetal growth in this group of women. Consequently, high maternal glucose production due to a high fat mass may result in excessive fetal growth.

  • 9.
    Ahlström, Gerd
    et al.
    Department of Health Sciences, Lund University.
    Wadensten, Barbro
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Caring Sciences.
    Enjoying work or Burdened by it?: How personal Assistants Experience and Handle Stress at Work2012In: Journal of Social Work in Disability & Rehabilitation, ISSN 1536-710X, Vol. 11, no 2, 112-127 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A personal assistant has to promote equality in living conditions for persons with severe disabilities. The aim of this study was to explore how personal assistants experience their work and what strategies they employ to alleviate work-related stress. Thirty personal assistants were interviewed and latent content analysis was performed. The findings regarding the experiences of work-related stress could be brought together under the theme of “difficulties of being in a subordinate position,” and those regarding management strategies could be brought together under the theme of “coming to terms with the work situation.” There is a need to empower personal assistants through training programs including tailored education, working communities, and coaching.

  • 10.
    Ahlzen, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Illness as unhomelike being-in-the-world?: Phenomenology and medical practice2011In: Medicine, Health care and Philosophy, ISSN 1386-7423, E-ISSN 1572-8633, Vol. 14, no 3, 323-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Scientific medicine has been successful by ways of an ever more detailed understanding and mastering of bodily functions and dysfunctions. Biomedical research promises new triumphs, but discontent with medical practice is all around. Since several decades this has been acknowledged and discussed. The philosophical traditions of phenomenology and hermeneutics have been proposed as promising ways to approach medical practice, by ways of a richer understanding of the meaning structures of health and illness. In 2000, Swedish philosopher Fredrik Svenaeus published a book where he proposes that the phenomenological hermeneutics of Martin Heidegger and also the reflections on health and illness of Hans-Georg Gadamer offer important ways to approach the nature of medicine. In particular, Svenaeus argues that the goal of medicine is to promote and restore health, and that health ought to be seen as "homelike being-in-the-world". Unhealth, illness, consequently should be understood as a situation where a person's "being-in-the-world" in characterized by that lack of the rhythm, balance and "tune" of everyday living that characterizes not "being at home". In this article, Svenaeus' position is briefly outlined. Questions are raised whether "unhomelikeness" is to be seen as a metaphor, and, if so, if it is a fruitful such. Furthermore, I discuss whether or not a discourse on health and illness in these terms may be misleading in a situation where the ontological presuppositions of Heidegger are lost out of sight and the popular understanding of health psychology predominates. I also approach the question whether Svenaeus' assumptions may inadvertently lead us to an unjustifiably broad understanding of the tasks of medicine. It is finally concluded that Svenaeus phenomenological and hermeneutical approach is both interesting and promising. There are, however, several questions that ought to be pursued further, and the step from philosophical analysis to everyday clinical discourse may be unexpectedly long and risky.

  • 11.
    Ahlzén, Rolf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Avdelningen för hälsa och miljö.
    Why should physicians read?: Understanding clinical judgement and its relation to literary experience2010Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Is literary experience of any practical relevance to the clinician? This is the overall question addressed by this investigation, which starts by tracing the historical roots of scientific medicine. These are found to be intimately linked to a form of rationality associated with the scientific revolution of the 17th century and with “modernity”. Medical practice, however, is dependent also on another form of rationality associated with what Stephen Toulmin calls “the epistemology of the biographical”. The very core of clinical medicine is shown to be the clinical encounter, an interpretive meeting where the illness experience is at the centre of attention. The physician can reach the goals of medicine only by developing clinical judgement. Clinical judgement is subjected to close analysis and is assumed to be intimately connected to the form of knowledge Aristotle called phronesis.

    In order to explore how literature – drama, novels, poetry – may be related to clinical judgement, a view of literature is presented that emphasizes literature as an invitation to the reader, to be met responsibly and responsively. Literature carries a potential for a widened experience, for a more nuanced perception of reality – and this potential is suggested to be ethically relevant to the practice of medicine. The “narrative rationality” of a literary text constitutes a complement to the rationality pervading scientific medicine.

    The final step in my analysis is a closer exploration of the potential of the literary text to contribute to the growth of clinical judgement, in relation to the challenges of everyday clinical work. Some of the conditions that may facilitate such growth are outlined, but it is also shown that full empirical evidence for the beneficial effects of reading on the clinician reader is beyond reach.

  • 12.
    Alberthson, Maya
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Toftgård, Matilda
    Kulturella skillnader ur ett audionomperspektiv: en intervjustudie om kommunikation i patientmöten2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom vården är kommunikation mellan vårdgivare och patient en stor del. Kommunikationsprocessen kan försvåras då man tillhör olika kulturer genom t.ex. nationalitet, kön eller socioekonomisk bakgrund. Fenomenet har studerats inom vården tidigare, men studier med hörselvårdsperspektiv har inte påträffats. Denna studie vill därför undersöka hur audionomer ser på kommunikation och de svårigheter som kan uppstå i ett patientmöte.

    Syftet med intervjustudien är att undersöka vilka kommunikationssvårigheter som kan uppståpå grund av kulturella skillnaderi audionomens möte med en patient. Studien inriktas även på hur detta påverkar audionomens arbete och vilka strategier som används för att hantera de svårigheter som uppstår.

    Intervjustudien är av kvalitativ karaktär och har transkriberats, tolkats och analyserats med hermeneutisk ansats. Analysmetod har varit meningskategorisering där viktiga och relevanta delar ur det transkriberade materialet plockats fram och sammanställts till diagram.

    Audionomerna tar upp flera målgrupper där kommunikationen är svår och även vilka strategier de använder för att underlätta patientmötet. Flera audionomer verkar se hörselproblematik som den främsta anledningen till bristande kommunikation. Fortsatt forskning krävs dock för att ta reda på om detta beror på att de inte har några problem att handskas med olika kulturer eller om det beror på avsaknad av kunskap inom detta område.

  • 13.
    Alm, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Vittne i terapi: Hur psykoterapeuter inom barnpsykiatrin upplever möten med barn, ungdomar och familjer, tillhörande Jehovas Vittnen2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fem psykoterapeuter, med blandad grundutbildning, på en barnspsykiatrisk klinik i Blekinge, har intervjuats. Syftet har varit att undersöka vilka erfarenheter och upplevelser psykoterapeuterna har av att möta barn, ungdomar och familjer, tillhörande Jehovas Vittnen, i barnpsykiatrin. Jehovas Vittnen är ett trossamfund som finns över hela världen. Det är en tro som dikterar tydliga och stränga levnadsvillkor för sina medlemmar och som inte deltar i övriga samhällets förekommande traditioner.

     

    I intervjuerna har samtliga terapeuter upplevelser av att det är svårare att utmana och skapa förändring i dessa fall. Utmanandet av ett system där man lever reglerad utifrån en tro som Jehovas Vittnen, upplevs bekymmersamt. Terapeuterna saknar tillräcklig kunskap om samfundet och om barns levnadsvillkor där. Samtliga terapeuter uppger också att det inte är en självklar och naturlig sak att fråga patienter om deras trostillhörighet.

