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  • 1.
    Aarts, B.
    et al.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Kokshoorn, B.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    Mc Kenna, L.G.
    Forensic Science Ireland, DNA department, Dublin, Ireland.
    Drotz, W.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre, DNA department, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre, DNA department, Linköping, Sweden.
    van Oorschot, R.A.
    Office of the Chief Forensic Scientist, Victoria Police Forensic Services Department, Macleod- Victoria, Australia.
    Kloosterman, A.D.
    Netherlands Forensic Institute, Biological Traces and DNA, The Hague, Netherlands.
    DNActivity: International cooperation in activity level interpretation of forensic DNA evidence.2015In: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015., 2015, 555- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Questions posed to expert witnesses by the legal community and the courts are expanding to include not just those relating to source level (i.e. ‘who is the donor of the trace?’) but also those relating to activitity level (i.e. ‘how did the DNA get there?’). The answers to these questions are usually formulated as the probability of the evidence under alternative scenarios. As activity level questions are part of investigative and legal considerations it is of paramount importance that expert witnesses are provided with knowledge and tools to address these questions.

    To answer such questions within a probabilistic framework, empirical data is needed to estimate probabilities of transfer, persistence and recovery of DNA as well as background levels of DNA on everyday objects. There is a paucity of empirical data on these topics, but the number of studies is increasing both through in-house experiments and experimental data published in international scientific journals.

    Laboratories that conduct such studies all use different experimental setups, trace recovery strategies and techniques and DNA analysis systems and equipment. It is essential for the forensic genetics community in general to establish whether the data generated by different labs are in concordance, and can therefore be readily used by the forensic community.

    Moreover, if existing data and data generated from future experiments are made available to the (forensic) community, knowledge is needed on the key factors that underlie potential interlaboratory variation.

    The aims and objectives of this ENFSI Monopoly 2013 project are to conduct a study of methodologies and data from different laboratories and to assess the comparability of the scientific data on transfer, persistence and recovery of DNA. This comparison will allow us to identify key factors that underlie potential variation. This information will be used to setup guidelines to enable sharing and database-storage of relevant scientific

    data. This will improve the ability of forensic scientists and other professionals of the Criminal Justice System to give evidence-based answers to questions that relate to the activity level of the crime under investigation.

  • 2.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Traffic and drowning incidents with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and drugs2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Worldwide, fatal traffic injuries and drowning deaths are important problems. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the cirumstances of fatal and non-fatal traffic injuries and drowning deaths in Sweden including analysis of the presence of alcohol and drugs, which are considered to be major risk factors for these events. Data where obtained from the database of National Board of Forensic Medicine.

    In the first study, we investigated 420 passenger deaths from 372 crashes during 1993-1996. There were 594 drivers involved. In total, 21% of the drivers at fault were alcohol positive compared to 2% of drivers not at fault (p<0.001) (Paper I). During 2004-2007, crashes involving 56 fatally and 144 non-fatally injured drivers were investigated in a prospective study from Northern Sweden (Paper II). The drivers were alcohol positive in 38% and 21%, respectively. Psychoactive drugs were found in 7% and 13%, respectively. Benzodiazepines, opiates and antidepressants were the most frequent drugs found in drivers. Illict drugs were found 9% and 4% respectively, with tetrahydrocannabinol being the most frequent of these drugs (Paper II).

    We investigated 5,125 drowning deaths in Sweden during 1992-2009 (Paper III). The incidence decreased on average by about 2% each year (p<0.001). Unintentional drowning was most common (50%). Alcohol was found in 44% of unintentional, 24% of intentional, and 45% of undetermined drowning deaths. Psychoactive substances were detected in 40% and benzodiazepines were the most common substance. Illicit drugs were detected in 10%. Of all drowning deaths, a significantly higher proportion females commited suicide compared with males (55% vs. 21%, p<0.001). Suicidal drowning deaths (n=129) in Northern Sweden were studied further in detail (Paper IV). of these, 53% had been hospitalized due to a psychiatric diagnosis within five years prior to the suicide. Affective and psychotic disorders were the most common psychiatric diagnoses. Almost one third had performed a previous suicide attempt. One fourth had committed suicide after less than one week of discharge from hospital. Alochol was found in 16% and psychoactive drugs in 62% of these cases, respectively. 

    In conclusion, alcohol and psychoactive drugs are commonly detected among injured drivers and drowning victims, and probably play a role in these events. Most of the individuals that tested positive for alcohol and high blood concentrations, indicating alochol dependence or abuse. This association warrants futher attention when planning future prevention. 

  • 3.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Alcohol and drugs in fatally and non-fatally injured motor vehicle drivers in northern Sweden2009In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, E-ISSN 1879-2057, Vol. 41, no 1, 129-136 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Alcohol and drugs are important risk factors for traffic injuries, a major health problem worldwide. This prospective study investigated the epidemiology and the presence of alcohol and drugs in fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers of motor vehicles in northern Sweden. During a 2-year study period, blood from fatally and hospitalized non-fatally injured drivers was tested for alcohol and drugs. The study subjects were recruited from well-defined geographical areas with known demographics. Autopsy reports, medical journals, police reports, and toxicological analyses were evaluated. Of the fatally injured, 38% tested positive for alcohol and of the non-fatally 21% tested positive; 7% and 13%, respectively, tested positive for pharmaceuticals with a warning for impaired driving; 9% and 4%, respectively, tested positive for illicit drugs. The most frequently detected pharmaceuticals were benzodiazepines, opiates, and antidepressants. Tetrahydrocannabinol was the most frequently detected illicit substance. No fatally injured women had illegal blood alcohol concentration. The relative proportion of positively tested drivers has increased and was higher than in a similar study 14 years earlier. This finding indicates that alcohol and drugs merit more attention in future traffic safety work.

  • 4.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Blood loss in exsanguination deaths2011In: Indian Journal of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology, ISSN 0973-9122, Vol. 5, no 2, 5-8 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Deaths by exsanguination among various underlying causes of death were analyzed in order to expand the knowledge on the relation of extravasated blood volume to other documented parameters.

    A consecutive series of 193 cases of ruptured thoracic aortic aneurysm (n=13), gunshot wounds (n=63), stab wounds (n=28), rib fractures (n=5), and blunt injury to thoracic aorta (n=84) were investigated.

    The amount of internal bleeding into pleural cavities only varied greatly (200-3,400 ml) with a mean value of 1,174 ml, slightly higher among males. Age, body weight, cause and manner of death, external bleeding, alcohol inebriation, multiplicity of injuries, and degree of coronary heart disease did not significantly affect the amount of internal (pleural) bleeding. Also, post-mortem delay to autopsy did not correlated to the amount of extravasated blood, indicating that post-mortem bleeding is of no importance in these days.

     

  • 5.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Driver's alcohol and passenger's death in motor vehicle crashes2006In: Traffic Injury Prevention, ISSN 1538-9588, Vol. 7, no 3, 219-223 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Previous studies on alcohol involvement associated with fatal injury in traffic crashes have focused on the drivers, but the passenger's view is not well known. This study (1) analyzes the relationship between passenger's death and alcohol inebriation of the driver and (2) estimates the role of alcohol as the cause of a crash by examining who was at fault, sober, or inebriated.

    METHOD: The study includes all motor vehicle passengers (n = 420) who died in crashes in Sweden 1993 through 1996 and were medicolegally autopsied. Autopsy reports from the Departments of Forensic Medicine, including toxicological analyses, and police reports were studied. Presence of alcohol among drivers was based on blood and breath tests.

    RESULTS: One-fifth of the fatally injured passengers and one-fifth of the tested drivers were under the influence of alcohol. The youngest drivers had the highest prevalence of drunken driving. Drivers at fault were alcohol positive in 21% of these crashes and drivers were not at fault in 2% of these crashes. In 53% of the crashes where both the passenger and driver were alcohol positive, the passenger had a lower alcohol concentration than the driver. Children (<16 years) comprised 15% of the killed passengers. Notably, the children were riding with a driver who was under influence of alcohol in 13% of these crashes. Alcohol involvement was not tested in half of the surviving drivers.

    CONCLUSIONS: The data show that 20% of both passengers and drivers were under the influence of alcohol. Increased testing of surviving drivers regarding alcohol and other drugs is recommended.

  • 6.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Hassler, Sven
    Sjölander, Per
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Unnatural deaths in reindeer-herding Sami families in Sweden, 1961-20012010In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, Vol. 69, no 2, 129-137 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: Unnatural deaths among Indigenous populations, including the Swedish Sami, occur more often than among the general population. To find prevention strategies, we explored the circumstances of the unnatural deaths of members of reindeer-herding Sami families.

    STUDY DESIGN: The number of deaths from among a cohort of 7,482 members of reindeer-herding Sami families were retrieved from the National Board of Health and Welfare for the years 1961- 2001.

    METHODS: An evaluation of the information from autopsy records at the National Board of Forensic Medicine, police reports, and available medical records identified 158 unnatural deaths. These were then analysed in detail.

