Change search
Refine search result
1234567 1 - 50 of 2637
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Oldest first
  • Newest first
Select all
  • 1.
    Abbas, Monika
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences.
    Bedömning av variabler vid postocklusiv reaktiv hyperemi (PORH)-test med Laser Doppler Flowmetry teknik2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 2.
    Abdallah Athumani, Ngenya
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Characterization of tick-born encephalitis and West Nile virus non-structural 5 protein interactions with host factors involved in immune evasion and cellular apoptosis.2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 3.
    Abdel–Khalik, Jonas
    et al.
    Institute of Mass Spectrometry, College of Medicine, Swansea University.
    Björklund, Erland
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Hansen, Martin
    Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Stanford University.
    Development of a solid phase extraction method for the simultaneous determination of steroid hormones in H295R cell line using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry2013In: Journal of chromatography. B, ISSN 1570-0232, E-ISSN 1873-376X, Vol. 935, no September, 61-69 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The H295R in vitro cell line produces the majority of the steroidogenesis, for which reason it is commonly used as a screening tool for endocrine disrupting chemicals. Simultaneous determination of the precursor cholesterol and key steroid hormones could give a broad insight into the mechanistic disruption of the steroidogenesis. Steroid hormones have primarily been extracted from H295R incubation medium by means of liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and the obtained recoveries and matrix effects have typically not been stated or assessed. In the present study a solid-phase extraction (SPE) method was developed and validated for the simultaneous extraction of cholesterol and five key steroid hormones pregnenolone, 17-hydroxyprogesterone, testosterone, cortisol and aldosterone from H295R incubation medium, and finally detected by LC-MS/MS. Cholesterol was recovered at a level of 55.7%, while steroid hormone recoveries ranged from 98.2 to 109.4%. Matrix effects varied between -0.6% and 62.8%. Intra-day precision was deemed acceptable, but the inter-day precision for pregnenolone and aldosterone exceeded the precision limit of 15% RSD. Although LLE has been the most frequently used extraction method in H295R studies, however, our investigation has shown that SPE may relatively easily extract and recover steroid hormones, potentially replacing LLE.

  • 4.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. AstraZeneca R&D Sodertalje, Global DMPK, SE-15185 Sodertalje, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Dept Analyt Chem, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Fac Sci & Technol, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS): A tutorial2011In: Analytica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0003-2670, E-ISSN 1873-4324, Vol. 701, no 2, 119-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This tutorial provides an overview on a new technique for sample preparation, microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS). Not only the automation process by MEPS is the advantage but also the much smaller volumes of the samples, solvents and dead volumes in the system. Other significant advantages such as the speed and the simplicity of the sample preparation process are provided. In this tutorial the main concepts of MEPS will be elucidated. Different practical aspects in MEPS are addressed. The factors affecting MEPS performance will be discussed. The application of MEPS in clinical and pre-clinical studies for quantification of drugs and metabolites in blood, plasma and urine will be provided. A comparison between MEPS and other extraction techniques such as SPE, LLE, SPME and SBSE will be discussed. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 5.
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Chemistry and Biomedical Sciences. AstraZeneca R&D Sodertalje, Global DMPK, Sodertalje, Sweden.;Karlstad Univ, Fac Sci & Technol, Dept Chem & Biomed Sci, Karlstad, Sweden..
    On-Line Whole Blood Analysis Using Microextraction by Packed Sorbent and LC-MS-MS2011In: LC GC North America, ISSN 1527-5949, E-ISSN 1939-1889, Vol. 29, no 7, 612-618 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) is a new technique for sample preparation that can be connected on-line with liquid chromatography (LC) or gas chromatography (GC) systems without any modifications. This article describes the use of MEPS in clinical and preclinical studies to quantify different drugs in whole blood samples. MEPS was used to determine cyclophosphamide in mouse blood from preclinical g studies using 20 mu L of blood samples. The interday accuracies and 0 precisions ranged from 107-109% and from 2.0-7.0%, respectively. The determination of four immunosuppressive drugs in human blood by MEPS and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is described. The method showed a good selectivity and sensitivity. The calibration curves for everolimus, sirolimus, and tacrolimus ranged from 0.5 to 50 ng/mL and for cyclosporine from 3.0 to 1500 ng/mL. Intraday precisions for the studied immunosuppressive drugs were 2.0-11.7% and interday precision ranged from 5.1 to 13.7% (CV).

  • 6.
    Abdirashid, Abdulle
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Health Sciences.
    Detektion av kloratreduktas och kloritdismutas med hjälp av 2D elektrofores2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 7.
    Abdullah, Sara Alawi
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Lång respektive fördröjd provtransport ger försämrad blodprovskvalitet2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 8.
    Abdulleteef, Lina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Förekomst av humant papillomvirus i tonsillcancer i norra regionen i Sverige 2000-20122013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Abedan Kondori, Farid
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Liu, Li
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    3D Active Human Motion Estimation for Biomedical Applications2012In: World Congress on Medical Physics and Biomedical Engineering May 26-31, 2012, Beijing, China / [ed] Mian Long, Springer Berlin/Heidelberg, 2012, , 4 p.1014-1017 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Movement disorders forbid many people from enjoying their daily lives. As with other diseases, diagnosis and analysis are key issues in treating such disorders. Computer vision-based motion capture systems are helpful tools for accomplishing this task. However Classical motion tracking systems suffer from several limitations. First they are not cost effective. Second these systems cannot detect minute motions accurately. Finally they are spatially limited to the lab environment where the system is installed. In this project, we propose an innovative solution to solve the above-mentioned issues. Mounting the camera on human body, we build a convenient, low cost motion capture system that can be used by the patient while practicing daily-life activities. We refer to this system as active motion capture, which is not confined to the lab environment. Real-time experiments in our lab revealed the robustness and accuracy of the system.

  • 10.
    Abelson, Klas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience.
    Acetylcholine in Spinal Pain Modulation: An in vivo Study in the Rat2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The spinal cord is an important component in the processing and modulation of painful stimuli. Nerve signals from the periphery are relayed and further conducted to the brain (nociception) in the spinal cord, and the most essential modulation of painful information (antinociception) occurs here. Several neurotransmitters are involved in spinal pain modulation, among them acetylcholine. However, the role of acetylcholine has previously been little investigated.

    In the present thesis, the acetylcholine release in the spinal cord was studied in vivo. By using spinal microdialysis on anaesthetised rats, the effects on the intraspinal acetylcholine release of various receptor ligands and analgesic agents were examined. This, together with pain behavioural tests and in vitro pharmacological assays, was used to evaluate the role of acetylcholine in spinal pain modulation. The four studies in this thesis resulted in the following conclusions:

    An increased release of spinal acetylcholine is associated with an elevated pain threshold, while a decreased acetylcholine release is associated with hyperalgesia, as seen after systemic treatment with a muscarinic agonist and an antagonist.

