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  • 1. Aalborg, T.
    et al.
    Strandmark, Margaretha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    The baby was the focus of attention: First-time patients' experiences of their marital relationship2001In: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences, ISSN 0283-9318, E-ISSN 1471-6712, Vol. 15, 318-325 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2. Aalborg, T.
    et al.
    Strandmark, Margaretha
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Dahlöf, LG
    First time parents' sexual relationschips2000In: Scandinavian Journal of Sexology 3; 127-139Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 3. Aareleid, Tiiu
    et al.
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Rahu, Mati
    Baburin, Aleksei
    Lung cancer in Estonia in 1968-87: time trends and public health implications.1994In: European Journal of Cancer Prevention, ISSN 0959-8278, E-ISSN 1473-5709, Vol. 3, no 5, 419-425 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in lung cancer incidence and mortality in Estonia were studied for 20 years (1968-87). A steady upward trend was observed for men and women. The 1983-87/1968-72 age-standardized incidence rate ratio was 1.22 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.15-1.29) in men and 1.34 (95% CI 1.16-1.54) in women. The corresponding mortality rate ratio was 1.26 (95% CI 1.18-1.34) in men and 1.35 (95% CI 1.16-1.57) in women. The age-specific incidence and mortality rates increased clearly towards the younger birth cohorts. For men and women, the increase was most evident for the age group 45-64 years. In women there was a more rapid increase in incidence and mortality than in men. It may be a result of a substantial increase of tobacco smoking, particularly among women, after the World War II. The high and still rising occurrence of lung cancer is closely related to the high prevalence of smoking; in addition, high tar yields in domestic cigarettes could have been responsible for an elevated lung cancer risk during the past decades. There is not tobacco control programme in Estonia, and existing legislation and regulations do not defend the non-smoking population.

  • 4.
    Aarts, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hofvander, Yngve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Gebre-Medhin, Meharigm
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Growth under privileged conditions of healthy Swedish infants exclusively breastfed from birth to 4-6 months:  a longitudinal prospective study based on daily records of feeding2003In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 92, no 2, 145-151 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim:

    In most studies the methodology used to study growth in relation to breastfeeding patterns cannot ensure that exclusive breastfeeding has in fact occurred since birth. The aim of this study was to investigate the growth of healthy infants in Sweden in whom exclusive breastfeeding for the first 4–6 mo was ascertained through daily feeding records and to compare the results with the World Health Organization (WHO) “12-month breastfed pooled data set” and the Euro-Growth references for exclusively breastfed infants, as well as with the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS)/WHO reference.

    Methods:

    147 exclusively breastfed infants and 325 non-exclusively breastfed Swedish infants, with a birthweight of ≥3 kg, were included. The mothers had previous breastfed at least one infant for at least 4 mo. Weight was recorded fortnightly and length monthly.

    Results:

    Infants exclusively breastfed since birth showed similar growth in weight and height to that of the non-exclusively breastfed infants. During the first 6 mo of life the growth of exclusively breastfed infants was also similar to that of the infants regularly receiving formula at 12–16 wk of age, mostly in addition to breast milk. The monthly growth increments were fairly similar to those of the “WHO pooled breastfed data set” and the Euro-Growth references for exclusively breastfed infants.

    Conclusion:

    In an affluent society truly exclusively breastfed infants seem to have the same growth during the first half year of life as non-exclusively breastfed infants with a high breastfeeding rate.

  • 5.
    Aarts, Clara
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Kylberg, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hornell, A
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Hofvander, Yngve
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Gebre-Medhin, Mehari
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Greiner, Ted
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    How exclusive is exclusive breastfeeding? A comparison of data since birth with current status data:  2000In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 29, no 6, 1041-1046 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND:

    There is no accepted and widely used indicator for exclusive breastfeeding since birth. Indeed, the difference between 'current status' data on exclusive breastfeeding and data on 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' is rarely recognized. We used data from a longitudinal study to examine this issue.

    METHODS:

    A descriptive longitudinal, prospective study design was used in which 506 mother-infant pairs were included. The mothers completed daily recordings on infant feeding during the first nine months after birth. A research assistant conducted fortnightly home visits with structured interviews. The resulting data on breastfeeding patterns are presented in two different ways: analysis of 'current status' data based on a single 24-hour recording of infant feeding at 2, 4 and 6 months of age, and analysis of data 'since birth', i.e. data on infant feeding for every day, starting from birth until the ages of 2, 4 and 6 months.

    RESULTS:

    A wide discrepancy between the results obtained from the two analyses was found. The difference in the exclusive breastfeeding rate was over 40 percentage points at both 2 and 4 months of age (92% versus 51% at 2 months and 73% versus 30% at 4 months) and 9 percentage points at 6 months (11% versus 1.8%).

    CONCLUSIONS:

    Current status indicators based on a 24-hour period may be inadequate and even misleading for many purposes. We propose that in many studies an indicator called 'exclusive breastfeeding since birth' could be added.

  • 6.
    Aasa, Ulrika
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Lundell, Sara
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Barnekow-Bergkvist, Margareta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    Jansson, Eva
    Westerståhl, Maria
    The Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort born in 1958 - dropout analysis and overview at 36-year follow-up2017In: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports, ISSN 0905-7188, E-ISSN 1600-0838, Vol. 27, no 4, 418-429 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main aim of the Swedish physical activity and fitness cohort study (SPAF-1958) was to describe physical fitness, physical activity, health, and lifestyle across part of the lifespan, and to assess the influences on these factors from the environment, personal factors, and genetics. There is inevitable dropout from longitudinal studies, and it may be systematic. The aim of this first paper of the second follow-up of SPAF-1958 was to provide a dropout analysis to consider to what extent the participants, at 52 years of age, remain a representative sample of the original adolescent study population. Additional aims were to provide an overview of the study protocol and the ongoing study population. Ongoing study participants in SPAF born in 1958 were, at the second follow-up at the age of 52, still representative of the study cohort in terms of sex, adolescent geographical area, upper secondary school program, adolescent body composition, muscular strength, and muscular endurance. However, a higher physical activity and, among women, a higher aerobic capacity in adolescence decreased the risk for dropout. It is important when interpreting results from longitudinal studies to adjust for the systematic dropout that could bias the conclusions drawn from the results.

  • 7.
    Aasum Hultberg, Rosanna
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Det är väl på sätt och vis det heteronormativa samhället som har gjort mig till transperson […]”: En enkätstudie med transpersoner2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The overall aim was to study transgender persons’ experiences of, and reactions upon, attitudes and social norms in relation to their gender identity. Another question that was relevant to answer was how transgender persons are affected by the hetero norm. The method used to collect data was through questionnaires published on the internet. The only requirement to participate was to be a transgender over 18 years old, and when the survey closed, 35 respondents had answered it. The questionnaire consisted of both quantitative and qualitative questions. Collected data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and content analysis.

    The results indicate that transgender persons living conditions are largely affected by norms, and that they encounter a considerable amount of negative attitudes due to their gender identity. To "pass" as either man or woman turned out to be something that made it easier for transgender people to evade negative attitudes.

    One hope is that this study can provide knowledge to different instances in the community to open up to be more open to critical thinking around norms.

    The conclusion was that persons with a transgender identity are affected by societal norms and by heteronormativity. It takes a lot of courage to be able to be one self but everything boils down to how strong a person are and the availability of support and role models in the surrounding society. 

  • 8.
    Abbasi, Seyed Hesameddin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iranian Petroleum Health Research Institute, Tehran, Iran .
    De Leon, Antonio Ponce
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden; Universidade do Estado de Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
    Kassaian, Seyed Ebrahim
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Karimi, Abbasali
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Sundin, Örjan
    Department of Psychology, Mid-Sweden University, Östersund, Sweden.
    Jalali, Arash
    Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
    Soares, Joaquim
    Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Macassa, Gloria
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall, Sweden; Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Socioeconomic status and in‑hospital mortality of acute coronary syndrome: can education and occupation serve as preventive measures?2015In: International Journal of Preventive Medicine, ISSN 2008-7802, E-ISSN 2008-8213, Vol. 6, 36Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) can greatly affect the clinical outcome of medical problems. We sought to assess the in-hospital mortality of patients with the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) according to their SES.