    RESULTS: Transport-related deaths and suicides were the most common unnatural deaths among Swedish reindeer-herding Sami family members. Suicides contributed to 23% of all deaths, road traffic accidents to 16%, and snowmobile fatalities to 11%. The accidents generally reflected an "outdoor lifestyle" and the working conditions were characterized by the use of off-road vehicles such as snowmobiles. Half of the number of victims tested positive for alcohol and alcohol abuse was documented in 15% of all victims.

    CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that alcohol is an important factor in preventing unnatural deaths among reindeer-herding Sami, together with increased safety of both on-road and off-road transportation.

  • 7.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Division of Social and Forensic Psychiatry, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Dalarna University, Falun, Sweden.
    Saveman, Britt-inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Suicidal drowning deaths in northern Sweden 1992-2009: the role of mental disorder and intoxication2015In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, E-ISSN 1878-7487, Vol. 34, 168-172 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Suicides by drowning have received limited attention by researchers. A recent finding that almost onethird of all drowning deaths in Sweden were classified as suicide instigated this study. We identified 129 cases of suicide by drowning in Northern Sweden and analyzed the circumstances and the psychiatric history prior to the suicide. Information was obtained from autopsy, police and medical records, as well as from the National Inpatient Register. One-third of the suicide victims had previously attempted suicide and half of the victims had been hospitalized due to mental health problems. One-third of these had left the hospital less than one week before the suicide. Alcohol and psychoactive drugs were present in 16% and 62% of the cases, respectively. A history of mental disorder and previous suicide attempt (s), especially by drowning, is an ominous combination necessitating efficient clinical identification, treatment and follow-up if a complete suicide is to be prevented.

  • 8.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Lindqvist, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Clinical Physiology. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Medicine.
    Saveman, Britt-inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing. Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Suicidal drowning deaths in Northern Sweden 1992-2009Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9.
    Ahlm, Kristin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Saveman, Britt-Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Nursing.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Drowning deaths in Sweden with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and drugs: a retrospective study, 1992-20092013In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 13, 216- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Drowning deaths constitute a significant proportion of unnatural deaths globally. In Sweden and other high-income countries, drowning deaths have decreased. This study investigates the epidemiology and current trends of unintentional, intentional, and undetermined drowning deaths with emphasis on the presence of alcohol and other drugs.

    Methods: During an 18-years period, 5,125 drowning deaths were autopsied in Sweden. Data on cases including toxicological analysis on alcohol, pharmaceutical drugs, and illicit drugs were obtained from the National Board of Forensic Medicine.

    Results: During the study period, the annual incidence of drowning deaths in Sweden was 3.1/100,000 inhabitants and decreased on average by about 2% each year (p<0.001). The highest incidence was found among males and in middle/older age groups. The incidence increased 3% for each year of age. Children/adolescents (<= 18 years) constituted 5% of all drowning deaths. Of all drowned females in the study, 55% (847/1,547) committed suicide, which was a significantly higher proportion compared with males (21%, 763/3,578) (p<0.001). In total, 38% (1,656/4,377) of tested drowned persons had alcohol in their blood and the mean concentration was 1.8 g/l. In the unintentional drowning group, intentional drowning group, and the undetermined group, the proportion of alcohol positive was 44%, 24%, and 45%, respectively. One or several psychoactive drugs were present in the blood in 40% (1,688/4,181) of all tested persons and in 69% (965/1,394) of tested persons who died from suicidal drowning. The most common drug was benzodiazepines (21%, 891/4,181). Illicit drugs were detected in 10% (82/854) of tested persons.

    Conclusion: Presence of alcohol and drugs were frequent and may have contributed to the drowning deaths. The incidence of drowning deaths significantly decreased during the study period. Males and the middle/older age groups had a higher incidence compared to females and children. Suicidal drowning was common especially among women. Alcohol and drugs are significant contributors in drowning deaths in Sweden and should be considered as part of a comprehensive prevention program.

  • 10.
    Ahlner, Johan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Holmgren, Anita
    Swedish National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Jones, A Wayne
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Drug Research. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Swedish National Board Forens Med, Department Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden.
    Demographics and post-mortem toxicology findings in deaths among people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving2016In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 265, 138-143 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving strongly suggests the existence of a personality disorder and/or a substance abuse problem. Methods: This retrospective study (1993-2010) used a national forensic toxicology database (TOXBASE), and we identified 3943 individuals with two or more arrests for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving. These individuals had subsequently died from a fatal drug poisoning or some other cause of death, such as trauma. Results: Of the 3943 repeat offenders 1807 (46%) died from a fatal drug overdose and 2136 (54%) died from other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The repeat offenders were predominantly male (90% vs 10%) and mean age of drug poisoning deaths was 5 y younger (mean 35 y) than other causes of death (mean 40 y). Significantly more repeat offenders (46%) died from drug overdose compared with all other forensic autopsies (14%) (p amp;lt; 0.001). Four or more drugs were identified in femoral blood in 44% of deaths from poisoning (drug overdose) compared with 18% of deaths by other causes (p amp;lt; 0.001). The manner of death was considered accidental in 54% of deaths among repeat offenders compared with 28% for other suspicious deaths (p amp;lt; 0.001). The psychoactive substances most commonly identified in autopsy blood from repeat offenders were ethanol, morphine (from heroin), diazepam, amphetamines, cannabis, and various opioids. Conclusions: This study shows that people arrested multiple times for use of illicit drugs and/or impaired driving are more likely to die by accidentally overdosing with drugs. Lives might be saved if repeat offenders were sentenced to treatment and rehabilitation for their drug abuse problem instead of conventional penalties for drug-related crimes. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Albinsson, L.
    et al.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Hedman, J.
    Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre - NFC, Linköping, Sweden.
    Mixed DNA profiles from single-donors2015In: Abstract book, 7th European Academy of Forensic Science, EAFS, Prag, Tjeckien, 2015, 2015, 538- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Mosaicism and chimerism in individuals can complicate the interpretation and even lead to misinterpretation of DNA profiles in forensic casework. If a person has different DNA profiles in different tissue types, i.e. a true chimaera, wrongful exclusions can be made. Additionally, mixed chimaeras can have DNA profiles that may be mistaken for mixtures. We have set-up automatic DNA databasing processes to handle atypical single-donor DNA profiles, i.e. profiles having one or several “extra” alleles.

    Studying all reference samples analysed at NFC from 2006 until spring 2014, 2‰ of the samples showed atypical DNA profiles. To be able to set routines for handling these DNA profiles, each one was manually searched in CODIS with adjusted settings, to evaluate the frequency of false-positive hits. To tag these profiles in LIMS a new result status was implemented. Additionally, all such DNA profiles must be confirmed by analysing at least two discrete samples. In LIMS, the results are manually recorded to compose of all alleles from the samples from a suspect, i.e. containing most possible genetic information. LIMS automatically categorises the atypical DNA profiles with a special CODIS index, called “Multi-allelic offender”. The first time an atypical profile is searched, the matches are manually investigated. If a match is false, its disposition will be set to “no match” to prevent this from occurring in future searches. Automatic searches will then be performed in every day routine with moderate stringency, allowing the atypical DNA profile to match either a genotype or a mixture. If the match is true, a match-report will be created and sent to the police from the LIMS.

     

  • 12.
    Allen, Marie
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Divne, Anna-Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Universal tag arrays in forensic SNP analysis.2005In: Methods in Molecular Biology, ISSN 1064-3745, Vol. 297, 141-154 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microarray-based single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping enables simultaneous and rapid detection of a large number of markers and is thus an attractive method for forensic individual acid identification. This assay relies on a one-color detection system and minisequencing in solution before hybridization to universal tag arrays. The minisequencing reaction is based on incorporation of a fluorescent dideoxynucleotide to a primer containing a tag-sequence flanking the position to be interrogated. This one-color system detects C and T polymorphisms in separate reactions on multiple polymerase chain reaction targets with the fluorophore TAMRA coupled to the respective dideoxynucleotide. After incorporation, tagged primer sequences are hybridized through their complementary sequence on the array, and positive signals are detected by a confocal laser-scanner.

  • 13.
    Alm, Fredrik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Barn som dödar barn2012Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Två svenska pojkar, Texas Linderot och Kevin Hjalmarsson, var båda fyra år gamla med en tydlig sak gemensam. Båda är döda. När det är ett barn som blivit dödat/mördat vill vi inte tro att det är sant.  

     

    I de båda fallen med pojkarna var det inte en vuxen person eller en pedofil som var gärningsmännen, det var barn. Kevin Hjalmarssons mördare var två syskon som var fem respektive sju år gamla. Texas Linderoths mördare var en pojke som var tio år gammal.

    Vad är det som har hänt de båda mördade pojkarna är frågor som vi ställer oss.

    Var det lekar som gått snett?