    Lidocaine is a potent analgesic when given systemically. It was found to produce an increase of intraspinal acetylcholine after intravenous injection of analgesic doses. This effect was attenuated after muscarinic, and abolished after nicotinic, receptor blockade.

    Various a2-adrenergic ligands, associated with nociceptive or antinociceptive effects, were found to affect intraspinal acetylcholine release via action on nicotinic receptors.

    Finally, the involvement of spinal acetylcholine in the analgesic effects of aspirin and paracetamol was examined. It was found that spinal acetylcholine could participate in the analgesic effects of aspirin, but not of paracetamol.

    The present thesis provides data that clearly demonstrate a relationship between intraspinal acetylcholine and antinociception, and elucidate interactions between acetylcholine and other mechanisms that mediate antinociception in the spinal cord.

  • 11.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Hau, Jann
    Carlsson, Hans-Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Undergraduate and postgraduate students' responses to mandatory courses (FELASA category C) in laboratory animal science 1997-20032005In: Internationalisation and Harmonisation of Laboratory Animal Care and Use Issues: Proceedings of the Ninth FELASA Symposium 14-17 June 2004, Nantes, France / [ed] M. R. Gamble, 2005Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 12.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Höglund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    The effects of the alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidine, and antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan, on the spinal cholinergic receptor system in the rat2004In: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, ISSN 1742-7835, Vol. 94, no 4, 153-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cholinergic agonists produce spinal antinociception via mechanisms involving an increased release of intraspinalacetylcholine. The cholinergic receptor system interacts with several other receptor types, such as a2-adrenergic receptors.To fully understand these interactions, the effects of various receptor ligands on the cholinergic system must be investigatedin detail. This study was initiated to investigate the effects of the a2-adrenergic receptor agonists clonidine and rilmenidineand the a2-adrenergic receptor antagonists yohimbine and efaroxan on spinal cholinergic receptors in the rat. Spinalmicrodialysis was used to measure in vivo changes of acetylcholine after administration of the ligands, with or withoutnicotinic receptor blockade. In addition, in vitro binding properties of the ligands on muscarinic and nicotinic receptorswere investigated. It was found that clonidine and rilmenidine increased, while yohimbine decreased spinal acetylcholinerelease. Efaroxan affected acetylcholine release differently depending on concentration. Nicotinic receptor blockade atten-uated the effect of all ligands. All ligands showed poor binding affinity for muscarinic receptors. On the other hand, allligands possessed affinity for nicotinic receptors. Clonidine and yohimbine binding was best fit to a one site binding curveand rilmenidine and efaroxan to a two site binding curve. The present study demonstrates that the tested a2-adrenergicreceptor ligands affect intraspinal acetylcholine release in the rat evoked by nicotinic receptor mechanisms in vivo, andthat they possess binding affinity to nicotinic receptors in vitro. The binding of a2-adrenergic receptor ligands to nicotinicreceptors might affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine.

  • 13.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Höglund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Intravenously administered oxotremorine and atropine, in doses known to affect pain threshold, affect the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats2002In: Pharmacology and Toxicology, ISSN 0901-9928, Vol. 90, no 4, 187-192 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract:Both systemically and intrathecally administered cholinergic agonists produce antinociception while cholinergic antagonists decrease pain threshold. The mechanism and the site of action of these substances are not known. In the present study it was hypothesized that systemically administered muscarinic agonists and antagonists modify nociceptive threshold by affecting intraspinal release of acetylcholine (ACh). Catheters were inserted into the femoral vein in rats maintained on isoflurane anaesthesia for administration of oxotremorine (10–300 μg/kg) and atropine (0.1, 10, 5000 μg/kg). Spinal microdialysis probes were placed intraspinally at approximately the C2–C5 spinal level for sampling of acetylcholine and dialysis delivery of atropine (0.1, 1, 10 nM). Additionally, the tail-flick behaviour was tested on conscious rats injected intraperitoneally with saline, atropine (10, 100 and 5000 μg/kg), or subcutaneously with oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 μg/kg). Subcutaneous administration of oxotremorine (30, 100, 300 μg/kg) significantly increased the tail-flick latency. These doses of oxotremorine dose-dependently increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Intravenously administered atropine, in a dose that produced hyperalgesia (5000 μg/kg) in the tail-flick test, significantly decreased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Our results suggest an association between pain threshold and acetylcholine release in spinal cord. It is also suggested that an approximately 30% increase in basal ACh release produces antinociception and that a 30% decrease in basal release produces hyperalgesia.

  • 14.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Höglund, Urban
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Intravenously administered lidocaine in therapeutic doses increases the intraspinal release of acetylcholine in rats2002In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, Vol. 317, no 2, 93-6 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The local anesthetic lidocaine suppresses different pain conditions when administered systemically. Part of the antinociceptive effect appears to be mediated via receptor mechanisms. We have previously shown that muscarinic and nicotinic agonists that produce antinociception increase the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. In the present study it was hypothesized that systemically administered lidocaine is acting through the same mechanisms as cholinergic agonists and affects the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. Microdialysis probes were placed in anesthetized rats for sampling of acetylcholine. Ten and 30 mg/kg lidocaine injected intravenously significantly increased the intraspinal release of acetylcholine. The effect of lidocaine could be reduced by pretreatment with intraspinally administered atropine or mecamylamine. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effect produced by systemically administered lidocaine is mediated through an action on muscarinic and nicotinic receptors.

  • 15.
    Abelson, Klas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Medicinska vetenskapsområdet, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Comparative Medicine.
    Kommalage, Mahinda
    Höglund, Urban
    Spinal cholinergic involvement after treatment with aspirin and paracetamol in rats2004In: Neuroscience Letters, ISSN 0304-3940, Vol. 368, no 1, 116-120 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 16.
    Aboul-Enein, Mohamed N.
    et al.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Med Chem Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt..
    El-Azzouny, Aida A.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Med Chem Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt..
    Attia, Mohamed I.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Med Chem Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt.;King Saud Univ, Coll Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia..
    Maklad, Yousreya A.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Pharmacol Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt..
    Amin, Kamilia M.
    Cairo Univ, Fac Pharm, Dept Pharmaceut Chem, Cairo, Egypt..
    Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed
    Karlstad Univ, Dept Chem, SE-65188 Karlstad, Sweden..
    El-Behairy, Mohammed F.
    Natl Res Ctr, Pharmaceut & Drug Ind Res Div, Med & Pharmaceut Chem Dept, Med Chem Grp, Giza 12622, Egypt..
    Design and synthesis of novel stiripentol analogues as potential anticonvulsants2012In: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0223-5234, E-ISSN 1768-3254, Vol. 47, 360-369 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A series of stiripentol (SIP) analogues namely, 2-1(1E)-1-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-4,4-dimethylpent-1-en-3-ylidene]-N-(aryl/H)hydrazinecarboxamides 7a-h, (+/-)-(5RS)-N-(aryl/H)-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazole-1-carboxamides (+/-)-8a-h, and (+/-)-[(5RS)-(1,3-benzodioxol-5-yl)-3-tert-butyl-4,5-dihydro-1H-pyrazol-1-yl](aryl)methanones (+/-)-13a-f was synthesized by adopting appropriate synthetic routes and was pharmacologically evaluated in the preliminary anticonvulsant screens. The selected bioactive new chemical entities were subjected to ED50 determination and neurotoxicity evaluation. The most active congeners are 7h in MES screen and (+/-)-13b in scPTZ screen which displayed ED50 values of 87 and 110 mg/kg, respectively, as compared to that of STP (ED50 = 277.7 and 115 mg/kg in MES and scPTZ, respectively). (C) 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Karolina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Detektion av herpesvirus i hjärnvävnad med q-PCR: Utvärdering av KAPA Express Extract kit och KAPA PROBE FORCE q-PCR kit2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Pernilla
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Johansson, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Åberg, Anna-Maja
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Winsö, Ola
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Blind, Per Jonas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical and Perioperative Sciences, Anaesthesiology.
    Outcome of microdialysis sampling on liver surface and parenchyma2016In: Journal of Surgical Research, ISSN 0022-4804, E-ISSN 1095-8673, Vol. 200, no 2, 480-487 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To investigate whether surface microdialysis (μD) sampling in probes covered by a plastic film, as compared to noncovered and to intraparenchymatous probes, would increase the technique's sensitivity for pathophysiologic events occurring in a liver ischemia-reperfusion model. Placement of μD probes in the parenchyma of an organ, as is conventionally done, may cause adverse effects, e.g., bleeding, possibly influencing outcome.

