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  • 1.
    Aarenstrup, Sophie
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Ekberg, Oscar
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Matglädje: Möjliga metoder till att finna matglädjen vid ätstörningar2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Eating disorders are a growing public health concern which requires more attention and research to increase the understanding and prevention of eating disorders. This paper focuses on eating disorders and its relation to the joy of food. It is very important to find joy for food when suffering from an eating disorder to achieve a healthier life and healthier thinking around food and the body. This paper has examined possible methods that can be used for treating people with eating disorders to enjoy food. The study was conducted at Capio Anorexia Center in Malmö, a daycare clinic for eating disorders, and the study was focused on how the staff works to help patients find joy for food during treatment, and how they work to express food in a positive way to their patients.

    Methods: Literature studies were carried out before and after the study at Capio Anorexia Center. Qualitative half structured interviews were also carried out with two of the staff at Capio Anorexia Center, and with a dietitian and an anonymous person who has suffered from an eating disorder and received treatment. Three of the interviews were conducted with sound recording and the other one was conducted via email. Each interview lasted about 45 minutes. The interviews were compiled by first writing of the recorded interviews and then the answers for each interview were categorized to relevant fields. An analysis and comparison of these interviews to various literatures like books, reports, scientific papers and internet sources related to enjoying food and eating disorders were also carried out.

    Results: Eleven methods were found that may be useful to find joy for food both in treatment and outside of treatment for those who need support: daring, educational meals, eating regularly, varied and plan meals, cook and serve appealing meals, mindfulness and mindfulness eating, eating environment and social importance when eating, nutritional therapy, the “sapere-method”, eating slow and relaxed, the use of vodcast during meals and to keep out myths, dieting and beauty ideals.

    Conclusions: Eleven possible methods that may be useful to find joy for food have been found. This by preliminary studies with literature, a study at Capio Anorexia Center and interviews, and also by analyzing and comparing the interviews with literature related to eating disorders and enjoying food. The eleven methods described may be useful when regaining joy for food and a healthier thinking when it comes to food and meal situations. An important step in recovering from an eating disorder is to find pleasure when eating; therefore these methods can be possible tools to help people with eating disorders to find the joy for food. However, to reach a healthy life free from an eating disorder these methods described in this paper has to be combined with a variety of other therapies, because it is also important to work with self-esteem, self-confidence, and other symptoms and problems of the eating disorder.

  • 2.
    Abarghache, Nadia
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Johansson, Ellen
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Education and Business Studies, Department of Educational sciences.
    Kan en läshund bidra till att positivt påverka barns läsförmåga?: En metainspirerad innehållsannanlys2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med studien var att få en djupare förståelse om på vilket sätt läshunden kan bidra till att förbättra barns läsförmåga. Studien använder sig av en metainspirerad innehållsanalys. Metaanalys användes för att samla in information till studien samt att kunna dra slutsatser om tidigare forskning. Innehållsanalys användes för att skapa teman och kodning, med hjälp av innehållsanalys kan man skapa en djupare mening med textens innehåll. Artiklarna från resultatdelen samlades in från vetenskapliga databaser där alla artiklar är peer-reviewe.

     

    Studien undersöker på vilket sätt kan en läshund bidra till att positivt påverka barns läsförmåga? Är det hunden i sig som påverkar barnets läsförmåga eller är det miljön? Resultat visar på att läshunden påverkar barn positivt både psykiskt, fysiskt och socialt. Resultatet visar även på att det är läshunden som påverkar barnen positivt och inte miljön de vistas i under lästiden. Slutsatsen man kan dra av denna studie är att läshunden visar på en positiv påverkan på barn och har givit oss förståelse om på vilket sätt läshunden påverkar barnen.

  • 3.
    Abbey, Susan E.
    et al.
    University of Toronto, Canada.
    De Luca, Enza
    University Health Network, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Mauthner, Oliver E.
    University Health Network, University of Toronto, Canada.
    McKeever, Patricia
    Bloorview Research Institute, Bloorview Kids Rehab, Canada.
    Shildrick, Margrit
    Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.
    Poole, Jennifer M.
    Ryerson University, Canada.
    Gewarges, Mena
    University Health Network, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Ross, Heather J.
    University Health Network, University of Toronto, Canada.
    Qualitative interviews versus standardised self-report questionnaires in assessing qualityb of life in heart transplant recipients2011In: The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, ISSN 1053-2498, Vol. 30, no 8, 963-966 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Quality of life (QoL) studies in heart transplant recipients (HTRs) using validated, quantitative, self-report questionnaires have reported poor QoL in approximately 20% of patients. This consecutive mixed methods study compared self-report questionnaires, the Medical Outcomes Study 36-item Short Form Health Survey (MOS SF-36) and the Atkinson Life Satisfaction Scale, with phenomenologically informed audiovisual (AV) qualitative interview data in 27 medically stable HTRs (70% male; age 53 ± 13.77 years; time since transplant 4.06 ± 2.42 years). Self-report questionnaire data reported poor QoL and more distress compared with previous studies and normative population samples; in contrast, 52% of HTRs displayed pervasive distress according to visual methodology. Using qualitative methods to assess QoL yields information that would otherwise remain unobserved by the exclusive use of quantitative QOL questionnaires.

  • 4.
    Abrahamsson, Filip
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Björklin, Jimmy
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET), Biological and Environmental Systems (BLESS), Biomechanics and Biomedicine.
    Hur muskelaktiveringen påverkas vid en inåtrotation i axelleden med och utan Activation Grip.2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Även om kaströrelsen i detalj skiljer sig mellan olika idrotter så är den biomekaniska funktionen i grunden densamma. Inom alla kastrelaterade idrotter återkommer den så kallade accelerationsfasen, här har det visat sig att inåtrotationen i axelleden har en hög korrelation med bollhastighet i kaströrelsen. Axelledens inåtrotatorer har alltså en viktig funktion för ett effektivt kast. En funktionell uppvärmning av dessa strukturer optimerar prestationsförmågan och minskar skaderisken. Kan träningsredskapet Activation Grip (AG) effektivisera uppvärmningen av den övre extremiteten hos kastidrottare?

    Syfte: Att undersöka och jämföra hur muskelaktiviteten i m. pectoralis major (PM), m. deltoideus anterior (DA), m. flexor carpi raidalis (FCR) och m. extensor digitoris communis (EDC) påverkas vid inåtrotation i axelleden med och utan träningsredskapet AG. Studien syftar även till att utvärdera AG som produkt.

    Metod: Muskelaktiviteten i PM, DA, FCR och EDC registrerades med hjälp av elektromyografi (sEMG) hos 18 aktiva idrottare inom överarmskastrelaterade idrotter (ålder 23,7 ± 5,7) vid inåtrotation i axelleden med maximal hastighet, jämfört med samma rörelse med AG och 30% belastning.

    Resultat: Resultatet visade på en signifikant högre muskelaktivering (p < 0.05) i DA, FCR, EDC under inåtrotationen med maximal hastighet. Hos PM sågs ingen signifikant skillnad i muskelaktivitet. AG fick över lag positiv respons från testdeltagarna. 

    Konklusion: Med resultatet i beaktande så skulle AG kunna kombineras tillsammans med andra uppvärmningsövningar för att få specifik aktivering i önskad muskulatur. Vidare studier gällande rörelse, motstånd och hastighet för att effektivisera användningen av AG bör göras. Även om AG fick positiv respons så bör produkten utvecklas ytterligare.

  • 5.
    Abrahamsson, Frida
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Ekelund, Sophie
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    All kärlek är fin kärlek: Ungdomars kommunikation i bloggar om sex och relationer2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Under ungdomsåren förändras ungdomar fysiskt, emotionellt och kognitivt. De går in i en ny fas i livet och utvecklas från att vara barn till att bli vuxna. Under ungdomsåren etablerara och experimenterar ungdomar med vanor, attityder, tro samt livsstil. Vid ogynnsamma förhållanden kan olika riskbeteende öka. Bland ungdopmar idag ses en ökning av sexuellexponering på sociala medier. Etfersom internet idag är mer lättillgängligt än tidigare kan det medföra att ungdomar i högre utsträckning exponerar sig sexuellt, vilket kan leda till sexuella övergrepp och missbruk.

    Syfte: Är att beskriva vad ungdomar kommunicerar om i bloggar, angående sex och relationer.

    Metod: En kvalitativ innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman användes där fem ungdomsbloggar i åldrarna 17-25 år användes och analyserades

    Resultat: Utifrån de analyserade ungdomsbloggarna framkom det två huvudkategorier; Samhällets trender påverkar ungdomars sexuella hälsa och Tillit har betydelse för relationen. Under kategorierna bildades sex underkategorier. I resultatet framkom det att ungdomar kommunicerar i stor utsträckning om sex och relationer på sociala forum. De ansåg att det idag är mer accepterat med olika sexuella läggningar och familjekonstellationer samt diskuterades dagens könsideal. Det uttrycktes en negativ syn på hormonella preventivmedel. Bloggarna uttryckte att det var viktigt med bekräftelse i en relation.

    Konklusion: Ungdomar kommunicerar brett om sex och relationer på nätet, där de har en possitiv inställning till alternativa familjekontellationer. Synen på preventivmedel var negativ bland annat på grund av dess biverkningar och de förespråkade istället hormonfria alternativ. Relationer kan påverkas av olika förändringar i livet och att vara offentlig på internet kan upplevas som ansträngande för relationen.