     

    Nu i efterhand vet vi svaren på frågorna och vi vet med säkerhet att det inte var en lek som gick snett. Det var barn som med avsikt mördade andra barn. I båda fallen var det rättsläkarna på Rättsmedicinalverket som kunde konstatera att dödsorsaken var strypning och dödsättet inte skett genom en olycka  utan troligt orsakats av någon utomstående.

    När massmedia berättade den hemska sanningen bakom dessa två mord var vi många som inte trodde det var sant. Vi vill nog tro att barn är goda och inte benägna att utföra hemska våldshandlingar.

  • 14.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    National Laboratory of Forensic Science (SKL), Linköping, Sweden.
    Rasmusson, Birgitta
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Medical Microbiology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    A Swedish PerspectiveThe Forensic Use of Bioinformation: Ethical Issues: Nuffield Council on Bioethics2008In: BioSocieties, ISSN 1745-8552, E-ISSN 1745-8560, Vol. 3, no 1, 88-92 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The Nuffield Report is well-written, clear, extensive and up to date, and it covers most of the major ethical issues in the field of forensic DNA analysis and database searching. The ethical analysis is thorough and based on solid theoretical ground.

  • 15.
    Ansell, Ricky
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Widén, Christina
    Biology Unit, Swedish National Forensic Centre (NFC), Link€oping, Sweden.
    Swedish Legislation Regarding Forensic DNA Elimination Databases2016In: Forensic Science Policy & Management: An International Journal , ISSN 1940-9044, Vol. 7, no 1-2, 20-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Evidence contaminated with DNA from staff, police, and other individuals can have a dramaticimpact on an investigation and can mislead police inquiries. Forensic DNA elimination databases(EDB) are used to minimize the risks associated with DNA contamination. Central issues withmaintaining such databases include the basis for sample collection, sample, and profile integrity, aswell as retention times, database access, and procedures when a database match occurs. Followingyears of discussion, debate, and the use of an “in house” EDB at the Swedish National ForensicCentre (NFC), these issues have now been resolved by passing legislation on DNA EDB. According tothe legislation, sampling for EDB purposes is mandatory for certain forensic professionals, as well asfor other individuals who need access to the premises handling DNA evidence. In the event of adatabase match, the match can only be reviewed and evaluated for quality purposes and the nameof the donor cannot be disclosed to the crime inquiry. Thus, as a consequence, if a contaminationevent is not the probable cause the legal limitation opens for impunity for individuals included inthe database.KEYWORDSContamination; DNA;elimination database;forensic science; legislationIntroduction

  • 16.
    Atmarsson, Kamilla
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    När är en människa död?: En studie av den juridiska definitionen av döden2012Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Fram till den 1 januari 1988 saknade Sverige rättsregler som angav när en människa skulle anses vara död. Innan år 1984 hade inte heller frågan om dödsbegreppet lyfts till analys. I medicinsk przis hade emellertid döden sedan länge ansetts träda in vid det tillfälle då en människas hjärt- och andningsverksamhet varaktigt upphört. Under intensivsvårdens växande framsteg på sextio-, sjuttio- och åttiotalen utvecklades dock ett behov av att både ändra den allmänt vedertagna definitionen av dödens inträdande och av att införa en juridiskt bindande definition om när döden ansågs ha inträffat. Efter en omfattande utredning beslutades till sist att lagstadga dödsbegreppet och döden definierades ha inträffat när hjärnans samtliga funktioner totalt och oåterkalleligt fallit bort. Frågan som ställs i denna uppsats är hur dagens definition av döden lyder. Uppsatsen undersöker därav skälen som föranlett den nuvarande definitionen och hur den rent praktiskt går till när döden ska fastställas.

  • 17.
    Balciunaite, Elona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Vad säger skadorna om gärningsmannen?: beydelse i brottsutredningen Gärningsmannaprofilering2010Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Vissa typer av brott kräver stora insatser och kunskap för att hitta en gärningsman. Sådana situationer uppstår när ett offer är död och/eller när man har ett seriemord eller till och med när ett offer har svåra skador med är medvetslöst. I vissa fall kan det vara att offret inte vet vem gärningsman är. Man bör inte heller glömma ett levande offer som skadat sig själv.

       Just skadorna som återfinns hos ett offer indikerar en hel del om en gärningsman. Till skillnad från det juridiska begreppet – en skada, som används i brottsrubriceringssyfte[1], så används skadorna som finns på ett offer i utredningsarbetet för att hitta en gärningsman och återskapa ett händelseförlopp. Med andra ord försöker man svara på frågor: vem har begått ett brott, hur och när brottet har begåtts och varför det har begåtts.[2] Själva utredningsarbetet som omfattar gärningsmannaidentifiering kan i vissa komplicerade, allvarliga fall även inkludera en gärningsmannaprofilering. Syftet är att hitta en gärningsman, dvs. även verifiera om det är just den person som begått visst brott – bevissyfte.

       Skadorna bedöms utifrån art, ålder, grad och antal, t.ex. vilken karaktär en skada har, hur den kunde uppkomma osv. Man försöker bedöma utifrån skadornas art eller andra förhållanden om det kan tyda på ett bestämt motiv, planering av brott eller om det handlar om en impulshandling.[3]

    [1] Thomsen, s. 85.

    [2] Ainsworth, s. 17.

    [3] Thomsen, s. 148-153.