    Methods: A transient ischemia-reperfusion model of the liver was used in six anesthetized normoventilated pigs. μD probes were placed in the parenchyma and on the liver surface. Surface probes were either left uncovered or were covered by plastic film.

    Results: Lactate and glucose levels were significantly higher in plastic film covered probes than in uncovered surface probes throughout the ischemic period. Glycerol levels were significantly higher in plastic film covered probes than in uncovered surface probes at 30 and 45 min into ischemia.

    Conclusions: Covering the μD probe increases the sensibility of the μD–technique in monitoring an ischemic insult and reperfusion in the liver. These findings confirm that the principle of surface μD works, possibly replacing need of intraparenchymatous placement of μD probes. Surface μD seemingly allows, noninvasively from an organ's surface, via the extracellular compartment, assessment of intracellular metabolic events. The finding that covered surface μD probes allows detection of local metabolic changes earlier than do intraparenchymatous probes, merit further investigation focusing on μD probe design.

  • 19. Abtahi, F
    et al.
    Seoane, F
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Lindecrantz, K
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Electrical bioimpedance spectroscopy in time-variant systems: Is undersampling always a problem?2014In: Journal of Electrical Bioimpedance, ISSN 1891-5469, E-ISSN 1891-5469, Vol. 5, no 1, 28-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the last decades, Electrical Bioimpedance Spectroscopy (EBIS) has been applied mainly by using the frequency-sweep technique, across a range of many different applications. Traditionally, the tissue under study is considered to be time-invariant and dynamic changes of tissue activity are ignored by treating the changes as a noise source. A new trend in EBIS is simultaneous electrical stimulation with several frequencies, through the application of a multi-sine, rectangular or other waveform. This method can provide measurements fast enough to sample dynamic changes of different tissues, such as cardiac muscle. This high sampling rate comes at a price of reduction in SNR and the increase in complexity of devices. Although the frequency-sweep technique is often inadequate for monitoring the dynamic changes in a variant system, it can be used successfully in applications focused on the time-invariant or slowly-variant part of a system. However, in order to successfully use frequency-sweep EBIS for monitoring time-variant systems, it is paramount to consider the effects of aliasing and especially the folding of higher frequencies, on the desired frequency e.g. DC level. This paper discusses sub-Nyquist sampling of thoracic EBIS measurements and its application in the case of monitoring pulmonary oedema. It is concluded that by considering aliasing, and with proper implementation of smoothing filters, as well as by using random sampling, frequency-sweep EBIS can be used for assessing time-invariant or slowly-variant properties of time-variant biological systems, even in the presence of aliasing. In general, undersampling is not always a problem, but does always require proper consideration.

  • 20. Addario, Barbara
    et al.
    Sandblad, Linda
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine).
    Persson, Karina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Backman, Lars
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Characterisation of Schizosaccharomyces pombe alpha-actinin2016In: PeerJ, ISSN 2167-8359, E-ISSN 2167-8359, Vol. 4, e1858Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The actin cytoskeleton plays a fundamental role in eukaryotic cells. Its reorganization is regulated by a plethora of actin-modulating proteins, such as a-actinin. In higher organisms, alpha-actinin is characterized by the presence of three distinct structural domains: an N-terminal actin-binding domain and a C-terminal region with EF-hand motif separated by a central rod domain with four spectrin repeats. Sequence analysis has revealed that the central rod domain of alpha-actinin from the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe consists of only two spectrin repeats. To obtain a firmer understanding of the structure and function of this unconventional alpha-actinin, we have cloned and characterized each structural domain. Our results show that this alpha-actinin isoform is capable of forming dimers and that the rod domain is required for this. However, its actin-binding and cross-linking activity appears less efficient compared to conventional alpha-actinins. The solved crystal structure of the actin-binding domain indicates that the closed state is stabilised by hydrogen bonds and a salt bridge not present in other a-actinins, which may reduce the affinity for actin.

  • 21.
    Addi, Simon
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Materials Science.
    Hedayati-Khams, Arjang
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Materials Science.
    Poya, Amin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Materials Science.
    Sjögren, Göran
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Odontology, Dental Materials Science.
    Interface gap size of manually and CAD/CAM-manufactured ceramic inlays/onlays in vitro.2002In: Journal of Dentistry, ISSN 0300-5712, Vol. 30, no 1, 53-58 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives : To determine the fit of ceramic inlays manufactured using a recently introduced CAD/CAM-system (Decim) and of two types of laboratory-made heat-pressed ceramics (IPS Empress and Opc).

    Materials and methods : Extracted human premolars were prepared to receive mesio-occlusodistal (MOD) ceramic inlays, for which 10 Denzir, 10 IPS Empress, and 10 Opc were fabricated. The Denzir restorations were produced by the manufacturer of the CAD/CAM-system, and the IPS Empress and Opc by student dental technicians. Before luting the internal fit on the diestone models and on the premolars was determined using replicas. After luting on the premolars with a resin composite the marginal and internal fit were measured. The values were analyzed statistically using ANOVA and Scheffe's test at a significance level of p<0.05.

    Results : Before luting there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) in the internal gap width between the three systems studied when placed on their matching diestone models. When placed on the premolars a significant difference ( p<0.01) in the internal fit was seen between Empress and Opc before luting, whereas there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between Empress and Denzir and between Opc and Denzir. Between the diestone models and the premolars there were significant differences ( p<0.01) in the internal fit, except for IPS Empress. After luting there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between IPS Empress and Denzir, whereas the marginal gap width was significantly wider ( p<0.001) for Opc than for IPS Empress and Denzir. The internal fit was significantly ( p<0.001) wider for Opc than for IPS Empress, whereas there were no significant differences ( p>0.05) between IPS Empress and Denzir or between Opc and Denzir.