  • 6.
    Adler, Sebastian
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Missner, Mario
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Dömd till livstids lärande: Lärande och kompetensutveckling inom företagshälsovården2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I dagens samhälle är ständig utveckling och förnyelse viktiga överlevnadsvillkor för företag inte minst inom branschen företagshälsovård. Konkurrensen ökar och företagen måste ständigt se till att ligga i framkant och det har allt oftare konstaterats att den viktigaste tillgången är att utveckla de anställdas kompetens. Syftet med studien är att studera personals uppfattningar kring kompetensutvecklingen inom företagshälsans olika yrkesgrupper samt att genom den identifiera hur gynnsamma förhållanden för lärande kan skapas. För att få svar på syftet har vi använt oss av kvalitativa intervjuer som datainsamlingsmetod. Sammanlagt genomfördes sex intervjuer där fem olika yrkesgrupper representerades och företagets Vd. Studien har en fenemenografisk ansats som medför dataanalysmetod som består av sju steg. Eftersom vi var ute efter variationer av yrkesgruppernas olika uppfattningar var den fenemenografiska ansatsen mest optimal.

    I resultatet framkommer det ett flertal uppfattningar kring kompetensutveckling, lärandestrategier och hur gynnsamma förhållanden för lärande kan skapas. Vidare finns det gemensamma uppfattningar om att yrkesgrupperna har ett stort handlingsutrymme och att det är nödvändigt för att arbetet ska fungera. En av studiens slutsatser är att tid för reflektion är viktigt för gynnsamma förhållanden. Genom att få mer tid att kunna reflektera över det som har skett tror vi medför ett mer kreativt tänkande och en utveckling av kompetens. En annan intressant slutsats som framkom är att varje yrkesgrupp är i behov av den konsultativa kompetensen och att den aldrig är färdigutvecklad.

  • 7. Aguiar, A.
    et al.
    Ahring, K.
    Almeida, M. F.
    Assoun, M.
    Belanger Quintana, A.
    Bigot, S.
    Bihet, G.
    Malmberg, Karin Blom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics.
    Burlina, A.
    Bushueva, T.
    Caris, A.
    Chan, H.
    Clark, A.
    Clark, S.
    Cochrane, B.
    Corthouts, K.
    Dalmau, J.
    Dassy, M.
    De Meyer, A.
    Didycz, B.
    Diels, M.
    Dokupil, K.
    Dubois, S.
    Eftring, K.
    Ekengren, J.
    Ellerton, C.
    Evans, S.
    Faria, A.
    Fischer, A.
    Ford, S.
    Freisinger, P.
    Gizewska, M.
    Gokmen-Ozel, H.
    Gribben, J.
    Gunden, F.
    Heddrich-Ellerbrok, M.
    Heiber, S.
    Heidenborg, C.
    Jankowski, C.
    Janssen-Regelink, R.
    Jones, I.
    Jonkers, C.
    Joerg-Streller, M.
    Kaalund-Hansen, K.
    Kiss, E.
    Lammardo, A. M.
    Lang, K.
    Lier, D.
    Lilje, R.
    Lowry, S.
    Luyten, K.
    MacDonald, A.
    Meyer, U.
    Moor, D.
    Pal, A.
    Robert, M.
    Robertson, L.
    Rocha, J. C.
    Rohde, C.
    Ross, K.
    Saruhan, S.
    Sjoqvist, E.
    Skeath, R.
    Stoelen, L.
    Ter Horst, N. M.
    Terry, A.
    Timmer, C.
    Tuncer, N.
    Vande Kerckhove, K.
    van der Ploeg, L.
    van Rijn, M.
    van Spronsen, F. J.
    van Teeffelen-Heithoff, A.
    van Wegberg, A.
    van Wyk, K.
    Vasconcelos, C.
    Vitoria, I.
    Wildgoose, J.
    Webster, D.
    White, F. J.
    Zweers, H.
    Practices in prescribing protein substitutes for PKU in Europe: No uniformity of approach2015In: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism, ISSN 1096-7192, E-ISSN 1096-7206, Vol. 115, no 1, 17-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: There appears little consensus concerning protein requirements in phenylketonuria (PKU). Methods: A questionnaire completed by 63 European and Turkish IMD centres from 18 countries collected data on prescribed total protein intake (natural/intact protein and phenylalanine-free protein substitute [PS]) by age, administration frequency and method, monitoring, and type of protein substitute. Data were analysed by European region using descriptive statistics. Results: The amount of total protein (from PS and natural/intact protein) varied according to the European region. Higher median amounts of total protein were prescribed in infants and children in Northern Europe (n = 24 centres) (infants <1 year, >2-3 g/kg/day; 1-3 years of age, >2-3 g/kg/day; 4-10 years of age, >1.5-2.5 g/kg/day) and Southern Europe (n = 10 centres) (infants <1 year, 2.5 g/kg/day, 1-3 years of age, 2 g/kg/day; 4-10 years of age, 1.5-2 g/kg/day), than by Eastern Europe (n = 4 centres) (infants <1 year, 2.5 g/kg/day, 1-3 years of age, >2-2.5 g/kg/day; 4-10 years of age, >1.5-2 g/kg/day) and with Western Europe (n = 25 centres) giving the least (infants <1 year, >2-2.5 g/kg/day, 1-3 years of age, 1.5-2 g/kg/day; 4-10 years of age, 1-1.5 g/kg/day). Total protein prescription was similar in patients aged >10 years (1-1.5 g/kg/day) and maternal patients (1-1.5 g/kg/day). Conclusions: The amounts of total protein prescribed varied between European countries and appeared to be influenced by geographical region. In PKU, all gave higher than the recommended 2007 WHO/FAO/UNU safe levels of protein intake for the general population.

  • 8.
    Aguilar, Antonio
    et al.
    Digital Enterprise Research Institute, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland.
    van der Putten, Wil
    Department of Medical Physics, University College Hospital Galway, Galway, Ireland .
    Maguire Jr., Gerald Q.
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Communication Systems, CoS, Radio Systems Laboratory (RS Lab).
    Positive Patient Identification using RFID and Wireless  Networks2006In: Proceedings of the HISI 11th Annual Conference and Scientific Symposium, Dublin, Ireland, Dublin, Ireland, 2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The increased focus on patient safety in hospitals has yielded a flood of new technologies and tools seeking to improve the quality of patient care at the point-of-care. Hospitals are complex institutions by nature, and are constantly challenged to improve the quality of healthcare delivered to patients while trying to reduce the rate of medical errors and improve patient safety. Here a simple mistake such as patient misidentification, specimen misidentification, wrong medication, or wrong blood transfusion can cause the loss of a patient's life. The focus of this paper is the implementation and evaluation of a handheld-based patient identification system that uses radio frequency identification (RFID) and 802.11b wireless networks to identify patients. In this approach, each patient is given a RFID wristband which contains demographic information (patient ID number, patient summary, hospital code) of the patient. A handheld device equipped with 802.11b wireless connectivity and a RFID reader is then used by the medical staff to read the patient's wristband and identify the patient. This work was carried out at the Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering at the University College Hospital Galway, Ireland and in co-operation with the National University of Ireland, Galway.

  • 9.
    Ahlgren, Asa
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bergroth, Alf
    Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Ekholm, Jan
    Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Work resumption or not after rehabilitation?: A descriptive study from six social insurance offices2004In: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research, ISSN 0342-5282, E-ISSN 1473-5660, Vol. 27, no 3, 171-180 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to describe measures and outcomes of vocational rehabilitation at six local national insurance offices in the same county in Sweden. Data were collected from mainframe registers and other records at each office. There were great differences in sickness allowance, incapacity rate, selected rehabilitation measures and resuming work. The percentage of sick-listed people who received any rehabilitation measure differed from 1.2 to 8.7%. The gender distribution for the study population was 36% men and 64% women and the predominant diagnosis was musculoskeletal pain conditions, which was followed by psychiatric disorders. Outcomes varied from office B, which reported 58% fully fit after completed planned rehabilitation, to office C, which reported only 24% fully fit. The clear differences in outcome between the offices indicate that various rehabilitation measures differ in effectiveness. The rehabilitation measure 'investigation of working ability' was not linked to any great proportion of people resuming work, but showed a greater correspondence to full disability pension. There were also large differences in social and demographic factors in the different municipalities. The effect of these on the rehabilitation process requires further investigation.

  • 10.
    Ahmed, Hamzah
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Relationship Between Crystal Structure and Mechanical Properties in Cocrystals and Salts of Paracetamol2014Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Oral tablets are convenient and widely administered drugdosage forms.The mechanical properties of a drug substance such as plasticity, ability to cohere into compacts and friction/adhesion are important in the development of a tablet formulation. Crystal engineering is an interesting and viabletool for improving or optimizing these technical properties of a drug substance.The creation of a lternative polymorphic forms, cocrystals, salts or hydrates of a drug substance can result in structural variations in the molecular packing of the crystals and, thereby, can alter the deformation behavior of the materials.Knowledge of the relationships between crystal modifications and the technical properties in multicomponent systems is limited, but represents a possibility to predict mechanical properties based on crystalstructure that facilitates engineering particles for the optimal processing performance. The overall objective of this thesis is thus to gain better understanding of the relationships between the crystal structure features and the mechanical properties of cocrystals and salts. Paracetamol form I, its cocrystals with oxalic acid and 4,4´-bipyridine, and its hydrochloride salt were selected as model systems in the study.The materials were scaled-up using rational crystallization methods and the physical purity was confirmed. The relevant properties of these powders were determined.Tablets were then made at applied pressures of50-250 MPa under controlled conditions.The tabletability and compactability of the powders were determined. The compression mechanics of the powders were the investigated according to a material classification protocol.Slip planes were identified by visually observing the crystal structures and based on the attachment energies calculated using different force fields in the materialsstudio.The tensile strengths of the powders increased with increasing pressure and the tabletability decreased in the order oxalic acid>paracetamol-hydrochloride salt≈paracetamol-oxalic acid>4,4´-bipyridine>paracetamol-4,4´-bipyridine.The tensile strength of the tablets decreased exponentially with increasing porosity,with some exceptions.Ingeneral, the cocrystals and the salt displayed intermediate compression characteristics as compared to the reference substances.The elastic recovery of the cocrystal and salt forms of paracetamol was not markedly different from that of paracetamol.It was found that slip plane prediction based on the attachment energies was not reliable. While it was possible to explain the improved tableting properties of powders based on the crystal features (i.e. the presence of slip planes and flat layers), no clear relationship was found with yield pressure. This may be attributed to possible brittle material characteristics and the surface energies of the crystals,which need to be further studied.Thus, cocrystallization and salt formation introduced structural features that were responsible for changes in the compaction and compression properties of drug substances. In future work, we intend to extend these studies to provide a clear picture of structure-mechanical property relationships in organic molecular crystals over multiple length scales;molecules to crystals to bulk powder.Key words Crystal engineering, solid forms, cocrystals, salts, tableting, crystal structure, mechanical properties, compression analysis

  • 11.
    Ahmed, Hamzah
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Shimpi, Manishkumar R.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Velaga, Sitaram P.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Relationship between mechanical properties and crystal structure in cocrystals and salt of paracetamol2017In: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, ISSN 0363-9045, E-ISSN 1520-5762, Vol. 43, no 1, 89-97 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives were to study mechanical properties of various solid forms of paracetamol and relate to their crystal structures. Paracetamol Form I (PRA), its cocrystals with oxalic acid (PRA-OXA) and 4,4-bipyridine (PRA-BPY) and hydrochloride salt (PRA-HCL) were selected. Cocrystals and salt were scaled-up using rational crystallization methods. The resulting materials were subjected to differential scanning solid-state characterization. The powders were sieved and 90-360 µm sieve fraction was considered. These powders were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and densities were determined. Tablets were made at applied pressures of 35-180 MPa under controlled conditions and the tablet height, diameter and hardness were measured. Tensile strength and porosity of the tablets were estimated using well known models. Crystal structures of these systems were visualized and slips planed were identified. Cocrystal and salt of PRA were physically pure. Sieved powders had comparable morphologies and particle size. The apparent and theoretical densities of powders were similar but no clear trends were observed. The tensile strengths of these compacts were increased with increasing pressure whereas tabletability decreased in the order oxalic acid > PRA-HCL ≈ PRA-OXA > BPY > PRA-BPY. Tablet tensile strength decreases exponentially with increasing porosity with the exception of PRY-BPY and BPY. Slip plane prediction based on attachment energies may not be independently considered. However, it was possible to explain the improved mechanical properties of powders based on the crystal structure. Cocrystallization and salt formation have introduced structural features that are responsible for improved tableting properties of PRA.

  • 12. Aigner-Breuss, Eva
    et al.
    Pilgerstorfer, Monika
    Anund, Anna
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Dukic, Tania
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Traffic and road users, Human-vehicle-transport system interaction.
    Chalkia, Eleni
    Ferrarini, Chiara
    Montanari, Roberto
    Wacowska, Justyna
    Jankowska, Dagmara
    Diederichs, Frederik
    Pauzie, Annie
    Comparison and analysis of user and stakeholder needs across different countries2010Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The current deliverable aims at presenting the results of the analysis of stakeholder needs, in order to have support for selecting the most relevant use cases. For the identification of user requirements of all stakeholders relevant to school transportation different methods were used:

    - Focus groups with representatives of one user or stakeholder group

    - Workshops with different stakeholders

    - 2 questionnaire surveys (Questionaire A: Road Experts, Questionaire B: children, parents and bus drivers)

    Problems and needs in the following areas were subject of discussions, interviews and questionnaires:

    - Behaviour of road users counteracting with school buses

    - Behaviour of pupils on the school bus and while entering and exiting the same

    - Design of bus stops

    - Protection of pupils on the school bus

    - Condition of school buses

    - Education of school bus drivers

    - Education of pupils concerning school transportation

    - Information flow

    - Route to/from school

    - Special needs of children with disabilities

    Results show that the organisation of school transport varies between countries and even within a country. Stakeholders underline the importance of consistent regulations and clear responsibilities as a basis for a safe way to school by bus.

  • 13.
    Aldén, Henrik
    et al.
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Cederberg, Sofia
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Hälsofrämjande arbete i gymnasieskolan: en studie om rektorers uppfattning om hälsoarbete2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aim

    The aim of this study is to examine how school principals describe the concept of health and the schools’ work with health promotion. Furthermore, the aim is to analyze and discuss what perspectives that are prominent in the schools’ regarding health. The question formulation of the study complies:

    1. How do the schools’ principals describe the concept of health? 2. In what way do the schools’ principals work with health promoting activities? 3. What aspects of health are prominent in the upper secondary school activities?

    Method

    The study has a qualitative approach with semi-structured interviews as data collection method. The sample consists of six principals and assistant principals operating in five different upper secondary schools. The collected results have been interpreted and analyzed using the WHO health definition, the concept of health literacy and the perception of health as positive or negative along a continuum.

    Results

    The principals’ definitions of health started with the physical aspect, and thereafter included the psychological and the social aspect of health. The practical working methods that were undertaken to prevent psychological disorders were physical activities and conversations about the pupils’ wellbeing. The conversations were reactive measures when it became visible that the pupil in question took harm or felt bad. The six principals had in common that they worked with an equal treatment plan. Generally, in all of the upper secondary schools, norm critical discussions as well as discussions about value grounds were held. Two ways to work were observed: one school had a supervisor per class who was responsible for health promotion, another school had a senior lecturer in environmental science that ran the school forward in these questions.

    Conclusions

    The conclusions presented in this study were that all principals were aware of that health according to the WHO definition, consists of a whole; the physical, mental and social aspect. All of the schools used physical activity as treatment for coping with physiological disorders usually caused by stress. This work aligns with Brülde & Tenglands (2003) thoughts about preventing ill health and promoting health by using physical activity. From this point of view there is a demand from the school management to be able to contribute more with physical activity in school and to educate the pupils according to health literacy and give them the tools to manage stress throughout their lives. This aligns with the theory of health literacy, where the ability to make healthy choices is central.

  • 14.
    Alerby, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Backman, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Bergmark, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Hertting, Krister
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Öhrling, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    ”Det ska vara kul att lära!”: Skolan som den bästa platsen för lärande2012In: Forskning om undervisning och lärande, ISSN 2000-9674, E-ISSN 2001-6131, Vol. 8, 41-49 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [sv]

    Inom ramen för denna artikel diskuterar vi såväl den psykosociala som den fysiska miljön i skolan. Vidare argumenterar vi för att skolans miljö är av betydelse för elevernas möjligheter att lära sig, likväl som för deras upplevelser av lärandesituationerna. Särskilt intressant blir då att lyssna till eleverna. Syftet med denna artikel är därför att synliggöra och diskutera elevers röster i förhållande till hur skolan kan bli den bästa platsen för lärande. Detta görs med utgångspunkt i forskningsprojektet ”Skolan suger” eller?, där drygt 200 elever i åldrarna 11–15 år deltog. Eleverna fick skriftligen reflektera över hur skolan ska bli en riktigt bra lärandemiljö. För att utveckla skolan till den bästa platsen för lärande uttryckte eleverna en önskan att kunna påverka sin lärandemiljö, att uppnå ömsesidighet och samspel, att kunna hantera tidsregleringen i skolan, samt att uppfylla behov för välbefinnande.

  • 15.
    Alerby, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Backman, Ylva
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Bergmark, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Gardelli, Åsa
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Hertting, Krister
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Öhrling, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    ”Skolan suger” ... eller?: Att ge röst åt barns och ungdomars erfarenheter av psykosocial hälsa i sin lärandemiljö2012In: Resultatdialog 2012, Stockholm: Vetenskapsrådet , 2012, 9-15 p.Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 16.
    Alerby, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Bergmark, Ulrika
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Forsman, Arne
    Hertting, Krister
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Öhrling, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Lasten hyvinvointi ell – näkökulmia aiheeseen2008In: Psykososiaalisen hyvinvoinnin edistäminen opetustyössä, Rovaniemi: Lapin yliopistokustannus , 2008, 39-46 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 17.
    Alerby, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Bergmark, Ulrika
    Forsman, Arne
    Hertting, Krister
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Öhrling, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Några perspektiv på psykosocial hälsa bland barn2008In: Barns trivsel i Nord: aktiviteter for psykososial trivsel fra skoler i Barentsregionen, Oslo: Gyldendal Norsk Folag AS , 2008, 39-45 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Alerby, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Bergmark, Ulrika
    Forsman, Arne
    Hertting, Krister
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Öhrling, Kerstin
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Nursing Care.
    Well-being among children: some perspectives from a Swedish viewpoint2008In: Crystals of schoolchildren's well-being: cross-border training material for promoting psychosocial well-being through school education, Rovaniemi: Lapland University of Applied Sciences, 2008, 39-46 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Alerby, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    A silent message is also a message2005In: A Nordic dimension in education and research - myth or reality?: NFPF/NERA 33rd congress, 2005, 83- p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    "Dammed taxi cab!" A twelve year old student wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire in school concerning psychosocial well-being. Within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion. Can the messages found on the sides of the squares intended for an X in a questionnaire be considered non-messages? Or are these expressions indeed messages that are made silent and therefore can be considered silent messages? Then one might wonder what the meanings of the silent messages are that often occurs in questionnaires? Can, or maybe should, we take notice of these silent messages? According to Polanyi every human being has silent and unexpressed dimensions within themselves, which acknowledge situations where we recognise that we know more than we can explain. This is also stressed by Merleau-Ponty, who argued that something exists beyond what is said, and Bateson emphasised that a non-message is also a message - the silence tells us something. Within this paper we will highlight and discuss the significance of silent messages of communication in general, and especially in questionnaires.

  • 20.
    Alerby, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    'Dammed taxi cab': how silent communication in questionnaires can be understood and used to give voice to children's experiences2011In: International Journal of Research and Method in Education, ISSN 1743-727X, E-ISSN 1743-7288, Vol. 34, no 2, 117-130 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    'Dammed taxi cab' - a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. An analysis in accordance with a life-world approach has provided the lens through which to explore messages that can occur in questionnaires. The key research questions that will be explored in an attempt to answer the overall aim are: (i) how can unanswered questions and notes in the margins of a questionnaire be understood? and (ii) why is a questionnaire not always completed, according to the intention of its creators? To develop an understanding of this we analysed a number of questionnaires with unanswered questions and notes in the margins using a life-world approach. During the analysis two themes emerged: silent messages and messages being silenced. Finally, we discuss the legitimacy of questionnaires in childhood research and possible implications for practice when using this method to give voice to children's experiences.

  • 21.
    Alerby, Eva
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Arts, Communication and Education, Education, Language, and Teaching.
    Kostenius, Catrine
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Health and Rehab.
    Silence for health and learning: a phenomenological reflection2011Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Alexanderson, Kristina
    et al.
    Karolinska Institutet, Sektionen för försäkringsmedicin.
    Keller, Christina
    Jönköping University, Jönköping International Business School, JIBS, Informatics.
    von Knorring, Mia
    Karolinska Institutet, Sektionen för försäkringsmedicin.
    Paul, Ann-Sofi
    Karolinska Institutet, Sektionen för försäkringsmedicin.
    Ledning och styrning av hälso- och sjukvårdens arbete med patienters sjukskrivning: Resultat från 2013 och jämförelse med 20072013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Hälso- och sjukvården är en av flera aktörer som är involverade i patienters sjukskrivning. År 2006 infördes den så kallade sjukskrivningsmiljarden för att stimulera landstingen i att förbättra kvaliteten i sjukskrivningshanteringen och att ge den ökad prioritet. Olika områden har betonats i sjukskrivningsmiljarderna, såsom kompetens, samverkan och jämställd sjukskrivning – samtliga har haft ett starkt fokus på att utveckla ledning och styrning av sjukskrivningsfrågan. 

    Syftet med den här studien var att få ökad kunskap om hur chefer på olika nivåer inom hälso- och sjukvården leder och styr arbetet med patienters sjukskrivning och om detta förändrats sedan 2007, då en motsvarande studie gjordes. 

    Metod: Kvalitativ och kvantitativ innehållsanalys har genomförts av semistrukturerade intervjuer med 72 chefer på tre nivåer inom hälso- och sjukvården; landstings- och regiondirektörer (nivå 1), chefer direkt underställda dessa och med övergripande ansvar för sjukhusvård respektive primärvård (nivå 2), samt strategiskt valda verksamhetschefer inom primärvård och sjukhusvård (nivå 3). Resultaten har jämförts med dem från 2007. 

    Resultat: Cheferna på samtliga tre nivåer såg nu ledning och styrning av sjukskrivningshantering som ett ansvar för cheferna i linjeorganisationen, vilket var en stor skillnad mot 2007. Det var stora variationer i hur ansvaret utövas, men analysen pekar på att frågan i högre utsträckning nu ägs och hanteras av cheferna, ofta med stöd av resurser utanför linjen. Frågan fanns också på agendan i högre utsträckning än tidigare på samtliga chefsnivåer – särskilt stor var förändringen på verksamhetsnivå. Många chefer beskrev att de nu leder och styr sjukskrivningsområdet på samma sätt som andra områden och att sjukskrivningsfrågan är införlivad med verksamhetens ordinarie ledningssystem. Chefernas kompetens i att leda och styra sjukskrivningsfrågan bedöms ha ökat sedan 2007. 

    Samverkan med Försäkringskassan har utvecklats. Etablerade former för samverkan finns på flera strukturella nivåer, och omfattar främst kompetensutveckling och hantering av specifika patientärenden och ibland projekt. Samverkan beskrevs generellt som positiv och ansågs ha lett till ökad förståelse för varandras uppdrag och roller. Samverkan med Arbetsförmedlingen och kommuner nämndes ibland; däremot nämndes samverkan med arbetsgivare eller företagshälsovård ytterst sällan. 

    Intern samverkan mellan kliniska verksamheter i sjukskrivningshanteringen har utvecklats men behöver förbättras ytterligare. I många verksamheter ingår flerprofessionellt samarbete i det patientnära arbetet med sjukskrivningar, som en del av överenskomna rutiner. Chefer beskriver att intern och extern samverkan underlättas av koordinatorer som organiserar och stöttar hanteringen av sjukskrivning och rehabilitering. 

    Kompetens och kompetensutveckling inom försäkringsmedicin framstod nu som ett relativt prioriterat område för cheferna, på samtliga nivåer och i betydligt högre utsträckning än 2007. Utbildningsinsatser har gjorts i samtliga landsting, dels som begränsad fortbildning,främst för läkare, dels som utbildning av expertresurser. Man lyfte behovet av kontinuerlig kompetensutveckling. Utbildningsinsatser uppfattas som nödvändiga men tidskrävande och att det är en utmaning att leda och styra detta då frågan sällan har hög prioritet bland läkare.

    Jämfört med 2007 har en tydlig förändring skett vad avser chefernas förhållningssätt till sjukskrivningsfrågan som blivit mer positiv. Sjukskrivning beskrevs nu som en del av vård och behandling. 

    Jämställd sjukskrivning är ett prioriterat område i sjukskrivningsmiljarden och finns nu på agendan i högre grad än 2007; få har dock vidtagit konkreta åtgärder. Ibland nämndes planer på åtgärder, och många hade tagit fram - eller planerade att ta fram - könsuppdelad sjukskrivningsstatistik. Området upplevdes som svårt och komplicerat att leda och styra, bland annat på grund av bristande kunskap inom området. 

    År 2007 framkom att kvalitetssäkring av arbetet med sjukskrivningar i princip inte förekom. Här har en utveckling skett. Uttalanden om kvalitet i och kvalitetssäkring av arbetet med sjukskrivningar handlade framför allt om uppföljning. Uppföljning begränsades i flera uttalanden till mätning av villkor som anges i sjukskrivningsmiljarden, så som andel läkarintyg som godkänts av Försäkringskassan. Mer sällan inbegrep uppföljning förbättringsarbete baserat på återkoppling eller analys av sjukskrivningsprocessen eller andra kvalitetsindikatorer. 

    Chefens ansvar för att skapa goda administrativa förutsättningar för arbetet med sjukskrivningar framhölls nu på samtliga tre nivåer; detta diskuterades endast i begränsad omfattning 2007. Administrativa förutsättningar som nämndes var riktlinjer och rutiner, tid för såväl patientarbete som för kompetensutveckling, tillgång till kompetensstöd från experter, lättillgänglig och korrekt information samt olika ”verktyg”. Resultatet pekar på att man i hög grad har infört rutiner för olika aspekter av sjukskrivningsarbetet, men det fanns fortsatt behov av effektivisering och kvalitetsförbättring, inte minst vad gäller IT- stöd. 

    Sjukskrivningsmiljarden bedöms ha haft mycket stor betydelse för att fokus har satts på sjukskrivningsfrågorna i landstingen. Många ansåg att sjukskrivningsmiljarden behövs ytterligare några år, även om det framkom en ambivalens till denna form av statlig styrning. Kortsiktigheten i överenskommelserna, att de kommer sent och att det nu finns fler miljardsatsningar ansågs göra verksamheten svårare att styra. 

    Slutsatser: Ledning och styrning av sjukskrivningshantering har i större utsträckning blivit en del av den ordinarie verksamheten inom sjukvården, och chefens roll i relation till sjukskrivningshanteringen har blivit tydligare jämfört med 2007. Sjukskrivningsmiljarden tycks ha haft en stor betydelse för att sätta sjukskrivningsfrågan på agendan på samtliga nivåer i hälso- och sjukvården. Sjukskrivning ses nu i stor utsträckning som en del av vård och behandling som skall ledas och styras på motsvarande sätt som annan verksamhet, till exempel vad gäller riktlinjer, rutiner och kvalitetssäkring. Sjukskrivningsfrågan är dock en fråga bland många andra, och det finns behov av särskilt stöd till linjen i att hantera den. Vi fann en stor förändring i chefernas syn på det egna ansvaret i sjukskrivningsfrågan, särskilt på verksamhetschefsnivå. Hälso- och sjukvården har med andra ord kommit en bra bit på väg i sjukskrivningsfrågan. 

    Mycket återstår dock att göra för att säkra ledningssystem, rutiner, och tillräckliga administrativa förutsättningar för ett optimalt arbete med hantering av patienters sjukskrivning. Särskilt gäller detta kvalitetssäkring, jämställd sjukskrivning, administrativa förutsättningar och den interna samverkan mellan olika kliniker.

  • 23.
    Alexandrou, Constantia
    et al.
    Department of Physics, University of Cyprus.
    Constantinou, Martha
    Department of Physics, University of Cyprus.
    Korzec, Tomasz
    Institut fur Physik, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin.
    Panagopoulos, Haralambos G.
    Department of Physics, University of Cyprus.
    Stylianou, Fotos
    Department of Physics, University of Cyprus.
    Renormalization constants for 2-twist operators in twisted mass QCD2011In: Physical Review D. Particles and fields, ISSN 0556-2821, E-ISSN 1089-4918, Vol. 83, no 1, 014503Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perturbative and nonperturbative results on the renormalization constants of the fermion field and the twist-2 fermion bilinears are presented with emphasis on the nonperturbative evaluation of the one-derivative twist-2 vector and axial-vector operators. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations have been performed for pion masses in the range of about 450-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing a corresponding to β=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. Subtraction of O(a2) terms is carried out by performing the perturbative evaluation of these operators at 1-loop and up to O(a2). The renormalization conditions are defined in the RI⊃′-MOM scheme, for both perturbative and nonperturbative results. The renormalization factors, obtained for different values of the renormalization scale, are evolved perturbatively to a reference scale set by the inverse of the lattice spacing. In addition, they are translated to MS̄ at 2 GeV using 3-loop perturbative results for the conversion factors

  • 24.
    Alexandrou, Constantia
    et al.
    Department of Physics, University of Cyprus.
    Constantinou, Martha
    Department of Physics, University of Cyprus.
    Korzec, Tomasz
    Institut fur Physik, Humboldt Universitat zu Berlin.
    Panagopoulos, Haralambos G.
    Department of Physics, University of Cyprus.
    Stylianou, Fotos
    Department of Physics, University of Cyprus.
    Renormalization constants of local operators for Wilson type improved fermions2012In: Physical Review D. Particles and fields, ISSN 0556-2821, E-ISSN 1089-4918, Vol. 86, no 1, 014505Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perturbative and nonperturbative results are presented on the renormalization constants of the quark field and the vector, axial-vector, pseudoscalar, scalar, and tensor currents. The perturbative computation, carried out at one-loop level and up to second order in the lattice spacing, is performed for a fermion action, which includes the clover term and the twisted mass parameter yielding results that are applicable for unimproved Wilson fermions, as well as for improved clover and twisted mass fermions. We consider ten variants of the Symanzik improved gauge action corresponding to ten different values of the plaquette coefficients. Nonperturbative results are obtained using the twisted mass Wilson fermion formulation employing two degenerate dynamical quarks and the tree-level Symanzik improved gluon action. The simulations are performed for pion masses in the range of 480-260 MeV and at three values of the lattice spacing, a, corresponding to β=3.9, 4.05, 4.20. For each renormalization factor computed nonperturbatively we subtract its perturbative O(a2) terms so that we eliminate part of the cutoff artifacts. The renormalization constants are converted to MS̄ at a scale of μ=2GeV. The perturbative results depend on a large number of parameters and are made easily accessible to the reader by including them in the distribution package of this paper, as a Mathematica input file.

  • 25.
    Alfredsson, Anette
    Jönköping University, School of Health Science, HHJ, Quality Improvement and Leadership in Health and Welfare.
    Samma arbete, med mer samarbete: En fallstudie om hur Kundcentrerad planering kan tillämpas i syfte att öka patientdelaktighet inom kommunal hemsjukvård2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Algilani, Samal
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    To be at one's best: The evolution of Optimal Functionality and its possible implementation in an ICT-platform2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    At the Nutrition and Physical Activity Research Centre for Optimal Health and Functionality through Life (NUPARC), a research gap was uncovered regarding the concept optimal functionality based on the older adult’s own perspective. The overall aim was to explore the concept of optimal functionality among older adults and the possibility of creating and developing an ICT-platform to measure it. Method: An existing cohort from NUPARC was used for recruitment in studies I-III and to some extent study IV. A scoping study design and framework was adopted for the inclusion of the articles in Study I. Study II had a descriptive design. Six focus group discussions were conducted and analysed using qualitative deductive content analysis to extend the qualitative understanding. Study III used a phenomenological approach describing the experience of mental health and its impact on the ability to function as optimally as possible. Six interviews were analysed using Giorgi’s phenomenological approach. Study IV was a feasibility study and included 8 older adults using an ICTplatform for a period of four weeks. Results: Optimal Functionality comprises three major corner stones: Body-related factors, Self-related factors and External factors (I) accompanied by nine aspects, and according to older adults it is a matter of functioning as optimally as possible (II). The three major cornerstones are intricately linked and all but the mental aspects were included in the discussions (II). Life situations affecting mental health, consequences of mental health and strategies for maintaining good mental health were described by older adults as having an impact on mental health and affecting their ability to function as optimally as possible (III). The older adults managed the usage of an ICT-tool well and it was perceived as meaningful (IV). Conclusion: Optimal functionality is holistic, subjective, dynamic and applicable to all older adults. Identification of the factors involved can help the older adults on their path to health. An ICT-platform can facilitate the identification of the factors for optimal functionality and the eventual measurement of it.

  • 27.
    Algilani, Samal
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Langius-Ekelöf, Ann
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Kihlgren, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Blomberg, Karin
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    An interactive ICT-platform for early assessment and management of patient-reported concerns among older adults living in Ordinary Housing: Development and FeasibilityManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Algilani, Samal
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Östlund-Lagerström, Lina
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Kihlgren, Annica
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Schoultz, Ida
    Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences.
    Schröder, Agneta
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Mental health as a prerequisite for functioning as optimally as possible in old age: a phenomenological approachManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 29.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Pharmaceutical cocrystals: formation mechanisms, solubility behaviour and solid-state properties2012Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary aim of pharmaceutical materials engineering is the successful formulation and process development of pharmaceutical products. The diversity of solid forms available offers attractive opportunities for tailoring material properties. In this context, pharmaceutical cocrystals, multicomponent crystalline materials with definite stoichiometries often stabilised by hydrogen bonding, have recently emerged as interesting alternative solid forms with potential for improving the physical and biopharmaceutical properties of a drug substance. There are, however, gaps in our understanding of the screening, scale-up and formulation operations required for effective use of cocrystals in drug product development. The objective of this thesis was to improve fundamental understanding of the formation mechanisms, solution behaviour and solid-state properties of pharmaceutical cocrystals. The solution chemistry and solubility behaviour of a diverse set of cocrystals were studied. It was found that the thermodynamic stability regions of the cocrystals and their components were defined by the phase solubility diagrams. Spray drying was introduced as a new method of preparing cocrystals; the formation mechanisms are illustrated. The cocrystals were more soluble than the respective drugs alone and the solubility-pH profiles were able to be predicted by mathematical models using a eutectic point determination approach. The cocrystal solubility was pH-dependent and could be engineered by the choice of coformers; this is valuable information for designing robust formulations. The solubility advantage of cocrystals was retained by the use of excipients that imparted kinetic and thermodynamic stability. The retention of drug-coformer association in processed cocrystals has been revealed, introducing a novel concept with potential implications for solid dosage form development. The final study demonstrated that the structure of the crystals and the particle engineering processes affected the solidstate and bulk particle properties of the cocrystals.This thesis contributes to the field of pharmaceutical science by advancing our understanding of crystallization processes and formulation development, thus enabling pharmaceutical cocrystals into drug products.

  • 30. Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Ali, Hassan
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Effects of polymer and surfactant on the dissolution and transformation profiles of cocrystals in aqueous media2014In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 14, no 2, 643-648 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Capturing solubility advantages of cocrystals is of great interest, and thus to understand the mechanism by which different excipients could maintain the supersaturation generated by cocrystals at the course of absorption in aqueous media is essential. To achieve this aim, the impact of different excipients on dissolution behavior of indomethacin-saccharin (IND-SAC) were monitored by measuring the concentrations of cocrystal components in the absence and presence of various concentration of excipients by HPLC, and solid phases were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry after each experiment and the potential of Raman spectroscopy for monitoring phase transformations in situ was tested. No dissolution advantage was offered by cocrystals in the absence of any solution additive. The polymer and surfactant used in the study increased the solubility of IND but not SAC. This differential solubilization effect is believed to have stabilized the cocrystals for a relevant period for the absorption to take place. This could be attributed to either decreased gap between supersaturation and saturation of the drug or drug interaction with the additives. Understanding the effects of excipients type and concentration on the transformation profile is vital for designing enabling formulations for cocrystals. The eutectic constant may be useful in selecting excipients for stabilizing cocrystals.

  • 31.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Alzghoul, Ahmad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Product and Production Development.
    Kaialy, Waseem
    Chemistry and Drug Delivery Group, Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent.
    Data mining of solubility parameters for computational prediction of drug–excipient miscibility2014In: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, ISSN 0363-9045, E-ISSN 1520-5762, Vol. 40, no 7, 904-909 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Computational data mining is of interest in the pharmaceutical arena for the analysis of massive amounts of data and to assist in the management and utilization of the data. In this study, a data mining approach was used to predict the miscibility of a drug and several excipients, using Hansen solubility parameters (HSPs) as the data set. The K-means clustering algorithm was applied to predict the miscibility of indomethacin with a set of more than 30 compounds based on their partial solubility parameters [dispersion forces , polar forces and hydrogen bonding ]. The miscibility of the compounds was determined experimentally, using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), in a separate study. The results of the K-means algorithm and DSC were compared to evaluate the K-means clustering prediction performance using the HSPs three-dimensional parameters, the two-dimensional parameters such as volume-dependent solubility and hydrogen bonding , and selected single (one-dimensional) parameters. Using HSPs, the prediction of miscibility by the K-means algorithm correlated well with the DSC results, with an overall accuracy of 94%. The prediction accuracy was the same (94%) when the two-dimensional parameters or the hydrogen-bonding (one-dimensional) parameter were used. The hydrogen-bonding parameter was thus a determining factor in predicting miscibility in such set of compounds, whereas the dispersive and polar parameters had only a weak correlation. The results show that data mining approach is a valuable tool for predicting drug–excipient miscibility because it is easy to use, is time and cost-effective, and is material sparing.

  • 32.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    George, Sumod
    Basavoju, Srinivas
    Childs, S.L.
    Renovo Research, Atlanta, GA.
    Rizvi, S.A.A.
    College of Pharmacy, Nova Southeastern University, Fort Lauderdale, FL.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Pharmaceutical cocrystals of nitrofurantoin: Screening, characterization and crystal structure analysis2012In: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 14, no 15, 5078-5088 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to screen and prepare cocrystals of the poorly soluble drug nitrofurantoin (NTF) with the aim of increasing its solubility. Screening for cocrystals of NTF using 47 coformers was performed by high-throughput (HT) screening using liquid assisted grinding (LAG) methods. Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were used as the primary analytical tools to identify the new crystalline solid forms. Manual LAG and reaction crystallization (RC) experiments were carried out to confirm and scale-up the hits. Seven hits were confirmed to be cocrystals. The cocrystals were characterized by PXRD, Raman and IR spectroscopy, thermal analysis (DSC and TGA) and liquid-state NMR or elemental analysis. The solution stability of the scaled-up cocrystals in water was tested by slurrying the cocrystals at 25 °C for one week. NTF forms cocrystals with a 1:1 stoichiometric ratio with urea (1), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2), nicotinamide (3), citric acid (4), l-proline (5) and vanillic acid (6). In addition, NTF forms a 1:2 cocrystal with vanillin (7). All but one of the NTF cocrystals transformed (dissociated) in water, resulting in NTF hydrate crystalline material or NTF hydrate plus the coformer, which indicates that the transforming cocrystals have a higher solubility than the NTF hydrate under these conditions. The crystal structures of 1:1 NTF-citric acid (4) and 1:2 NTF-vanillin (7) were solved by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. The crystal structures of these two cocrystals were analyzed in terms of their supramolecular synthons.

  • 33.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    George, Sumod
    Boström, Dan
    Department of Energy Technology and Thermal Process Chemistry, Umea University.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    1:1 and 2:1 urea-succinic acid cocrystals: structural diversity, solution chemistry, and thermodynamic stability2010In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 10, no 11, 4847-4855 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this work was to study the crystal structures of 1:1 and 2:1 urea-succinic acid (U-SA) cocrystals and to investigate the role of solution chemistry in the formation and stability of different stoichiometric cocrystals. The structural diversity of other urea-dicarboxylic acid cocrystals is also discussed. The 1:1 U-SA cocrystal was stabilized by an acid-amide heterosynthon while acid-amide heterosynthons and amide-amide homosynthons stabilized the 2:1 cocrystals. The hydrogen bonding motifs in 1:1 and 2:1 U-SA cocrystals were consistent with other urea-dicarboxylic acid systems with similar stoichiometries. The 1:1 cocrystals were transformed to 2:1 cocrystals upon slurrying in various solvents at 25 °C. The phase solubility diagram was used to define the stability regions of different solid phases in 2-propanol at 25 °C. While no phase stability region for 1:1 cocrystal could be found, the stable regions for the 2:1 cocrystals and their pure components were defined by eutectic points. The solubility of the 2:1 cocrystals was dependent on the concentration of the ligand in the solution and explained by the solubility product and 1:1 solution complexation. The mathematical models predicting the solubility of the 2:1 cocrystals were evaluated and found to fit the experimental data

  • 34.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Kaialy, Waseem
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Buckton, Graham
    Department of Pharmaceutics, School of Pharmacy, University College London.
    Gill, Hardyal
    Chemistry and Drug Delivery Group, Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent.
    Nokhodchi, Ali
    Chemistry and Drug Delivery Group, Medway School of Pharmacy, University of Kent.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Theophylline cocrystals prepared by spray drying: physicochemical properties and aerosolization performance2013In: AAPS PharmSciTech, ISSN 1530-9932, E-ISSN 1530-9932, Vol. 14, no 1, 265-276 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this work was to characterize theophylline (THF) cocrystals prepared by spray drying in terms of the physicochemical properties and inhalation performance when aerosolized from a dry powder inhaler. Cocrystals of theophylline with urea (THF-URE), saccharin (THF-SAC) and nicotinamide (THF-NIC) were prepared by spray drying. Milled THF and THF-SAC cocrystals were also used for comparison. The physical purity, particle size, particle morphology and surface energy of the materials were determined. The in vitro aerosol performance of the spray-dried cocrystals, drug-alone and a drug-carrier aerosol, was assessed. The spray-dried particles had different size distributions, morphologies and surface energies. The milled samples had higher surface energy than those prepared by spray drying. Good agreement was observed between multi-stage liquid impinger and next-generation impactor in terms of assessing spray-dried THF particles. The fine particle fractions of both formulations were similar for THF, but drug-alone formulations outperformed drug-carrier formulations for the THF cocrystals. The aerosolization performance of different THF cocrystals was within the following rank order as obtained from both drug-alone and drug-carrier formulations: THF-NIC > THF-URE > THF-SAC. It was proposed that micromeritic properties dominate over particle surface energy in terms of determining the aerosol performance of THF cocrystals. Spray drying could be a potential technique for preparing cocrystals with modified physical properties.

  • 35.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Roy, Lilly
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan.
    Rodriguez-Hornedo, Nair
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    pH-dependent solubility of indomethacin-saccharin and carbamazepine-saccharin cocrystals in aqueous media2012In: Molecular Pharmaceutics, ISSN 1543-8384, E-ISSN 1543-8392, Vol. 9, no 9, 2605-2612 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cocrystals constitute an important class of pharmaceutical solids for their remarkable ability to modulate solubility and pH dependence of water insoluble drugs. Here we show how cocrystals of indomethacin-saccharin (IND-SAC) and carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) enhance solubility and impart a pH-sensitivity different from that of the drugs. IND-SAC exhibited solubilities 13 to 65 times higher than IND at pH values of 1 to 3, whereas CBZ-SAC exhibited a 2 to 10 times higher solubility than CBZ dihydrate. Cocrystal solubility dependence on pH predicted from mathematical models using cocrystal K(sp), and cocrystal component K(a) values, was in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The cocrystal solubility increase relative to drug was predicted to reach a limiting value for a cocrystal with two acidic components. This limiting value is determined by the ionization constants of cocrystal components. Eutectic constants are shown to be meaningful indicators of cocrystal solubility and its pH dependence. The two contributions to solubility, cocrystal lattice and solvation, were evaluated by thermal and solubility determinations. The results show that solvation is the main barrier for the aqueous solubility of these drugs and their cocrystals, which are orders of magnitude higher than their lattice barriers. Cocrystal increase in solubility is thus a result of decreasing the solvation barrier compared to that of the drug. This work demonstrates the favorable properties of cocrystals and strategies that facilitate their meaningful characterization.

  • 36.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Sokolowski, Anders
    Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, Uppsala University.
    Rodriguez-Hornedo, Nair
    Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Michigan.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Solubility behavior and solution chemistry of indomethacin cocrystals in organic solvents2011In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 11, no 9, 3923-3929 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the solubility behavior and solution chemistry of indomethacin-saccharin (IND-SAC) cocrystals in organic media. We also evaluated previously proposed models of cocrystal solubility in organic solvents. In addition, the solubility behavior of IND-SAC cocrystals was compared with that of indomethacin-nicotinamide (IND-NIC) cocrystals using the eutectic constant approach. Phase solubility diagrams of IND-SAC cocrystals in various solvents were generated and the transition concentrations, at which drug and cocrystals are in equilibrium with the solvents, were determined. The solubility of IND-SAC cocrystals was explained by the solubility product and solution complexation. The tested models were found to fit the experimental data and to adequately explain the solubility behavior of the cocrystals. The solution complexation of IND and SAC is negligible in ethyl acetate and low in methanol and ethanol. The IND-NIC cocrystals were more soluble than the IND-SAC cocrystals in all the solvents studied. The eutectic constants predicted both the solubility and the stability of the cocrystals. Understanding the solubility behavior and solution chemistry of cocrystals has important implications for the screening, scale-up, and formulation development of this solid form. Further, the determination of eutectic constants is a simple and resource sparing means of obtaining key information on cocrystal stability and solution behavior

  • 37.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Formation of cocrystals by spray drying2010In: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology (JPP), ISSN 0022-3573, E-ISSN 2042-7158, Vol. 62, no 10 - Special issue, 1332-1333 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Spray drying is a widely used technique for material processing and scale-up. The cocrystals formation by spray drying is studied. In contrast to solvent evaporation method, spray drying of stiochiometric solutions of incongruently saturating cocrystals had generated pure cocrystals. The formation phenomena in spray drying could be kinetically controlled or mediated by glassy state.

  • 38.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Formation of cocrystals from stoichiometric solutions of incongruently saturating systems by spray drying2010In: Crystal Growth & Design, ISSN 1528-7483, E-ISSN 1528-7505, Vol. 10, no 8, 3302-3305 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Spray drying is a well established technique for material processing and scale-up. This study investigated the formation of pharmaceutical cocrystals by spray drying. The cocrystal formation mechanisms in spray-drying and solution methods, based on triangular phase diagrams, are discussed. The solvent evaporation of stoichiometric solutions of incongruently saturating cocrystals resulted in a mixture of phases, as dictated by the thermodynamic phase diagram. In contrast, spray drying of similar solutions of incongruently saturating systems generated pure cocrystals. It is thus suggested that the formation of cocrystals by spray drying could be kinetically controlled and/or mediated by the glassy state of the material.

  • 39.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Vilinska, Annamaria
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Sustainable Process Engineering.
    Gavini, Elisabetta
    University of Sassari.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Rassu, Giovanna
    University of Sassari.
    Surface thermodynamics of mucoadhesive dry powder formulation of zolmitriptan2011In: AAPS PharmSciTech, ISSN 1530-9932, E-ISSN 1530-9932, Vol. 12, no 4, 1186-1192 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microparticle powders for nasal delivery were formulated to contain the model drug, zolmitriptan, and varying proportions of different polymers. The objective of the study was to investigate the effects of these formulative parameters on the surface chemistry of the spray-dried microparticles and their potential for adhesion to the tested substrates, porcine mucin, and nasal tissue. The polymers used were chitosans of varying ionization states and molecular weights and hydroxypropyl methyl cellulose. The surface energies of the surfaces of the microparticles were determined using contact angle measurements and the van Oss model. The theory of surface thermodynamics was applied to determine the theoretical potential for the different materials to adhere to the substrates. It was found that the drug or polymers alone, as well as the various formulations, were more likely to adhere to mucin than to nasal tissue. Further, there was a trend for higher molecular weight chitosans to adhere better to the substrates than lower molecular weight chitosans. Similarly, adhesion was improved for formulations with a higher content of polymers. These theoretical predictions may be compared with further experimental results and be of use in making informed decisions on the choice of formulations for future expensive bio-studies.

  • 40.
    Al-Hayali, Amani Ibraheem Younis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Tavelin, Staffan
    Umeå university.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Dissolution and precipitation behavior of ternary solid dispersions of Ezetimibe in biorelevant media: AAPS annual meeting and Exposition2014 USA2014Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    PurposeTo prepare ternary solid dispersions of Ezetimibe (EZ) and investigate their powder dissolution and precipitation behavior(supersaturation) in simulated gastric and intestinal fluidsMethodsTernary solid dispersions of EZ were prepared with PVPK30 and Poloxamer 188 at different ratios. Spray drying and meltquenching methods were used for the preparation of these solid dispersions. The solid dispersions were characterized bybasic to advanced solid-state tools including Modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), Powder X-ray diffractionand Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy .Biorelevant simulated media (FaSSIF pH 6.5 and FaSSGF pH1.6) were used tostudy the supersaturating solubility of the ternary solid dispersions. HPLC was used to determine the drug concentrationsResultsTernary solid dispersions were successfully prepared by spray drying and melt quench methods. All prepared soliddispersions showed broadening of the XRD peaks indicating amorphous nature. MDSC analysis revealed disappearance ofthe melting peak of Ezetimibe indicating that molecular dispersion of the drug in polymer matrix. The solid dispersions withhigher PVPK30 content showed single Tg at 158.54 °C (spray drying) and 169.32 °C (melt quench). About 10 folds increasein the apparent solubility was observed for solid dispersions prepared by both methods. However, melt quenched soliddispersions had maintained the supersaturation solubility in FaSSIF longer than spray dried solid dispersions. Dissolutionstudies in FaSSGF are ongoingConclusionAmorphous ternary solid dispersions of Ezetimibe containing PVP K30 and Poloxamer 188 could be prepared by spraydrying and melt quenching methods. These solid dispersions showed improved solubility and prolonged supersaturation inbiorelevant media

  • 41.
    Al-Hayali, Amani Ibraheem Younis
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Tavellin, Staffan
    Departments of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Umeå university.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Dissolution and precipitation behavior of ternary solid dispersions of ezetimibe in biorelevant media2017In: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, ISSN 0363-9045, E-ISSN 1520-5762, Vol. 43, no 1, 79-88 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effects of different formulations and processes on inducing and maintaining the supersaturation of ternary solid dispersions of ezetimibe (EZ) in two biorelevant media fasted-state simulated intestinal fluid (FaSSIF) and fasted-state simulated gastric fluid (FaSSGF) at different temperatures (25˚C and 37˚C) were investigated in this work. Ternary solid dispersions of EZ were prepared by adding polymer PVP-K30 and surfactant poloxamer 188 using melt-quenching and spray-drying methods. The resulting solid dispersions were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction and Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy. The dissolution of all the ternary solid dispersions was tested in vitro under non-sink conditions. All the prepared solid dispersions were amorphous in nature. In FaSSIF at 25˚C, the melt-quenched (MQ) solid dispersions of EZ were more soluble than the spray-dried solid (SD) dispersions and supersaturation was maintained. However, at 37˚C, rapid and variable precipitation behavior was observed for all the MQ and SD formulations. In FaSSGF, the melting method resulted in better solubility than the spray-drying method at both temperatures. Ternary solid dispersions show potential for improving solubility and supersaturation. However, powder dissolution experiments of these solid dispersions of EZ at 25˚C may not predict the supersaturation behavior at physiologically relevant temperatures.  

  • 42.
    Al-Hayali, Amani
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Selo, Mohammed Ali
    School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Trinity College Dublin .
    Ehrhardt, Carsten
    School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences , Trinity College Dublin .
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Investigation of supersaturation and permeation of a poorly water soluble drug Ezetimibe: Systems approaches to drug discovery, development and clinical usage2017In: Future Medicines For One World, 2017Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Ali, Hassan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Mendes, N.F.C.
    Ribeiro-Claro, Paulo
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Solid-state vibrational spectroscopic investigation of cocrystals and salt of indomethacin2012In: CrystEngComm, ISSN 1466-8033, E-ISSN 1466-8033, Vol. 14, no 20, 6665-6674 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Knowledge and control of the solid forms of active pharmaceutical ingredients are important aspects of drug development in the pharmaceutical industry. In this paper, the process of the molecular self-assembly of saccharin cocrystals and the 2-amino-5-methylpyridine salt of indomethacin, in terms of the hydrogen bonding patterns, has been studied in the solid-state using vibrational spectroscopy (Raman and infrared). Interaction patterns in the respective crystalline states were obtained from the single crystal data. The effects of cocrystal and salt formation on the frequencies of the vibrational modes of motion were explained by vibrational spectroscopy and supported by quantum chemical calculations at the density functional theory level, leading to unambiguous assignment of the vibrational spectra of the starting materials and their respective products. Both Raman and infrared spectroscopies were useful, reliable tools for characterizing and distinguishing the indomethacin cocrystals and salt.

  • 44.
    Ali, Hassan
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Alhalaweh, Amjad
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Velaga, Sitaram
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Health Sciences, Medical Science.
    Vibrational spectroscopic investigation of polymorphs and cocrystals of indomethacin2013In: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy, ISSN 0363-9045, E-ISSN 1520-5762, Vol. 39, no 5, 625-634 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Context:Identification of optimal solid form of an active pharmaceutical ingredient and form control are very important in drug development. Thus, the structural information of these forms and in-depth insight on the modes of molecular interactions are necessary, and vibrational spectroscopic methods are well suited for this purpose.Objective:In-depth structural analysis of different solid forms of indomethacin (IND) using Raman and infrared (IR) spectroscopy is the objective. We have investigated the modes of molecular interactions in polymorphs (α and γ), amorphous and discovered cocrystals of IND with nicotinamide (NIC) and trans-cinnamic acid (CIN) coformers.Materials and methods: The solid forms of IND have been prepared; their purity has been verified by differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffractometry and then studied in the solid-state by Raman and IR spectroscopy. The modes of the interactions were closely investigated from the vibrational data.Results: The key vibrational features of IND solid forms have been specified. The IR (C=O) band at 1713 cm−1 attributed to cyclic acid dimer of γ IND has disappeared in IND–NIC/CIN whilst retained in IND–SAC cocrystal.Discussion:IND cocrystallizes in different conformations and crystal lattices with different coformers. The cyclic acid dimer of IND has been kept on its cocrystallization with saccharin and it could have been broken with NIC and CIN.Conclusions: The complementary nature of Raman and IR spectroscopy allowed unambiguous investigation of the chemical composition of pharmaceutical materials which is of particular importance in the absence of detailed structural information, as in the case of IND–NIC and IND–CIN.

  • 45.
    Almberg, Maria
    et al.
    Mobil Centre Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Selander, Helena
    Mobil Centre Gothenburg, Sweden; University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Falkmer, Marita
    Curtin University, Australia; Jonköping University, Sweden.
    Vaz, Sharmila
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Ciccarelli, Marina
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Falkmer, Torbjörn
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Pain and Rehabilitation Center. Curtin University, Australia.
    Experiences of facilitators or barriers in driving education from learner and novice drivers with ADHD or ASD and their driving instructors2017In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, E-ISSN 1751-8431, Vol. 20, no 2, 59-67 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Little is known about whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) or attention deficit hyperactive disorder (ADHD) experience any specific facilitators or barriers to driving education. Objective: To explore the facilitators or barriers to driving education experienced by individuals with ASD or ADHD who obtained a learners permit, from the perspective of the learner drivers and their driving instructors. Methods: Datawere collected from33 participants with ASD or ADHD, and nine of their driving instructors. Results: Participants with ASD required twice asmany driving lessons andmore on-road tests than those with ADHD. Participants with ADHD repeated the written tests more than those with ASD. Driving license theory was more challenging for individuals with ADHD, whilst individuals with ASD found translating theory into practice and adjusting to "unfamiliar driving situations to be the greatest challenges. Conclusion: Obtaining a driving license was associated with stressful training experience.

  • 46.
    Almqvist, Lena
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Hellnäs, Petra
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Stefansson, Maria
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    Granlund, Mats
    Mälardalen University, Department of Social Sciences.
    'I can play!': Young children's perceptions of health2006In: Developmental Neurorehabilitation, ISSN 1751-8423, Vol. 9, no 3, 275-284 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Health is today viewed as a multi-dimensional concept partly conceptualized independent from not being ill. The aim of this study was to gain knowledge of how young children perceive health. Interviews were conducted with 68 children (4-5 years), within their pre-school setting, with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. A multi-dimensional perspective represented by the health dimensions of the International Classificationof Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) was used in a manifest deductive content analysis. The children's statements were categorized and placed under one of the four health dimensions, body, activity, participation and environment. A latent content analysis was applied to identify underlying themes in the manifest categories. The results revealed that young children perceive health as a multi-dimensional construct, largely related to being engaged, i.e. to be able to perform wanted activities and participate in a supportive every-day context. This implies that improvements of child engagement should be emphasized in health promotion and to a greater extent be the central focus of health interventions for young children.

  • 47.
    Alsén, Pia
    et al.
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture.
    Eriksson, Monica
    University West, Department of Nursing, Health and Culture, Division of Health and Culture.
    Illness perceptions of fatigue and the association with sense of coherence and stress in patients one year after myocardial infarction.2016In: Journal of Clinical Nursing, ISSN 0962-1067, E-ISSN 1365-2702, Vol. 25, no 3-4, 525-533 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims and objectives. To explore the associations between illness perceptions offatigue, sense of coherence and stress in patients one year after myocardial infarc-tion.Background. Post-myocardial infarction fatigue is a stressful symptom that is dif-ficult to cope with. Patients' illness perceptions of fatigue guide professionals inpredicting how individuals will respond emotionally and cognitively to symptoms.Individuals' sense of coherence can be seen as a coping resource in managingstressors.Design. A cross-sectional study design was used.Method. One year post-myocardial infarction, a total of 74 patients still experi-encing fatigue completed four questionnaires: the Multidimensional Fatigue ScaleInventory -20, the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire, the Sense of Coherencescale (sense of coherence-13) and a single-item measure of stress symptoms.Descriptive statistics, correlations and stepwise regression analysis were carriedout.Results. Strong negative associations were found between illness perceptions offatigue, sense of coherence and stress. Sense of coherence has an impact on illnessperceptions of fatigue. Of the dimensions of sense of coherence, comprehensibilityseemed to play the greatest role in explaining illness perceptions of fatigueone year after myocardial infarction.Conclusion. To strengthen patients' coping resources, health-care professionalsshould create opportunities for patients to gain individual-level knowledge thatallows them to distinguish between common fatigue symptoms and warning signsfor myocardial infarction.Relevance to clinical practice. There is a need to improve strategies for copingwith fatigue. It is also essential to identify patients with fatigue after myocardialinfarction, as they need explanations for their symptoms and extra support

  • 48.
    Alwin, Jenny
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Bernfort, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Eckard, Nathalie
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Husberg, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Health Technology Assessment and Health Economics. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Fixartjänster i Sveriges kommuner: Kartläggning och samhällsekonomisk analys. Regeringsuppdrag2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with so called minor home help services. These services are primarily meant for older persons with the aim to prevent injuries caused by falling in domestic environments (ones home). The minor home help services are mostly provided by the municipalities in Sweden, although it is not mandatory to provide these services. The extent of the provision and use of minor home help services has previously not been studied on a national level. The aim of this study was to delineate the minor home help services run by the municipalities in Sweden and further to examine and estimate the societal costs and consequences of providing these services.

    Out of the 290 municipalities in Sweden, 191 (66 %) offer minor home help services to their citizens. The tasks carried out are primarily aimed at preventing falls from furniture such as step stools or ladders, removing items that may cause falls (cords, carpets etc.) and providing an overhaul of injury risks in the home. A few municipalities also offer outdoor services such as removing snow in wintertime. In the majority of the municipalities (58 %) the services are offered free of charge but the user has to pay for the materials, in 32 % the services are completely free of charge and in 9 % of the municipalities an amount is charged for the services. The minor home help services are organized in various ways in the municipalities: the services can be completely run by the municipality where the services are carried out by one or several employed persons, by persons with disabilities (involved in daily activity programmes in the municipality) or by persons involved in work programmes; or the minor home help services can be carried out by the community rescue service or companies paid by the municipality to offer these services to the citizens. There are also organizations with volunteers that carry out minor home help services, these are however not included in the main results since the focus in this report is on municipal minor home help services. Ninety nine municipalities do not offer minor home help services to their citizens. Reasons for this are e.g. economic restraints and low demand.

    Experienced gains with minor home help services from the perspectives of the municipalities are prevention of falls, facilitation of the possibility to remain living in one’s own home, contribution to social wellbeing and being able to offer meaningful work tasks for persons in work programmes or persons with disabilities. Problems that have been brought forward are low demand of the services, problems with providing the target group with information and difficulties to measure the effect on fall injuries.

    A socioeconomic model was constructed for the analysis of costs and consequences of fall injuries. The model includes the large cost items as well as outcomes such as mortality and loss of quality of life when affected by a fall injury. The total direct costs in Sweden for fall injuries has previously been calculated to approximately 5 billion SEK, which includes only the direct costs during the first year of the injury. A calculation exercise was performed and applied to a hypothetical municipality with 50 000 inhabitants. This calculation exercise shows that if only a small amount of falls that lead to serious injuries (fractures) can be prevented by minor home help services, then the costs saved are approximately equivalent to the mean budget of minor home help services with one employed person. Calculations using real data including both costs and effects need to be performed.

  • 49.
    Andersson, Christina
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Occupational Therapy.
    Terapeuter rapporterar om bildterapi i fallstudier2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study has been first to investigate whether common characteristics exist in the field of art therapy or not, and second to illustrate the way art therapists write reports about their sessions.

    Methods: A literature study was made. Ten case studies were selected and analysed.

    Results: The results of the study showed that the art therapists often went beyond the concepts of the traditional therapy room and of materials used in their sessions. The results also showed shortcomings in the way art therapists reported.

    Conclusion: Art therapists need to refine and develop their way of writing reports in order for these reports to become more scholarly. Both general studies and investigations of more depth are needed to confirm or falsify the results of this study.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Elinor
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Vad är speciellt med handledare vid klinisk undervisningsavdelning (KUA)?-En kvalitativ studie2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Supervising students in a clinical training ward (CTW) has been used for some 20 years. Studies show that interprofessional learning gives students an opportunity to get a comprehensive view of a particular patient’s health-care needs, as well as an increased and mutual understanding of their colleague’s position and knowledge. Only a few studies have focused on the supervisor’s view of his or her own role within the activity of the CTW. The purpose of the study was to describe the CTW supervisor and his or her own perception of her role as an interprofessional supervisor as well as to describe interprofessional learning on its own at the CTW. A qualitative method was used, and 19 interprofessional supervisors from and within occupational therapy, along with physicians, physiotherapists, and nurses, were interviewed.

    The texts were content-analysed. Three categories were identified: ‘the supervisor’, ‘the supervision’, and ‘the concept of CTW’. It turned out that the interprofessional supervisor has a genuine interest and commitment to supervise, to work pedagogically, to collaborate, and to work with students. The supervisors all used different strategies, and they worked with the team in focus, partly for the benefit of the students but also to show the team’s importance in relation to the patient’s health care situation. The CTW concept requires lots of time and dedication from the supervisor, but it is perceived as a good concept where students can develop interprofessional collaboration. The supervisor’s understanding and approach to student learning makes a huge difference in the process of supervision. Being an interprofessional supervisor requires a pedagogical knowledge and understanding of a group and of the group process. The student’s team knowledge influences the CTW, which affects the supervision. The concept of the CTW has a positive impact on the supervisors, and the interprofessional supervision is perceived to be stimulating and challenging.

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