  • 18.
    Ballantyne, Kaye N.
    et al.
    Erasmus MC University, Netherlands Victoria Police Forens Serv Department, Australia .
    Ralf, Arwin
    Erasmus MC University, Netherlands .
    Aboukhalid, Rachid
    Mohammed V Agdal University, Morocco .
    Achakzai, Niaz M.
    University of Punjab, Pakistan .
    Anjos, Maria J.
    National Institute Legal Medical and Forens Science IP, Portugal .
    Ayub, Qasim
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, England .
    Balazic, Joze
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Ballantyne, Jack
    University of Central Florida, FL 32816 USA University of Central Florida, FL 32816 USA .
    J. Ballard, David
    Kings Coll London, England .
    Berger, Burkhard
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria .
    Bobillo, Cecilia
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Consejo Nacl Invest Cient and Tecn, Argentina .
    Bouabdellah, Mehdi
    Mohammed V Agdal University, Morocco .
    Burri, Helen
    University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    Capal, Tomas
    Institute Criminalist Prague, Czech Republic .
    Caratti, Stefano
    University of Turin, Italy .
    Cardenas, Jorge
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Cartault, Francois
    Site Centre Hospital Felix Guyon, Reunion .
    F. Carvalho, Elizeu
    University of Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil .
    Carvalho, Monica
    National Institute Legal Medical and Forens Science IP, Portugal .
    Cheng, Baowen
    Yunnan Prov Department Public Secur, Peoples R China .
    D. Coble, Michael
    NIST, MD 20899 USA .
    Comas, David
    University of Pompeu Fabra, Spain .
    Corach, Daniel
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Consejo Nacl Invest Cient and Tecn, Argentina .
    E. DAmato, Maria
    University of Western Cape, South Africa .
    Davison, Sean
    University of Western Cape, South Africa .
    de Knijff, Peter
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    Corazon A. De Ungria, Maria
    University of Philippines, Philippines .
    Decorte, Ronny
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Dobosz, Tadeusz
    Wroclaw Medical University, Poland .
    M. Dupuy, Berit
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway .
    Elmrghni, Samir
    University of Benghazi, Libya .
    Gliwinski, Mateusz
    Medical University of Gdansk, Poland .
    C. Gomes, Sara
    University of Madeira, Portugal .
    Grol, Laurens
    Netherlands Forens Institute, Netherlands .
    Haas, Cordula
    University of Zurich, Switzerland .
    Hanson, Erin
    University of Central Florida, FL 32816 USA .
    Henke, Juergen
    Institute Blutgruppenforsch LGC GmbH, Germany .
    Henke, Lotte
    Institute Blutgruppenforsch LGC GmbH, Germany .
    Herrera-Rodriguez, Fabiola
    Poder Judicial, Costa Rica .
    R. Hill, Carolyn
    NIST, MD 20899 USA .
    Holmlund, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Honda, Katsuya
    University of Tsukuba, Japan .
    Immel, Uta-Dorothee
    University of Halle Wittenberg, Germany .
    Inokuchi, Shota
    National Research Institute Police Science, Japan .
    A. Jobling, Mark
    University of Leicester, England .
    Kaddura, Mahmoud
    University of Benghazi, Libya .
    S. Kim, Jong
    Supreme Prosecutors Off, South Korea .
    H. Kim, Soon
    National Forens Serv, South Korea .
    Kim, Wook
    Dankook University, South Korea .
    E. King, Turi
    University of Leicester, England .
    Klausriegler, Eva
    Salzburg University, Austria .
    Kling, Daniel
    Norwegian Institute Public Heatlh, Norway .
    Kovacevic, Lejla
    Institute Genet Engn and Biotechnol, Bosnia and Herceg .
    Kovatsi, Leda
    Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece .
    Krajewski, Pawel
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland .
    Kravchenko, Sergey
    NASU, Ukraine .
    H. D. Larmuseau, Maarten
    Katholieke University of Leuven, Belgium .
    Young Lee, Eun
    Yonsei University, South Korea .
    Lessig, Ruediger
    University of Halle Wittenberg, Germany .
    A. Livshits, Ludmila
    NASU, Ukraine .
    Marjanovic, Damir
    Institute Genet Engn and Biotechnol, Bosnia and Herceg .
    Minarik, Marek
    Genomac Forens Institute, Czech Republic .
    Mizuno, Natsuko
    National Research Institute Police Science, Japan .
    Moreira, Helena
    University of Aveiro, Portugal .
    Morling, Niels
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Mukherjee, Meeta
    Govt India, India .
    Munier, Patrick
    Site Centre Hospital Felix Guyon, Reunion .
    Nagaraju, Javaregowda
    Centre DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnost, India .
    Neuhuber, Franz
    Salzburg University, Austria .
    Nie, Shengjie
    Kunming Medical University, Peoples R China .
    Nilasitsataporn, Premlaphat
    Royal Thai Police, Thailand .
    Nishi, Takeki
    University of Tsukuba, Japan .
    H. Oh, Hye
    Supreme Prosecutors Off, South Korea .
    Olofsson, Jill
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark .
    Onofri, Valerio
    University of Politecn Marche, Italy .
    U. Palo, Jukka
    University of Helsinki, Finland .
    Pamjav, Horolma
    Minist Public Adm and Justice, Hungary .
    Parson, Walther
    Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria Penn State University, PA 16802 USA .
    Petlach, Michal
    Genomac Forens Institute, Czech Republic .
    Phillips, Christopher
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Ploski, Rafal
    Medical University of Warsaw, Poland .
    P. R. Prasad, Samayamantri
    Centre DNA Fingerprinting and Diagnost, India .
    Primorac, Dragan
    Penn State University, PA 16802 USA University of New Haven, CT USA University of Split, Croatia University of Osijek, Croatia .
    A. Purnomo, Gludhug
    Eijkman Institute Molecular Biol, Indonesia .
    Purps, Josephine
    Charite, Germany .
    Rangel-Villalobos, Hector
    University of Guadalajara CUCienega UdeG, Mexico .
    Rebala, Krzysztof
    Medical University of Gdansk, Poland .
    Rerkamnuaychoke, Budsaba
    Mahidol University, Thailand .
    Rey Gonzalez, Danel
    University of Santiago de Compostela, Spain .
    Robino, Carlo
    University of Turin, Italy .
    Roewer, Lutz
    Charite, Germany .
    Rosa, Alexandra
    University of Madeira, Portugal University of Madeira, Portugal .
    Sajantila, Antti
    University of Helsinki, Finland University of N Texas, TX USA .
    Sala, Andrea
    University of Buenos Aires, Argentina Consejo Nacl Invest Cient and Tecn, Argentina .
    M. Salvador, Jazelyn
    University of Philippines, Philippines .
    Sanz, Paula
    University of Pompeu Fabra, Spain .
    Schmitt, Cornelia
    University of Cologne, Germany .
    K. Sharma, Anil
    Govt India, India .
    A. Silva, Dayse
    University of Estado Rio De Janeiro, Brazil .
    Shin, Kyoung-Jin
    Yonsei University, South Korea .
    Sijen, Titia
    Netherlands Forens Institute, Netherlands .
    Sirker, Miriam
    University of Cologne, Germany .
    Sivakova, Daniela
    Comenius University, Slovakia .
    Skaro, Vedrana
    Genos Ltd, Croatia .
    Solano-Matamoros, Carlos
    University of Costa Rica, Costa Rica .
    Souto, Luis
    University of Aveiro, Portugal .
    Stenzl, Vlastimil
    Institute Criminalist Prague, Czech Republic .
    Sudoyo, Herawati
    Eijkman Institute Molecular Biol, Indonesia .
    Syndercombe-Court, Denise
    Kings Coll London, England .
    Tagliabracci, Adriano
    University of Politecn Marche, Italy .
    Taylor, Duncan
    Forens Science South Australia, Australia Flinders University of S Australia, Australia .
    Tillmar, Andreas
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences. Natl Board Forens Med, Dept Forens Genet and Forens Toxicol, Linkoping, Sweden .
    S. Tsybovsky, Iosif
    State Comm Forens Expertises, Byelarus .
    Tyler-Smith, Chris
    Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, England .
    J. van der Gaag, Kristiaan
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    Vanek, Daniel
    Forens DNA Serv, Czech Republic Charles University of Prague, Czech Republic .
    Volgyi, Antonia
    Minist Public Adm and Justice, Hungary .
    Ward, Denise
    Forens Science South Australia, Australia .
    Willemse, Patricia
    Leiden University, Netherlands .
    P. H. Yap, Eric
    DSO National Labs, Singapore .
    Y. Y. Yong, Rita
    DSO National Labs, Singapore .
    Zupanic Pajnic, Irena
    University of Ljubljana, Slovenia .
    Kayser, Manfred
    Erasmus MC University, Netherlands .
    Toward Male Individualization with Rapidly Mutating Y-Chromosomal Short Tandem Repeats2014In: Human Mutation, ISSN 1059-7794, E-ISSN 1098-1004, Vol. 35, no 8, 1021-1032 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Relevant for various areas of human genetics, Y-chromosomal short tandem repeats (Y-STRs) are commonly used for testing close paternal relationships among individuals and populations, and for male lineage identification. However, even the widely used 17-loci Yfiler set cannot resolve individuals and populations completely. Here, 52 centers generated quality-controlled data of 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs in 14,644 related and unrelated males from 111 worldwide populations. Strikingly, greater than99% of the 12,272 unrelated males were completely individualized. Haplotype diversity was extremely high (global: 0.9999985, regional: 0.99836-0.9999988). Haplotype sharing between populations was almost absent except for six (0.05%) of the 12,156 haplotypes. Haplotype sharing within populations was generally rare (0.8% nonunique haplotypes), significantly lower in urban (0.9%) than rural (2.1%) and highest in endogamous groups (14.3%). Analysis of molecular variance revealed 99.98% of variation within populations, 0.018% among populations within groups, and 0.002% among groups. Of the 2,372 newly and 156 previously typed male relative pairs, 29% were differentiated including 27% of the 2,378 father-son pairs. Relative to Yfiler, haplotype diversity was increased in 86% of the populations tested and overall male relative differentiation was raised by 23.5%. Our study demonstrates the value of RMY-STRs in identifying and separating unrelated and related males and provides a reference database.

  • 19. Bartelink, Eric J.
    et al.
    Sholts, Sabrina B.
    Milligan, Colleen F.
    Van Deest, Traci L.
    Wärmländer, Sebastian K. T. S.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Linköping University, Sweden.
    A Case of Contested Cremains Analyzed Through Metric and Chemical Comparison2015In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 60, no 4, 1068-1073 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the 1980s, cremation has become the fastest growing area of the U.S. funeral industry. At the same time, the number of litigations against funeral homes and cremation facilities has increased. Forensic anthropologists are often asked to determine whether the contents of an urn are actually cremated bone, and to address questions regarding the identity of the remains. This study uses both metric and chemical analyses for resolving a case of contested cremains. A cremains weight of 2021.8 g was predicted based on the decedent's reported stature and weight. However, the urn contents weighed 4173.5 g. The urn contents also contained material inconsistent with cremains (e.g., moist sediment, stones, ferrous metal). Analysis using XRD and SEM demonstrated that the urn contained thermally altered bone as well as inorganic material consistent with glass fiber cement. Although forensically challenging, cremains cases such as this one can be resolved using a multidisciplinary approach.

  • 20.
    Benschop, Corina C G
    et al.
    Division of Biological Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute.
    Connolly, Edward
    Forensic Science Ireland.
    Ansell, Ricky
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish National Forensic Centre, Linköping, Sweden.
    Kokshoorn, Bas
    Division of Biological Traces, Netherlands Forensic Institute.
    Results of an inter and intra laboratory exercise on the assessment of complex autosomal DNA profiles.2017In: Science & justice, ISSN 1355-0306, E-ISSN 1876-4452, Vol. 57, no 1, 21-27 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The interpretation of complex DNA profiles may differ between laboratories and reporting officers, which can lead to discrepancies in the final reports. In this study, we assessed the intra and inter laboratory variation in DNA mixture interpretation for three European ISO17025-accredited laboratories. To this aim, 26 reporting officers analyzed five sets of DNA profiles. Three main aspects were considered: 1) whether the mixed DNA profiles met the criteria for comparison to a reference profile, 2) the actual result of the comparison between references and DNA profiling data and 3) whether the weight of the DNA evidence could be assessed. Similarity in answers depended mostly on the complexity of the tasks. This study showed less variation within laboratories than between laboratories which could be the result of differences between internal laboratory guidelines and methods and tools available. Results show the profile types for which the three laboratories report differently, which informs indirectly on the complexity threshold the laboratories employ. Largest differences between laboratories were caused by the methods available to assess the weight of the DNA evidence. This exercise aids in training forensic scientists, refining laboratory guidelines and explaining differences between laboratories in court. Undertaking more collaborative exercises in future may stimulate dialog and consensus regarding interpretation. For training purposes, DNA profiles of the mixed stains and questioned references are made available.