    Conclusion : After luting there were only slight differences in the fit between the restorations fabricated using the three different manufacturing techniques and ceramics. Therefore, long-term follow-up studies are needed to assess the clinical significance of the slight differences between the three systems.

  • 22.
    Adhikari, Deepak
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Flohr, Gilian
    Hogeschool Leiden, Zernikedreef 11,2333 CK Leiden, The Netherlands.
    Gorre, Nagaraju
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Shen, Yan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Yang, Hairu
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Lundin, Eva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biosciences, Pathology.
    Lan, Zijian
    University of Louisville Health Sciences Center, Louisville, Kentucky, USA.
    Liu, Kui
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics.
    Disruption of Tsc2 in oocytes leads to overactivation of the entire pool of primordial follicles2009In: Molecular human reproduction, ISSN 1360-9947, E-ISSN 1460-2407, Vol. 15, no 12, 765-770 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To maintain the length of reproductive life in a woman, it is essential that most of her ovarian primordial follicles are maintained in a quiescent state to provide a continuous supply of oocytes. However, our understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control the quiescence and activation of primordial follicles is still in its infancy. In this study, we provide some genetic evidence to show that the tumor suppressor tuberous sclerosis complex 2 (Tsc2), which negatively regulates mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1), functions in oocytes to maintain the dormancy of primordial follicles. In mutant mice lacking the Tsc2 gene in oocytes, the pool of primordial follicles is activated prematurely due to elevated mTORC1 activity in oocytes. This results in depletion of follicles in early adulthood, causing premature ovarian failure (POF). Our results suggest that the Tsc1-Tsc2 complex mediated suppression of mTORC1 activity is indispensable for maintenance of the dormancy of primordial follicles, thus preserving the follicular pool, and that mTORC1 activity in oocytes promotes follicular activation. Our results also indicate that deregulation of Tsc/mTOR signaling in oocytes may cause pathological conditions of the ovary such as infertility and POF.

  • 23.
    Adolfsson, Karin
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Medical Informatics. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Visual Evaluation of 3D Image Enhancement2006Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Technologies in image acquisition have developed and often provide image volumes in more than two dimensions. Computer tomography and magnet resonance imaging provide image volumes in three spatial dimensions. The image enhancement methods have developed as well and in this thesis work 3D image enhancement with filter networks is evaluated.

    The aims of this work are; to find a method which makes the initial parameter settings in the 3D image enhancement processing easier, to compare 2D and 3D processed image volumes visualized with different visualization techniques and to give an illustration of the benefits with 3D image enhancement processing visualized using these techniques.

    The results of this work are;

    1. a parameter setting tool that makes the initial parameter setting much easier and

    2. an evaluation of 3D image enhancement with filter networks that shows a significant enhanced image quality in 3D processed image volumes with a high noise level compared to the 2D processed volumes. These results are shown in slices, MIP and volume rendering. The differences are even more pronounced if the volume is presented in a different projection than the volume is 2D processed in.

  • 24.
    Agid, Nyroz
    et al.
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Sjöqvist, Evelina
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Dep. of Natural Science and Biomedicine.
    Prevalence of hookworm infection evaluated with Willis flotation and Formal Ethyl Acetate concentration: A field study in Da Nang, Vietnam2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hookworm infection can cause nausea, stomach pain and anemia, with the most harmful effect being found among women of reproductive age and children. The infection rates is high in poor parts of the world with a high number of infected in Asia. The infection is many times neglected since it rarely causes mortality, however the morbidity can be destructive. In Vietnam the prevalence of hookworm is largely unknown, but there is believed to be a 29-80 % infection rate in the country. Through a field study in Da Nang, Vietnam, the prevalence of hookworm was identified using two methods, Willis flotation and formal ethyl acetate concentration. Any correlation between hookworm infection and individuals’ gender, age and geographic area was evaluated. A total of 101 consecutive selected samples from hospitals and communities in rural and urban parts of the city were obtained from both gender ranging between 1-72 years in age. No quantitative differences were found between the two methods nor any correlation between genders (p-value 0,143). The overall prevalence was 16,8%. The rural part of the city showed a higher infection rate in contrast to the urban districts (p-value 0,001). Individuals in the age group 25-48 showed a higher infection rate in contrast to the other age groups (p-value 0,035). 

  • 25.
    Ahlqvist, Josefin
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Kumar, Ashok
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Sundström, Heléne
    Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Ledung, Erika
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Hörnsten, E. Gunnar
    SIK, Swedish Institute for Food and Biotechnology, Sweden.
    Enfors, Sven-Olof
    Mälardalen University, Department of Biology and Chemical Engineering.
    Mattiasson, Bo
    Lund University, Lund, Sweden .
    Affinity binding of inclusion bodies on supermacroporous monolithic cryogels using labeling with specific antibodies.2006In: Journal of Biotechnology, ISSN 0168-1656, Vol. 122, no 2, 216-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new chromatographic method based on affinity supermacroporous monolithic cryogels is developed for binding and analyzing inclusion bodies during fermentation. The work demonstrated that it is possible to bind specific IgG and IgY antibodies to the 15 and 17 amino acids at the terminus ends of a 33kDa target protein aggregated as inclusion bodies. The antibody treated inclusion bodies from lysed fermentation broth can be specifically retained in protein A and pseudo-biospecific ligand sulfamethazine modified supermacroporous cryogels. The degree of binding of IgG and IgY treated inclusion bodies to the Protein A and sulfamethazine gels are investigated, as well as the influence of pH on the sulfamethazine ligand. Optimum binding of 78 and 72% was observed on both protein A and sulfamethazine modified cryogel columns, respectively, using IgG labeling of the inclusion bodies. The antibody treated inclusion bodies pass through unretained in the sulfamethazine supermacroporous gel at pH that does not favour the binding between the ligand on the gel and the antibodies on the surface of inclusion bodies. Also the unlabeled inclusion bodies went through the gel unretained, showing no non-specific binding or trapping within the gel. These findings may very well be the foundation for the building of a powerful analytical tool during fermentation of inclusion bodies as well as a convenient way to purify them from fermentation broth. These results also support our earlier findings [Kumar, A., Plieva, F.M., Galaev, I.Yu., Mattiasson, B., 2003. Affinity fractionation of lymphocytes using a monolithic cyogel. J. Immunol. Methods 283, 185-194] with mammalian cells that were surface labeled with specific antibodies and recognized on protein A supermacroporous gels. A general binding and separation system can be established on antibody binding cryogel affinity matrices.