    METHODS: All patients admitted to Tehran Heart Center due to 1(st)-time ACS between March 2004 and August 2011 were assessed. The patients who were illiterate/lowly educated (≤5 years attained education) and were unemployed were considered low-SES patients and those who were employed and had high educational levels (>5 years attained education) were regarded as high-SES patients. Demographic, clinical, paraclinical, and in-hospital medical progress data were recorded. Death during the course of hospitalization was considered the end point, and the impact of SES on in-hospital mortality was evaluated.

    RESULTS: A total of 6246 hospitalized patients (3290 low SES and 2956 high SES) were included (mean age = 60.3 ± 12.1 years, male = 2772 [44.4%]). Among them, 79 (1.26%) patients died. Univariable analysis showed a significantly higher mortality rate in the low-SES group (1.9% vs. 0.6%; P < 0.001). After adjustment for possible cofounders, SES still showed a significant effect on the in-hospital mortality of the ACS patients in that the high-SES patients had a lower in-hospital mortality rate (odds ratio: 0.304, 95% confidence interval: 0.094-0.980; P = 0.046).

    CONCLUSIONS: This study found that patients with low SES were at a higher risk of in-hospital mortality due to the ACS. Furthermore, the results suggest the need for increased availability of jobs as well as improved levels of education as preventive measures to curb the unfolding deaths owing to coronary artery syndrome.

  • 9.
    Abbott, Rebecca
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Straker, Leon
    Curtin Health Innovation Research Institute, Curtin University, Perth, Australia.
    Mathiassen, Svend Erik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences. University of Gävle, Centre for Musculoskeletal Research.
    Patterning of children's sedentary time at and away from school2013In: Obesity, ISSN 1930-7381, Vol. 21, E131-E133 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective:

    Sedentary behavior in children is positively associated with an increased risk of both obesity and insulin resistance. Children spend a considerable portion of their awake time in sedentary behavior; however, the pattern of accumulation is not known. Thus the objective of this study was to describe the patterning of sedentary behavior of children at and away from school.

    Design and Methods:

    The patterns of sedentary time in a sample of 53 children (28 girls) aged 10-12 years during school-term time were examined. Children wore an accelerometer for 1 week. Total sedentary time, prolonged sequences (bouts) of sedentary time, and frequency of active interruptions to sedentary were examined on school days and weekends and within school time and non-school time on school days.

    Results:

    The data did not support our hypothesis that children accumulated more sedentary time on school days when compared with weekend days (mean [SD]: 64.4% [5.3] vs. 64.9% [9.0], P = 0.686). However, when comparing school time with non-school time on school days, children accumulated more sedentary time at school (66.8% [7.3] vs. 62.4% [5.2], P < 0.001) and spent more time at school in sustained sedentary sequences, that is, uninterrupted sedentary time for 30 min or more (75.6 min [45.8] vs. 45.0 min [26.8], P < 0.002). The children also recorded less breaks per sedentary hour within school time when compared with non-school time (8.9 h−1 vs. 10.2 h−1, P < 0.001).

    Conclusion:

    Reducing total sedentary time spent both in and out of school remains an important challenge. Interrupting sedentary time more often in the “working” (school) day could also reap important musculoskeletal and metabolic health rewards for children.

  • 10.
    Abdelmoety, Ahmed
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    An investigation into the lived experiences of parents and health professionals involved in the treatment of children with cleft lip and/ or cleft palate in Egypt2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 11.
    Abdi, Parvin Monika
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences.
    Har elever tillräckligt med tid för att äta?: En undersökning på högstadieelevers upplevelser av skolmåltiden2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Meal at school is a part of the school studies and it is important for health, but is also a prerequisite for both learning and enjoyment.  The school meal can provide students an opportunity to recover from their studies but sometimes students perceive the meal situation as stressful. It is important that the food environment at school works well for school children, so they do not have to rush during the meal and they can get the opportunity to eat in peace. The purpose of this study was to investigate how students perceive lunch break at school. If they feel they get enough time to eat and how they feel during the meal situation in the school restaurant. The research approach of this study was qualitative and the method of data collection was focus groups. Data were analyzed as a content analysis. The aim of the study were secondary school students in grade 7 and 9, one class from each grade was selected. The study was conducted at a secondary school in a municipality in Sweden with approximately 210 000 inhabitants. The results of the study show that students at secondary school feel they have enough time to eat lunch, but the lunch break is too short. The meal environment in the school restaurant is perceived as very messy and stressful. The meal situation was experienced as more stressful at grade 7 students than 9th grade students.  The conclusion was that students need longer lunch break and meal environment is perceived as stressful.

  • 12.
    Abdulla, Hana
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    FYSISK INAKTIVITET OCH STILLASITTANDE BLAND BARN OCH UNGA I GRUNDSKOLAN2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children and youth inactivity and sedentary at school is increasing. This means that some of the students have a significant unhealthy lifestyle with physical inactivity, which in turn implies risks of suffering from various diseases, including obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, all related to a sedentary lifestyle. To prevent illness, it is important that children and young people early get a positive attitude towards physical activity.

    The purpose of this study was to study the causes of child and adolescent physical inactivity in school, based on teachers 'and parents' perspectives.

    A qualitative research has been selected. To achieve the study objectives, the author has conducted seven semi-structured interviews, with an appropriate choice of five teachers and two parents with children in school. Data was analyzed with a manifest content analysis.

    The results show that teachers and parents felt that physical activity is a protective factor for children's health. There are several reasons for physical inactivity in students today, blah new technologies, various transportation facilities and family finances. Some measures that can reduce the physical inactivity, for example be to increase sports lesson 'time and by starting with children and young people's interest to make them feel joy in moving, which increases the interest in physical activity.

    The conclusion of this work is that children's movement is important for their health. Children and youth in elementary school in need of physical activity so that they feel good. Both schools and parents have a responsibility to promote children's physical activity so that they can preserve their health, before improving their learning ability, have more energy and to manage the school in a good way.