  • 21.
    Bergqvist, Caroline
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Dödförklaring: Förändringari teorin och praktiken efter Estoniakatastrofen och tsunamin i Sydostasien2012Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En händelse likt Estoniakatastrofen den 28 september 1994 eller tsunamin i Sydostasien den 26 december 2004 är förödande, inte bara för inblandade och dess familj utan för hela världen. Hur kan en sådan händelse inträffa? Varför inträffade det? Hade det kunna förebyggas? Tänk om just jag hade varit med, eller känt någon som var med, hur hade jag reagerat då? Flertalet frågor bland världens befolkning uppstår. Något som kanske inte väcker särskilt mycket uppmärksamhet eller frågor är vad som händer efter att de stora tidningarna slutat skriva om katastrofen, antalet offer är fastställt och allt går tillbaka till det vanliga i övriga världen. Men sökandet, och kanske framför allt lidandet, för de inblandade och närstående har bara börjat. I de båda ovan nämnda katastroferna har många svenskar varit inblandade och i båda katastroferna slutade arbetet med att söka offer långt innan alla var hittade. Personer, som med största sannolikhet avlidit, måste alltså dödförklaras utan att deras kroppar hittats.

    Den 1 april 2005 fick vi en ny lag, lag (2005:130) om dödförklaring (lagen om dödförklaring), med regler om hur och när dödförklaring ska ske. Lagen om dödförklaring ersatte kap. 25 i ärvdabalken (ÄB) som tidigare gällde. Reglerna i den nya lagen överensstämmer till viss del med den äldre regleringen men på en, för händelser likt Estoniakatastrofen och tsunamin i Sydostasien, viktig punkt skiljer de sig. Det är detta denna uppsats kommer behandla, vilken betydelse har ändringen – i teorin och i praktiken.

  • 22.
    Björkén, Elin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Medicinsk gräns mellan grov misshandel och synnerligen grov misshandel: En studie av svensk rättspraxis2014Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Den 1 juli 2010 infördes, genom SFS 2010:370, nya straffbestämmelser i brottsbalken (1962:700) (BrB). Dessa innebar en uppdelning av den grova formen av misshandel som reglerades i 3 kap. 6 § BrB, den kvalificerade formen av misshandel delades upp till grov misshandel och synnerligen grov misshandel. De grövsta brotten skulle omfattas av den strängare brottsrubriceringen som innebar en strängare straffskala på fyra till tio års fängelse, medan grov misshandel skulle ge fängelse om lägst ett år och högst sex år. Det främsta syftet med reformen var att de grövsta brotten skulle stå i proportion till brottets allvar då man tidigare gjort bedömningen att de grövsta brotten endast dömdes ut i den nedre delen av straffskalan.

     

    Olika rekvisit tas hänsyn till när domstolarna ska bedöma en misshandel som grov eller synnerligen grov men det jag främst vill undersöka i denna promemoria är om det finns någon medicinsk gräns som man kan utläsa för att skilja på grov misshandel samt synnerligen grov misshandel. Jag kommer främst försöka finna detta genom hänvisning till de rättsintyg som eventuellt finns med i domskälen till de rättsfall jag valt att studera. Ett rättsintyg är ett dokument som har arbetats fram av en läkare innehållande bedömning och beskrivning av olika medicinska fynd. Dessa dokument ska framläggas inför domstol eller användas vid utredning av brott. Ett rättsintyg är ingen patientjournal utan har ett juridiskt ändamål. I ett rättsintyg presenteras samtliga undersökningsfynd, både förekomst och frånvaro av skador.

  • 23.
    Björnstig, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Björnstig, Johanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Surgery.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine. Rättsmedicin.
    Passenger car collision fatalities - with special emphasis on collisions with heavy vehicles2008In: Accident Analysis and Prevention, ISSN 0001-4575, Vol. 40, no 1, 158-166 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Between 1995 and 2004, 293 passenger car occupants died in collisions with other vehicles in northern Sweden (annual incidence: 3.3 per 100,000 inhabitants, 6.9 per 100,000 cars, or 4.8 per 109 km driven); half of these deaths involved heavy vehicles. The annual number of passenger car occupant death per 100,000 cars in var-truck/bus collisions has remained unchanged since the 1980s, , but in car-car collisions it has decreased to one third of its former level. As crash objects, trucks and buses killed five times as many car occupants per truck/bus kilometer driven as did cars.

    The collisions were characterized by crashes in the oncoming vehicle´s lane, under icy, snowy, or wet conditions; crashes into heavy vehicles generally occurred in daylight, on workdays, in winter, and on 90 and 70 km/h two-lane roads. Head and chest injuries accouted for most of the fatal injuries. multiple fatal injuries and critical and deadly head injuries characterized the deaths in collisions with heavy vehicles.

    An indication of suicide was present in 4% of the deaths; for thos who crashed into trucks, this percentage was doubled. Among the driver victims, 4% had blood alcohol levels above the legal limit of 0.2 g/L.

    Frontal collision risks might be reduced by a mid-barrier, by building less injurious fronts on trucks and buses, by efficient skid prevention, and by use of flexible speed limits varying with road and light conditions.

  • 24.
    Blom, Josefina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Bevisning i våldtäktsmål: Hur starkt bevisvärde har rättsintyg?2012Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Överfallsvåldtäkter är sällsynta och av naturliga skäl saknas oftast vittnen till händelsen, den huvudsakliga bevisningen består vanligtvis av målsägandens och den åtalades utsagor. I NJA 2009 s. 447 I och II menade Högsta domstolen att det inte räckte att målsägandens utsaga var mer trovärdig än den tilltalades. Det krävede dessutom att målsägandens utsaga, till den del det var möjligt, kunde kontrolleras. De två åtalade männen, som av lägre instanser dömdes för våldtäkt, friades av Högsta domstolen. Deras nekande och avsaknaden av stödbevis medförde att det inte kunde anses vara ställt utom rimligt tvivel att de gjort sig skyldiga till de påstådda brotten.

    I våldtäktsmål ska alltså målsägandens utsaga kontrolleras för att kunna värderas högre än den åtalades. Det gäller, i enlighet med NJA 2009 s. 447 I och II, även om den målsägandens utsaga anses vara mer trovärdig än den åtalades. Med andra ord är det särskilt viktigt med stödbevisning, till exemple i form av rättsintyg, i våldtäksmål om en fällande dom ska kunna komma på tal. Med anledning av ovanståden finner jag det intressant att undersöka i vilken omfattning rättsintyg har åberopats och vilket bevisvärde rättsintygen tillmäts i våldtäktsmål.

  • 25. Budowle, B.
    et al.
    Gyllensten, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Chakraborty, R.
    Allen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Forensic analysis of the mitochondrial coding region and association to disease.2005In: International journal of legal medicine (Print), ISSN 0937-9827, E-ISSN 1427-1596, Vol. 119, no 5, 314-315 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 26.
    Bus, Magdalena M.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Nilsson, Martina
    Swedish Police Author, Div Invest, Forens Sect, S-10675 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Allen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Medicinsk genetik och genomik.
    Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA from a Burned, Ninhydrin-Treated Paper Towel2016In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 61, no 3, 828-832 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contact-based evidence is likely to have limited quantities of DNA and may yield mixed profiles due to preexisting or contaminating DNA. In a recent arson investigation, a paper towel was collected and used as circumstantial evidence. The paper towel was partially burned and was likely set on fire with flammable liquid. As part of the investigation, the paper towel was treated with ninhydrin to visualize fingerprint evidence. Initial DNA analysis of two swabs was negative for short tandem repeat (STR) markers and revealed a mixture of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA). Analysis of 13 additional cuttings yielded four more mixed profiles, but also two samples with a common single-source profile. The single-source mtDNA profile matched that of the primary suspect in the case. Thus, even if initial mtDNA analysis yields a mixed profile, a sampling strategy involving multiple locations can improve the chance of obtaining valuable single-source mtDNA profiles from compromised evidence in criminal casework.