  • 26.
    Ahlström, Christer
    Linköping University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, Physiological Measurements. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Processing of the Phonocardiographic Signal: methods for the intelligent stethoscope2006Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phonocardiographic signals contain bioacoustic information reflecting the operation of the heart. Normally there are two heart sounds, and additional sounds indicate disease. If a third heart sound is present it could be a sign of heart failure whereas a murmur indicates defective valves or an orifice in the septal wall. The primary aim of this thesis is to use signal processing tools to improve the diagnostic value of this information. More specifically, three different methods have been developed:

    • A nonlinear change detection method has been applied to automatically detect heart sounds. The first and the second heart sounds can be found using recurrence times of the first kind while the third heart sound can be found using recurrence times of the second kind. Most third heart sound occurrences were detected (98 %), but the amount of false extra detections was rather high (7 % of the heart cycles).

    • Heart sounds obscure the interpretation of lung sounds. A new method based on nonlinear prediction has been developed to remove this undesired disturbance. High similarity was obtained when comparing actual lung sounds with lung sounds after removal of heart sounds.

    • Analysis methods such as Shannon energy, wavelets and recurrence quantification analysis were used to extract information from the phonocardiographic signal. The most prominent features, determined by a feature selection method, were used to create a new feature set for heart murmur classification. The classification result was 86 % when separating patients with aortic stenosis, mitral insufficiency and physiological murmurs.

    The derived methods give reasonable results, and they all provide a step forward in the quest for an intelligent stethoscope, a universal phonocardiography tool able to enhance auscultation by improving sound quality, emphasizing abnormal events in the heart cycle and distinguishing different heart murmurs.

  • 27.
    Ahmad, Irfan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Molecular Biology (Faculty of Medicine). Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Rouf, Syed Fazle
    Sun, Lei
    Cimdins, Annika
    Shafeeq, Sulman
    Le Guyon, Soazig
    Schottkowski, Marco
    Rhen, Mikael
    Romling, Ute
    BcsZ inhibits biofilm phenotypes and promotes virulence by blocking cellulose production in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium2016In: Microbial Cell Factories, ISSN 1475-2859, E-ISSN 1475-2859, Vol. 15, 177Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Cellulose, a 1,4 beta-glucan polysaccharide, is produced by a variety of organisms including bacteria. Although the production of cellulose has a high biological, ecological and economical impact, regulatory mechanisms of cellulose biosynthesis are mostly unknown. Family eight cellulases are regularly associated with cellulose biosynthesis operons in bacteria; however, their function is poorly characterized. In this study, we analysed the role of the cellulase BcsZ encoded by the bcsABZC cellulose biosynthesis operon of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) in biofilm related behavior. We also investigated the involvement of BcsZ in pathogenesis of S. Typhimurium including a murine typhoid fever infection model. Result: In S. Typhimurium, cellulase BcsZ with a putative periplasmic location negatively regulates cellulose biosynthesis. Moreover, as assessed with a non-polar mutant, BcsZ affects cellulose-associated phenotypes such as the rdar biofilm morphotype, cell clumping, biofilm formation, pellicle formation and flagella-dependent motility. Strikingly, although upregulation of cellulose biosynthesis was not observed on agar plate medium at 37 degrees C, BcsZ is required for efficient pathogen-host interaction. Key virulence phenotypes of S. Typhimurium such as invasion of epithelial cells and proliferation in macrophages were positively regulated by BcsZ. Further on, a bcsZ mutant was outcompeted by the wild type in organ colonization in the murine typhoid fever infection model. Selected phenotypes were relieved upon deletion of the cellulose synthase BcsA and/or the central biofilm activator CsgD. Conclusion: Although the protein scaffold has an additional physiological role, our findings indicate that the catalytic activity of BcsZ effectively downregulates CsgD activated cellulose biosynthesis. Repression of cellulose production by BcsZ subsequently enables Salmonella to efficiently colonize the host.

  • 28. Ahmad, Yasmeen
    et al.
    Boisvert, Francois-Michel
    Lundberg, Emma
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics (closed 20130101). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Uhlén, Mathias
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics (closed 20130101). KTH, Centres, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Lamond, Angus I.
    Systematic Analysis of Protein Pools, Isoforms, and Modifications Affecting Turnover and Subcellular Localization2012In: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics, ISSN 1535-9476, E-ISSN 1535-9484, Vol. 11, no 3Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In higher eukaryotes many genes encode protein isoforms whose properties and biological roles are often poorly characterized. Here we describe systematic approaches for detection of either distinct isoforms, or separate pools of the same isoform, with differential biological properties. Using information from ion intensities we have estimated protein abundance levels and using rates of change in stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture isotope ratios we measured turnover rates and subcellular distribution for the HeLa cell proteome. Protein isoforms were detected using three data analysis strategies that evaluate differences between stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture isotope ratios for specific groups of peptides within the total set of peptides assigned to a protein. The candidate approach compares stable isotope labeling with amino acids in cell culture isotope ratios for predicted isoform- specific peptides, with ratio values for peptides shared by all the isoforms. The rule of thirds approach compares the mean isotope ratio values for all peptides in each of three equal segments along the linear length of the protein, assessing differences between segment values. The three in a row approach compares mean isotope ratio values for each sequential group of three adjacent peptides, assessing differences with the mean value for all peptides assigned to the protein. Protein isoforms were also detected and their properties evaluated by fractionating cell extracts on one- dimensional SDS- PAGE prior to trypsin digestion and MS analysis and independently evaluating isotope ratio values for the same peptides isolated from different gel slices. The effect of protein phosphorylation on turnover rates was analyzed by comparing mean turnover values calculated for all peptides assigned to a protein, either including, or excluding, values for cognate phosphopeptides. Collectively, these experimental and analytical approaches provide a framework for expanding the func- tional annotation of the genome.

  • 29.
    Ahrenstedt, Lage
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO). KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Olksanen, Antti
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Salmien, Kristian
    VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland.
    Brumer, Harry
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Centres, Albanova VinnExcellence Center for Protein Technology, ProNova.
    Paper dry strength improvement by xyloglucan addition: Wet-end application, spray coating and synergism with borate2008In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, Vol. 62, no 1, 8-14 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The polysaccharide xyloglucan as a wet-end additive improves paper properties. In the present study, paper strength improvement was analysed for dry handsheets made from chemical, mechanical and recycled pulps coated with xyloglucan in a spray application. Results are compared with sheets made from the same pulps treated with xyloglucan in the wet-end. Kraft pulp handsheets of bleached hardwood and softwood showed significant improvements of tensile, tear and Z-strength by xyloglucan spray treatment versus wet-end application, whereas handsheets of de-inked and thermomechanical pulp were improved only slightly. In both wet-end and spray applications, the effect of xyloglucan addition was intimately related to the presence of non-cellulosic components on the fibre surface. Further strength improvements were obtained for chemical pulps by addition of borax to the spray solution, which were likely to be due to the formation of borate-mediated xyloglucan cross-links. Spray coating of xyloglucan, with or without borax, thus represents a potential new application of this polysaccharide to increase paper dry strength.