  • 13.
    Abdulla, Salim
    et al.
    Ifakara Hlth Inst, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Ashley, Elizabeth A.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;Mahidol Univ, Mahidol Oxford Trop Med Res Unit MORU, Fac Trop Med, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Bassat, Quique
    Univ Barcelona, Ctr Invest Saude Manhica Manhica Mozamb & ISGloba, Barcelona Ctr Int Hlth Res CRESIB, Hosp Clin, Barcelona, Spain..
    Bethell, Delia
    AFRIMS, Dept Immunol & Med, Bangkok, Thailand..
    Bjorkman, Anders
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Tumour & Cell Biol, Malaria Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Borrmann, Steffen
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya.;Univ Magdeburg, Sch Med, D-39106 Magdeburg, Germany..
    D'Alessandro, Umberto
    Inst Trop Med, Unit Malariol, B-2000 Antwerp, Belgium.;MRC Unit, Fajara, Gambia..
    Dahal, Prabin
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network WWARN, Oxford, England..
    Day, Nicholas P.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;Mahidol Univ, Mahidol Oxford Trop Med Res Unit MORU, Fac Trop Med, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Diakite, Mahamadou
    Univ Bamako, Malaria Res & Training Ctr, Bamako, Mali..
    Djimde, Abdoulaye A.
    Dondorp, Arjen M.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;Mahidol Univ, Mahidol Oxford Trop Med Res Unit MORU, Fac Trop Med, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Duong, Socheat
    Ctr Parasitol Entomol & Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Edstein, Michael D.
    Fairhurst, Rick M.
    NIAID, Lab Malaria & Vector Res, NIH, Rockville, MD USA..
    Faiz, M. Abul
    Malaria Res Grp MRG & Dev Care Fdn, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Falade, Catherine
    Univ Ibadan, Coll Med, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Flegg, Jennifer A.
    Monash Univ, Sch Math Sci, Clayton, Vic 3800, Australia..
    Fogg, Carole
    Univ Portsmouth, Portsmouth, Hants, England..
    Gonzalez, Raquel
    Ctr Invest Saude Manhica Manhica Mozamb, Barcelona, Spain.;CRESIB, Barcelona, Spain..
    Greenwood, Brian
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, Fac Infect & Trop Dis, London WC1, England..
    Guerin, Philippe J.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network WWARN, Oxford, England..
    Guthmann, Jean-Paul
    Epicentre, Paris, France..
    Hamed, Kamal
    Novartis Pharmaceut, E Hanover, NJ USA..
    Hien, Tran Tinh
    Htut, Ye
    Dept Med Res, Lower Myanmar, Yangon, Myanmar..
    Juma, Elizabeth
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Lim, Pharath
    NIAID, Lab Malaria & Vector Res, NIH, Rockville, MD USA.;US & Natl Ctr Parasitol Entomol & Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Mårtensson, Andreas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD). Karolinska Inst, Dept Microbiol Cell & Tumour Biol, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Malaria Res, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Mayxay, Mayfong
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;Mahosot Hosp, Lao Oxford Mahosot Hosp, Wellcome Trust Res Unit LOMWRU, Viangchan, Laos.;Univ Hlth Sci, Fac Postgrad Studies, Viangchan, Laos..
    Mokuolu, Olugbenga A.
    Univ Ilorin, Dept Paediat & Child Hlth, Ilorin, Nigeria..
    Moreira, Clarissa
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network WWARN, Oxford, England..
    Newton, Paul
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;Mahosot Hosp, Lao Oxford Mahosot Hosp, Wellcome Trust Res Unit LOMWRU, Viangchan, Laos..
    Noedl, Harald
    Med Univ Vienna, Inst Specif Prophylaxis & Trop Med, Vienna, Austria..
    Nosten, Francois
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;Mahidol Univ, Shoklo Malaria Res Unit, Mahidol Oxford Trop Med Res Unit, Fac Trop Med, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Ogutu, Bernhards R.
    Kenya Govt Med Res Ctr, US Army Med Res Unit, Kisumu, Kenya..
    Onyamboko, Marie A.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;Kinshasa Sch Publ Hlth, Kinshasa, DEM REP CONGO..
    Owusu-Agyei, Seth
    Kintampo Hlth Res Ctr, Kintampo, Ghana..
    Phyo, Aung Pyae
    Mahidol Univ, Shoklo Malaria Res Unit, Mahidol Oxford Trop Med Res Unit, Fac Trop Med, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Premji, Zul
    Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Price, Ric N.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network WWARN, Oxford, England.;Menzies Sch Hlth Res, Global & Trop Hlth Div, Darwin, NT, Australia.;Charles Darwin Univ, Darwin, NT 0909, Australia..
    Pukrittayakamee, Sasithon
    Mahidol Univ, Fac Trop Med, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Ramharter, Michael
    Med Univ Vienna, Div Infect Dis & Trop Med, Dept Med 1, Vienna, Austria.;Univ Tubingen, Inst Tropenmed, Tubingen, Germany.;Ctr Rech Med Lambarene, Lambarene, Gabon..
    Sagara, Issaka
    Univ Bamako, Fac Med Pharm & Odontostomatol, Dept Epidemiol Parasit Dis, Malaria Res & Training Ctr, Bamako, Mali..
    Se, Youry
    AFRIMS, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Suon, Seila
    Natl Ctr Parasitol Entomol & Malaria Control, Phnom Penh, Cambodia..
    Stepniewska, Kasia
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;WorldWide Antimalarial Resistance Network WWARN, Oxford, England..
    Ward, Stephen A.
    Univ Liverpool, Liverpool Sch Trop Med, Dept Parasitol, Liverpool L3 5QA, Merseyside, England..
    White, Nicholas J.
    Univ Oxford, Nuffield Dept Clin Med, Ctr Trop Med & Global Hlth, Oxford, England.;Mahidol Univ, Mahidol Oxford Trop Med Res Unit MORU, Fac Trop Med, Bangkok 10700, Thailand..
    Winstanley, Peter A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry CV4 7AL, W Midlands, England..
    Baseline data of parasite clearance in patients with falciparum malaria treated with an artemisinin derivative: an individual patient data meta-analysis2015In: Malaria Journal, ISSN 1475-2875, E-ISSN 1475-2875, Vol. 14, 359Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Artemisinin resistance in Plasmodium falciparum manifests as slow parasite clearance but this measure is also influenced by host immunity, initial parasite biomass and partner drug efficacy. This study collated data from clinical trials of artemisinin derivatives in falciparum malaria with frequent parasite counts to provide reference parasite clearance estimates stratified by location, treatment and time, to examine host factors affecting parasite clearance, and to assess the relationships between parasite clearance and risk of recrudescence during follow-up. Methods: Data from 24 studies, conducted from 1996 to 2013, with frequent parasite counts were pooled. Parasite clearance half-life (PC1/2) was estimated using the WWARN Parasite Clearance Estimator. Random effects regression models accounting for study and site heterogeneity were used to explore factors affecting PC1/2 and risk of recrudescence within areas with reported delayed parasite clearance (western Cambodia, western Thailand after 2000, southern Vietnam, southern Myanmar) and in all other areas where parasite populations are artemisinin sensitive. Results: PC1/2 was estimated in 6975 patients, 3288 of whom also had treatment outcomes evaluate d during 28-63 days follow-up, with 93 (2.8 %) PCR-confirmed recrudescences. In areas with artemisinin-sensitive parasites, the median PC1/2 following three-day artesunate treatment (4 mg/kg/day) ranged from 1.8 to 3.0 h and the proportion of patients with PC1/2 > 5 h from 0 to 10 %. Artesunate doses of 4 mg/kg/day decreased PC1/2 by 8.1 % (95 % CI 3.2-12.6) compared to 2 mg/kg/day, except in populations with delayed parasite clearance. PC1/2 was longer in children and in patients with fever or anaemia at enrolment. Long PC1/2 (HR = 2.91, 95 % CI 1.95-4.34 for twofold increase, p < 0.001) and high initial parasitaemia (HR = 2.23, 95 % CI 1.44-3.45 for tenfold increase, p < 0.001) were associated independently with an increased risk of recrudescence. In western Cambodia, the region with the highest prevalence of artemisinin resistance, there was no evidence for increasing PC1/2 since 2007. Conclusions: Several factors affect PC1/2. As substantial heterogeneity in parasite clearance exists between locations, early detection of artemisinin resistance requires reference PC1/2 data. Studies with frequent parasite count measurements to characterize PC1/2 should be encouraged. In western Cambodia, where PC1/2 values are longest, there is no evidence for recent emergence of higher levels of artemisinin resistance.

  • 14.
    Abeid, Muzdalifat
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Muganyizi, Projestine
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania .
    Massawe, Siriel
    Department of Obstetrics/Gynecology, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Mpembeni, Rose
    Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Muhimbili University of Health and Allied Sciences (MUHAS), Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.
    Darj, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH). Department of Public Health and General Practice, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway .
    Knowledge and attitude towards rape and child sexual abuse - a community-based cross-sectional study in Rural Tanzania2015In: BMC Public Health, ISSN 1471-2458, Vol. 15, no 1, 428Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Violence against women and children is globally recognized as a social and human rights concern. In Tanzania, sexual violence towards women and children is a public health problem. The aim of this study was to determine community knowledge of and attitudes towards rape and child sexual abuse, and assess associations between knowledge and attitudes and socio-demographic characteristics.