  • 27.
    Bäckstrom, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine. Department of Forensic Medicine, National Board of Forensic Medicine, PO Box 7616, SE-907 12, Umeå.
    Johansson, Bengt
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Death from Nitrous Oxide2015In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 60, no 6, 1662-1665 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nitrous oxide is an inflammable gas that gives no smell or taste. It has a history of abuse as long as its clinical use, and deaths, although rare, have been reported. We describe two cases of accidental deaths related to voluntary inhalation of nitrous oxide, both found dead with a gas mask covering the face. In an attempt to find an explanation to why the victims did not react properly to oncoming hypoxia, we performed experiments where a test person was allowed to breath in a closed system, with or without nitrous oxide added. Vital signs and gas concentrations as well as subjective symptoms were recorded. The experiments indicated that the explanation to the fact that neither of the descendents had reacted to oncoming hypoxia and hypercapnia was due to the inhalation of nitrous oxide. This study raises the question whether nitrous oxide really should be easily, commercially available.

  • 28.
    Bäckström, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Accidental death by voluntary nitrous oxide inhalation: effects on subjective dyspnea by nitrous oxide2015In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 21, no 1, 78-78 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Bäckström, Björn
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Sprogoe-Jakobsen, Susan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Homicid among the young2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 18, 82-83 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 30.
    Bäckström, Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Utfärdande av rättsintyg: Den åtalades möjligheter2010Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    ”Det bör ånyo framhållas att det inte är unikt för detta fall att sakkunniga har olika uppfattning om vilka slutsatser som kan dras av vid obduktioner och kompletterande undersökningar gjorda fynd.”[1]

     

    Ovanstående utlåtande gav Justitiekanslern i samband med hans granskning av de rättsmedicinska undersökningarna av Osmo Vallo efter att denne avlidit i samband med ett polisingripande den 30 maj 1995. Kroppen genomgick tre oberoende rättsmedicinska undersökningar vilka resulterade i olika slutsatser. Någon dödsorsak kunde dock inte fastställas.

     

    Till skillnad från obduktionsutlåtanden innehåller rättsintyg medicinska utlåtanden över skador på levande människor. Problemet med att fastställa orsak och verkan över skador och tillstånd är dock detsamma. Liksom i Osmo Vallos fall kan det vid utfärdande av rättsintyg vara mycket svårt att fastställa exakt hur en viss skada har uppkommit. Ett rättsintyg kan många gånger ha avgörande betydelse i brottmålsrättegång. Bland annat för att skapa en enhetlighet i verksamheten och en bättre kvalité på det rättsmedicinska arbetet i Sverige bildades 1991 Rättmedicinalverket. Detta är en statlig förvaltningsmyndighet som tillhandahåller expertis inom områdena rättspsykiatri, rättsmedicin, rättskemi och rättsgenetik. Verket är en mycket viktig del i det svenska rättssamhället genom att utfärda medicinska utlåtanden, däribland rättsintyg, till rättsväsendet. Men verket nekar idag andra parter än polis, åklagare och domstol att få rättsintyg utfärdade. Advokatsamfundet påpekade genom en skrivelse till Justitiedepartementet i september 2002 att detta inte är en acceptabel ordning och att det avsevärt kan undergräva den tilltalades möjlighet att effektivt bereda sitt försvar. [2]

    [1] Justitiekanslern i JK Dnr 2684, s. 7.

    [2] Advokatsamfundets skrivelse till justitiedepartementet den 16 september 2002.  (Bilaga 1).

  • 31.
    Carlborg, Emil
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    En fyrkantig definition av narkotika?: Uppfyller dagens narkotikareglering sitt syfte mot bakgrund av den snabba utvecklingen av nya narkotiska preparat?2012Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Hösten 2010 kom ett larm från rättsmedicinska enheten i Umeå om den nya drogen krypton som vid det årsskiftet 2010/2011 tagit 9 personers liv.[1] Trots detta fanns ingen möjlighet för polisen och tullen att stoppa användandet av substansen, vilken såldes helt öppet på internet då denna inte ännu hunnit narkotikaklassas och således fortfarande var fullt laglig att såväl sälja som inneha och använda i Sverige.

     

    I narkotikastrafflagen (1968:64) (NSL) 8 § definieras narkotika som ”läkemedel eller hälsofarliga varor med beroendeframkallande egenskaper eller euforiserande effekter”, och substanser som med lätthet kan omvandlas till sådana varor. I paragrafen stadgas även att det krävs att substansen är föremål för kontroll enligt en internationell överenskommelse som Sverige biträtt eller att substansen har förklarats vara att anse som narkotika av regeringen att för att en substans ska vara förbjuden att inneha.

     

    Den svenska lagstiftningen medför förvisso en mycket hög grad av rättssäkerhet då man utan problem kan få fullständig klarhet i huruvida ett preparat är förbjudet eller inte. Problemet med lagstiftningen är emellertid att innan en ny substans kan narkotikaklassas måste preparatet genomgå en utredning hos Statens folkhälsoinstitut.[2] Denna tidsödande process innebär att substanser med i praktiken samma effekter som narkotikaklassade substanser kan säljas och användas fritt under långa perioder innan de kan förbjudas.

    [1]  Bäckström, Jörn G, Classon, Gisela, Löwenhielm, Peter, Thelander, Gunilla. 2010. Krypton – ny, dödlig Internetdrog, Läkartidningen. Nr. 50 vol. 107: 3196-3197.

    [2] 3§ 2p. Förordning (2009:267) med instruktion för Statens folkhälsoinstitut

  • 32. Carlsson, P
    et al.
    Thamsen, F
    Thiblin, I
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Death during apprehension2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 33. Colville-Ebeling, Bonnie
    et al.
    Freeman, Michael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Banner, Jytte
    Lynnerup, Niels
    Autopsy practice in forensic pathology - Evidence-based or experience-based?: A review of autopsies performed on victims of traumatic asphyxia in a mass disaster2014In: Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine, ISSN 1752-928X, Vol. 22, 33-36 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Current autopsy practice in forensic pathology is to a large extent based on experience and individual customary practices as opposed to evidence and consensus based practices. As a result there is the potential for substantial variation in how knowledge is applied in each case. In the present case series, we describe the variation observed in autopsy reports by five different pathologists of eight victims who died simultaneously from traumatic asphyxia due to compression during a human stampede. We observed that there was no mention of the availability of medical charts in five of the reports, of potentially confounding resuscitation efforts in three reports, of cardinal signs in seven reports and of associated injuries to a various degree in all reports. Further, there was mention of supplemental histological examination in two reports and of pre-autopsy radiograph in six reports. We inferred that reliance on experience and individual customary practices led to disparities between the autopsy reports as well as omissions of important information such as cardinal signs, and conclude that such reliance increases the potential for error in autopsy practice. We suggest that pre-autopsy data-gathering and the use of check lists specific to certain injury causes are likely to result in less deviation from evidence-based practices in forensic pathology. Pre-autopsy data-gathering and check lists will help ensure a higher degree of standardization in autopsy reports thus enhancing the quality and accuracy of the report as a legal document as well as rendering it more useful for data-gathering efforts. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Crona, Alexander
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Dödförklaring: När anses en försvunnen person vara avliden?2014Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att förlora en nära anhörig är en tragedi som många varit med om. Att förlora en anhörig utan att kunna veta och utan att kunna få bekräftat att personen är död är dock inte lika vanligt. För de fall det inte går att undersöka kroppen och på så vis bekräfta att en person avlidit används regelverket som finns kring dödförklaring av personer. Det är dessvärre inte alltför ovanligt att personer försvinner utan i snitt är det runt 6000 – 7000 personer som försvinner i Sverige varje år. Av dessa återfinns de allra flesta men cirka 30 stycken av dessa personer försvinner spårlöst utan att hittas igen.[1] Är det så att en person försvinner utan att hittas ska reglerna i lag (2005:130) om dödförklaring användas för att kunna fastställa att en försvunnen person är död. Alla fall av försvinnanden behandlas dock inte likadant av lagstiftningen. Vilket sätt en person försvinner på och från var personen försvinner är sådana omständigheter som får betydelse för hur lång tid det måste passera från försvinnandet tills dess att dödförklaringen kan ske. Har en person försvunnit från hemmet är det inte säker att det finns något som pekar på att personen har avlidit. Är det däremot bekräftat att personen försvunnit från ett fartyg som är långt ute på öppet hav finns det mycket som talar för att personen måste ha avlidit och personen kan då dödförklaras tidigare än om personen försvunnit från sitt hem. Lagstiftaren har medvetet gjort skillnad på olika typer av försvinnanden och det är exempelvis skillnad på om att försvinnande sker när en person befunnit sig ensam på en båt än om personen försvinner under en större olycka. Trots att omständigheterna inte skiljer så mycket åt mellan fallen anser lagstiftaren att en person som försvunnit vid en större olycka ska dödförklaras direkt medan det i andra fallet måste gå minst ett år innan dödförklaring kan ske. Det är av stor vikt att en dödförklaring kan ske snabbt. Det finns känslomässiga, ekonomiska och juridiska skäl för detta.[2] Frågan är då varför lagstiftaren gör skillnad på försvinnanden som sker i ett större sammanhang och försvinnanden som sker i samband med en mindre olycka?

  • 35.
    Davies Forsman, Lina
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Öström, Mats
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Svanström, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Fatal bupivacaine overdose through intrathecally positioned epidural catheter2013In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 19, no 1, 10-12 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe a fatality due to an intrathecally positioned epidural catheter and an infusion rate of bupivacaine set 10 times higher than planned. The undetected misplacement, despite safety routines, is discussed along with the toxicological findings and new information on the intrathecal distribution of bupivacaine. From a clinical point of view, the human factor, in combination with an indistinct decimal point on the pump, was considered as the reason for the unfortunate overdose. In continuous epidural infusion of local anesthetics, the importance of guidelines and informed staff in managing complications of epidural lumbar infusion as well as careful monitoring of the vital functions is essential. Guidelines are also vital during the procedure of insertion of epidural catheters. When using combined spinal and epidural anaesthesia, we believe that an epidural catheter should be inserted, and its position tested, prior to spinal anesthesia. The case also illustrates the need of innovative investigation techniques to confirm the suspicion of unusual manifestations of inadvertent drug effects. Segmental analysis, together with analyses in a control case, enabled us to elucidate the high and varying tissue concentrations in the central nervous system.

  • 36.
    Divne, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Allen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    A DNA microarray system for forensic SNP analysis2005In: Forensic Science International, ISSN 0379-0738, E-ISSN 1872-6283, Vol. 154, no 2-3, 111-121 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Forensic DNA analysis is routinely performed using polymorphic short tandem repeat (STR) markers. However, for degraded or minute DNA samples, analysis of autosomal single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in short fragments might be more successful. Furthermore, sequencing of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is often performed on highly degraded or scarce samples due to the high copy number of mtDNA in each cell. Due to the increasing number of complete mtDNA genome sequences available, the limited discrimination power of an mtDNA analysis, may be increased by analysis of coding region polymorphisms in addition to the non-coding variation. Since sequence analysis of the coding region would require more material than generally present in forensic samples, an alternative SNP analysis approach is required. We have developed a one-colour microarray-based SNP detection system for limited forensic materials. The method is based on minisequencing in solution prior to hybridisation to universal tag-arrays. In a first outline of a forensic chip, a combination of 12 nuclear and 21 mitochondrial SNP markers are analysed simultaneously. The mitochondrial markers on the chip are polymorphisms within the hypervariable region as well as in the coding region. Even though the number of markers in the current system is limited, it can easily be extended to yield a greater power of discrimination. When fully developed, microarray analysis provides a promising system for efficient sensitive SNP analysis of forensic samples in the future.

  • 37.
    Divne, Anna-Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Nilsson, Martina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Calloway, Cassandra
    Reynolds, Rebecca
    Erlich, Henry
    Allen, Marie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Genetics and Pathology.
    Forensic casework analysis using the HVI/HVII mtDNA linear array assay.2005In: Journal of Forensic Sciences, ISSN 0022-1198, E-ISSN 1556-4029, Vol. 50, no 3, 548-554 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mitochondrial hypervariable regions I and II have proven to be a useful target for analysis of forensic materials, in which the amount of DNA is limited or highly degraded. Conventional mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) sequencing can be time-consuming and expensive, limitations that can be minimized using a faster and less expensive typing assay. We have evaluated the exclusion capacity of the linear array mtDNA HVI/HVII region-sequence typing assay (Roche Applied Science) in 16 forensic cases comprising 90 samples. Using the HVI/HVII mtDNA linear array, 56% of the samples were excluded and thus less than half of the samples require further sequencing due to a match or inconclusive results. Of all the samples that were excluded by sequence analysis, 79% could be excluded using the HVI/HVII linear array alone. Using the HVI/HVII mtDNA linear array assay, we demonstrate the potential to decrease sequencing efforts substantially and thereby reduce the cost and the turn-around time in casework analysis.

  • 38.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Introduction to the Special Issue of the HCR-20 Version 32014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, 91-92 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Vadstena Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Vadstena, Sweden .
    Interrater Reliability and Concurrent Validity of the HCR-20 Version 32014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, 130-139 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We evaluated the interrater reliability and concurrent validity of the HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3). Three sets of ratings were completed by experienced clinicians for 35 forensic psychiatric patients, for both HCR-20 Versions 2 and 3. Reliability analyses focused on ratings of the presence of Version 3 risk factors, presence of Version 3 risk factor sub-items, relevance ratings for Version 3 risk factors, and Version 3 summary risk ratings for future violence. Concurrent validity analyses focused on the correlational association between Versions 2 and 3 in terms of the number of risk factors present. Findings indicated that Versions 2 and 3 were strongly correlated (.69 -.90). Interrater reliability was consistently excellent for the presence of risk factors and for summary risk ratings. The majority of relevance and sub-item ratings were in the good to excellent range, although there was a minority of such ratings in the fair or poor categories. Findings support the concurrent validity and interrater reliability of HCR-20V3. Implications for use of HCR-20V3 by professionals and agencies are discussed. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 40.
    Douglas, Kevin S.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Hart, S. D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC, Canada .
    Webster, C. D.
    Department of Psychology, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada .
    Belfrage, Henrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences. Vadstena Forensic Psychiatric Hospital, Vadstena, Sweden.
    Guy, L. S.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA, United States .
    Wilson, C. M.
    Department of Psychiatry, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada .
    Historical-Clinical-Risk Management-20, Version 3 (HCR-20V3): Development and Overview2014In: International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, ISSN 1932-9903, Vol. 13, no 2, 93-108 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The HCR-20 Version 3 (HCR-20V3) was published in 2013, after several years of development and revision work. It replaces Version 2, published in 1997, on which there have been more than 200 disseminations based on more than 33,000 cases across 25 countries. This article explains (1) why a revision was necessary, (2) the steps we took in the revision process, (3) key changes between Version 2 and Version 3, and (4) an overview of HCR-20V3's risk factors and administration steps. Recommendations for evaluating Version 3 are provided. © 2014 International Association of Forensic Mental Health Services.

  • 41.
    Drugge, Ulf
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Lindgren, Simon
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Sociology.
    Dårskapens gränser: om mord, domstolar och rättspsykiatri under 1800-talet2001Report (Other academic)
  • 42.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm University.
    Edman, Gunnar
    Department of Psychiatry, Research and Development, Danderyd’s Hospital, Danderyd, Sweden.
    Flunitrazepam abuse and personality characteristics inmale forensic psychiatric patients2001In: Psychiatry Research, ISSN 0165-1781, E-ISSN 1872-7123, Vol. 103, no 1, 27-42 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty male non-psychotic forensic psychiatric patients, aged 16-35 years, were studied after they completed their ordinary forensic psychiatric assessment (FPA). The prevalence of flunitrazepam (FZ) abuse was investigated by using both structured and in-depth interviews with the objective of studying the relationship between the abuse and personality traits. The patient’s characteristics, DSM-IV disorders, and actual sentences were obtained by studying their files. In order to obtain measures on their personality traits, self-report inventories were administered to the patients. Eighteen out of 60 patients were FZ abusers, but only 4 of them received a diagnosis related to the FZ abuse during the ordinary FPA. In almost all cases, however, indications of the FZ abuse were found in the files. No differences in personality traits were found between the groups. The frequency of previous admissions to an FPA and actual sentences of robbery, weapons offenses, narcotic-related offenses, and other crimes, such as theft, among the FZ abusers deviated significantly from forensic non-FZ abusers. Therefore, the FZ abuse per se might be more responsible for their tendency to commit crimes characterized by danger and thrill-seeking, such as robbery, weapons offences, and theft, than personality. The most important conclusion is that assessment of FZ abuse is needed in forensic psychiatry.

  • 43.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm; Stockholm University, Sweden.
    Fredriksson, Björn
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kristiansson, Marianne
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Lars-Håkan
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Department of Forensic Psychiatry, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Violent behavior, impulsive decision-making, and anterograde amnesia while intoxicated with Flunitrazepam and alcohol or other drugs: A case study in forensic psychiatric patients2002In: The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, ISSN 1093-6793, E-ISSN 1943-3662, Vol. 30, no 2, 238-251 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    It is known that many male juvenile delinquents commit violent crimes while intoxicated with flunitrazepam (FZ), often in combination with alcohol or other drugs. We have also noted the combined abuse of FZ with, for example, alcohol in male forensic psychiatric patients. Our objective was to study violent behavior, impulsive decision making, and amnesia in male forensic psychiatric patients who were intoxicated predominantly with FZ, to increase knowledge of the abuse of FZ in vulnerable subjects. We studied five forensic psychiatric patients, all of whom were assessed in 1998. All of the subjects reported earlier reactions to FZ, including hostility and anterograde amnesia. At the time of their crimes they were all intoxicated with FZ, often in combination with alcohol or other drugs, such as amphetamine or cannabis. In contrast to their behavior based on their ordinary psychological characteristics, their crimes were extremely violent, and the subjects lacked both the ability to think clearly and to have empathy with their victims. Our observations support the view that FZ abuse can lead to serious violent behavior in subjects characterized by vulnerable personality traits, and that this effect is confounded by the concurrent use of alcohol or other drugs. It is evident that FZ causes anterograde amnesia. Previous research and the results presented herein allow us to draw the following conclusion: on the basis of the neuropsychopharmacologic properties of FZ, legal decisions, such as declaring FZ an illegal drug, are needed in countries where it is now legal.

  • 44.
    Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Relapse in violent crime in relation to cerebrospinal fluid monoamine metabolites (5-HIAA, HVA and HMPG) in male forensic psychiatric patients convicted of murder: a 16-year follow-up2002In: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica Supplementum, ISSN 0065-1591, Vol. 412, no 106, 71-74 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to investigate if low levels of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)monoamine metabolites of 5-HIAA, HVA and HMPG predict relapse in violent crimes. METHOD: Relapse in crime and level of CSF monoamine metabolites (5-HIAA, HVA and HMPG) was studied in a group of 29 murderers. The follow-up was 16 years. RESULTS: Fourteen of the 29 murderers were convicted of crime; nine of them committed violent crimes; one was convicted of a new murder. The differences in mean CSF monoamine metabolites were lower in subjects who relapsed into any type of crime, but only the difference in mean CSF HVA was statistically significant. CONCLUSION: The risk to commit new murder is very small in males who earlier have been convicted of murder. Low levels of CSF HVA is associated with an increased risk for relapse in any type of crime.

  • 45. Dåderman, Anna Maria
    et al.
    Lidberg, Lars
    Karolinska Institutet, Department of Forensic Psychiatry, University Hospital, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Flunitrazepam (Rohypnol) abuse in combination with alcohol causes premeditated, grievous violence in male juvenile offenders1999In: The journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, ISSN 1093-6793, Vol. 27, no 1, 83-99 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study focuses on 19 juvenile offenders who were frequently intoxicated by flunitrazepam (FZ), almost exclusively under the brand name Rohypnol. Street names for Rohypnol tablets are Rophies, Ropies, Roofies, Ropes, Roches, Rochas, Rochas Dos, Rophs, Ropers, Ribs, R-25, Roach-2s, Trip and Fall, Remember All, Mind Erasers, Forget Pills, and the Date Rape Drug. An overdose of FZ gives an increased feeling of power and self-esteem, reduces fear and insecurity, and provides the belief that everything is possible. FZ is also associated with loss of episodic memory and with impulsive violence, particularly when combined with alcohol. The subjects were taken from a subpopulation of 47 male juvenile offenders from Swedish national correctional institutions. Background information for subjects was obtained by in-depth interviewing and personality inventories including the Zuckerman Sensation-Seeking Scales, the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire, and the Karolinska Scales of Personality. Data concerning previous criminal offenses was obtained from the Swedish National Police Board. Almost all of the FZ abusers had been previously sentenced for serious violent offenses. Our data suggest that FZ abused by psychiatrically vulnerable subjects (i.e., with high scores on boredom susceptibility and verbal aggression) poses a serious hazard both to the abusers as well as the community. Our results support the finding that FZ should be classified as a Schedule I drug (i.e., a drug similar to heavy narcotics).

  • 46.
    Ekberg, Kerstin
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Eklund, MonaInstitutionen för hälsovetenskaper, Arbetsterapi och aktivitetsvetenskap, Lunds universitet.Hensing, GunnelInstitutionen för medicin, Avd för samhällsmedicin och folkhälsa, Sahlgrenska akademien, Göteborgs universitet.
    Återgång i arbete: processer, bedömningar, åtgärder2015Collection (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Förmågan och möjligheten att arbeta är viktig både för den enskilda 
individen och för samhället. När en person helt eller delvis förlorar sin arbetsförmåga på grund av ohälsa ska olika aktörer i välfärds­samhället möjliggöra återgång i arbete. Sjukskrivnings- och rehabiliteringsprocessen blir i en del fall komplex beroende på variationer i aktörernas perspektiv på arbetsförmåga, de bedömningsmetoder som används och vilka regelverk som är tillämpbara. Kunskapsbaserade åtgärder för att främja återgång i arbete involverar i allmänhet arbetsplatsen som en central 
aktör och arena för åtgärder, medan praktiken ofta är annorlunda. 
Boken belyser förut­sättningar för att implementera kunskapsbaserade utredningar och åtgärder i det svenska samhället, liksom komplexiteten 
i dessa processer.

    Boken vänder sig till personer som arbetar med bedömning av arbetsförmåga och med åtgärder för att främja återgång i arbete. Målgrupper är studerande och professionella som i sin yrkesutövning inom till exempel primärvården, företagshälsovården eller inom privata rehabiliterings­enheter arbetar med sjukskrivningsprocesser och arbetslivsinriktad rehabilitering. Boken riktar sig också till arbetsgivare och arbetsledare som har ansvar för sjukskrivna medarbetares återgång i arbete.

  • 47.
    Ekman, Jonn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Deaths in custody in Sweden2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 18, 89-90 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 48.
    Elala, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Kvinnlig könsstympning och manlig "omskärelse": En utredande uppsats om skyddet av människokroppen2011Student paper other, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Nedan vill jag för läsaren berätta om ett tillfälle, som en ung flicka antagligen aldrig glömmer. Hon blev placerad i sin säng, hennes pappa och en annan för henne okänd person hade fattat tag om varsitt ben medan en tredje person skar med ett rakblad i hennes underliv. Flickan var då mellan elva och tolv år gammal och befann sig i sin pappas hemland Somalia. Hon var uppvuxen i Sverige och kände inte till företeelsen med könsstympning. I pappans hemland var hon helt utlämnad, då pappan hade ensam vård om henne.1

    Mellan 100 och 140 miljoner flickor och kvinnor världen över har blivit utsatta för könsstympning. Var och en har en egen berättelse likt eller olikt den ovan. 2 miljoner flickor och kvinnor utsätts årligen för ingreppet och i Sverige finns det 28 000 kvinnor som kommer från länder som har denna tradition som kulturell norm. Av dessa är 5000 flickor under sju år.2 Lag (1982:316) med förbud mot kvinnlig könsstympning (nedan förkortad LFK) medförde att det blev olagligt att utföra kvinnlig könsstympning, vilket gäller oavsett om samtycke föreligger eller inte från flickan eller kvinnans sida.3 Och det gäller oavsett om ingreppet utförs av privatperson eller läkare.4 Genom denna lag har lagstiftaren visat ett tydligt avståndstagande från företeelsen, åtminstone avseende flickor och kvinnor. Men vad har lagstiftaren intagit för ställning gentemot de pojkar som blir utsatta för omskärelse?

    Låt mig berätta ytterligare en berättelse från verkligheten, den här gången om en pojke. Som en av sex pojkar som skulle omskäras väntade han tillsammans med sina föräldrar på sin tur med ett skynke runt kroppen. En pojke i taget blev placerad på rygg med benen vinklade upp och fötterna mot bordsskivan uppe på ett bord. Pappan eller någon annan vuxen höll fast pojkens ben bakifrån, varpå ingreppet utfördes utan smärtlindring. Penisens förhud drogs fram över ollonet och skars av, sen kom smärtan och man satte ett bandage runt pojkens penis.5 I Sverige är omskärelse av pojkar lagligt, om föräldrarna samtycker och det sker inom vissa ramar – såsom inom hälso-och sjukvården eller av någon som genom Socialstyrelsen erhållit ett tillstånd, detta enligt lag (2001:499) om omskärelse av pojkar (nedan förkortad LOP). Är det riktigt att ett ingrepp på den kroppsliga integriteten kan vara laglig eller olaglig endast beroende på vilket kön man tillhör?

  • 49.
    Ericsson, Mica
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Läkares sekretess: Mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer2014Student paper other, 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I detta PM kommer läkares sekretess angående mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer att behandlas. Inledningsvis kommer en kort bakgrund till ämnet ”Mäns våld mot kvinnor i nära relationer” att ges. Sedan kommer en förklaring göras av vad en läkares sekretess generellt innebär, undantagen därifrån och när läkare har rätt att bryta sekretessen. PM:et avslutas med en diskussion och en slutsats där jag kommer se ämnet ur ett kvinnorättsperspektiv, ge en förklaring till vad perspektivet innebär och vad det skulle kunna innebära att använda det valda perspektivet på ämnet i fråga.

     

    Lagrum om sekretess som kommer att behandlas i detta PM gäller alla sjukvårdspersonal men då jag har lagt fokus på läkare som personalgrupp inom sjukvården är det endast läkares sekretess jag kommer att behandla och förklara. Ha i bakhuvudet när du läser vidare att det jag skriver om läkare också kan tillämpas på annan sjukvårdspersonal.

     

  • 50.
    Eriksson, Anders
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Forensic Medicine.
    Specialist training strategies, assessment and evaluation2012In: Scandinavian Journal of Forensic Science, ISSN 1503-9552, Vol. 18, 20-21 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
12345 1 - 50 of 222
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