  • 30.
    Aisenbrey, Christopher
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Byström, Roberth
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Oliveberg, Mikael
    Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, Stockholm University, 10691 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gröbner, Gerhard
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    SOD1 associates to membranes in its folded apo-stateManuscript (preprint) (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease accompanied by misfolding and intracellular deposition of superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1). Although the molecular details behind this misfolding process are yet poorly understood, increasing evidence suggest that SOD1 is most susceptible to misfolding in its metal-free and relatively unstable apo-state. Here, we addressed the question, if misfolding and aggregation of SOD1 involves erroneous interactions with membranes as has been implicated for the Aβ peptide in Alzheimers disease. To examine this possibility we subjected various apo SOD1 variants to the presence of different membrane systems. The results reveal that wild type apoSOD1 but to less extent destabilized ALS mutations interact with charged vesicles under physiologically relevant conditions, thereby acquiring pronounced helical structural features. As the data further show, the protein binds to the membranes by an electrostatically driven mechanism, which requires a folded apo-state conformation and a negative membrane surface potential. Unfolded SOD1 molecules show no appreciable affinity to the membrane surfaces yielding a correlation between increased stability, i. e. occupancy of folded molecules and extend of membrane association. Since this trend opposes the correlation between decreased SOD1 stability and progression of neural damage, the results suggest that membrane association is not part of the ALS mechanism. An explanation could be that the observed membrane association of apo SOD1 is reversible and does not ‘bleed out’ in irreversible aggregation as observed for other precursors of protein-misfolding diseases.

  • 31.
    Ajalloueian, F.
    et al.
    Isfahan Univ Technol, Dept Text Engn, Ctr Excellence Appl Nanotechnol, Esfahan, Iran..
    Fransson, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Tavanai, H.
    Isfahan Univ Technol, Dept Text Engn, Ctr Excellence Appl Nanotechnol, Esfahan, Iran..
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Magnusson, Peetra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology. Uppsala Univ, Dept Immunol Genet & Pathol IGP, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Arpanaei, A.
    Natl Inst Genet Engn & Biotechnol, Dept Ind & Environm Biotechnol, Tehran, Iran..
    Comparing PLGA and PLGA/Chitosan Nanofibers Seeded by Msc: A Cell-scaffold Interaction Study2015In: Tissue Engineering. Part A, ISSN 1937-3341, E-ISSN 1937-335X, Vol. 21, S406-S407 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 32.
    Ajalloueian, F.
    et al.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry.
    Fossum, M.
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Chronakis, I. S.
    Tech Univ Denmark, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Integrated Micro/Nanofibrous PLGA-Collagen Scaffold: an Optimized Method for Plastic Compression of Collagen into PLGA Microfibers2015In: Tissue Engineering. Part A, ISSN 1937-3341, E-ISSN 1937-335X, Vol. 21, S347-S347 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 33.
    Ajalloueian, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Fransson, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology.
    Tavanai, Hossein
    Massuni, Mohammad
    Hilborn, Jöns
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    LeBlanc, Katarina
    Arpanaei, Ayyoob
    Magnusson, Peetra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Immunology, Genetics and Pathology, Clinical Immunology.
    Investigation of Human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Cultured on PLGA orPLGA/Chitosan Electrospun Nanofibers2015In: Journal of Bioprocessing & Biotechniques, ISSN 2155-9821, Vol. 5, no 6, 230Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We compared the viability, proliferation, and differentiation of human Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (MSC)after culture on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) and PLGA/chitosan (PLGA/CH) hybrid scaffolds. We appliedconventional and emulsion electrospinning techniques, respectively, for the fabrication of the PLGA and PLGA/CH scaffolds. Electrospinning under optimum conditions resulted in an average fiber diameter of 166 ± 33 nmfor the PLGA/CH and 680 ± 175 nm for the PLGA scaffold. The difference between the tensile strength of thePLGA and PLGA/CH nanofibers was not significant, but PLGA/CH showed a significantly lower tensile modulusand elongation at break. However, it should be noted that the extensibility of the PLGA/CH was higher than thatof the nanofibrous scaffolds of pure chitosan. As expected, a higher degree of hydrophilicity was seen with PLGA/CH, as compared to PLGA alone. The biocompatibility of the PLGA and PLGA/CH scaffolds was compared usingMTS assay as well as analysis by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy. The results showed thatboth scaffold types supported the viability and proliferation of human MSC, with significantly higher rates on PLGA/CH nanofibers. Nonetheless, an analysis of gene expression of MSC grown on either PLGA or PLGA/CH showed asimilar differentiation pattern towards bone, nerve and adipose tissues.

  • 34.
    Ajalloueian, Fatemeh
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Zeiai, Said
    Fossum, Magdalena
    Hilborn, Jöns G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Polymer Chemistry. Uppsala University, Science for Life Laboratory, SciLifeLab.
    Constructs of electrospun PLGA, compressed collagen and minced urothelium for minimally manipulated autologous bladder tissue expansion2014In: Biomaterials, ISSN 0142-9612, E-ISSN 1878-5905, Vol. 35, no 22, 5741-5748 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bladder regeneration based on minced bladder mucosa in vivo expansion is an alternative to in vitro culturing of urothelial cells. Here, we present the design of a hybrid, electrospun poly(lactic-co-glycolide) (PLGA) - plastically compressed (PC) collagen scaffold that could allow in vivo bladder mucosa expansion. Optimisation of electrospinning was performed in order to obtain increased pore sizes and porosity to consolidate the construct and to support neovascularisation and tissue ingrowth. Tensile tests showed an increase in average tensile strength from 0.6 MPa for PC collagen to 3.57 MPa for the hybrid construct. The optimised PLGA support scaffold was placed between two collagen gels, and the minced tissue was distributed either on top or both on top and inside the construct prior to PC; this was then cultured for up to four weeks. Morphology, histology and SEM demonstrated that the construct maintained its integrity throughout cell culture. Cells from minced tissue migrated, expanded and re-organised to a confluent cell layer on the top of the construct after two weeks and formed a multilayered urothelium after four weeks. Cell morphology and phenotype was typical for urothelial mucosa during tissue culture. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 35.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Acciaioli, Alice
    Lionello, Giacomo
    Ginebra, Maria-Pau
    Öhman, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Baleani, Massimiliano
    Compressive strength increase of calcium phosphate bone cements is accompanied by a stiffness increase2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Acciaioli, Alice
    Lionello, Giacomo
    Ginebra, Maria-Pau
    Öhman-Mägi, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Baleani, Massimilliano
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Elastic properties and strain-to-crack-initation of calcium phosphate bone cements: revelations of a high-resolution measurement techniqueManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Öhman Mägi, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    The influence of porosity on the fatigue properties of brushite cement2016In: Biomaterials for tissue engineering models, 2016Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Holmberg, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Öhman-Mägi, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Compressive fatigue properties of a high-strength, degradable calcium phosphate bone cement – influence of porosity and environmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Maazouz, Yassine
    Ginebra, Maria-Pau
    Öhman, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Evaluation of a porosity measurement method for wet calcium phosphate cements2015In: Journal of biomaterials applications, ISSN 0885-3282, E-ISSN 1530-8022, Vol. 30, no 5, 526-536 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The porosity of a calcium phosphate cement is a key parameter as it affects several important properties of the cement. However, a successful, non-destructive porosity measurement method that does not include drying has not yet been reported for calcium phosphate cements. The aim of this study was to evaluate isopropanol solvent exchange as such a method. Two different types of calcium phosphate cements were used, one basic (hydroxyapatite) and one acidic (brushite). The cements were allowed to set in an aqueous environment and then immersed in isopropanol and stored under three different conditions: at room temperature, at room temperature under vacuum (300 mbar) or at 37􏰀C. The specimen mass was monitored regularly. Solvent exchange took much longer time to reach steady state in hydroxyapatite cements compared to brushite cements, 350 and 18 h, respectively. Furthermore, the immersion affected the quasi-static compressive strength of the hydroxyapatite cements. However, the strength and phase composition of the brushite cements were not affected by isopropanol immersion, suggesting that isopropanol solvent exchange can be used for brushite calcium phosphate cements. The main advantages with this method are that it is non-destructive, fast, easy and the porosity can be evaluated while the cements remain wet, allowing for further analysis on the same specimen. 