    METHODS: A cross-sectional study was undertaken between May and June 2012. The study was conducted in the Kilombero and Ulanga rural districts in the Morogoro Region of Tanzania. Men and women aged 18-49 years were eligible for the study. Through a three-stage cluster sampling strategy, a household survey was conducted using a structured questionnaire. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics, attitudes about gender roles and violence, and knowledge on health consequences of rape. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 21. Main outcome measures were knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual violence. Multivariate analyses were used to assess associations between socio-demographic characteristics and knowledge of and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    RESULTS: A total of 1,568 participants were interviewed. The majority (58.4%) of participants were women. Most (58.3%) of the women respondents had poor knowledge on sexual violence and 63.8% had accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. Those who were married were significantly more likely to have good knowledge on sexual violence compared to the divorced/separated group (AOR = 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1-2.2)) but less likely to have non-accepting attitudes towards sexual violence compared to the single group (AOR = 1.8 (95%CI: 1.4-2.3)). Sex of respondents, age, marital status and level of education were associated with knowledge and attitudes towards sexual violence.

    CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that these rural communities have poor knowledge on sexual violence and have accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. Increasing age and higher education were associated with better knowledge and less accepting attitudes towards sexual violence. The findings have potentially important implications for interventions aimed at preventing violence. The results highlight the challenges associated with changing attitudes towards sexual violence, particularly as the highest levels of support for such violence were found among women.

  • 15.
    Aboka, Deliana
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Prescribing practices of oral anticoagulants in atrial fibrillation stroke prophylaxis: An online survey among practitioners from Sweden and the United Kingdom2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 16.
    Abong'o, Deborah
    et al.
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Wandiga, Shem
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Jumba, Isaac
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Madadi, Vincent
    University of Nairobi, Kenya.
    Kylin, Henrik
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of pesticides on human health and environment in the River Nyando catchment, Kenya2014In: International Journal of Humanities, Arts, Medicine and Sciences, ISSN 2348-0521, Vol. 2, no 3, 1-14 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The population of the River Nyando catchment largely relies on rain fed agriculture for their subsistence.

    Important crops grown include cereals, cash crops fruits and vegetables. Farming is one of the contributors of pollution to Lake Victoria. Organophosphates and other banned organochlorine pesticides such as lindane, aldrin and dieldrin were used by farmers. The pesticides transport was by storm water run-off and air drift into the lake. Environmental risk assessment background information was collected through questionnaire and interviews of farmers to determine knowledge and safe use of pesticides. Fourteen pesticides were identified as commonly used of which four are toxic to bees and five to birds. The farmers identified declines in the number of pollinating insects, the disappearance of Red-billed Oxpecker (Buphagus erythrorthynchus) and wild bird’s fatalities. The general knowledge among farmers about chemicals risks, safety, and chronic illnesses was low. Activities that increases environmental awareness and safety of pesticides should be initiated by the agrochemical firms and government.

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Addressing smoking during pregnancy: the challenge to start from the woman's view2004Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Betydelsen av alkohol och drogsamordnare på Länsstyrelsen i Blekinge län: en utvärdering2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Rapporten utgår ifrån länssamordnarens egen beskrivning av funktionen och speglar den sedan i andra intressenters/informanters uppfattningar av hennes funktion. De uppfattar att arbetet som länssamordnare har fungerat mycket bra. Däremot har hon inte lyckats med att bygga upp en länsövergripande struktur för folkhälsoarbetet på beslutsfattande nivå. Något som är nödvändigt för att på lång sikt åstadkomma ett effektivt arbete. Rapporten avslutas med två förslag till framtida organisation av arbetet i länet och hur utvecklingen av policy och handlingsprogram kan gå till.

  • 19.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Agevall, Lena
    Växjö universitet.
    Välfärdssektorns projektifiering: kortsiktiga lösning av långsiktiga problem2009In: Kommunal ekonomi och politik, ISSN 1402-8700, Vol. 13, no 4, 35-60 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this article we use two immigrant projects to identify similarities and consequences in order to discuss and analyse outwarding collaborative projects in human service organizations as a tool for change. The heavy use of projects in a slimmed public sector originates from projects’ contradictory promises of flexibility and effectiveness in the New Public Management context. Usually projects are used as a way to get more resources to long-term needs but are seldom implemented as planned in the regular organisation. Seemingly politicians, management and civil servants preferred are focusing on the positive side of projects as means to legitimate the organizations and to bring change by targeting and steering activities. However, they tend to overlook the negative consequences from projects. Citizens and participants experience frustration and distrust. The long-term development in organizations is scarce. Projects are seldom implemented meanwhile as the problems the projects were expected to target still are remaining or even are increasing.

  • 20.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Andersson, Joyce
    Springett, Jane
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Building bridges or negotiating tensions?: experiences from a project aimed at enabling migrant access to health and social care in Sweden2009In: Diversity in Health and Care, ISSN 1759-1422, Vol. 6, no 2, 85-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A current challenge for many European countries is to enable forced migrants to access health and social care that meets their needs. One solution is to use paraprofessionals - that is, trained individuals who are not professionals - to act as bridge-builders between minority communities and the health and social care sectors. This paper explores the development of a quality improvement project in Sweden. The project aimed to recruit and train forced migrants who had lived in Sweden for more than five years to act as bridge-builders. The aim was to use their unique experiences and knowledge in two ways - to work with service staff in developing new ways of working, and to become culturally competent paraprofessionals working with their own communities. This paper focuses on how an understanding of the role evolved as the participants reflected on their experiences and undertook an inquiry process culminating in the development of three possible models of what the task of a bridge-builder should be in developing culturally appropriate health and social services that are responsive to the needs of forced migrants. The conclusion reflects on what was learned and how the experiences from this project may be useful for others who are struggling with the same kind of problem in Sweden and in other countries.

  • 21.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Bing, Vibeke
    Löfström, Mikael
    Högskolan Borås.
    Familjecentraler i Västra Götaland: en utvärdering2009Report (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    Smoking patterns during pregnancy: differences in socio-economic and health-related varaiables2000In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 10, no 3, 208-213 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The objective of this study was to assess different smoking patterns during and after pregnancy and relate these patterns to socioeconomic conditions and different health issues such as symptoms, drug consumption and health care use. Methods: The study group included 337 pregnant women from a district in south Sweden. A questionnaire was filled in during the first part of pregnancy and an interview was conducted after the baby was born. The women were categorised according to their smoking habits. Results: The categories defined were continuers, relapsers, decreasers, quitters and non-smokers. Among relapsers three symptoms, difficulty in relaxing (OR 4.48), restlessness (OR 9.59) and dysphoria (OR 3.98), were more common than among non-smokers. All three musculoskeletal symptoms were most common among continuers. Among quitters the OR for backache was 2.05, for numbness In the arms and legs 2.76 and for tearfulness 2.92. Educational level was relatively high among quitters and few had a smoking partner. Among smokers (decreasers, relapsers and continuers) 24% used drugs regularly, compared to 5% among non-smokers. Conclusions: To prevent smoking during pregnancy awareness of the relations between different smoking categories and symptoms could make it easier for hearth personnel to individualise support. A possible starting point is to discuss how to cope with different symptoms occurring during smoking cessation. Women with predictors for continued smoking during pregnancy, such as low education, unemployment, a smoking partner and multiparous, should be focused on more intensively and preventive strategies suitable for their special needs should be developed.

  • 23.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Göran
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Hälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Människa - Hälsa - Samhälle (MHS).
    A salutogenic perspective could be of practical relevance for the prevention of smoking amongst pregnant women2002In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 18, no 4, 323-331 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: to use empirical data to assess the theoretical relevance of using a salutogenic, instead of a pathogenic, perspective to prevent smoking during pregnancy. DESIGN: quantitative study, a questionnaire was completed during the first trimester of pregnancy and an interview was conducted after the baby was born. SETTING: a geographically defined area in the south-east of Sweden. PARTICIPANTS: all 395 women in the study area who were pregnant during the study period 1994-1995. FINDINGS: the women were categorised according to their smoking habits. A significant difference in the sense of coherence (SOC) score was shown between smoking and non-smoking women in indicators of bad health. Women who relapsed to smoking showed a lower level of SOC, particularly in the manageability component, than others. The SOC score was higher in the whole study group than in other comparable, non-pregnant populations. KEY CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: a salutogenic perspective could be used in antenatal care as a basis for encouraging pregnant women to stop smoking. This could enhance the SOC by making smoking more understandable for the woman, by discussing smoking as a way of coping, and by encouraging the woman's own capacity and motivation to stop smoking. Starting a dialogue about smoking from the woman's point of view could do this, with the midwife and the woman exploring together the woman's thoughts about the smoking problem.

  • 24.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karjalainen, Jennie
    Knutsson, Christina
    Humana basala strategier: flyktingkvinnors hälsa och resurser i utvecklingen av närsjukvård2005Report (Other academic)
  • 25.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Gerdner, Arne
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Work. School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University, Jönköping, Sweden .
    Sense of coherence of reindeer herders and other Samis in comparison to other Swedish citizens2013In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, Vol. 72, no 1, Art. no. 20633- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Samis are indigenous people in north Europe. In the territory called Sapmi (Lapland), reindeer herding is the traditional base for the Sami economy. The relation between living conditions and positive health of the Swedish Samis has been sparsely studied. As health is closely linked to sense of coherence (SOC), an understanding of the background factors to SOC may contribute knowledge that might be useful in promoting living conditions and health. Methods. The study examines relations between the level of SOC and background factors from surveys in a Sami population (n = 613) in comparison to a non-Sami population (n = 525) in Sweden, and in comparison between 2 subsamples of Samis, that is, herders and non-herders. Results. There are more similarities than differences between the Sami and non-Sami populations. However, dividing the Sami population, reindeer herders had significantly lower SOC, and in specific the subcomponent manageability, that is, less ability to use available resources to meet different demands in life, compared to non-herders. Conclusions. In addition to age and health, predictors of SOC are related to the life form of reindeer husbandry and the belonging to the herding community.

  • 26.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap.
    Lindmark, Ulrika
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Gerdner, Arne
    School of Health Sciences, Jönköping University.
    Sense of coherence of reindeer herders and other Samis in comparison to other Swedish citizens2013In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 72, 20633- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Samis are indigenous people in north Europe. In the territory called Sápmi (Lapland), reindeer herding is the traditional base for the Sami economy. The relation between living conditions and positive health of the Swedish Samis has been sparsely studied. As health is closely linked to sense of coherence (SOC), an understanding of the background factors to SOC may contribute knowledge that might be useful in promoting living conditions and health.

    METHODS: The study examines relations between the level of SOC and background factors from surveys in a Sami population (n=613) in comparison to a non-Sami population (n=525) in Sweden, and in comparison between 2 subsamples of Samis, that is, herders and non-herders.

    RESULTS: There are more similarities than differences between the Sami and non-Sami populations. However, dividing the Sami population, reindeer herders had significantly lower SOC, and in specific the subcomponent manageability, that is, less ability to use available resources to meet different demands in life, compared to non-herders.

    CONCLUSIONS: In addition to age and health, predictors of SOC are related to the life form of reindeer husbandry and the belonging to the herding community.

  • 27.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Springett, Jane
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Dynamic between partners and pregnant women in relation to smoking cessation2008In: Research focus on smoking and women's health / [ed] Tolson, K.P. and Veksler E.B., New York: Nova Science Publishers , 2008, 303-314 p.Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 28.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Springett, Jane
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Håkansson, Anders
    Department of Community Medicine, Lund University.
    Ottosson, Torgny
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Some lessons from Swedish midwives' experiences of approaching women smokers in antenatal care2005In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 21, no 4, 335-345 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: to describe the qualitatively different ways in which midwives make sense of how to approach women smokers. DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: a more person-centred national project 'Smoke-free pregnancy' has been in progress in Sweden since 1992. Using a phenomenographic approach, 24 midwives who have been regularly working in antenatal care were interviewed about addressing smoking during pregnancy. FINDINGS: four different story types of how the midwives made sense of their experiences in addressing smoking in pregnancy were identified: 'avoiding', 'informing', 'friend-making', 'co-operating'. KEY CONCLUSION: the midwives' story types about how they approached women who smoke illustrated the difficulties of changing from being an expert who gives information and advice to being an expert on how to enable a woman in finding out why she smoked and how to stop smoking. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: health education about smoking that is built on co-operation and dialogue was seen by the midwives as a productive way of working. The starting point should be the lay perspective of a woman, which means that her thoughts about smoking cessation are given the space to grow while she talks.

  • 29.
    Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Samhällsvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Forskningsmiljön Arbete i skolan (AiS).
    Springett, Jane
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Karlsson, Leif
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ottosson, Torgny
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Pedagogik. Kristianstad University, Research environment Learning in Science and Mathematics (LISMA).
    Making sense of the challenge of smoking cessation during pregnancy: a phenomenographic approach.2005In: Health Education Research, ISSN 0268-1153, E-ISSN 1465-3648, Vol. 20, no 3, 367-378 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In general, most women are familiar with the need to stop smoking when they are pregnant. In spite of this, many women find it difficult to stop. Using a phenomenographic approach, this study explored Swedish pregnant and post-pregnant women's ways of making sense of smoking during pregnancy. A total of 17 women who either smoked throughout pregnancy or stopped smoking during pregnancy were interviewed. Five different story types of how they are making sense of smoking during pregnancy were identified: smoking can be justified; will stop later; my smoking might hurt the baby; smoking is just given up; smoking must be taken charge of. Based on the study it is argued that the approach used in health education in relation to smoking cessation in antenatal care needs to move from information transfer and advice-giving to the creation of a dialogue. The starting point should be the woman's knowledge, concerns, rationalizations and prejudices. A model is suggested in which a woman may move in a space on three axes depending on life encounters, dialogue and reflections on meaning. The goal in health education would be to encourage movement along three axes: 'increase of self-efficacy towards control', 'increase awareness by reflection on meaning of the smoking issue' and 'avoidance of defense of the smoking behavior'.

  • 30. Abrahamsson, Agneta
    et al.
    Vibeke, Bing
    Löfström, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Business and IT.
    Familjecentraler i Västra Götaland2009Report (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Abrahamsson, Elinor
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Backlund, Carola
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Vilka framgångsfaktorer är förknippade med en ökning av den fysiska aktiviteten hos tonåringar?: En litteraturöversikt2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 32.
    Abrahamsson, Klara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Perceived neighbourhood insecurity and psychosomatic health complaints among adolescents in Stockholm: Exploring district-level and gendered inequalities2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The neighbourhood is an essential arena for adolescents’ health development and research suggests that perceived neighbourhood insecurity (PNI) is associated with socio-economic status and self-rated health. The present study explored the distribution of adolescents’ PNI and its association with psychosomatic health complaints across districts. It also examined gender differences and whether family socio-economic position, foreign background and previous exposure to crime could explain part of the association. Data came from classroom-surveys within Stockholm municipality’s 14 districts in 2010, 2012 and 2014 (n=10,291). Linear and logistic multilevel regression models were applied. Results showed that the average level of PNI varied considerably between districts and were strongly connected to its socio-demographic composition. However, individual characteristics in terms of family background and previous exposure to crime only explained a minor part of the variation in PNI across districts. Girls reported more insecurity than boys in all districts. Gender differences in PNI decreased in absolute numbers, but increased in relative numbers, as the overall ‘neighbourhood safety’ increased. Between-district differences in health were minor, but PNI was still a strong predictor of individual-level health, especially for boys. Furthermore, the predictive power of PNI on health was stronger in districts perceived as safer.

  • 33.
    Aceijas, Carmen
    et al.
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; School of Health Sciences, University of Salford, Salford, Greater Manchester, UK..
    Brall, Caroline
    Department of International Health, School CAPHRI, Maastricht University, The Netherlands.
    Schröder-Bäck, Peter
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium.
    Otok, Robert
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium.
    Maeckelberghe, Els
    Institute for Medical Education, University Medical Center Groningen, The Netherlands.
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Strech, Daniel
    School of Health Science, Blekinge Institute of Technology.
    Tulchinsky, Theodore H
    Association of Schools of Public Health in the European Region (ASPHER), Brussels, Belgium; Braun School of Public Health, Hebrew University-Hadassah, Ein Karem, Jerusalem, Israel.
    Teaching Ethics in Schools of Public Health in the European Region: Findings from a Screening Survey2012In: Public Health Reviews, ISSN 0301-0422, E-ISSN 2107-6952, Vol. 34, no 1, 1-10 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey targeting ASPHER members was launched in 2010/11, being a first initiative in improving ethics education in European Schools of Public Health. An 8-items questionnaire collected information on teaching of ethics in public health. A 52% response rate (43/82) revealed that almost all of the schools (95% out of 40 respondents with valid data) included the teaching of ethics in at least one of its programmes. They also expressed the need of support, (e.g.: a model curriculum (n=25), case studies (n=24)), which indicates further work to be met by the ASPHER Working Group on Ethics and Values in Public Health.

  • 34. Aceijas, Carmen
    et al.
    Brall, Caroline
    Schröder-Bäck, Peter
    Otok, Robert
    Maeckelberghe, Els
    Stjernberg, Louise
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Strech, Daniel
    Tulchinsky, Theodore H
    Teaching Ethics in Schools of Public Health in the European Region: Findings from a Screening Survey2012In: Public Health Reviews, ISSN 0301-0422, E-ISSN 2107-6952, Vol. 34, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A survey targeting ASPHER members was launched in 2010/11, being a first initiative in improving ethics education in European Schools of Public Health. An 8-items questionnaire collected information on teaching of ethics in public health. A 52% response rate (43/82) revealed that almost all of the schools (95% out of 40 respondents with valid data) included the teaching of ethics in at least one of its programmes. They also expressed the need of support, (e.g.: a model curriculum (n=25), case studies (n=24)), which indicates further work to be met by the ASPHER Working Group on Ethics and Values in Public Health.

  • 35.
    Acevski, Robert
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Tidebrant, Niklas
    Halmstad University, School of Social and Health Sciences (HOS).
    Familjefaktorer som påverkar barns och ungdomars frukt och grönsaksintag.2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Introduktion: Frukt och grönsaksintaget har minskat i både rika och fattiga länder. Konsekvenserna av ett för lågt intag kan vara övervikt och fetma som i sin tur kan leda till hjärt- och kärl sjukdomar, cancer och diabetes typ 2. Det har visat sig att det finns flera olika faktorer i hemmet som gör att det har blivit ett minskat intag. I tidigare forskning finns det tydliga samband mellan familjen och ett minskat intag av frukt och grönsaker hos barn och ungdomar. Syfte: Syftet med studien var att undersöka vilka faktorer i familjen som påverkar barn och ungdomars intag av frukt och grönsaker. Metod: Metoden som användes var en litteraturstudie och de databaser som användes vid databassökning var Ebsco och Pubmed. Resultat: De tre faktorer som hade störst betydelse för frukt och grönsaksintaget var: Socioekonomisk status, Matkultur och Föräldrars som förebilder. En låg socioekonomisk status visade på ett mindre intag av frukt och grönsaker. I familjer med låg socioekonomisk var tillgängligheten och kunskapen om frukt och grönt lägre hos familjerna. Tidigare gjorda interventioner visar att det finns metoder för att öka intaget hos barn och ungdomar. Implikationer: Genom att höja kunskapen om betydelsen av frukt och grönsaker går det att förbygga problem med framtida hälsa.

  • 36. Adam-Poupart, Ariane
    et al.
    Labreche, France
    Smargiassi, Audrey
    Duguay, Patrice
    Busque, Marc-Antoine
    Gagne, Charles
    Rintamaki, Hannu
    Kjellström, Tord
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Zayed, Joseph
    Climate Change and Occupational Health and Safety in a Temperate Climate: Potential Impacts and Research Priorities in Quebec, Canada2013In: Industrial Health, ISSN 0019-8366, Vol. 51, no 1, 68-78 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The potential impacts of climate change (CC) on Occupational Health and Safety (OHS) have been studied a little in tropical countries, while they received no attention in northern industrialized countries with a temperate climate. This work aimed to establish an overview of the potential links between CC and OHS in those countries and to determine research priorities for Quebec, Canada. A narrative review of the scientific literature (2005-2010) was presented to a working group of international and national experts and stakeholders during a workshop held in 2010. The working group was invited to identify knowledge gaps, and a modified Delphi method helped prioritize research avenues. This process highlighted five categories of hazards that are likely to impact OHS in northern industrialized countries: heat waves/increased temperatures, air pollutants, UV radiation, extreme weather events, vector-borne/zoonotic diseases. These hazards will affect working activities related to natural resources (i.e. agriculture, fishing and forestry) and may influence the socioeconomic context (built environment and green industries), thus indirectly modifying OHS. From this consensus approach, three categories of research were identified: 1) Knowledge acquisition on hazards, target populations and methods of adaptation; 2) Surveillance of diseases/accidents/occupational hazards; and 3) Development of new occupational adaptation strategies.

  • 37.
    Adamsson Jensen, Sabina
    et al.
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Johnsson, Josefin
    Kristianstad University College, School of Health and Society.
    Upplevelse av stress och lärande relaterat till KASAM och fysisk aktivitet: en enkätstudie till gymnasieelever2009Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Public health is important to many areas of society. It is important to have different goals to focus the work with health promotion in different sectors, one such area is the school. In the society of today there are a lot of public health issues like stress, overweight and physical inactivity. To experience well-being physical activity, sense of coherence (SOC) and the individual experience of stress have important functions. School is an important part of the student’s learning, development and socialisation. The aims of the study were numerous: how many of the upper secondary school students are physically active and if physical activity reduces the experience of stress. Other questions of the study were: if the experience of teaching about stress and physical activity relate to students SOC, physical activity and the experience of stress, and also illuminate the relation between SOC, physical activity and stress. A quantitative questionnaire study was performed among 187 students at three  upper secondary schools in the south of Sweden. The questionnaire was classified into four different categories; stress, physical activity, pedagogy and SOC. The result showed that the students´ SOC related to the students’ experience of stress and prevalence of different symptoms. The students’ physical activity did not relate to the students SOC and experience of stress. The physical activity education showed a trend to relate to increased physical activity and prevalence of stress education was related to increased stress. The socio-cultural perspective imprinted the study that shows that learning takes place not only in school, but also in other social contexts. The school should open up for physical activity and create a bigger interest in good health and SOC and thereby create opportunities for the  future life of the students.

  • 38.
    Adamsson, Viola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    A Healthy Nordic Diet and Cardiometabolic Risk Factors: Intervention Studies with Special Emphasis on Plasma Lipoproteins2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A healthy diet is important in the prevention of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Several risk factors, modifiable by diet, are involved in the development of CVD, e.g. hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, obesity and hypertension. Little data however exist on diets composed of foods originating from the Nordic countries, and their potential to reduce CVD risk.

    This thesis aimed to investigate whether an ad libitum healthy Nordic diet (ND), either provided as a whole diet, or as a prudent breakfast (PB) alone, could influence CVD risk factors in healthy, mildly hypercholesterolemic men and women. Another aim was to describe the nutrient and food composition of the ND, both by using self-reported data and serum biomarkers of dietary fat quality.

    The primary clinical outcome measure was LDL-cholesterol, and other cardiometabolic risk factors were secondary outcomes.

    Two parallel, randomised, controlled intervention studies were conducted in free-living subjects. Clinical and dietary assessments were performed at baseline and at the end of dietary interventions. All foods were provided to subjects randomised to ND, whereas only breakfast items were supplied to subjects randomised to PB. Control groups followed their habitual diet/breakfast.

    Compared with controls, ND reduced body weight and improved several CVD risk factors including LDL-cholesterol, insulin sensitivity and blood pressure. Several, but not all effects were probably partly mediated by diet-induced weight loss. ND accorded with Nordic nutrition recommendations and was defined as “a plant-based diet, where animal products are used sparingly as side dishes”. Compared with average Swedish diet, ND was high in dietary fibre, but low in sodium, meat, high-fat dairy products, sweets and alcohol. A decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA during ND was partly reflected in serum lipids. Eating a PB without other dietary changes did not improve lipid or glucose metabolism, but decreased markers of visceral fat and inflammation, without influencing body weight.

    This thesis suggests that a whole ND, but not PB alone, promotes weight loss and improves multiple CVD risk factors in healthy subjects after 6 weeks. These results suggest that ND could have a potential role in the prevention of cardiometabolic diseases.

  • 39.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Cederholm, Tommy
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Vessby, Bengt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Influence of a healthy Nordic diet on serum fatty acid composition and associations with blood lipoproteins: results from the NORDIET study2014In: Food & Nutrition Research, ISSN 1654-6628, E-ISSN 1654-661X, Vol. 58, 24114- p.Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: The fatty acid (FA) composition of serum lipids is related to the quality of dietary fat. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a healthy Nordic diet (ND) on the FA composition of serum cholesterol esters (CE-FA) and assess the associations between changes in the serum CE-FA composition and blood lipoproteins during a controlled dietary intervention.

    Methods: The NORDIET trial was a six-week randomised, controlled, parallel-group dietary intervention study that included 86 adults (53±8 years) with elevated low-density lipoprotein cholesterol LDL-C. Serum CE-FA composition was measured using gas chromatography. Diet history interviews were conducted, and daily intake was assessed using checklists.

    Results: Food and nutrient intake data indicated that there was a reduction in the fat intake from dairy and meat products and an increase in the consumption of fatty fish with the ND, decreasing the levels of saturated fatty acids (SFA) in the diet, slightly decreasing the levels of monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and moderately increasing the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). Concomitantly, the levels of CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0, but not 16:0, decreased during the ND, and these changes differed from those observed in the control diet group (p<0.01). In contrast, serum 22:6n-3 increased during the ND compared with the control diet (p<0.01). The changes in CE-SFA 14:0, 15:0 and 18:0 during the intervention correlated positively with those in LDL-C, HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, ApoA1 and ApoB (p<0.01), whereas the changes in CE-PUFA 22:6n-3 were negatively correlated with changes in the corresponding serum lipids.

    Conclusions: The decreased intake of saturated fat and increased intake of n-3 PUFA in a healthy Nordic diet are partly reflected by changes in the serum CE-FA composition, which are associated with an improved serum lipoprotein pattern.

  • 40.
    Adamsson, Viola
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Reumark, Anna
    Lantmännen.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Biochemial structure and function.
    Riserus, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism.
    Role of a prudent breakfast in improving cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with hypercholesterolemia: a randomized controlled trialArticle in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background & Aims: It is unclear whether advising a prudent breakfast alone is sufficient to improve blood lipids and cardiometabolic risk factors in overweight hypercholesterolemic subjects.

    Methods: The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a prudent low-fat breakfast (PB) rich in dietary fiber lowers low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and other cardiometabolic risk factors in subjects with elevated LDL-cholesterol levels. In a parallel, controlled, 12-week study, 79 healthy overweight subjects (all regular breakfast eaters) were randomly allocated to a group that received a PB based on Nordic foods provided ad libitum or a control group that consumed their usual breakfast. The PB was in accordance with national and Nordic nutrition recommendations and included oat bran porridge with low-fat milk or yogurt, bilberry or lingonberry jam, whole grain bread, low-fat spread, poultry or fatty fish, and fruit.

    Results: No differences were found in LDL-C, blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism, but SAD, plasma CRP, and TNF-R2 were lower during PB compared with controls (p<0.05). In the overall diet, PB increased dietary fiber and b-glucan compared with controls (p<0.05).

    Conclusions: Advising a prudent breakfast for 3 months did not influence blood lipids, body weight, or glucose metabolism but reduced markers of visceral fat and inflammation.

     

  • 41.
    Adane, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Effectiveness of PMTCT programs in Sub-Saharan Africa, a meta-analysis2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 42.
    Adcock, Joanna
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences. Overseas Development Institute, London, UK.
    Fottrell, Edward
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    The North-South information highway: case studies of publication access among health researchers in resource-poor countries2008In: Global health action, ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Less than 2% of scientific publications originate in low-income countries. Transfer of information from South to North and from South to South is grossly limited and hinders understanding of global health, while Northern-generated information fails to adequately address the needs of a Southern readership.

    Methods: A survey of a new generation of health researchers from nine low-income countries was conducted using a combination of email questionnaires and face-to-face interviews. Data were gathered on personal experiences, use and aspirations regarding access and contribution to published research.

    Results: A total of 23 individuals from 9 countries responded. Preference for journal use over textbooks was apparent, however a preference for print over online formats was described among African respondents compared to respondents from other areas. Almost all respondents (96%) described ambition to publish in international journals, but cited English language as a significant barrier.

    Conclusion: The desire to contribute to and utilise contemporary scientific debate appears to be strong among study respondents. However, longstanding barriers

  • 43.
    Adel, Rabie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Challenges facing Pro-life and Pro-choice organisations within Warsaw, Poland2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 44. Aden, A S
    et al.
    Brännström, Inger
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Mohamud, K A
    Persson, Lars-Åke
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    Wall, Stig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Public Health Sciences.
    The growth chart - a road to health chart?: Maternal comprehension of the growth chart in two Somali villages1990In: Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, ISSN 0269-5022, E-ISSN 1365-3016, Vol. 4, no 3, 340-350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Growth monitoring is so far not implemented on a large scale in the Somali health services. Available reports indicate that growth faltering is common. However, the use of growth charts as a tool for health education has been questioned. This study examines the ability of 199, predominantly illiterate, rural Somali mothers to understand the growth chart message after an intensive period of growth chart use and education. During a home-based interview the mothers were asked to combine a set of four growth curves with a set of four pictures, showing the corresponding developments of four children. The mothers managed significantly better to interpret the charts than could be expected by chance alone. Maternal age, number of children and literacy did not differ much between those who correctly and incorrectly combined pictures and charts. Almost all mothers recognised the value of the growth chart as being good for the control and promotion of their children's health and/or growth. We conclude that the growth chart may be an applicable and appropriate tool even with illiterate mothers, provided that other prerequisites for successful growth monitoring, e.g. appropriate health services, are available.

  • 45.
    Adielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskestudenters erfarenhet och tankar om att påverka beslutsfattare för att förbättra folkhälsan.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 46.
    Adolfsson, Maria
    et al.
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Hellström, Mimmi
    University of Skövde, School of Health and Education.
    Fysisk aktivitet och den byggda miljön2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning: Trots vetskapen om vikten av fysisk aktivitet rör männiksor på sig allt mindre, vilket kan bero på ändrade förutsättningar i samhället. En väletablerad faktor, som påverkar intresset för att vara fysisk aktiv, är den byggda miljön. Syftet med litteraturöversikten är därför att beskriva vilka faktorer i den byggda miljön som främjar fysisk aktiviet hos vuxna kvinnor och män. Metod: Uppsatsen utgår från metoden litteraturöersikt och är baserad på tio vetenskapliga originalartiklar. Resultat: Genom analyser av de tio vetenskapliga artiklarna kunde fyra teman urskiljas; tillgänglighet till cyckel- och gångvägar, avstånd till grönområden och parker, miljömässiga faktorer och faciliteter samt antal parker/grönområden och deras areal. Diskussion: Faktorer som lättillgänglighet till cykel- och gångvägar, litet avstånd till grönområden och parker samt faciliteter i den byggda miljön visade sig främja rörelse. Även antal parker/grönområden och deras areal gynnade fysisk aktivitet hos vuxna kvinnor och män. Några resultat visade dock andra utgångar där avståndet till gröna ytor samt att antalet parker inte var av signifikant betydelse för fysisk aktivitet. 

  • 47.
    Adolfsson, Päivi
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation. Centrum för forskning om funktionshinder.
    Lindstedt, Helena
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation.
    Janeslätt, Gunnel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Research in Disability and Habilitation. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Center for Clinical Research Dalarna.
    How people with cognitive disabilities experience electronic planning devices2015In: NeuroRehabilitation (Reading, MA), ISSN 1053-8135, E-ISSN 1878-6448, Vol. 37, no 3, 379-392 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: People with cognitive disabilities have difficulties in accomplishing everyday tasks. Electronic planning devices (EPDs) may compensate for the gap between a person’s capacity and everyday challenges. However, the devices are not always used as intended. Despite that, cognitive assistive technology has been investigated in several studies, knowledge regarding when and what makes adults decide to use EPDs is incomplete. People with cognitive disabilities have difficulties in accomplishing everyday tasks. Electronic planning devices (EPDs) may compensate for the gap between a person’s capacity and everyday challenges. However, the devices are not always used as intended. Despite that, cognitive assistive technology has been investigated in several studies, knowledge regarding when and what makes adults decide to use EPDs is incomplete. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to explore the subjective experiences of people with cognitive disabilities in relation to the use of EPDs. The aim was to explore the subjective experiences of people with cognitive disabilities in relation to the use of EPDs. METHODS: A qualitative approach was applied with a qualitative content analysis. Twelve respondents were interviewed with support from a study specific guide. A qualitative approach was applied with a qualitative content analysis. Twelve respondents were interviewed with support from a study specific guide. RESULTS: A model representing the respondents’ experiences in the use of EPDs, comprising one theme, Possibility to master my daily life , four categories, Degree of fit to my needs, I am aware of my cognitive disability, I get help to structure my everyday life and The EPD improves my volition and ten subcategories, was developed. A model representing the respondents’ experiences in the use of EPDs, comprising one theme, Possibility to master my daily life , four categories, Degree of fit to my needs, I am aware of my cognitive disability, I get help to structure my everyday life and The EPD improves my volition and ten subcategories, was developed. CONCLUSIONS: EPDs allow people with cognitive disabilities the possibility to deal with daily challenges; those who find EPDs beneficial tend to use them. EPDs can help people with cognitive disabilities in organisation, managing time and improve volition. EPDs allow people with cognitive disabilities the possibility to deal with daily challenges; those who find EPDs beneficial tend to use them. EPDs can help people with cognitive disabilities in organisation, managing time and improve volition.

  • 48.
    Adolphson, Katja
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health.
    Axemo, Pia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, International Maternal and Child Health (IMCH).
    Högberg, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Women's and Children's Health, Obstetrics and Gynaecology.
    Midwives' experiences of working conditions, perceptions of professional role and attitudes towards mothers in Mozambique2016In: Midwifery, ISSN 0266-6138, E-ISSN 1532-3099, Vol. 40, 95-101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: low- and middle-income countries still have a long way to go to reach the fifth Millennium Development Goal of reducing maternal mortality. Mozambique has accomplished a reduction of maternal mortality since the 1990s, but still has among the highest in the world. A key strategy in reducing maternal mortality is to invest in midwifery. AIM: the objective was to explore midwives' perspectives of their working conditions, their professional role, and perceptions of attitudes towards mothers in a low-resource setting. SETTING: midwives in urban, suburban, village and remote areas; working in central, general and rural hospitals as well as health centres and health posts were interviewed in Maputo City, Maputo Province and Gaza Province in Mozambique. METHOD: the study had a qualitative research design. Nine semi-structured interviews and one follow-up interview were conducted and analysed with qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: two main themes were found; commitment/devotion and lack of resources. All informants described empathic care-giving, with deep engagement with the mothers and highly valued working in teams. Lack of resources prevented the midwives from providing care and created frustration and feelings of insufficiency. CONCLUSIONS: the midwives perceptions were that they tried to provide empathic, responsive care on their own within a weak health system which created many difficulties. The great potential the midwives possess of providing quality care must be valued and nurtured for their competency to be used more effectively.

  • 49.
    Aerts, Marc
    et al.
    Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics.
    Minalu, Girma
    Interuniversity Institute for Biostatistics and Statistical Bioinformatics.
    Bösner, Stefan
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Germany..
    Buntinx, Frank
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Belgium; Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, The Netherlands..
    Burnand, Bernard
    Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine, Lausanne University Hospital, Switzerland..
    Haasenritter, Jörg
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Germany..
    Herzig, Lilli
    Institute of Family Medicine, University of Lausanne, Switzerland..
    Knottnerus, J André
    Department of General Practice, Maastricht University, The Netherlands..
    Nilsson, Staffan
    Linköping University, Department of Medical and Health Sciences, Division of Community Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Local Health Care Services in East Östergötland, Primary Health Care in Norrköping.
    Renier, Walter
    Department of Public Health and Primary Care, KU Leuven, Belgium.
    Sox, Carol
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, USA..
    Sox, Harold
    Department of Community and Family Medicine, Geisel School of Medicine at Dartmouth, Hanover, NH , USA; Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, Washington, USA..
    Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert
    Department of General Practice and Family Medicine, Philipps University Marburg, Germany..
    Pooled individual patient data from five countries were used to derive a clinical prediction rule for coronary artery disease in primary care.2017In: Journal of Clinical Epidemiology, ISSN 0895-4356, E-ISSN 1878-5921, Vol. 81, 120-128 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To construct a clinical prediction rule for coronary artery disease (CAD) presenting with chest pain in primary care.

    STUDY DESIGN AND SETTING: Meta-Analysis using 3,099 patients from five studies. To identify candidate predictors, we used random forest trees, multiple imputation of missing values, and logistic regression within individual studies. To generate a prediction rule on the pooled data, we applied a regression model that took account of the differing standard data sets collected by the five studies.

    RESULTS: The most parsimonious rule included six equally weighted predictors: age ≥55 (males) or ≥65 (females) (+1); attending physician suspected a serious diagnosis (+1); history of CAD (+1); pain brought on by exertion (+1); pain feels like "pressure" (+1); pain reproducible by palpation (-1). CAD was considered absent if the prediction score is <2. The area under the ROC curve was 0.84. We applied this rule to a study setting with a CAD prevalence of 13.2% using a prediction score cutoff of <2 (i.e., -1, 0, or +1). When the score was <2, the probability of CAD was 2.1% (95% CI: 1.1-3.9%); when the score was ≥ 2, it was 43.0% (95% CI: 35.8-50.4%).

    CONCLUSIONS: Clinical prediction rules are a key strategy for individualizing care. Large data sets based on electronic health records from diverse sites create opportunities for improving their internal and external validity. Our patient-level meta-analysis from five primary care sites should improve external validity. Our strategy for addressing site-to-site systematic variation in missing data should improve internal validity. Using principles derived from decision theory, we also discuss the problem of setting the cutoff prediction score for taking action.

    The full text will be freely available from 2017-10-20 12:39
  • 50.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Granskaya, J
    Birath Scheffel, C
    Beijer, U
    Tsvetkova, L
    Personality characteristics and perceived health in Russian and Swedish female young adults with alcohol drinking habits2014In: Personality and Individual Differences, ISSN 0191-8869, E-ISSN 1873-3549, Vol. 60, no Suppl., S64- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
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