     

    I intervjuerna framkommer en negativt färgad bild av samfundet och svårigheter kring att jobba terapeutiskt i en kultur som är främmande den terapeuterna själv lever och är skolade i.

    Det faktum att terapeuterna inte har någon egen trostillhörighet verkar vara försvårande, då frågor om tro inte finns som en naturlig del i terapeuternas repertoar. Rädsla för att kränka den lagstadgade religionsfriheten och den privata sfären, är något som leder till försiktighet vid dessa möten. I uppsatsens avslutande del sker ett resonemang kring och ges förslag på frågor som skulle kunna ingå som en del i terapeuters anamnesupptagning, vid möten med nya familjer

  • 14.
    Al-Seadi, Sara
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences.
    Leva med ADHD: En intervjustudie2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 15. Altai, Mohamed
    et al.
    Honarvar, Hadis
    Wållberg, Helena
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Strand, Joanna
    Varasteh, Zohreh
    Rosestedt, Maria
    Orlova, Anna
    Dunås, Finn
    Sandström, Mattias
    Löfblom, John
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Tolmachev, Vladimir
    Ståhl, Stefan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Protein Technology.
    Selection of an optimal cysteine-containing peptide-based chelator for labeling of affibody molecules with (188)Re.2014In: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0223-5234, E-ISSN 1768-3254, Vol. 87, 519-28 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affibody molecules constitute a class of small (7 kDa) scaffold proteins that can be engineered to have excellent tumor targeting properties. High reabsorption in kidneys complicates development of affibody molecules for radionuclide therapy. In this study, we evaluated the influence of the composition of cysteine-containing C-terminal peptide-based chelators on the biodistribution and renal retention of (188)Re-labeled anti-HER2 affibody molecules. Biodistribution of affibody molecules containing GGXC or GXGC peptide chelators (where X is G, S, E or K) was compared with biodistribution of a parental affibody molecule ZHER2:2395 having a KVDC peptide chelator. All constructs retained low picomolar affinity to HER2-expressing cells after labeling. The biodistribution of all (188)Re-labeled affibody molecules was in general comparable, with the main observed difference found in the uptake and retention of radioactivity in excretory organs. The (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 affibody molecule with a GGGC chelator provided the lowest uptake in all organs and tissues. The renal retention of (188)Re-ZHER2:V2 (3.1 ± 0.5 %ID/g at 4 h after injection) was 55-fold lower than retention of the parental (188)Re-ZHER2:2395 (172 ± 32 %ID/g). We show that engineering of cysteine-containing peptide-based chelators can be used for significant improvement of biodistribution of (188)Re-labeled scaffold proteins, particularly reduction of their uptake in excretory organs.

  • 16.
    Al-Tamimi, Mohammed
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmaceutical Biosciences.
    Läkemedelsbehandling vid kronisk hjärtsvikt_ en tvärsnittsstudie baserad på Vårdanalysdatabasen i Stockholms läns landsting2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Kronisk hjärtsvikt (CHF) utvecklas ofta gradvis under en längre tid. Det drabbar vanligen äldre, som ofta har andra sjukdomar som hypertoni och ischemisk hjärtsjukdom. Enligt läkemedelsrekommendationer och riktlinjer ska patienter med CHF behandlas med kombinationer av angiotensinkonverterande enzymblockare (ACEI) eller angiotensinreceptorblockerare (ARB) och betablockerande läkemedel (BB) och vid NYHA funktionsklass III och IV ska patienter behandlas ytterligare med mineralkortikoidantagonister (MRA). Syfte: Syftet med studien är att analysera läkemedelsbehandlingen vid CHF, som ett underlag för att förbättra vården och till nytta för patienter med CHF och vårdgivare. Material och metoder: Denna studie var en deskriptiv tvärsnittsstudie ur den individbaserade, administrativa Vårdanalysdatabasen (VAL) vid Stockholms läns landsting (SLL). Studien inkluderade alla patienter som var ≥40 år och levde i SLL någon gång mellan juli-augusti 2012. Resultat: VAL-databasen innehöll totalt 32754 patienter med CHF. Andel patienter med CHF som behandlades med ACEI/ARB var 64 % och BB var 69 % samt MRA var 18 %. Andel patienter med CHF som behandlades med kombinationer av ACEI/ARB och BB var 40 % och med kombinationer av ACEI/ARB och BB samt MRA var 11 %. Andel män som behandlades med dessa läkemedel var högre än andel kvinnor, förutom behandling med MRA som var lika hos män och kvinnor. Behandling med dessa läkemedel minskade med stigande ålder. Konklusion: Tydliga ålders- och könsskillnader i behandling vid CHF observerades. Endast 40 % av patienter med CHF behandlades med rekommenderade kombinationer av ACEI/ARB och BB. Den rekommenderade läkemedelsbehandlingen hos patienter med CHF kan förbättras. 

  • 17.
    Alvarez, Victor
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Fahlstedt, Madelen
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Halldin, Peter
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Kleiven, Svein
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Medical Engineering, Neuronic Engineering.
    Importance of neck muscle tonus in head kinematics during pedestrian accidents2013In: 2013 IRCOBI Conference Proceedings - International Research Council on the Biomechanics of Injury, 2013, 747-761 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Unprotected pedestrians are an exposed group in the rural traffic and the most vulnerable human body region is the head which is the source of many fatal injuries. This study was performed to gain a better understanding of the influence that the neck muscle tonus has on head kinematics during pedestrian accidents. This was done using a detailed whole body FE model and a detailed FE vehicle model. To determine the influence of the muscle tonus a series of simulations were performed where the vehicle speed, pedestrian posture and muscle tonus were varied. Since the human reaction time for muscle activation is in the order of the collision time, the pedestrian was assumed to be prepared for the oncoming vehicle in order to augment the possible influence of muscle tonus. From the simulations performed, kinematic data such as head rotations, trajectory and velocities were extracted for the whole collision event, as well as velocity and accelerations at head impact. These results show that muscle tonus can influence the head rotation during a vehicle collision and therefore alter the head impact orientation. The level of influence on head rotation was in general lower than when altering the struck leg forward and backward, but in the same order of magnitude for some cases. The influence on head accelerations was higher due to muscle tonus than posture in all cases.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Sjöberg, Marina
    Att bättre förstå ätstörningar och förmedla en sund kostmedvetenhet inom idrotten: Paradoxen och den svåra balansgången2011In: Dietistaktuellt, ISSN 1102-9285, Vol. 20, no 6, 14-16 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Majoriteten av idrottare drabbas aldrig av ätstörningar trots hård träning, prestationsinriktning och en mer eller mindre noggrann kosthållning och viktreglering . Det finns dock idrottare som under lång tid kämpar med en ätstörningsproblemtik där ett komplicerat förhållande till mat och träning uppstått. Vissa studier talar vidare för att idrotten skulle kunna skydda individen för ätstörningar medan flera studier visar en högre förekomst av ätstör-ningar och stört ätbeteende inom än utanför idrottsvärlden, i synnerhet inom estetiska och viktrelaterade idrotter . Maten och träningen är båda komplexa fenomen och en djupare insikt och öppenhet kring hur man hanterar denna form av ”idrottsskada” är värdefullt såväl inom idrottsvärlden som inom hälso- och sjukvården. Dietisten med fördjupad kunskap inom idrott och ätstörningar förefaller vara en värdefull person i detta arbete.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Arne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Ronquist, Gunnar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    A substantial increase of the impact factor2012In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 117, no 4, 353-354 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 20.
    Andersson, Ewa
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Andersson, Monika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Brist på sympati: Psykoterapeuters upplevelser och erfarenheterav att arbeta med klienterde inte känner sympati inför2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sammanfattning Studiens syfte var att undersöka terapeuters erfarenheter av hur ett samarbete kan skapas när utgångspunkten är att man inte känner sympati för patienten i en terapirelation. Det finns förhållandevis lite forskning som handlar om denna specifika aspekt av behandlingsrelationen. För att belysa frågan intervjuades sju legitimerade psykoterapeuter med en halvstrukturerad fokuserad intervju. Nyckelord och citat utmynnade i fem huvudteman med underteman. Huvudteman var: Utforskande/Nyfikenhet, Allians, Arbetsmetoder, Värderingar och Egen utveckling. Informanterna menade att det går att ha en samarbetsrelation med en patient trots att man som terapeut inte känner sympati men man upplever alliansen som svagare. De upplevde att det underlättar att ha en god terapeutisk allians över tid och att utfallet blir mer gynnsamt. Vi fann också att terapeutens personliga värderingar och etiska principer är det som avgör om man kan ha en behandlingsrelation överhuvudtaget. Hamnar terapeuten i alltför svåra personliga värdekonflikter upplevde samtliga att det inte gick att fortsätta. Resultatet visar att brist på sympati för patienter förekommer och intervjupersonerna hade metoder för att hantera dessa känslor. Lång yrkeserfarenhet, livserfarenhet, egenterapi, utbildning, handledning och tillgång till kolleger kan ha varit underlättande i hanteringen av de problem i terapirelation och behandling som en bristande sympati kan skapa.   Nyckelord: Allians, Sympati, Metod, Psykoterapi, Antipati 

  • 21.
    Andersson, Gerhard
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hesser, Hugo
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hummerdal, Daniel
    Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bergman Nordgren, Lise
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Department of Behavioural Sciences and Learning, Psychology. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Carlbring, Per
    Linköping University, The Swedish Institute for Disability Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Department of Psychology , Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    A 3.5-year follow-up of Internet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy for major depression2013In: Journal of Mental Health, ISSN 0963-8237, E-ISSN 1360-0567, Vol. 22, no 2, 155-164 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundInternet-delivered cognitive behavior therapy (ICBT) for major depression has been tested in several trials, but only with follow-ups up to 1.5 years.

    AimThe aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome of ICBT 3.5 years after treatment completion.Methods

    A total of 88 people with major depression were randomized to either guided self-help or e-mail therapy in the original trial. One-third was initially on a waiting-list. Treatment was provided for eight weeks and in this report long-term follow-up data were collected. Also included were data from post-treatment and six-month follow-up. A total of 58% (51/88) completed the 3.5-year follow-up. Analyses were performed using a random effects repeated measures piecewise growth model to estimate trajectory shape over time and account for missing data.

    ResultsResults showed continued lowered scores on the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). No differences were found between the treatment conditions. A large proportion of participants (55%) had sought and received additional treatments in the follow-up period. A majority (56.9%) of participants had a BDI score lower than 10 at the 3.5-year follow-up.

    ConclusionsPeople with mild to moderate major depression may benefit from ICBT 3.5-years after treatment completion.

  • 22.
    Andersson, Ingvor
    Jönköping University, The Jönköping Academy for Improvement of Health and Welfare.
    Diabeteskonsulent - en möjlig funktion för att förbättra stödet till barn med typ 1 diabetes i skolan2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    AbstractBackground: Type 1 diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases in children. The overall goal in treating diabetes is to normalize the blood sugar level, in order to avoid complications in adulthood. Since a child spends a large part of the day at school, the treatment has to work well during the school hours. In 2008, paediatric diabetes team in Sweden reported that about 50% of the children in lower primary school, suffering from diabetes, do not receive sufficient support in their diabetic treatment at school. A function such as diabetes resource nurse has been tested in Jönköping County Council for two years to offer the school staff necessary knowledge about diabetes. Purpose: Describe the diabetes resource nurse possibility to influence the support children with diabetes receive at school. Method: The collection of empirical data was done through interviews, questionnaires and comparison of HbA1c. Results: The diabetes resource nurse feels that she is able to convey the knowledge necessary for the school personnel. Parents whose children have been visited by a diabetes recourse nurse says that they less often fear that their child does not get good support at school, that more of the children have a person in charge in school and that more children have an individual communication plan, compared to parents whose children have not been visited by a diabetes resource nurse. The function of the diabetes resource nurse did not improve the metabolic control during the study period. Discussion: The result of the intervention shows that a diabetes resource nurse can successfully improve the support children with type 1 diabetes receive at school. Further studies are needed to clarify which grades benefits the most from the support of a diabetes resource nurse and inquire the school personnel's experience of the diabetes consultant's work.

  • 23.
    Andersson, Linda
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Svensson, Anna
    Halmstad University, School of Health and Welfare.
    Livet förändras: Upplevelsen av att leva med kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Kronisk obstruktiv lungsjukdom är en progressiv sjukdom som kännetecknas av kronisk luftvägsobstruktion. Den främsta orsaken till sjukdomen är rökning. Andra orsaker till sjukdomen kan vara luftföroreningar samt ärftlighet. Tidigare forskning visar att kronisk sjukdom innebär begränsningar som ger upplevelsen av förlust, vilket ger upphov till lidande. KOL leder till andnöd vilket ger begränsningar i livet. Andning är förknippat med liv och vid andnöd kan livet upplevas hotat. Personer som drabbas blir beroende av att ha kontakt med hälso- och sjukvården och i de senare stadierna av sjukdomen är även behovet av omvårdnad stort.  Syftet med studien var att beskriva upplevelsen av att leva med KOL. Litteraturstudien baserades på 15 vetenskapliga artiklar. Resultatet innefattade fyra teman: att uppleva andnöd; att uppleva sociala och personliga förändringar; att hantera livet med KOL; att leva med en självförvållad sjukdom. Livet med KOL präglades av känslor så som oro, ångest, förlust, begränsningar, skam och skuld. Livet för personer med KOL kan upplevas lättare att hantera om en ny mening med livet hittas. Bemötandet från hälso- och sjukvården spelar in på hur personer med KOL upplever sin sjukdom och genom förståelse för hur personer med KOL upplever sjukdomen kan ett gott bemötande från sjuksköterskan samt personcentrerad omvårdnad ges. Mer forskning behövs så att sjuksköterskan får ökad förståelse för hur det är att leva med KOL och därigenom ge bästa möjliga omvårdnad.

  • 24.
    Andersson, Matilda
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Analysis of Changes in Running Technique Between a Shod and Barefoot Running Condition.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Lately, barefoot running has become popular and there is a debate on the pros and cons of barefoot running with regards to running injuries. Many factors are causing injuries and one of the factors discussed is the fact that we run in shoes. When we run in shoes the biomechanics of the running technique may and therefore be a possible cause to injury. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess how the foot strike pattern, angle of the knee and ankle joint at time of initial contact, as well as the step length changes between a shod and barefoot running condition in habitually shod runners when running in a pace equivalent to their running pace over ten kilometers. Method: Twenty-seven healthy runners (18 male, 9 female) were included in the study. The study took place at the fitness center of Halmstad University. Subjects ran on a treadmill, in an individual pace equivalent to their running pace over ten km, both in a shod and barefoot running condition. Two-dimensional analysis of the sagittal plane kinematics of the knee joint, ankle joint and foot position to horizontal, foot strike pattern and step length was done. Participants ran for ten minutes with shoes and for five minutes barefoot. Running technique was videotaped using an Iphone 6 camera and landmarks were marked with white tape to ease the analysis. Results: Changes in foot strike pattern was observed. When running barefoot 63% of the subjects adopted a non-heel strike pattern compared to 18.5% when shod (p=0.001). Knee flexion was increased at IC for the barefoot condition, with 164°±6 relative knee angle compared to 167°±6 when shod (p=0.001). Ankle angle at IC did not show a statistical significant difference between conditions (p=0.657). When barefoot the angle was 117°±8 compared to 115°±8 when shod. Foot angle to horizontal showed a flatter foot placement at IC with a less dorsiflexed foot for the barefoot condition (-4°±8) compared to shod (-12°±8), (p=0.001). Step length was decreased for the barefoot condition (0.82m ±0.15)   compared to shod (0.85m ±0.13), (p=0.008). Conclusion: Results are consistent with previous findings that barefoot running in some cases change the running technique with a flatter foot placement, an increased knee flexion at IC and a decreased step length. However, caution must be taken when habitually shod runners transition to barefoot running in regards to the biomechanical changes that may occur. To benefit from barefoot running a non-heel strike pattern is required. Further, the running technique may be the more important factor, regardless of wearing shoes or not.

  • 25.
    Andersson, Sandra
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    Nilsson, Kenneth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Fagerberg, Linn
    Hallstrom, Bjorn M.
    Sundström, Christer
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Danielsson, Angelika
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Edlund, Karolina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Uhlen, Mathias
    Asplund, Anna
    Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Molecular and Morphological Pathology.
    The Transcriptomic and Proteomic Landscapes of Bone Marrow and Secondary Lymphoid Tissues2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 12, e115911- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The sequencing of the human genome has opened doors for global gene expression profiling, and the immense amount of data will lay an important ground for future studies of normal and diseased tissues. The Human Protein Atlas project aims to systematically map the human gene and protein expression landscape in a multitude of normal healthy tissues as well as cancers, enabling the characterization of both housekeeping genes and genes that display a tissue-specific expression pattern. This article focuses on identifying and describing genes with an elevated expression in four lymphohematopoietic tissue types (bone marrow, lymph node, spleen and appendix), based on the Human Protein Atlas-strategy that combines high throughput transcriptomics with affinity-based proteomics. Results: An enriched or enhanced expression in one or more of the lymphohematopoietic tissues, compared to other tissue-types, was seen for 693 out of 20,050 genes, and the highest levels of expression were found in bone marrow for neutrophilic and erythrocytic genes. A majority of these genes were found to constitute well-characterized genes with known functions in lymphatic or hematopoietic cells, while others are not previously studied, as exemplified by C19ORF59. Conclusions: In this paper we present a strategy of combining next generation RNA-sequencing with in situ affinity-based proteomics in order to identify and describe new gene targets for further research on lymphatic or hematopoietic cells and tissues. The results constitute lists of genes with enriched or enhanced expression in the four lymphohematopoietic tissues, exemplified also on protein level with immunohistochemical images.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    "Om vikten av att bli berörd som behandlare": Metodforum - En arena för reflekterande över den vardagliga praktiken2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Föreliggande uppsats är en praxisnära fenomenologisk studie genomförd på en mindre skol- och behandlingsverksamhet i Täby, som heter Svalnäs. På Svalnäs samlas personalen en gång per vecka i något de kallar metodforum. I detta forum delas och reflekteras det kring erfarenheter från den dagliga praktiken som på olika sätt berört personalen. Metodforum är ett svårfångat och komplext fenomen och därmed också svårt att beskriva. Denna uppsats är ett försök att beskriva metoden från insidan, via deltagarnas upplevelser av metoden.I uppsatsen presenteras Svalnäs och den värdegrund och kultur ur vilken metodforum uppkommit. Studien bygger i huvudsak på intervjuer med samtliga (9) behandlare i verksamheten. Frågeställningarna i uppsatsen rör deltagarnas beskrivning av metoden, deras upplevelser kring vad i metoden som är verksamt samt metodens eventuella nytta eller användbarhet. En deskriptiv fenomenologisk metod har använts och resultatet redovisas i en illustrativ beskrivning av fenomenets meningsbärande innebörder samt i en sammanfattande generell struktur. I diskussionen reflekteras det över metodforum i relation till presenterad teori och metodens generella användbarhet.

  • 27.
    Andisheh, Bahram
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Bitaraf, Mohammad Ali
    University of Tehran.
    Mavroidis, Panayiotis
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Brahme, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Lind, Bengt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Medical Radiation Physics (together with KI).
    Vascular structure and binomial statistics for response modeling in radiosurgery of cerebral arteriovenous malformations2010In: Physics in Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0031-9155, E-ISSN 1361-6560, Vol. 55, no 7, 2057-2067 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Radiation treatment of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) has a slow and progressive vaso-occlusive effect. Some studies suggested the possible role of vascular structure in this process. A detailed biomathematical model has been used, where the morphological, biophysical and hemodynamic characteristics of intracranial AVM vessels are faithfully reproduced. The effect of radiation on plexiform and fistulous AVM nidus vessels was simulated using this theoretical model. The similarities between vascular and electrical networks were used to construct this biomathematical AVM model and provide an accurate rendering of transnidal and intranidal hemodynamics. The response of different vessels to radiation and their obliteration probability as a function of different angiostructures were simulated and total obliteration was defined as the probability of obliteration of all possible vascular pathways. The dose response of the whole AVM is observed to depend on the vascular structure of the intra-nidus AVM. Furthermore, a plexiform AVM appears to be more prone to obliteration compared with an AVM of the same size but having more arteriovenous fistulas. Finally, a binomial model was introduced, which considers the number of crucial vessels and is able to predict the dose response behavior of AVMs with a complex vascular structure.

  • 28.
    Anvari, Ebrahim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Wang, Xuan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Sandler, Stellan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Welsh, Nils
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    The H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine ameliorates high-fat diet-induced glucose intolerance in male C57BL/6 mice, but not diabetes outcome in female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice2015In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 120, no 1, 40-46 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. It has been proposed that the histamine 1-receptor (H1-receptor) not only promotes allergic reactions, but also modulates innate immunity and autoimmune reactions. In line with this, we have recently reported that the H1-receptor antagonist cetirizine partially counteracts cytokine-induced beta-cell signaling and destruction. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether cetirizine affects diabetes in NOD mice, a model for human type 1 diabetes, and glucose intolerance in high-fat diet C57BL/6 mice, a model for human glucose intolerance. Methods. Female NOD mice were treated with cetirizine in the drinking water (25 mg/kg body weight) from 9 until 30 weeks of age during which precipitation of diabetes was followed. Male C57BL/6 mice were given a high-fat diet from 5 weeks of age. When the mice were 12 weeks of age cetirizine was given for 2 weeks in the drinking water. The effects of cetirizine were analyzed by blood glucose determinations, glucose tolerance tests, and insulin sensitivity tests. Results. Cetirizine did not affect diabetes development in NOD mice. On the other hand, cetirizine treatment for 1 week protected against high-fat diet-induced hyperglycemia. The glucose tolerance after 2 weeks of cetirizine treatment was improved in high-fat diet mice. We observed no effect of cetirizine on the insulin sensitivity of high-fat diet mice. Conclusion. Our results suggest a protective effect of cetirizine against high-fat diet-induced beta-cell dysfunction, but not against autoimmune beta-cell destruction.

  • 29.
    Aronsson, Sofie
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Hultgren, Kaisa
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Caring Sciences.
    Gestationsdiabetes: en journalgranskningsstudie2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 30.
    Arvidsson, Patrik
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Centre for Research & Development, Uppsala University/Region Gävleborg, Sweden.
    Granlund, Mats
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. CHILD. Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, CHILD.
    The Relationship Between Intelligence Quotient and Aspects of Everyday Functioning and Participation for People Who Have Mild and Borderline Intellectual Disabilities2016In: JARID: Journal of applied research in intellectual disabilities, ISSN 1360-2322, E-ISSN 1468-3148Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    This study explored the relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and aspects of everyday functioning/participation in individuals (age 16–40) who have a mild/borderline intellectual disability (IQ 55–85).

    Method

    Correlations were examined between IQ and (i) self-rated (n = 72) ability, participation as performance (how often an activity is performed), important participation restriction (not/seldom performing an activity perceived as important) and general well-being and (ii) proxy-rated (n = 41) ability and participation as performance.

    Results

    No significant correlations between IQ and any of the explored measures were found. However, the effect sizes of the correlations between IQ and ability were considered as small but not negligible.

    Conclusions

    The results support the notion that IQ is a poor predictor of general aspects of everyday functioning in persons with mild/borderline intellectual disability. The result indicates that self-ratings partly generate other information than proxy ratings which may be important for assessments of supportive requirements and diagnosis.

  • 31.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Narrativ förmåga vid afasi: analys av strategier vid gemensamt berättande2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aphasia is a linguistic impairment which affects communication and may have an impact on a person’s narrative ability. The purpose of the present study was to analyse the narrative ability in aphasia by narrative interviews with people with aphasia and their partners. The interviews were scrutinised for strategies used in joint narration involving couples where one of the spouses has aphasia. The definition of strategies was methods to cope with communicative difficulties often due to aphasia. Strategies were also studied in an assessment of independent narration. The specific questions were: Which strategies do couples, consisting of one person with aphasia and their partner, use in joint narration? Which strategies does the person with aphasia use in independent narration? Are there any differences in the use of strategies in joint narration compared to independent narration? Five couples were recruited from conversational groups for people with aphasia in the south of Sweden. The couples were asked questions which were meant to encourage joint narration and the interviews were filmed. In addition to the interview, the narrative ability of the individuals with aphasia was assessed with the Swedish aphasia test A-ning. The interviews and the assessments were transcribed according to principles from conversation analysis. The result showed a variation regarding type of strategies occurring in the couples’ narrations and the frequency of these strategies. In joint narration, repetition was the strategy most commonly used by individuals with aphasia, followed by self-initiated self-repair, word search and gestures. The partners also used repetition to a high extent as well as appendor production. The conclusion of this study is that the narrative ability of the persons with aphasia in independent narration to some extent corresponded with their ability in joint narration. However, there were great differences between how the individuals with aphasia and their partners used strategies to cope with difficulties in joint narration.

  • 32.
    Asaid, Dina
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Erenmalm, Sofia
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Logopeders bedömarreliabilitet vid perceptuell röstanalys av utvalda röstexempel: en början till ett referensröstmaterial2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Interrater and intrarater reliability are of great importance in the selection of reference voice examples. The purpose of this study is to investigate the reliability of experienced speech and language pathologists’ evaluations of selected voice samples. The aim is to begin a collection of male and female reference voice examples which represent different voice quality parameters according to the Stockholm Voice Evaluation Approach (SVEA). The specific questions are: How well do speech and language pathologists agree when rating voices along different voice quality parameters? Are any of the voice quality parameters in the speech samples prominent enough to be qualified as reference voice examples? The authors selected 15 voice samples out of a database consisting of 65 voice samples. The voices were evaluated by seven experienced speech and language pathologists using the SVEA protocol. The results were statistically analyzed to study interrater reliability. In order to investigate intrarater reliability a second evaluation session was carried out in which the speech and language pathologists evaluated three voice samples randomly selected from the 15 samples used in the first evaluation session. The results showed a wide range in the raters’ evaluations, which had an impact on the correlations. However, a closer look at separate parameters indicated considerably higher similarity in the ratings. Based on these results three reference voice examples were selected. Even though high correlation values were found in several of the other twelve voice samples, the ratings in these were not high enough to qualify them as reference voice examples in this study. Nevertheless, these voices can still be used to exemplify various degrees of deviation. The conclusions are that there is a great variation regarding reliability between and within raters and also regarding how the different speech and language pathologists rate the voices. The authors also conclude that the search for clear reference voice examples is highly motivated and ought to be continued, preferably with the method used in this study. 

  • 33.
    Avenbrand, Thomas
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    A comparison of maximal knee flexor and extensor strength for assessing bilateral imbalance in Swedish elite hockey players.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study was to determine knee extensor (Q) and flexor (H) muscle strength characteristics in a group of professional Swedish hockey players, including maximal isokinetic torque and any asymmetries seen in these. 

     

    Method

    This study was designed to measure strength and power performance during unilateral movement involving the lower extremities in open chain.  The contribution of each leg were discerned for subsequent comparison of left to right quadriceps (Q) and hamstrings (H), mean and peak value of hamstrings to quadriceps (H/Q ratio) and dominant to non-dominant legs for the purpose of examining imbalances between the legs.  The dominant leg (D) was defined as the strongest leg (either right or left) from the collected torque data for each player and then calculated as one value for the whole group. Subjects had a defined warm-up session and any static stretching that subjects feel necessary to assist them in performing the tests was also permitted. Maximal concentric (con) and eccentric (ecc) quadriceps and hamstring muscle strength was obtained by measuring maximal force moments (torque) during isokinetic knee extension and flexion movements both in 90°·s-1and 300°·s-1. An Isomed2000 (D&R Ferstl GmbH, Germany) was used for the measurements.

     

    Results

    In a comparison of D to ND, significant differences were obtained in peak torque for Q (p=0,0005) and H at con 90°·s-1(p=0,027) and H at ecc 90°·s-1(p=0,014). When comparing mean torque between D and ND significant differences were obtained for Q for con 90°·s-1(p=0,026) and H at ecc 90°·s-1(p=0,007). When looking at H/Q ratio between right and left sides a significant difference was seen for peak torque at con 90°·s-1and moderate relationship was seen at mean values at con 90°·s-1and ecc 90°·s-1

     

    Conclusions

    The result shows that the elite hockey players in the tested group seem to have one significant stronger leg and a week hamstrings compared to quadriceps. This means that they tend to be asymmetrical which might affect performance but may also increase the incidence of injury.   This has to be evaluated with further research.

  • 34.
    Axelsson, Sara
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Kåre
    Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University Hospital of Northern Sweden, Umeå, Sweden.
    Hagström, Katja
    Department of Environmental Science, Örebro University, Örebro.
    Bryngelsson, Ing-Liss
    Nilsson, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    HPLC/neg-ESI-MS determination of resin acids in urine from Swedish wood pellets production plants workers and correlation with air concentrations2012In: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry, ISSN 1618-2642, E-ISSN 1618-2650Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Baek Larsen, Louise
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Elgmark Andersson, Elisabeth
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation.
    Tranberg, Roy
    Ortopeden, Sahlgrenska Universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg.
    Ramstrand, Nerrolyn
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Dep. of Rehabilitation. Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ. Prosthetics and Orthotics.
    Jämförande studie av Svensk polis rörelseförmåga vid användandet av bål och/eller bäcken fixerad utrustning2014Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Under det senaste decenniet har det blivit allt vanligare med arbetsrelaterade besvär hos uniformerad polis i yttre tjänst, främst är det besvär från nedre delen av ryggen som uppgetts. Hälsohögskolan i Jönköping har fått i uppdrag av Rikspolisstyrelsen att belysa och utreda den uppkomna problematiken. Två tidigare rapporter, Polisens fysiska arbetsmiljö och Polisens psykosociala miljö, har presenterats. I rapporten om polisens fysiska arbetsmiljö framkom en hög förekomst av besvär från muskler och leder, främst nedre delen av ryggen under förhållande med bärande av utrustningsbältet i kombination med mycket stillasittande i tjänstebilar. I den andra rapporten framkom att en stor del av poliserna arbetar treskift och i många fall långa arbetspass, vilket yttrar sig i att de har svårt att psykiskt återhämta sig, inte har tid för familj och vänner samt att de ofta upplever sig trötta. I den tredje och sammanfattande rapporten presenteras vilka bakomliggande variabler som påverkar den fysiska och psykosociala arbetsmiljön.

    Syftet med studien var att analysera vilka variabler och vilka kombinationer av variabler som påverkar den fysiska och psykosociala arbetsmiljön för uniformerad polis i yttre tjänst i Sverige. Rapporten baseras på 4244 enkätsvar från poliser i yttre uniformerad tjänst.

    Resultatet från föreliggande studie har visat att det finns skillnaden i besvärsfrekvens mellan myndigheterna när det gäller otillräcklig fysisk och psykisk återhämtning samt besvär ifrån nedre delen av ryggen. Orsakerna till skillnaden mellan myndigheterna är inte utredda. Studien har visat att besvärsfrekvensen ökar då det föreligger krav att arbeta på ett rullande treskiftsschema. Utifrån detta föreslår vi att man:

    • utför benchmarking av polismyndigheter för att öka förståelsen för de stora skillnader som förekommer

    • utvärderar olika modeller av schemaläggning avseende treskift

    • fortsätter arbetet med att utreda hur polisens uniform och kroppsburna utrustning, i kombination med bilsätets utformning, påverkar besvär från nedre delen av ryggen.

  • 36.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Granese, Angela
    University of Louisiana at Lafayette.
    Towards an evidence-base for /r/ therapy in English.2013In: Journal of Clinical Speech and Language Studies, ISSN 0791-5985, Vol. 20, 1-23 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Müller, NicoleLinköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.Nelson, Ryan L.University of Louisiana at Lafayette, LA, USA.
    Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders2014Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This volume provides a comprehensive and in-depth handbook of qualitative research in the field of communication disorders. It introduces and illustrates the wide range of qualitative paradigms that have been used in recent years to investigate various aspects of communication disorders.

    The first part of the Handbook introduces in some detail the concept of qualitative research and its application to communication disorders, and describes the main qualitative research approaches. The contributions are forward-looking rather than merely giving an overview of their topic. The second part illustrates these approaches through a series of case studies of different communication disorders using qualitative methods of research.

    This Handbook is an essential resource for senior undergraduate and graduate students, researchers and practitioners, in communication disorders and related fields.

  • 38.
    Ball, Martin J
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuroscience. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Rutter, Ben
    University of Sheffield, UK.
    Kroll, Tobias
    Texas Tech University, USA.
    Interactional phonetics: background and examples.2014In: Handbook of qualitative research in communication disorders / [ed] Martin J. Ball, Nicole Müller, and Ryan L. Nelson, New York: Psychology Press, 2014, 311-328 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Barbabella, Francesco
    National Institute of Health and Science on Ageing (INRCA), Italy.
    [ Review of ] Blanche Le Bihan, Claude Martin and Trudie Knijn (eds.): Work and Care Under Pressure. Care Arrangements Across Europe. Amsterdam 2013: Amsterdam University Press, 197 pp2014In: Czech Sociological Review, ISSN 1210-3861, Vol. 6, 999-1001 p.Article, book review (Other academic)
  • 40.
    Beckman, Elsa
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Speech and Language Pathology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Gesters påverkan på talflytet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Oflyt i tal är något som förekommer hos alla talande människor och likadant är det med gester. Det är dock inte självklart hur de är relaterar till varandra. Det finns få studier inom området och ännu färre med svensktalande försökspersoner. Denna studies syfte är att se hur gester påverkar talflytet hos personer med svenska som modersmål och om det finns någon skillnad rörande detta mellan olika kontexter.

    Studien genomfördes med åtta försökspersoner i åldrarna 20–30 år som har svenska som modersmål. Alla försökspersoner fick individuellt svara på fyra frågor varav två med spatialt innehåll och två med abstrakt innehåll. Under första halvan av testningen fick försökspersonerna använda gester och resterande tid fick de sitta på sina händer för att inte kunna använda gester.

    Resultatet visade att ikoniska gester användes oftare vid spatialt innehåll och metaforiska gester användes mer frekvent vid abstrakt innehåll, vilket var en signifikant skillnad. Ytterligare en signifikant skillnad noterades mellan spatialt och abstrakt innehåll vid mätning av tallängd. Detta oberoende av fri respektive begränsad användning av gester.

    De få studier som gjorts på området ger ingen tydlig bild av hur tal och gester är relaterade till varandra. Denna studie understryker komplexiteten inom området tal och gester.

  • 41.
    Begum, Alexandra
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    ”Nobody puts (the) Baby in a Corner”: Späd- och småbarnens plats i det familjeterapeutiska samtalsrummet2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Familjeproblem anses i de flesta familjeterapeutiska teorier uppstå i samspelet, kommunikationen och interaktionen mellan individerna i familjen. Samtal med små barn upplevs som komplicerat av många familjeterapeuter. I de flesta familjeteorier förväntas dock hela familjesystemet delta i den terapeutiska processen. Men de allra minsta barnen, de mellan 0 – 3 år, har inte den verbala förmågan eller abstraktionsförmågan som krävs för den ”traditionella” familjeterapin. Syftet med den här studien har varit att undersöka familjeterapeuters erfarenheter av att bedriva familjeterapi med späd- och småbarnsfamiljer. Hur arbetar familjeterapeuter med de minsta barnen och vilka möjligheter och hinder finns det med att arbeta familjeterapeutiskt med dessa familjer? Studien är kvalitativ och bygger på semistrukturerade intervjuer med åtta legitimerade familjeterapeuter som arbetar med späd- och småbarnsfamiljer. Resultatet visar att det bedrivs familjeterapi med dessa familjer. Terapeuterna väver in metoder i terapin som används vid samspelsbehandling, exempelvis videofeedback. Flera av terapeuterna uttrycker dock oro över att den familjeterapeutiska kunskapen alltmer försvinner från de mottagningar dit småbarnsfamiljer kommer för att få hjälp. Ett sätt att lyfta fram familjeterapin skulle kanske kunna vara att tydligare stå för och visa att det är familjeterapi som är den behandlande insatsen.

  • 42.
    Benedek, Hunor
    et al.
    Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.
    Isacsson, Ulf
    Uppsala University Hospital, Uppsala, Sweden .
    Olevik-Dunder, Maria
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Westermark, Mathias
    Karolinska University Hospital, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Hållström, Per
    Gävle Hospital, Gavle, Swe.
    Olofsson, Jörgen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Radiation Sciences, Radiation Physics.
    Gustafsson, Magnus
    Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden.
    Strategies for quality assurance of intensity modulated radiation therapy2015In: 8TH INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE ON 3D RADIATION DOSIMETRY (IC3DDOSE), Institute of Physics (IOP), 2015, Vol. 573, 012015- p., 012015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In late 2011 The Swedish Society of Radiation Physics formed a working group to concentrate on the Quality Assurance of modern radiation therapy techniques. The given task was to identify and summarise the different QA strategies in Sweden and also the international recommendations. This was used to formulate recommendations for practical guidelines within Sweden. In this paper a brief summery of the group's work is presented. All the Swedish radiation therapy centres do a pre treatment verification measurement as QA for every new IMRT and VMAT plan. Physicists do it and they believe it to be time consuming. A general standpoint from all the centres was that new guidelines and legislation is needed to allow QA that does not require a measurement. Based on various international publications and recommendations the working group has presented two strategies, one where all new plans are checked through measurement and one where no measurement is needed. The measurement-based strategy is basically the same as the one used today with an extended machine QA part. The other presented strategy is process oriented where all the different parts of the treatment chain are checked separately. The final report can be found in Swedish on http://www.radiofysik.org.

  • 43.
    Berg, Linda
    et al.
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Nolbris, Margaretha Jenholt
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Koinberg, Ingalill
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Melin-Johansson, Christina
    Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Möller, Anders
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Department of Social Sciences. Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Öhlen, Joakim
    Ersta Sköndal University College, Palliative Research Centre, PRC. Sahlgrenska akademin, Göteborgs universitet.
    Characterisation of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes: a Swedish multiple case study.2014In: Open Nursing Journal, ISSN 1874-4346, E-ISSN 1874-4346, Vol. 8, TONURSJ-8-1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cancer support and rehabilitation are suggested to be an integral part of cancer care strategies. This study focuses on comparativeness of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes. The aim of this study was to analyse available cancer support and rehabilitation programmes in Sweden presented as complementary to cancer rehabilitation at cancer clinics. A multiple case study design was chosen in order to inquire the small number of existing supportive and rehabilitative cancer programmes. Based on the structures, processes and outcomes of the nine included programmes, three types of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes were identified: multimodal rehabilitation, comprehensive cancer support and art therapy. Cancer support and rehabilitation programmes offer a variety of activities and therapies which are highly valuable and relevant for people with cancer. The typology of cancer support and rehabilitation programmes and comparability between programmes need further inquiry.

  • 44.
    Berg von Linde, Maria Berg
    et al.
    Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Health, Örebro University, Orebro, Sweden.
    Arevström, Lilith
    Department of Cardiology, Faculty of Health, Örebro University, Orebro, Sweden.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden. Department of Cardiology.
    Insights from the Den: How Hibernating Bears May Help Us Understand and Treat Human Disease2015In: Clinical and Translational Science, ISSN 1752-8054, E-ISSN 1752-8062, Vol. 8, no 5, 601-605 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hibernating brown bears (Ursus arctos) and black bears (Ursus americanus) spend half of the year in a physically inactive state inside their winter dens without food intake and defecating and no or little urination. Under similar extreme conditions, humans would suffer from loss of lean body mass, heart failure, thrombosis, azotemia, osteoporosis, and more. However, bears exit the den in the spring strong without organ injuries. Translational animal models are used in human medicine but traditional experimental animals have several shortcomings; thus, we believe that it is time to systematically explore new models. In this review paper, we describe physiological adaptations of hibernating bears and how similar adaptations in humans could theoretically alleviate medical conditions. The bear has solved most of the health challenges faced by humans, including heart and kidney disease, atherosclerosis and thrombosis, and muscle wasting and osteoporosis. Understanding and applying this library of information could lead to a number of major discoveries that could have implications for the understanding and treatment of human disease.

  • 45.
    Berggren, Lena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Arts, Department of historical, philosophical and religious studies.
    Ultra-nationalists movements in inter-war Sweden2010In: Medicine under ideological pressure: Swedish-German contacts in medicine during 1933-1945, Lund: Enheten för medicinens historia Lunds universitet , 2010, 19-28 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Bergius, Anki
    et al.
    Drottning Silvias barn- och ungdomssjukhus, Göteborg.
    Palmqvist, Gunilla
    Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset, Göteborg.
    Holm, Ann-Kristin
    Göteborgs universitet, Sahlgrenska universitetssjukhuset.
    Öhlén, Joakim
    Göteborgs universitet, Karolinska institutet.
    Stödverksamhet för barn som förlorat en förälder: En litteraturstudie2004In: Vård i Norden, ISSN 0107-4083, E-ISSN 1890-4238, Vol. 24, no 4, 41-44 p.Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this literature review was to describe content, objectives, design, and outcomes of support groups for parentally bereaved children three to twelve years of age. In a support group with children in similar situation the children's thoughts, experiences and feelings will be normalised through different activities. Pedagogical methods include creative activities of different kinds, e.g. painting, writing letters and poems, reading stories, play and games. The purposes of the methods are to accept and understand the reality of the loss, to understand and work through the grieving, to enhance family communication, and to keep the memory of the death and go on living. Organisation and structure are described in relation to development levels and ages of children and youths. Outcomes of groups are characterized by clinical observations and a dearth of evaluative studies. All bereaved children should have the opportunity to participate in a support group when a parent, sibling or other relative dies. Well developed services for bereaved children should be a matter of health care policy and quality.

  • 47.
    Bergknut, Mirjam
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    Petra, Jacobsen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Psychotherapy.
    KBT vid samtidig somatisk sjukdom: KBT-terapeuters erfarenheter av att i psykiatrin möta patienter som lever med allvarlig och/eller kronisk somatisk sjukdom.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studiens syfte var att undersöka erfarenheter hos psykoterapeuter inom psykiatrin av att bedriva KBT med patienter som samtidigt lever med kronisk och/eller allvarlig somatisk sjukdom. Detta utifrån frågeställningar om hur KBT-terapeuter beskriver hur samtidig allvarlig och/eller kronisk somatisk sjukdom påverkar det terapeutiska arbetet och hur terapeuterna förhåller sig till denna påverkan i relation till att genomföra terapin? Semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes med sex psykoterapeuter som alla hade KBT-inriktning och arbetade inom psykiatrin. En tematisk analys gjordes sedan av intervjuerna och där framkom huvudteman som följsamhet, helhetssyn och organisatorisk påverkan. Följsamhet till patienternas behov av anpassning gällde allt från längden på sessionerna till möjligheten att pausa terapin under vissa perioder. Att ha en helhetssyn kunde innebära att psykoterapeuten klev utanför sitt expertområde för att samarbeta med den somatiska vården kring en patient, eller att patienten kunde ta rollen som expert kring den somatiska sjukdomen. Det kom även fram att yttre förutsättningar som den organisatoriska tillhörigheten påverkade hur terapeuten kan förhålla sig till patienter med samtidig psykisk och somatisk ohälsa. De informanter som tidigare arbetat inom somatisk vård beskrev att de använde denna erfarenhet som stöd medan de informanter som inte hade samma erfarenhet beskrev att detta var något de kunde sakna i dessa ärenden. Då många människor lever med allvarlig och/eller kronisk somatisk sjukdom samtidigt som de har behov av psykoterapi, är detta en aspekt av vården som är viktig att ha vetskap om. Vi kan konstatera att det finns en kunskapslucka att fylla om hur man i psykoterapi kan hantera och arbeta med samtidig psykiatrisk och somatisk problematik som vi är övertygade om skulle komma psykoterapeuter generellt till nytta, inte enbart de som arbetar inom psykiatrisk vård.

  • 48.
    Berglund, Charlotte
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of pedagogy.
    Samverkan - en gemensam angelägenhet: En kvalitativ studie kring socialsekreterares organisatoriska och professionella villkor i samarbetet med sjukvården kring personer med missbruksproblem2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka olika aspekter av samverkan såsom de uppfattades av en grupp socialsekreterare, för att beskriva organisatoriska och professionella villkor som påverkar samverkan och styr det dagliga arbetet. Metod: Studien utgick från ett fenomenologiskt vetenskapsteoretiskt perspektiv med fokus på människans uppfattning av ett fenomen. Kvalitativa intervjuer gjordes med åtta socialsekreterare med hjälp av vinjettmetoden. Analysen genomfördes enligt fenomenologisk modell utan tolkningar och med fenomenologisk objektivitet. Resultat: Analysen av socialsekreterarnas berättelser visade att klienterna är en gemensam angelägenhet för socialtjänsten och sjukvården. Brister i samverkan påverkar relationen mellan socialtjänsten och sjukvården negativt och kan få allvarliga konsekvenser för klienterna. God och väl fungerande samverkan verkar enande och belönande för såväl socialtjänsten och sjukvården som för klienten. Särskilt poängterades en tydlig och öppen kommunikation, personliga möten och personlig kännedom om varandra och varandras verksamheter. Slutsatser: Olika organisatoriska och professionella villkor för samverkan påverkar varandra ömsesidigt. Viktigt är att skapa hållbara strukturer för en god samverkan. Fortsatta studier krävs för att utveckla en fungerande samverkan i praktiken.

     

  • 49.
    Berglund, Johan
    et al.
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Åkerman Sturup, Erik
    University of Kalmar, School of Human Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda barn i livets slutskede och deras föräldrar: Döden såväl som födelsen hör sammman med livet2010Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund

    : Vård av barn i livets slutskede och deras föräldrar innefattar att försöka se både barnet och föräldrarnas behov och som sjuksköterska bemöta dessa. Syfte: Syftet är att utifrån aktuell forskning beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda till barn i livets slutskede och till deras föräldrar. Metod: Studien är utförd som en systematisk litteraturstudie på kvalitativa studier. Sökningarna utfördes i PubMed, Cinahl och PsychINFO. Sex artiklar inkluderades efter kvalitetsgranskning och analyserades med innehållsanalys. Resultat: Sjuksköterskorna upplever att det är emotionellt påfrestande men också givande och bekräftande att vårda till barn i livets slutskede. Sjuksköterskornas erfarenhet är att barnens existentiella frågor är svåra att bemöta. Samtidigt anser de att organisatoriska faktorer försvårar och upptar tid och resurser från patientarbetet. Copinstrategier var något sjuksköterskorna använde sig av eller som saknades för att klara av arbetet. Slutsats: Sjuksköterskor erfar svårighet att svara på barns frågor om döden och inte engagera sig för mycket emotionellt. Det professionella förhållningssättet var något som var problematiskt att upprätthålla vid vård av barn i livets slutskede. Brist på resurser och tid genererade att de kände en oförmåga att lindra barnens psykiska och fysiska lidande och föräldrarnas sorg. Sjuksköterska har behov informella och formella strategier för att klara av att vårda barn i livets slutskede och deras föräldrar.

  • 50.
    Berglund, Katarina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Andersson, Martina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Gunnarsson, Erika
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Sports Medicine.
    Botulinum toxin, dess fysiologiska effekter och användningsområden.2012Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fördjupning om botulinum toxins och dess fysiologiska effekter samt grundläggande information om ämnet.

    Informationen är hämtad från vetenskapliga artiklar och böcker som bearbetas, sammanställs och hänvisas till i arbetet. Databaser som vi använt oss av är bland annat PubMed, SveMed och AMED.

    Av artiklarna som lästs så har det visat sig att injektion av botulinum toxin har ökat genom åren och främst inom det kosmetiska. Botulinum toxin är ett farligt nervgift som hindrar signalerna till musklerna.

    Ytterligare fysiologiska effekter är att rynkor slätas ut, svettningar försvinner, muskelskador repareras, men för höga doser kan leda till bieffekter så som hängande ögonlock, dregling och/eller svårigheter vid intag av föda.

    Slutsatsen är att botulinum toxin är populärt men med tanke på de fysiologiska effekterna så borde man avstå från medlet eller åtminstone utsätta kroppen för det med stor försiktighet.

    1.1 Nyckelord:

    Botulinum Toxin, Botulinum Toxin typ A, Botox, Fysiologisk effekt, Användningsområden, Cosmetic, Injection, Primary care

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