  • 40.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Mechanical Properties of Brushite Calcium Phosphate Cements2017In: The World Scientific Encyclopedia of Nanomedicine and Bioengineering II: Bioimplants, Regenerative Medicine, and Nano-Cancer Diagnosis and Phototherapy: Volume 3: Design of Bioactive Materials for Bone Repair and Regeneration / [ed] Shi, D., Singapore: World Scientific Pte Ltd. , 2017Chapter in book (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Öhman, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Long-term in vitro degradation of a high-strength brushite cement in water, PBS, and serum solution2015In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, 575079Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Bone loss and fractures may call for the use of bone substituting materials, such as calcium phosphate cements (CPCs). CPCs can be degradable, and, to determine their limitations in terms of applications, their mechanical as well as chemical properties need to be evaluated over longer periods of time, under physiological conditions. However, there is lack of data on how the in vitro degradation affects high-strength brushite CPCs over longer periods of time, that is, longer than it takes for a bone fracture to heal. This study aimed at evaluating the long-term in vitro degradation properties of a high-strength brushite CPC in three different solutions: water, phosphate buffered saline, and a serum solution. Microcomputed tomography was used to evaluate the degradation nondestructively, complemented with gravimetric analysis. The compressive strength, chemical composition, and microstructure were also evaluated. Major changes from 10 weeks onwards were seen, in terms of formation of a porous outer layer of octacalcium phosphate on the specimens with a concomitant change in phase composition, increased porosity, decrease in object volume, and mechanical properties. This study illustrates the importance of long-term evaluation of similar cement compositions to be able to predict the material’s physical changes over a relevant time frame. 

  • 42.
    Ajaxon, Ingrid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Öhman Mägi, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Persson, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Applied Materials Sciences.
    Compressive fatigue properties of an acidic calcium phosphate cement—effect of phase composition2017In: Journal of materials science. Materials in medicine, ISSN 0957-4530, E-ISSN 1573-4838, Vol. 28, no 3, 41Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Calcium phosphate cements (CPCs) are synthetic bone grafting materials that can be used in fracture stabilization and to fill bone voids after, e.g., bone tumour excision. Currently there are several calcium phosphate-based formulations available, but their use is partly limited by a lack of knowledge of their mechanical properties, in particular their resistance to mechanical loading over longer periods of time. Furthermore, depending on, e.g., setting conditions, the end product of acidic CPCs may be mainly brushite or monetite, which have been found to behave differently under quasi-static loading. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the compressive fatigue properties of acidic CPCs, as well as the effect of phase composition on these properties. Hence, brushite cements stored for different lengths of time and with different amounts of monetite were investigated under quasi-static and dynamic compression. Both storage and brushite-to-monetite phase transformation was found to have a pronounced effect both on quasi-static compressive strength and fatigue performance of the cements, whereby a substantial phase transformation gave rise to a lower mechanical resistance. The brushite cements investigated in this study had the potential to survive 5 million cycles at a maximum compressive stress of 13 MPa. Given the limited amount of published data on fatigue properties of CPCs, this study provides an important insight into the compressive fatigue behaviour of such materials. 

  • 43.
    Akgun, Kocere Kurdé
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Microbiology.
    Evaluation of Different Extraction- and Analysis Methods for Calprotectin in Feces2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background Calprotectin is a protein expressed in the cytoplasm inside the neutrophile granulocytes. During inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), the neutrophile granulocytes are involved in a complex interaction at the inflammatory area where they die and release their content into the intestinal lumen. Therefore, calprotectin in stool is a suitable marker for diagnosis and measurement of the disease-activity in patients with IBD. The most commonly used method to detect calprotectin in stool is ELISA, but the process of manual preparation of stool samples is time-consuming.

    Aim The objective of the study was to evaluate an extraction method that could replace manual preparation of fecal samples and to compare different methods for measuring Calprotectin in stool using two ELISA-methods from two manufacturers and one rapidtest.

    Methods For extraction of calprotectin from stool samples we used sample collector tubes from Epitope Diagnostics and fecal preparation kits from Roche. Two different ELISA-kits for measuring calprotectin concentration in stool were compared. Measurements of calprotectin with rapid-test from Epitope Diagnostics were also performed and were compared with the two ELISA kits.

    Results The results indicate a poor correlation between two extraction methods with Sample Collector Tube and Roche preparation kit. The comparison between the two ELISA-kits showed poor correlation. Evaluation of rapid test showed 33% false negative results with a cut-off value at 50 mg/kg.

    Conclusion Evaluation of products from Epitope Diagnostics showed poor correlation with the Bühlmann ELISA and an unreliable rapid test. Therefore, none of evaluated products from Epitope Diagnostics is accurate enough to be used for clinical diagnosis in the laboratory.

  • 44.
    Akhras, Michael S.
    et al.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford Genome Technol Ctr, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA..
    Pettersson, Erik
    Stanford Univ, Stanford Genome Technol Ctr, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA..
    Diamond, Lisa
    Stanford Univ, Stanford Genome Technol Ctr, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA..
    Unemo, Magnus
    Orebro University Hospital.
    Okamoto, Jennifer
    Stanford Univ, Dept Bioengn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA.;Stanford Univ, Howard Hughes Med Inst, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Davis, Ronald W.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford Genome Technol Ctr, Palo Alto, CA 94304 USA..
    Pourmand, Nader
    Univ Calif Santa Cruz, Dept Biomol Engn, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 USA..
    The Sequencing Bead Array (SBA), a Next-Generation Digital Suspension Array2013In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 8, no 10, UNSP e76696Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we describe the novel Sequencing Bead Array (SBA), a complete assay for molecular diagnostics and typing applications. SBA is a digital suspension array using Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS), to replace conventional optical readout platforms. The technology allows for reducing the number of instruments required in a laboratory setting, where the same NGS instrument could be employed from whole-genome and targeted sequencing to SBA broad-range biomarker detection and genotyping. As proof-of-concept, a model assay was designed that could distinguish ten Human Papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes associated with cervical cancer progression. SBA was used to genotype 20 cervical tumor samples and, when compared with amplicon pyrosequencing, was able to detect two additional co-infections due to increased sensitivity. We also introduce in-house software Sphix, enabling easy accessibility and interpretation of results. The technology offers a multi-parallel, rapid, robust, and scalable system that is readily adaptable for a multitude of microarray diagnostic and typing applications, e. g. genetic signatures, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), structural variations, and immunoassays. SBA has the potential to dramatically change the way we perform probe-based applications, and allow for a smooth transition towards the technology offered by genomic sequencing.

  • 45.
    Akil, Shahnaz
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Discrimination of abnormal ST-deviation patterns from those caused by acute coronary occlusion, using 12-lead electrocardiogram-based computed elctrocardiograpich imaging2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46. Akoachere, Monique
    et al.
    Iozef, Rimma
    Rahlfs, Stefan
    Deponte, Marcel
    Mannervik, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry. Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry, Biochemistry.
    Creighton, Donald J
    Schirmer, Heiner
    Becker, Katja
    Characterization of the glyoxalases of the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum and comparison with their human counterparts.2005In: Biol Chem, ISSN 1431-6730, Vol. 386, no 1, 41-52 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The glyoxalase system consisting of glyoxalase I (GloI) and glyoxalase II (GloII) constitutes a glutathione-dependent intracellular pathway converting toxic 2-oxoaldehydes, such as methylglyoxal, to the corresponding 2-hydroxyacids. Here we describe a complete glyoxalase system in the malarial parasite Plasmodium falciparum. The biochemical, kinetic and structural properties of cytosolic GloI (cGloI) and two GloIIs (cytosolic GloII named cGloII, and tGloII preceded by a targeting sequence) were directly compared with the respective isofunctional host enzymes. cGloI and cGloII exhibit lower K(m) values and higher catalytic efficiencies (k(cat)/K(m) ) than the human counterparts, pointing to the importance of the system in malarial parasites. A Tyr185Phe mutant of cGloII shows a 2.5-fold increase in K(m) , proving the contribution of Tyr185 to substrate binding. Molecular models suggest very similar active sites/metal binding sites of parasite and host cell enzymes. However, a fourth protein, which has highest similarities to GloI, was found to be unique for malarial parasites; it is likely to act in the apicoplast, and has as yet undefined substrate specificity. Various S-(N-hydroxy-N-arylcarbamoyl)glutathiones tested as P. falciparum Glo inhibitors were active in the lower nanomolar range. The Glo system of Plasmodium will be further evaluated as a target for the development of antimalarial drugs.

  • 47.
    Akula, Ilona
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Microbiology, Biomedical Laboratory Science.
    Hjärtfunktion vid ärftlig transtyretin-amyloidos: Jämförelse av hjärtfrekvensvariabilitet och ekokardiografi mellan två amyloidfibrilltyper2015Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Akula, Srinivas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Mohammadamin, Sayran
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemical Biology.
    Fc Receptors for Immunoglobulins and Their Appearance during Vertebrate Evolution2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 5, e96903- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Receptors interacting with the constant domain of immunoglobulins (Igs) have a number of important functions in vertebrates. They facilitate phagocytosis by opsonization, are key components in antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity as well as activating cells to release granules. In mammals, four major types of classical Fc receptors (FcRs) for IgG have been identified, one high-affinity receptor for IgE, one for both IgM and IgA, one for IgM and one for IgA. All of these receptors are related in structure and all of them, except the IgA receptor, are found in primates on chromosome 1, indicating that they originate from a common ancestor by successive gene duplications. The number of Ig isotypes has increased gradually during vertebrate evolution and this increase has likely been accompanied by a similar increase in isotype-specific receptors. To test this hypothesis we have performed a detailed bioinformatics analysis of a panel of vertebrate genomes. The first components to appear are the poly-Ig receptors (PIGRs), receptors similar to the classic FcRs in mammals, so called FcRL receptors, and the FcR gamma chain. These molecules are not found in cartilagous fish and may first appear within bony fishes, indicating a major step in Fc receptor evolution at the appearance of bony fish. In contrast, the receptor for IgA is only found in placental mammals, indicating a relatively late appearance. The IgM and IgA/M receptors are first observed in the monotremes, exemplified by the platypus, indicating an appearance during early mammalian evolution. Clearly identifiable classical receptors for IgG and IgE are found only in marsupials and placental mammals, but closely related receptors are found in the platypus, indicating a second major step in Fc receptor evolution during early mammalian evolution, involving the appearance of classical IgG and IgE receptors from FcRL molecules and IgM and IgA/M receptors from PIGR.

  • 49.
    Akula, Srinivas
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemical Biology.
    Thorpe, Michael
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemical Biology.
    Boinapally, Vamsi
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemical Biology.
    Hellman, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Chemical Biology.
    Granule Associated Serine Proteases of Hematopoietic Cells - An Analysis of Their Appearance and Diversification during Vertebrate Evolution2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 11, e0143091Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Serine proteases are among the most abundant granule constituents of several hematopoietic cell lineages including mast cells, neutrophils, cytotoxic T cells and NK cells. These proteases are stored in their active form in the cytoplasmic granules and in mammals are encoded from four different chromosomal loci: the chymase locus, the met-ase locus, the T cell tryptase and the mast cell tryptase locus. In order to study their appearance during vertebrate evolution we have performed a bioinformatic analysis of related genes and gene loci from a large panel of metazoan animals from sea urchins to placental mammals for three of these loci: the chymase, met-ase and granzyme A/K loci. Genes related to mammalian granzymes A and K were the most well conserved and could be traced as far back to cartilaginous fish. Here, the granzyme A and K genes were found in essentially the same chromosomal location from sharks to humans. However in sharks, no genes clearly identifiable as members of the chymase or met-ase loci were found. A selection of these genes seemed to appear with bony fish, but sometimes in other loci. Genes related to mammalian met-ase locus genes were found in bony fish. Here, the most well conserved member was complement factor D. However, genes distantly related to the neutrophil proteases were also identified in this locus in several bony fish species, indicating that this locus is also old and appeared at the base of bony fish. In fish, a few of the chymase locus-related genes were found in a locus with bordering genes other than the mammalian chymase locus and some were found in the fish met-ase locus. This indicates that a convergent evolution rather than divergent evolution has resulted in chymase locus-related genes in bony fish.

  • 50.
    Al Hwamdeh, Yaseen
    Örebro University, School of Health and Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Sweden.
    Urinary Stone Diagnosis Non: Contrast Computed Tomography versus Intravenous Urography2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
1234567 1 - 50 of 2637
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf