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  • 1.
    Abbas, Ismail
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Huseni, Saranda
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Tandtrådens effekt på plack och gingivit2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med litteraturstudien var att undersöka tandtrådens effekt på plack och gingivit. Metoden som användes var en kvantitativ allmän litteraturstudie där sökningen av vetenskapliga artiklar gjordes i den medicinska databasen PubMed. Litteraturstudiens resultat sammanställdes utifrån elva vetenskapliga artiklar. Tandtrådens effekt på plack och gingivit utvärderades, i form av reduktion av: plackmängd och blödning hos såväl barn, ungdomar som vuxna individer. Tio av artiklarna visade att tandtråd hade en effekt på ovanstående parametrar medan den kvarstående artikeln inte kunde visa några sådana effekter. Slutsatsen är att användning av tandtråd i samband med tandborstning har en effekt med avseende på reduktion av plackmängd och gingivit. Ytterligare forskning krävs för en noggrann utvärdering av tandtrådens effekt.

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  • 2.
    Abbas, Rafah
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för oral hälsa.
    Feraget, Melisa
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science, Avdelningen för oral hälsa.
    Munhygien- och kostvanor hos gymnasieelever2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte:Syftet med studien var att undersöka munhygien- och kostvanor hos gymnasieelever i årskurs 3. Material och metod: Studien var en kvantitativ tvärsnittsstudie. Datainsamlingen genomfördes i form av enkätundersökning med 123 deltagare i åldrarna 18-22 år. Enkäten bestod av 20 frågor med fasta svarsalternativ som berörde elevernas bakgrund, munhygien- och kostvanor. Resultat: Studiens resultat visade att majoriteten av deltagarna borstade tänderna två gånger om dagen med tandborste och fluortandkräm och 28 % använde något approximalt hjälpmedel. Mer än hälften av deltagarna åt lunch och middag varje dag, däremot var det endast hälften av deltagarna som åt frukost varje dag. Deltagarna hade ett lågt intag av sötsaker. Slutsats: Studien visade att deltagarna hade relativt goda munhygienvanor, däremot var användningen av approximala hjälpmedel och fluorpreparat bristfälliga. Vidare visade resultatet att deltagarna hade bristfälliga kostvanor då endast hälften av deltagarna åt frukost varje dag.

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  • 3.
    Abdul Jabbar, Mashahel
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Elshebani, Noor
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Metoder för tobaksavvänjning2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Patients with tobacco habits visit the dental care regularly, therefore it is well placed to carry out tobacco cessation for those who smoke or use snuff. The purpose of this study was to highlight methods available for tobacco cessation and results of these methods. The authors searched in the database PubMed and was limited to articles published during the last ten years and performed in the dental care. The framework was limited to eight studies which were performed in the dental care. The results showed that there are several different combination methods for tobacco cessation. In three articles, the 5A method was used in combination with nicotine replacement therapy. In other articles five different combination methods with different follow-up times were used. In one of those with

    combined approach two methods are described. In addition a method was used for snuff cessation. The result showed differences in frequency of success to tobacco stop. The best result was shown after twelve months tobacco cessation and a follow up in two of the combination methods and the method for snuff cessation (36%, 25% and 30%). The lowest success rate was 7% after twelve months follow up with one of the 5A methods. The conclusion of the study is that there are few published studies regarding tobacco cessation in the dental care, which are based on evaluation of methods performed among patients. Follow up, counselling and support have essential effects on the result.

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  • 4.
    Abdullahi Ossoble, Rage
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences.
    Use of and patient satisfaction with removable partial dentures and the impact on oral health related quality of life; a cross-sectional survey study2017Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Removable partial dentures (PRD) are among the treatment options available for partially edentulous patients. The usage of RPD and patient satisfaction with the prosthesis relates to Oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL).

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of RPDs, satisfaction with the prostheses as well as OHRQoL in patients provided with a RPD in general practice. A further aim was to identify possible factors related to RPD usage, patient satisfaction and OHRQoL.

    Material and method: A cross-sectional survey study, utilizing a questionnaire regarding patient satisfaction with different aspects of the participants RPD, the Swedish version of OHIP-14 questionnaire and the usage of the prosthesis.

    Results: A majority of respondents, (83.6%) reported that they used their prosthesis daily or often. The overall satisfaction rate among respondents was 83.0% with 39.3% stating that they were highly satisfied with the prosthesis and the mean OHIP- 14 score was 8.5, SD 10.2. The chewing ability was reported to be improved by 58.9% but impairment in chewing was reported by 26.8%. Pain from supporting teeth and soft tissue, sociodemographic factors and dissatisfaction with pre-treatment information and personal treatment were associated with not using the RPD.

    Conclusions: In the present study, treatment with RPD was in most patients associated with improvement in chewing and appearance. Insufficient pretreatment information, perception of treatment and pain from supporting tissue was associated with reduced use of and satisfaction with the RPD.

  • 5.
    Abdulraheem, Salem
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Hawthorne effect reporting in orthodontic randomized controlled trials: truth or myth? Blessing or curse?2017In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, p. 475-479Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To investigate in 10 orthodontic journals how many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) considered the Hawthorne effect, and if considered, to determine whether it was related to the patients or the therapists involved in the trial and, finally, to discuss the Hawthorne effect in an educational way. Materials and methods A search was performed on the Medline database, via PubMed, for publication type ‘randomized controlled trial’ published for each journal between 1 August 2007 and 31 July 2017. The American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, Australian Orthodontic Journal, Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Korean Journal of Orthodontics, Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research and Progress in Orthodontics were assessed. Two independent reviewers extracted the data and identified whether the Hawthorne effect was considered or discussed in the articles and whether the Hawthorne effect was related to the behaviour of the patients, the therapists, or both. Results The initial search generated 502 possible trials. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria, 290 RCTs were included and assessed. The Hawthorne effect was considered or discussed in 10 of 290 RCTs (3.4%), and all were related to the patients’ and none to the therapists’ behaviour. Conclusions The Hawthorne effect reported in orthodontic RCTs was suboptimal. The researchers’ lack of knowledge about this phenomenon is evident, despite evidence that the Hawthorne effect may cause over-optimistic results or false-positive bias.

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  • 6. Abdulraheem, Salem
    et al.
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology.
    The reporting of blinding in orthodontic randomized controlled trials: where do we stand?2018In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To analyse in 10 orthodontic journals how many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) performed 'single-', 'double-', 'triple-', or 'outcome assessors blinding' and to evaluate, from the number of RCTs that did not conduct blinding, how many could actually have achieved it. Material and methods: Randomized controlled trials published in 10 orthodontic journals between 1 September 2012 and 28 February 2018 were included. A search was performed in PubMed and conducted for publication type 'randomized controlled trial' for each journal. Two reviewers independently analysed each RCT and registered that blinding was performed and included which specific type. It was also evaluated whether misclassifications of blinding items occurred and whether it was possible to achieve blinding among the RCTs that did not perform blinding. Results: After applying the inclusion criteria, 203 RCTs were assessed, and 61.6 per cent of them had used blinding, with the main type being 'outcome assessors blinding' (40.4%) followed by 'single-blinding' (15.3%), 'double-blinding' (2.5%), and 'triple-blinding' (3.4%). In 38.4 per cent of the trials, no blinding was performed; however, 79.4 per cent of them could have achieved blinding. Fifteen RCTs (7.3%) misclassified the blinding in relation to single-, double-, or triple-blinding. Journals followed the CONSORT (AJODO, EJO, JO, OCR) published together significantly more RCTs that performed blinding than journals not following the CONSORT. Conclusions: Blinding of outcome assessors was the most frequent type, as orthodontic trials are often of intervention design and thereby difficult to mask for patients and trial staff. The misclassifications of blinding items may indicate suboptimal knowledge among researchers and peer-reviewers regarding the definitions for diverse blinding types.

  • 7. Abdulraheem, Salem
    et al.
    Paulsson, Liselotte
    Petren, Sofia
    Sonesson, Mikael
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology.
    Do fixed orthodontic appliances cause halitosis? A systematic review2019In: BMC Oral Health, ISSN 1472-6831, E-ISSN 1472-6831, Vol. 19, no 1, article id 72Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To examine: (I) the current evidence of the impact of fixed orthodontic appliances on the development of halitosis in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment, and (II) the influence of different orthodontic bracket systems on halitosis. Material and methods: Three electronic databases (PubMed, Scopus, and Cochrane Library) were searched prior to March 15, 2018. The review was systematically conducted and reported according to the Cochrane Handbook and the PRISMA statement. Only Randomised Clinical Trials (RCTs) were considered. Selected full-text papers were independently assessed by four investigators and any disagreements were resolved by consensus. The Cochrane Handbook was used to grade the risk of bias and the quality of evidence was rated according to GRADE. Results: Out of 363 identified studies, three RCTs on halitosis and fixed orthodontic appliances met the inclusion criteria. The risk of bias in the three studies was rated as high and the quality of evidence was rated as very low. Conclusions/clinical implications: There is a lack of scientific evidence that subjects with fixed orthodontic appliances develop halitosis during treatment. Additional well-conducted RCTs with extended periods of assessment are needed as well as consensus concerning cut-off values for the diagnosis of halitosis.

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  • 8.
    Abdulraheem, Salem
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology.
    Schutz-Fransson, Ulrike
    Bjerklin, Krister
    Teeth movement 12 years after orthodontic treatment with and without retainer: relapse or usual changes?2020In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 42, no 1, p. 52-59, article id cjz020Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: To identify if lower incisor movements after orthodontic treatment are due to the relapse of the orthodontic treatment or due to natural growth. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The subjects consisted of 92 patients who have had orthodontic treatment, divided into three groups, group 1: 38 individuals had no retainer in the lower jaw. Group 2: 24 individuals had a retainer 0.028 inch, a spring hard wire bonded to the mandibular canines only. Group 3: 30 individuals had a 0.0195-inch Twist-Flex wire, bonded to all mandibular incisors and canines. Study models before orthodontic treatment (T0), immediately after orthodontic treatment (T1), 6 years after orthodontic treatment (T2), and 12 years after orthodontic treatment (T3) were used for the measurements. The wires in groups 2 and 3 were removed after mean 2.6 years (SD 1.49). Little Irregularity Index (LII), inter-canine distance, available mandibular anterior space, and number of crowded incisors were registered. A Tooth Displacement Index (TDI) was developed to measure the tooth displacement directions at T0 and T3. RESULTS: The LII showed equal values before treatment (T0) and at the follow-up registrations (T2 and T3). But about 25 per cent of the tooth displacements at T2 and T3 did not exist before treatment, at T0. This indicates usual growth changes and not relapse of the orthodontic treatment. CONCLUSION: As about 25 per cent of the displaced incisors can be considered as an effect of natural growth, not a relapse of the orthodontic treatment, it is valuable to use a displacement index in combination with other variables for investigations of stability after orthodontic treatment. Importance of the present study is that it is possible to differ between relapse and usual growth changes.

  • 9.
    Aboulaich, Nabila
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Health Sciences.
    Expanding role of caveolae in control of adipocyte metabolism: proteomics of caveolae2006Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The primary function of adipose tissue is to store energy in the form of triacylglycerol, which is hydrolyzed to fatty acids to supply other tissues with energy. While insulin promotes the storage of triacylglycerol, catecholamines stimulate its hydrolysis. The development of type II diabetes is strongly associated with obesity, indicating a role of triacylglycerol metabolism in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Caveolae are plasma membrane invaginations found in most cells but are highly abundant in adipocytes. Insulin receptors are localized in caveolae and their function depends on intact caveolae structures. In the present thesis work, mass spectrometry-based methodology allowed identification of a number of new proteins and their posttranslational modifications in caveolae of human adipocytes. Variable N-terminal acetylation and phosphorylation of caveolin-1α and caveolin-1β were identified, which might regulate the function of caveolae. The transcription regulator protein PTRF was identified as the major caveolae associated protein. Specific proteolytic modifications of PTRF at the cytosolic surface of caveolae and phosphorylation on nine serine and one threonine residues were identified. Moreover, insulin induced translocation of PTRF from the plasma membrane to the nucleus. PTRF was previously shown to regulate the activity of both RNA polymerase I and polymerase II, thus a role of PTRF in mediating the anabolic action of insulin on protein synthesis and gene transcription is proposed.

    PTRF was also involved in an extranuclear function in the hormonal regulation of triacylglycerol metabolism in caveolae. PTRF was colocalized with the triacylglycerol regulator proteins perilipin and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL) in the triacylglycerol-synthesizing caveolae subclass. We showed that, while perilipin was translocated to the plasma membrane, both PTRF and HSL were translocated from the plasma membrane to the cytosol as a complex in response to insulin. The perilipin recruited to the plasma membrane was highly threonine phosphorylated. By mass spectrometry, three phosphorylated threonine residues were identified and were located in an acidic domain in the lipid droplet targeting domain of perilipin. The insulin-induced recruitment of perilipin to the plasma membrane might, therefore be phosphorylation-dependent. Isoproterenol, which stimulates hydrolysis of triacylglycerol, induced a complete depletion of perilipin B from the plasma membrane, suggesting a function of perilipin B to protect newly synthesized triacylglycerol in caveolae from being hydrolyzed by HSL. The location of PTRF and HSL was not affected by isoproterenol, indicating that insulin is acting against a default presence of PTRF and HSL in caveolae.

    Taken together, this thesis expands our knowledge about caveolae and provided valuable information about their involvement in novel roles, particularly in the hormonal regulation of triacylglycerol metabolism.

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  • 10. Abrahamssom, Peter
    et al.
    Isaksson, Sten
    Gordh, Monica
    Andersson, Gunilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Onlay bone grafting of the mandible after periosteal expansion with an osmotic tissue expander: an experimental study in rabbits2010In: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 21, no 12, p. 1404-1410Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Objectives: To evaluate the space-maintaining capacity of a titanium mesh or a bioresorbable mesh after periosteal expansion and to assess bone formation under a titanium mesh or a bioresorbable mesh on the lateral border of the mandible by qualitative and quantitative histological analysis. Material and methods: In 13 rabbits, a self-inflatable soft tissue expander was placed intraorally, bilaterally under the mandibular periosteum via an extra oral approach. After 2 weeks, the expanders were removed and a particulated onlay bone graft was placed and covered by a titanium mesh or a bioresorbable mesh. After 3 months, the animals were sacrificed and specimens were collected for histology. Results: The osmotic soft tissue expander created a subperiosteal pocket and a ridge of new bone had formed at the edges of the expanded periosteum in all sites. After the healing period of 3 months, soft tissue dehiscence was recorded in two of the sites with bioresorbable meshes. The mean bone fill was 65% under the titanium mesh and 85% under the bioresorbable mesh (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the titanium mesh and the bioresorbable mesh regarding the height of the meshes, mesh area and mineralized bone area. Scanning electron microscopy shows that new bone is growing in direct contact with the resorbable mesh and the titanium mesh. Conclusion: This study confirms that an osmotic soft tissue expander creates a surplus of periosteum and soft tissue and that new bone can be generated under a titanium mesh or bioresorbable mesh.

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Cecilia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Masticatory function and temporomandibular disorders in patients with dentofacial deformities: studies before and after orthodontic and orthognathic treatment2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    abstract About 30 % of individuals in the Swedish population will at some stage during life have treatment with orthodontic appliances. In more severe cases, when orthodontic treatment is not considered sufficient enough to correct the malocclusion, the orthodontic treatment is combined with orthognathic surgery. For these cases, a satisfying jaw relation is achieved by surgically moving the maxilla and/or the mandible into a pre-planned position. Patients due to be treated with orthognathic surgery often suffer from an impaired masticatory function, symptoms from the masti- catory muscles or temporomandibular joints (temporomandibular disorders), headaches as well as dissatisfaction with their facial aesthetics. Since orthognathic treatment is expensive, in many cases arduous to the patient and not without complications, it is important to assess the treatment outcome and if this is satisfying for the patients. Previous studies that have examined the outcome after ortho- gnathic treatment have had diverging study designs and have come to different conclusions with regard to both temporomandibular disorders and masticatory function. The overall aim of this thesis was to assess and compare the frequencies of temporomandibular disorders and the masticatory function in patients with dentofacial deformities before and after orthognathic treatment. The thesis is based on the following studies: paper i is a systematic literature review aiming to, in an evidence- based approach, answer the question whether orthognathic treatment affects the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders. The review encompasses the period from January 1966 to April 2006 and was further extended to May 2013 in the frame story of this thesis. Conclusions in Paper I and the complementary survey • There is insufficient scientific evidence for a decrease of sub diagnoses of temporomandibular disorders after orthognathic treatment. • There is limited scientific evidence for a reduction of masticatory muscle pain on palpation after orthognathic treatment. • There is insufficient scientific evidence for an effect on temporomandibular joint pain on palpation and temporomandibular joint sounds from orthognathic surgery. • Further controlled, well-designed studies assessing temporomandibular disorders before and after orthognathic treatment are needed to consolidate strong evidence considering treatment outcomes. papers II and III are studies comparing frequencies of temporomandibular disorders in patients with dentofacial deformities with a control group. The patients were referred for a combined orthodontic and orthognathic treatment to correct their malocclusion. The control group comprised individuals with normal occlusion or minor malocclusion traits not in need of orthodontic treatment. In Paper III, temporomandibular disorders were longitudinally analysed by assessing and comparing frequencies before and after orthognathic treatment. All individuals in the studies were diagnosed according to the research diagnostic criteria for temporomandibular disorders. Conclusions in Papers II and III • Patients due to be treated with orthognathic surgery had more signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders and a higher frequency of diagnosed temporomandibular disorders compared with the age- and gender matched control group. • Patients with dentofacial deformities, corrected by orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery, had a positive treatment outcome in respect of myofascial pain and arthralgia. • After treatment the frequency of temporomandibular disorders in the treatment group was low and at an equivalent level of that in the control group. paper iV evaluates the self-estimated masticatory ability and the masticatory performance before and after orthognathic treatment in the same individuals as in Paper II and III. Conclusions in Paper IV • Masticatory ability and performance increased after orthognathic treatment. • The number of occlusal contacts and severity of overall symptoms of TMD influenced both the masticatory ability and performance. • Open bite had a negative effect on masticatory performance. Key conclusions and clinical implications: Patients with dentofacial deformities diagnosed with temporomandibular disorders do in most cases benefit from orthognathic treatment. In addition, masticatory ability and performance, which is impaired in patients with dentofacial deformities, improve after treatment. Thus, patients with dentofacial deformities that are to be treated with orthodontics in combination with orthognathic surgery can be recommended the treatment in order to relieve symptoms of TMD and impaired mastication.

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  • 12.
    Abrahamsson, Cecilia
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    TMD in Consecutive Patients Referred for Orthognathic Surgery2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To answer the question whether temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were more common in a group of individuals referred for orthognathic surgery than in a control group. The null hypothesis was that neither the frequency of signs and symptoms of TMD or diagnosed TMD would differ between the patient group and a control group. Materials and Methods: A sample of 121 consecutive patients referred for orthognathic surgery at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden, was interviewed and examined regarding signs and symptoms of TMD and headaches. A control group was formed by 56 age- and gender-matched individuals attending the Department of Oral Diagnosis, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden, and Public Dental Health Clinic in Oxie, County of Skane, Sweden. TMD diagnoses were used according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Results: The patient group showed more myofascial pain without limited opening, disc displacement with reduction, and arthralgia according to RDC/TMD than the control group. The patient group also had more symptoms and signs of TMD in general. Conclusions: The null hypothesis was rejected because patients who were to be treated with orthognathic surgery had more signs and symptoms of TMD and higher frequency of diagnosed TMD compared with the matched control group.

  • 13.
    Abrahamsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Henriksson, T
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Alterations of temporomandibular disorders and headache before and after orthognathic surgery: A systematic review2006Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Abrahamsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Henrikson, Thor
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Alterations of temporomandibular disorders before and after orthognathic surgery2007In: Angle orthodontist, ISSN 0003-3219, E-ISSN 1945-7103, Vol. 77, no 4, p. 729-734Article, review/survey (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To answer the question whether orthognathic surgery does affect the prevalence of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A literature survey in the PubMed and Cochrane Library electronic databases was performed and covered the period from January 1966 to April 2006. The inclusion criteria were controlled, prospective or retrospective studies comparing TMDs before and after orthognathic surgery in patients with malocclusion. There were no language restrictions, and three reviewers selected and extracted the data independently. The quality of the retrieved articles was evaluated by four reviewers. RESULTS: The search strategy resulted in 467 articles, of which 3 met the inclusion criteria. Because of few studies with unambiguous results and heterogeneity in study design, the scientific evidence was insufficient to evaluate the effects that orthognathic surgery had on TMD. Moreover, the studies had problems with inadequate selection description, confounding factors, and lack of method error analysis. CONCLUSION: To obtain reliable scientific evidence, additional well-controlled and well-designed studies are needed to determine how and if orthognathic surgery alters signs and symptoms of TMD.

  • 15.
    Abrahamsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Henrikson, Thor
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Sunzel, Bo
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    TMD in Consecutive Patients Referred for Orthognathic Surgery2009In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 201-226, article id 25Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective: To answer the question whether temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were more common in a group of individuals referred for orthognathic surgery than in a control group. The null hypothesis was that neither the frequency of signs and symptoms of TMD or diagnosed TMD would differ between the patient group and a control group. Materials and Methods: A sample of 121 consecutive patients referred for orthognathic surgery at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden, was interviewed and examined regarding signs and symptoms of TMD and headaches. A control group was formed by 56 age- and gender-matched individuals attending the Department of Oral Diagnosis, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden, and Public Dental Health Clinic in Oxie, County of Skane, Sweden. TMD diagnoses were used according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). Results: The patient group showed more myofascial pain without limited opening, disc displacement with reduction, and arthralgia according to RDC/TMD than the control group. The patient group also had more symptoms and signs of TMD in general. Conclusions: The null hypothesis was rejected because patients who were to be treated with orthognathic surgery had more signs and symptoms of TMD and higher frequency of diagnosed TMD compared with the matched control group.

  • 16.
    Abrahamsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Henrikson, Thor
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Sunzel, Bo
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    TMD in consecutive patients referred for orthognathic surgery2009In: Angle orthodontist, ISSN 0003-3219, E-ISSN 1945-7103, Vol. 79, no 4, p. 621-627Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: To answer the question whether temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were more common in a group of individuals referred for orthognathic surgery than in a control group. The null hypothesis was that neither the frequency of signs and symptoms of TMD or diagnosed TMD would differ between the patient group and a control group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sample of 121 consecutive patients referred for orthognathic surgery at the Department of Oral Maxillofacial Surgery, Malmö University Hospital, Sweden, was interviewed and examined regarding signs and symptoms of TMD and headaches. A control group was formed by 56 age- and gender-matched individuals attending the Department of Oral Diagnosis, Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden, and Public Dental Health Clinic in Oxie, County of Skane, Sweden. TMD diagnoses were used according to Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). RESULTS: The patient group showed more myofascial pain without limited opening, disc displacement with reduction, and arthralgia according to RDC/TMD than the control group. The patient group also had more symptoms and signs of TMD in general. CONCLUSIONS: The null hypothesis was rejected because patients who were to be treated with orthognathic surgery had more signs and symptoms of TMD and higher frequency of diagnosed TMD compared with the matched control group.

  • 17.
    Abrahamsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Henrikson, Thor
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Masticatory function in patients with dentofacial deformities before and after orthognathic treatment: a prospective, longitudinal, and controlled study2015In: European Journal of Orthodontics, ISSN 0141-5387, E-ISSN 1460-2210, Vol. 37, no 1, p. 67-72Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the self-estimated masticatory ability and masticatory performance in patients with dentofacial deformities before and after orthognathic treatment; in comparison to an age- and gender-matched control group. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: The masticatory ability and masticatory performance were evaluated in 121 consecutive patients (treatment group), referred for orthognathic treatment. Eighteen months after treatment, 98 patients (81%) completed a follow-up examination. Masticatory ability was assessed on a visual analog scale, while the masticatory performance was evaluated by a masticatory test using round silicon tablets. Signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) were registered by a clinical examination and a questionnaire. The control group comprised 56 age- and gender-matched subjects who were examined at baseline. RESULTS: At the baseline examination, the treatment group had a significantly lower masticatory ability and performance compared with the control group. After treatment, the masticatory ability significantly improved in the treatment group and reached the same level as in the control group. The masticatory performance index increased significantly but was still lower than in the control group. Both the masticatory ability and masticatory performance were affected by the number of occlusal contacts during maximal biting pressure and by the self-estimated overall symptoms of TMD. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with dentofacial deformities, corrected by orthognathic treatment, have a significant positive treatment outcome in respect of masticatory ability and masticatory performance. Furthermore, the occlusion and symptoms of TMD have an impact on both masticatory ability and masticatory performance.

  • 18.
    Abrahamsson, Cecilia
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Henrikson, Thor
    Nilner, Maria
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Sunzel, Bo
    Bondemark, Lars
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Ekberg, EwaCarin
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    TMD before and after correction of dentofacial deformities by orthodontic and orthognathic treatment2013In: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 0901-5027, E-ISSN 1399-0020, Vol. 46, no 6, p. 752-758Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract The aims of the study were to investigate the alteration of temporomandibular disorders (TMD) after correction of dentofacial deformities by orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery; and to compare the frequency of TMD in patients with dentofacial deformities with an age and gender matched control group. TMD were evaluated in 121 consecutive patients (treatment group), referred for orthognathic surgery, by a questionnaire and a clinical examination. 18 months after treatment, 81% of the patients completed a follow-up examination. The control group comprised 56 age and gender matched subjects, of whom 68% presented for follow-up examination. TMD were diagnosed according to research diagnostic criteria for TMD. At baseline examination, the treatment group had a higher frequency of myofascial pain (P=.035) and arthralgia (P=.040) than the control group. At follow-up, the frequencies of myofascial pain, arthralgia and disc displacement had decreased in the treatment group (P=.050, P=.004, P=.041, respectively). The frequency of TMD was comparable in the two groups at follow-up. Patients with dentofacial deformities, corrected by orthodontic treatment in conjunction with orthognathic surgery, seem to have a positive treatment outcome in respect of TMD pain

  • 19. Abrahamsson, Helene
    et al.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Abrahamsson, Peter
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Odontology. Department of Orofacial Pain and Jaw Function, Malmö University, 205 06 Malmö, Sweden.
    Treatment of temporomandibular joint luxation: a systematic literature review2020In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 61-70Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: To evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) luxation.

    Materials and methods: This systematic literature review searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify randomized controlled trials on TMJ luxation treatment published between the inception of each database and 26 March 2018.

    Results: Two authors assessed 113 unique abstracts according to the inclusion criteria and read nine articles in full text. Eight articles comprising 338 patients met the inclusion criteria, but none of these evaluated surgical techniques. Three studies including 185 patients concerned acute treatment with manual reduction of luxation while five studies including 153 patients evaluated minimally invasive methods with injection of autologous blood or dextrose prolotherapy for recurrent TMJ luxation. These studies reported that mouth opening after treatment was reduced and that independent of type of injection, recurrences of TMJ luxation were rare in most patients.

    Conclusions: In the absence of randomized studies on surgical techniques, autologous blood injection in the superior joint space and pericapsular tissues with intermaxillary fixation seems to be the treatment for recurrent TMJ luxation that at present has the best scientific support. Well-designed studies on surgical techniques with sufficient numbers of patients, long-term follow-ups, and patient experience assessment are needed for selection of the optimal surgical treatment methods.

    Clinical relevance: Autologous blood injection combined with intermaxillary fixation can be recommended for patients with recurrence of TMJ luxation.

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  • 20.
    Abrahamsson, Helene
    et al.
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology.
    Abrahamsson, Peter
    Häggman-Henrikson, Birgitta
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology.
    Treatment of temporomandibular joint luxation: a systematic literature review2020In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 24, p. 61-70Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of surgical and nonsurgical treatment of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) luxation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This systematic literature review searched PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and Web of Science databases to identify randomized controlled trials on TMJ luxation treatment published between the inception of each database and 26 March 2018. RESULTS: Two authors assessed 113 unique abstracts according to the inclusion criteria and read nine articles in full text. Eight articles comprising 338 patients met the inclusion criteria, but none of these evaluated surgical techniques. Three studies including 185 patients concerned acute treatment with manual reduction of luxation while five studies including 153 patients evaluated minimally invasive methods with injection of autologous blood or dextrose prolotherapy for recurrent TMJ luxation. These studies reported that mouth opening after treatment was reduced and that independent of type of injection, recurrences of TMJ luxation were rare in most patients. CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of randomized studies on surgical techniques, autologous blood injection in the superior joint space and pericapsular tissues with intermaxillary fixation seems to be the treatment for recurrent TMJ luxation that at present has the best scientific support. Well-designed studies on surgical techniques with sufficient numbers of patients, long-term follow-ups, and patient experience assessment are needed for selection of the optimal surgical treatment methods. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Autologous blood injection combined with intermaxillary fixation can be recommended for patients with recurrence of TMJ luxation.

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  • 21. Abrahamsson, Kajsa
    et al.
    Öhrn, Kerstin
    Dalarna University, School of Education, Health and Social Studies, Health and Caring Sciences/Oral Health Science.
    Hakeberg, Magnus
    Dental beliefs: factor structure of the revised dental beliefs survey in a group of regular dental patients2009In: European Journal of Oral Sciences, ISSN 0909-8836, E-ISSN 1600-0722, Vol. 117, no 6, p. 720-727Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the factor structure of the revised dental beliefs survey (DBS-R) in a group of regular dental patients. The study group consisted of 278 patients (mean age 54 yr), 61% of whom were women. The DBS-R item mean value was 1.6. Principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) were performed. The initial PCA among the 28 DBS-R items showed four factors with eigenvalues of > 1 explaining 67% of the total variance. Five different CFA models were tested. The final model revealed a four-factor solution with one second-order factor (i.e. a hierarchical CFA). Thus, the latent second-order variable, 'dental beliefs', explains the variance from all DBS-R items through the four first-order factors labeled 'ethics', 'belittlement', 'communication and empathy', and 'control and anxiety'. The results suggest a somewhat different factor structure of DBS-R than previously reported for dental-fear patients. Hence, the underlying factor structure of the DBS-R may differ between different patient groups. The results point towards the use of the original 28-item DBS-R and interpreting the scale as measuring an overall construct of 'dental beliefs' and thus patients' attitudes and feelings related to dentists and dentistry.

  • 22.
    Abrahamsson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Intra-oral soft tissue expansion and volume stability of onlay bone grafts2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Insufficient regeneration of missing bone and soft-tissue may present aesthetic or functional problems in patients indicated for dental implant surgery. Several techniques such as bone grafts, bone substitutes and guided tissue regeneration (GTR) have been described to rebuild a compromised alveolar ridge. Adequate soft-tissue coverage of grafted bone and titanium-mesh is important to avoid exposure which may result in loss of the bone graft. The general aim of this thesis was to evaluate use of an osmotic tissue expander for expanding intra-oral soft tissue – creating a surplus of soft tissue – in preparation for onlay bone grafting. An experimental rabbit model was used in studies (I), (II) and (III). In (I) an osmotic soft-tissue expander was placed bilaterally on the lateral wall of the mandible via an extra-oral approach. After two weeks of expansion the rabbits were killed and specimens were collected for histology. No inflammatory reaction and no resorbtion of the cortical bone occured. The periosteum was expanded and new bone formation was seen in the edges of the expander. In (II) and (III) the expander was placed under the periosteum in the same way as in (I): bilaterally in 13 rabbits in (II) and unilaterally in 11 rabbits in (III). After two weeks of expansion the expander was identified and removed. In (II) particulated bone was placed at the recipient site protected by a titanium mesh in one site and a bio-resorbable mesh on the other site. In (III), DBBM particles and bone particles collected from the lateral border of the mandible separated by a collagen membrane was placed at the recipient site. The graft was protected by a pre-bent titanium mesh covered by a collagen membrane. After a healing period of 3 months specimens were collected for histological and SEM examination. New bone was growing in direct contact with the titanium mesh and bio resorbable mesh. The newly formed bone had the same calcium content as the mature bone in the base of the mandible. In the clinical study (IV) 20 patients were consecutively recruited and randomised into two groups. The experimental group (ten patients) had an osmotic soft tissue expander implanted. After two weeks of expansion the expander was removed and a particulated bone graft protected by a titanium mesh and a collagen membrane was fixed to the recipient site. Titanium implants were installed after a healing period of 6 months. The patients in the reference group had a bone block grafted from the anterior ramus fixated to the recipient site with one or two titanium mini screws. Implants were installed after a healing period of 6 months. A three dimensional optical measuring device was used to measure alterations in the soft tissue profile before each surgical procedure. The three-dimensional changes were then analysed on a PC. The results from the clinical study in patients confirmed the results from the experimental rabbit studies. The osmotic tissue expander expanded the soft tissue. Expander perforations of the soft tissue occurred in two patients. The optical measurements demonstrated a positive volume gain after soft tissue expansion and bone grafting. The expanded tissue could be used to cover a bone graft. There still was a risk of mesh exposure, even after soft tissue expansion, which occurred in two patients. In both groups, implants could be installed in the grafted bone in positions that would allow the crowns to fit aesthetically into the dental arch.

  • 23.
    Abrahamsson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Periosteal expansion of rabbit mandible with an osmotic self-inflatable expander2009In: Swedish Dental Journal, ISSN 0347-9994, Vol. 33, no 4, p. 201-226, article id 44Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 24.
    Abrahamsson, Peter
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Softtissue expansion with an osmotic self inflatable expander2007Conference paper (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 25. Abrahamsson, Peter
    et al.
    Walivaara, Dan-Ake
    Anderud, Jonas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Jimbo, Ryo
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Vertical bone augmentation with titanium granule blocks in rabbit calvaria2017In: CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL DENTAL RESEARCH, ISSN 2057-4347, Vol. 3, no 3, p. 100-106Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To determine whether it is possible to vertically augment bone utilizing a block graft from compressed titanium granules mainly used previously for contained bone defects and to determine whether there exists a difference in osteoconductive properties between the white and the grey granules. In 11 rabbits, 4 titanium blocks were inserted on each rabbit's skull bone according to a randomized scheme. These blocks were made from standardized compressed titanium granules. Type A: PTG grey, small granules (Pourus Titanium Granules, Tigran, Malmo, Sweden); Type B: PTG grey, large granules; Type C: PTG white, small granules; Type D: PTG white large granules. After 12 weeks, the animals were sacrificed and specimens were collected for histology and mu CT scanning. From both the mu CT and histology, it can be said that bone formation was successfully achieved for all groups, and the granules maintained their volume. The histomorphometric BA (bone area) evaluation in the entire grafted area presented that there were no statistical differences between all groups tested. The lowest 1/4 BA in contact with the rabbit skull presented that groups A and C presented the highest mean BA, and group A presented significantly higher BA than that of group D (p = 0,049). No significant differences were noted between groups A, B and C. Within the limitation of this study, no differences were noted between small white or grey PTG blocks. The large granules presented less bone ingrowth area compared to the small granules and this trend was regardless of the different PTG types. The entire grafted area was not filled with new bone suggesting that bone migration occurred mostly from the existing cortical bone side suggesting contact osteogenesis.

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  • 26. Abrahamsson, Peter
    et al.
    Wälivaara, Dan-Åke
    Isaksson, Sten
    Andersson, Gunilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Periosteal Expansion Before Local Bone Reconstruction Using a New Technique for Measuring Soft Tissue Profile Stability: A Clinical Study2012In: Journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery (Print), ISSN 0278-2391, E-ISSN 1531-5053, Vol. 70, no 10, p. e521-e530Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To evaluate the outcome of intraoral soft tissue expansion by measuring the profile change using objective 3D metering equipment and to evaluate localized bone grafting after soft tissue expansion with regard to gain of bone and complications.

  • 27.
    Abtahi, Jahan
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Henefalk, G.
    Region Östergötland, Anaesthetics, Operations and Specialty Surgery Center, Maxillofacial Unit.
    Aspenberg, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Surgery, Orthopaedics and Cancer Treatment, Department of Orthopaedics in Linköping.
    Randomised trial of bisphosphonate-coated dental implants: Radiographic follow-up after five years of loading2016In: International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, ISSN 0901-5027, E-ISSN 1399-0020, Vol. 45, no 12, p. 1564-1569Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The results of a randomised trial with bisphosphonate-coated dental implants have been reported previously. Each patient received one coated and one uncoated implant in a double-blind split-mouth design study. After 6 months of osseointegration, resonance frequency analysis indicated better fixation of the coated implants. Reduced marginal bone resorption was also shown. However, it was not known whether the advantage of the bisphosphonate coating would persist over time. The radiographic results at 5 years after implant installation are reported herein. A blinded investigator measured marginal resorption on fresh radiographs obtained for 14 of the 16 patients (two had died) and compared these with the post-implantation images. Non-parametric statistics were used. All implants functioned well. The median marginal bone loss for control implants was found to be 0.70 mm, which is less than usually reported in the literature. The bisphosphonate-coated implants showed even less resorption (median 0.20 mm). The median difference within each pair of implants after 5 years of use was 0.34 mm (95% confidence interval 0.00-0.75 mm; P = 0.04). The present data suggest that bisphosphonate-coated implants enable prolonged preservation of the marginal bone.

  • 28.
    Abushahba, Faleh
    et al.
    School of Dental Science, Trinity College, Dublin.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, Department of Health Sciences.
    Polyzois, Ioannis
    School of Dental Science, Trinity College, Dublin.
    Claffey, Noel
    School of Dental Science, Trinity College, Dublin.
    Effect of grafting materials on osseointegration of dental implants surrounded by circumferential bone defects: an experimental study in the dog2008In: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 19, no 4, p. 329-334Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AIMS: This study was designed to evaluate the effect of gap width and graft placement on bone healing around implants placed into simulated extraction sockets in the mandibles of four beagle dogs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four Ti-Unite implants (13 mm x 3.3 mm) were placed on each side of the mandible. Three implants were surrounded by a 1.35 mm circumferential and a 5 mm deep gap around the coronal portion of the implants. A fourth implant was inserted conventionally into both sides of the mandibles as a positive control. The gaps were filled with either Bio-Oss, autogenous bone or with a blood clot alone. The study design was balanced for animal, side and modality. Ground sections were prepared from biopsies taken at 3 months, and computer-aided histometric measurements of bone/implant contact and area of bone within threads were made for the coronal 5 mm. Data were analysed using analysis of variance. RESULTS: The mean bone/implant contact was 9.8 mm for the control and ranged from 9.3 to 11.3 mm for the three test modalities. The corresponding values for area within threads were 1 mm(2) and 1-1.2 mm(2). Modality had a significant effect on both bone/implant contact (F=16.9; P<0.0001) and area within threads (F=16.7; P<0.0001). CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that both autogenous bone graft and Bio-Oss played an important role in the amount of hard tissue fill and osseointegration occurring within marginal bone defects around implants.

  • 29.
    Adekunle, Kayode
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Åkesson, Dan
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Skrifvars, Mikael
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Biobased Composites Prepared by Compression Moulding using a Novel Thermoset Resin from Soybean oil and a Natural Fibre Reinforcement2009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Biobased composites were manufactured by using a compression moulding technique. Novel thermoset resins from soybean oil were used as matrix while flax fibres were used as reinforcement. The airlaid fibres were stacked randomly while woven fabrics were stacked crosswisely (90°) and impregnation was done manually. The fibre/ resin ratio was 60% to 40%.

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  • 30.
    Ademovski, S. Erovic
    et al.
    Kristianstad Univ, Sect Hlth & Soc, S-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Lingstrom, P.
    Univ Gothenburg, Sahlgrenska Acad, Inst Odontol, Dept Cariol, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Renvert, Stefan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    The effect of different mouth rinse products on intra-oral halitosis2016In: International Journal of Dental Hygiene, ISSN 1601-5029, E-ISSN 1601-5037, Vol. 14, no 2, p. 117-123Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of different mouth rinses 12 h after rinsing on genuine intra-oral halitosis. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four adults with halitosis were included in a double-blind, crossover, randomized clinical trial. Halitosis was evaluated 12 h after rinsing with placebo and five mouth rinse products containing zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate; zinc lactate, chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride; zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate with reduced amounts of mint and menthol; zinc chloride and essential oil; and chlorine dioxide using the organoleptic method and a gas chromatograph. Test periods were separated by 1 week. Results: Hydrogen sulphide (H2S), methyl mercaptan (MM) and the organoleptic scores (OLS) were significantly reduced 12 h following rinsing with all substances compared to placebo (P < 0.05). H2S was more effectively reduced after rinsing with zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate and zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate with reduced amounts of mint and menthol compared to rinsing with zinc chloride and essential oil (P < 0.05), and significantly lower values of MM were obtained after rinsing with zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate compared to zinc lactate, chlorhexidine and cetylpyridinium chloride (P < 0.05). The percentage effectively treated individuals (H2S (<112 ppb), MM (<26 ppb) and OLS score <2) varied from 58% percentage (zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate) to 26% (zinc chloride and essential oil). Conclusion: All treatments resulted in reduction in halitosis 12 h after rinsing compared to placebo. H2S and MM were most effectively reduced by zinc acetate and chlorhexidine diacetate.

  • 31. Ademovski, Seida Erovic
    et al.
    Lingström, Peter
    Winkel, Edwin
    Tangerman, Albert
    Persson, Rutger
    Renvert, Stefan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    Comparison of different treatment modalities for oral halitosis2012In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 70, no 3, p. 224-233Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives. To assess the effects on intra-oral halitosis by a mouth rinse containing zinc acetate (0.3%) and chlorhexidine diacetate (0.025%) with and without adjunct tongue scraping. Materials and methods. Twenty-one subjects without a diagnosis of periodontitis were randomized in a cross-over clinical trial. Organoleptic scores (OLS) were assessed to define intra-oral halitosis by total volatile sulfur compound (T-VSC) measurements and by gas chromatography. Results. Twenty-one subjects with a mean age of 45.7 years (SD: +/- 13.3, range: 21-66). The OLS were significantly lower following active rinse combined with tongue scraping (p < 0.001) at all time points. Immediately after, at 30 min, and at day 14, the T-VSC values were lower in the active rinse sequence than in the negative rinse sequence (p < 0.001, p < 0.001 and p < 0.05, respectively). At 30 min and at day 14, the hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and methyl mercaptan (MM) values were lower in the active rinse sequence compared to the inactive rinse sequence (p < 0.001). The inactive rinse sequence with tongue scraping reduced T-VSC at 30 min (p < 0.001) but not at 14 days. Similar reductions in T-VSC, H2S and MM were found in the active rinse sequence with or without tongue scraping. Conclusion. The use of a tongue scraper did not provide additional benefits to the active mouth rinse, but reduced OLS and tongue coating index.

  • 32.
    Ademovski, Seida Erovic
    et al.
    Kristianstad Univ, Sch Hlth & Soc, S-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Martensson, Carina
    Kristianstad Univ, Sch Hlth & Soc, S-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden..
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad Univ, Sch Hlth & Soc, S-29188 Kristianstad, Sweden.;Univ Washington, Sch Dent, Dept Periodont, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Renvert, Stefan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Health.
    The effect of periodontal therapy on intra-oral halitosis: a case series2016In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 445-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on intra-oral halitosis 3months after therapy. Material and methods: Sixty-eight adults with intra-oral halitosis were included in a case series. Intra-oral halitosis was evaluated at baseline, and at 3months after treatment using the organoleptic scores (OLS), Halimeter (R), and a gas chromatograph. Results: Significant reductions for OLS (p<0.01), total sum of volatile sulphur compounds (T-VSC) (p<0.01) and methyl mercaptan (MM) (p<0.05) values were found after treatment. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) levels were not significantly reduced. The numbers of probing pockets 4mm, 5mm and 6mm were significantly reduced as a result of therapy (p<0.001). Bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices were also significantly reduced (p<0.001). For the 34 individuals with successful periodontal treatment (BOP<20% and a 50% reduction of total pocket depth) reductions in OLS (p<0.01) and T-VSC scores (p<0.01) were found. Eleven individuals were considered effectively treated for intra-oral halitosis presenting with a T-VSC value <160ppb, a H2S value <112ppb and a MM value <26ppb. Conclusion: Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in reduction of OLS, MM and T-VSC values 3months after therapy. Few individuals were considered as effectively treated for intra-oral halitosis.

  • 33.
    Ademovski, Seida Erovic
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Mårtensson, Carina
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL). Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society, Avdelningen för Oral hälsa och folkhälsovetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research environment Oral Health - Public Health - Quality of Life (OHAL).
    The effect of periodontal therapy on intra-oral halitosis: a case series2016In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 43, no 5, p. 445-452Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of non-surgical periodontal therapy on intra-oral halitosis 3months after therapy. Material and methods: Sixty-eight adults with intra-oral halitosis were included in a case series. Intra-oral halitosis was evaluated at baseline, and at 3months after treatment using the organoleptic scores (OLS), Halimeter (R), and a gas chromatograph. Results: Significant reductions for OLS (p<0.01), total sum of volatile sulphur compounds (T-VSC) (p<0.01) and methyl mercaptan (MM) (p<0.05) values were found after treatment. Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) levels were not significantly reduced. The numbers of probing pockets 4mm, 5mm and 6mm were significantly reduced as a result of therapy (p<0.001). Bleeding on probing (BOP) and plaque indices were also significantly reduced (p<0.001). For the 34 individuals with successful periodontal treatment (BOP<20% and a 50% reduction of total pocket depth) reductions in OLS (p<0.01) and T-VSC scores (p<0.01) were found. Eleven individuals were considered effectively treated for intra-oral halitosis presenting with a T-VSC value <160ppb, a H2S value <112ppb and a MM value <26ppb. Conclusion: Non-surgical periodontal therapy resulted in reduction of OLS, MM and T-VSC values 3months after therapy. Few individuals were considered as effectively treated for intra-oral halitosis.

  • 34. Ademovski, Seida
    et al.
    Persson, Gösta Rutger
    Winkel, Edwin
    Tangerman, Albert
    Lingström, Peter
    Renvert, Stefan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    The short-term treatment effects on the microbiota at the dorsum of the tongue in intra-oral halitosis patients-a randomized clinical trial2013In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 17, no 2, p. 463-473Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aims to assess the effects of rinsing with zinc- and chlorhexidine-containing mouth rinse with or without adjunct tongue scraping on volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) in breath air, and the microbiota at the dorsum of the tongue. Material and methods: A randomized single-masked controlled clinical trial with a cross-over study design over 14 days including 21 subjects was performed. Bacterial samples from the dorsum of the tongue were assayed by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Results: No halitosis (identified by VSC assessments) at day 14 was identified in 12/21 subjects with active rinse alone, in 10/21with adjunct use of tongue scraper, in 1/21 for negative control rinse alone, and in 3/21 in the control and tongue scraping sequence. At day 14, significantly lower counts were identified only in the active rinse sequence (p < 0.001) for 15/78 species including, Fusobacterium sp., Porphyromonas gingivalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Tannerella forsythia. A decrease in bacteria from baseline to day 14 was found in successfully treated subjects for 9/74 species including: P. gingivalis, Prevotella melaninogenica, S. aureus, and Treponema denticola. Baseline VSC scores were correlated with several bacterial species. The use of a tongue scraper combined with active rinse did not change the levels of VSC compared to rinsing alone. Conclusions: VSC scores were not associated with bacterial counts in samples taken from the dorsum of the tongue. The active rinse alone containing zinc and chlorhexidine had effects on intra-oral halitosis and reduced bacterial counts of species associated with malodor. Tongue scraping provided no beneficial effects on the microbiota studied. Clinical relevance: Periodontally healthy subjects with intra-oral halitosis benefit from daily rinsing with zinc- and chlorhexidine-containing mouth rinse.

  • 35.
    Adern, Bengt
    et al.
    Mälar Hosp, Dept Stomatognath Physiol, Dent Care Ctr, Eskilstuna, Sweden.
    Minston, Ava
    Inst Odontol, Dept Stomatognath Physiol, Jönköping, Sweden;Postgrad Dent Educ Ctr, Orofacial Pain & Jaw Funct, Klostergatan 26,Box 1126, S-70111 Örebro, Sweden.
    Nohlert, Eva
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland.
    Tegelberg, Åke
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centre for Clinical Research, County of Västmanland. Postgrad Dent Educ Ctr, Orofacial Pain & Jaw Funct, Klostergatan 26,Box 1126, S-70111 Örebro, Sweden; Malmö Univ, Fac Odontol, Malmö, Sweden.
    Self-reportance of temporomandibular disorders in adult patients attending general dental practice in Sweden from 2011 to 20132018In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 76, no 7, p. 530-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The study aim was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and acceptance or nonacceptance of such disorders in adult patients attending all public dental health services in the County of Sormland, Sweden, during a 3-year period, 2011-2013.

    Methods: Two questions were asked about TMD and the voluntary mouth-opening capacity was measured. The results were registered in a score 0-3. The registration was completed with a question about each patient's acceptance or nonacceptance of their condition.

    Results: More than 73,000 registrations of the TMD condition were performed in general dental clinics from 2011 to 2013. The mean prevalence of a TMD score of 1-3 was 5% and was consistent over these years. Seventy percent of these patients were women. The peak prevalence of TMD was registered in patients aged 30-45years (38%), and the frequency declined in older age groups. Reduced voluntary mouth-opening capacity (<= 35 mm) was found in less than 2% of the participants. About one-fifth of the patients with a TMD-score of 1-3 did not accept their condition and wanted professional care. The frequency of nonacceptance of the condition increased with the severity of symptom score: 15%, 27%, and 49% for scores 1, 2, and 3, respectively.

    Conclusions: This study shows that the prevalence of self-reported TMD in adult patients was consistent from 2011 to 2013 and should be considered as a public health issue in Sweden. Patients with more severe TMD pain symptoms wanted care more frequent. The annual clinical calibrations should be continued to achieve an acceptable level of registration.

  • 36. Adern, Bengt
    et al.
    Minston, Ava
    Nohlert, Eva
    Tegelberg, Åke
    Malmö University, Faculty of Odontology.
    Self-reportance of temporomandibular disorders in adult patients attending general dental practice in Sweden from 2011 to 20132018In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 76, no 7, p. 530-534Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The study aim was to evaluate the prevalence of self-reported temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and acceptance or nonacceptance of such disorders in adult patients attending all public dental health services in the County of Sormland, Sweden, during a 3-year period, 2011-2013. Methods: Two questions were asked about TMD and the voluntary mouth-opening capacity was measured. The results were registered in a score 0-3. The registration was completed with a question about each patient's acceptance or nonacceptance of their condition. Results: More than 73,000 registrations of the TMD condition were performed in general dental clinics from 2011 to 2013. The mean prevalence of a TMD score of 1-3 was 5% and was consistent over these years. Seventy percent of these patients were women. The peak prevalence of TMD was registered in patients aged 30-45years (38%), and the frequency declined in older age groups. Reduced voluntary mouth-opening capacity (<= 35 mm) was found in less than 2% of the participants. About one-fifth of the patients with a TMD-score of 1-3 did not accept their condition and wanted professional care. The frequency of nonacceptance of the condition increased with the severity of symptom score: 15%, 27%, and 49% for scores 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Conclusions: This study shows that the prevalence of self-reported TMD in adult patients was consistent from 2011 to 2013 and should be considered as a public health issue in Sweden. Patients with more severe TMD pain symptoms wanted care more frequent. The annual clinical calibrations should be continued to achieve an acceptable level of registration.

  • 37. Adern, Bengt
    et al.
    Stenvinkel, Christer
    Sahlqvist, Lotta
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, centrumbildningar mm, Centrum för klinisk forskning i Sörmland (CKFD).
    Tegelberg, Ake
    Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction and pain in adult general practice patients2014In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 585-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To analyse the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and related pain (TMD-pain) among adult recall patients in general dental practice. Materials and methods. From November 2006 to September 2008, all adults attending a Swedish Public Dental Service (PDS) clinic for recall examination were asked two standardized questions about temporomandibular pain and dysfunction. Mouth-opening capacity was measured. The responses to the questions and mouth-opening capacity were combined to give a TMD-pain score, on a scale of 0-3. The patients' acceptance of their TMD condition was also noted. Results. The subjects comprised 2837 adults (53% females, 47% men). Of the total sample, 4.9% reported a TMD-pain score of 1-3. The gender difference was significant: women predominated (p < 0.003). Forty-three per cent of those with TMD-pain scores of 1-3 (36% men, 47% women) considered that the condition warranted treatment, especially those registering a pain score (significant difference between pain and dysfunction groups, p < 0.000). Conclusions. The TMD-pain score shows promise as a useful instrument for detecting and recording TMD-pain. The prevalence of TMD disclosed in the study is high enough to be considered a public health concern. Most of the subjects with lower scores on the TMD-pain scale accepted their condition as not severe enough to require treatment.

  • 38. Adern, Bengt
    et al.
    Stenvinkel, Christer
    Sahlqvist, Lotta
    Tegelberg, Åke
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Prevalence of temporomandibular dysfunction and pain in adult general practice patients2014In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 72, no 8, p. 585-590Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To analyse the prevalence of temporomandibular disorders and related pain (TMD-pain) among adult recall patients in general dental practice. Materials and methods. From November 2006 to September 2008, all adults attending a Swedish Public Dental Service (PDS) clinic for recall examination were asked two standardized questions about temporomandibular pain and dysfunction. Mouth-opening capacity was measured. The responses to the questions and mouth-opening capacity were combined to give a TMD-pain score, on a scale of 0-3. The patients' acceptance of their TMD condition was also noted. Results. The subjects comprised 2837 adults (53% females, 47% men). Of the total sample, 4.9% reported a TMD-pain score of 1-3. The gender difference was significant: women predominated (p < 0.003). Forty-three per cent of those with TMD-pain scores of 1-3 (36% men, 47% women) considered that the condition warranted treatment, especially those registering a pain score (significant difference between pain and dysfunction groups, p < 0.000). Conclusions. The TMD-pain score shows promise as a useful instrument for detecting and recording TMD-pain. The prevalence of TMD disclosed in the study is high enough to be considered a public health concern. Most of the subjects with lower scores on the TMD-pain scale accepted their condition as not severe enough to require treatment.

  • 39.
    Adriaens, Laurence M
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Alessandri, Regina
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Spörri, Stefan
    State Hospital of Fribourg, Fribourg, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington.
    Does pregnancy have an impact on the subgingival microbiota?2009In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 80, no 1, p. 72-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: We investigated clinical and subgingival microbiologic changes during pregnancy in 20 consecutive pregnant women > or =18 years not receiving dental care.

    METHODS: Bacterial samples from weeks 12, 28, and 36 of pregnancy and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum were processed for 37 species by checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization. Clinical periodontal data were collected at week 12 and at 4 to 6 weeks postpartum, and bleeding on probing (BOP) was recorded at sites sampled at the four time points.

    RESULTS: The mean BOP at week 12 and postpartum was 40.1% +/- 18.2% and 27.4% +/- 12.5%, respectively. The corresponding mean BOP at microbiologic test sites was 15% (week 12) and 21% (postpartum; not statistically significant). Total bacterial counts decreased between week 12 and postpartum (P <0.01). Increased bacterial counts over time were found for Neisseria mucosa (P <0.001). Lower counts (P <0.001) were found for Capnocytophaga ochracea, Capnocytophaga sputigena, Eubacterium saburreum, Fusobacterium nucleatum naviforme, Fusobacterium nucleatum polymorphum, Leptotrichia buccalis, Parvimonas micra (previously Peptostreptococcus micros or Micromonas micros), Prevotella intermedia, Prevotella melaninogenica, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius, Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus sanguinis, Selenomonas noxia, and Veillonella parvula. No changes occurred between weeks 12 and 28 of pregnancy. Counts of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (previously Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans), Porphyromonas gingivalis, Tannerella forsythia (previously T. forsythensis), and Treponema denticola did not change. Counts of P. gingivalis and T. forsythia at week 12 were associated with gingivitis (P <0.001).

    CONCLUSIONS: Subgingival levels of bacteria associated with periodontitis did not change. P. gingivalis and T. forsythia counts were associated with BOP at week 12. A decrease was found in 17 of 37 species from week 12 to postpartum. Only counts of N. mucosa increased.

  • 40. Adèrn, Bengt
    et al.
    List, Thomas
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Nebeska, Marie
    Öster, Aanders
    Tegelberg, Åke
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Orsaker till remisser till bettfysiolog: en jämförelse mellan fyra specialistkliniker2003In: Tandläkartidningen, ISSN 0039-6982, Vol. 95, no 10, p. 50-55Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Specialistinstanser i bettfysiologi möter i huvudsak patienter som har en långvarig och svårt smärtproblematik. Under 1900-talet har dock även behandling av obstruktiv sömnapné tillkommit. Ofta är det en läkare som remitterat patienten till den bettfysiologiska kliniken. Denna studie visar att bettfysiologen är en viktig länk mellan tandvården och sjukvården vid utredning och behandling av orofacial smärta. Syf-tet med studien var att jämföra orsakerna till remisser till bettfysiologi. En jämförelse gjordes mellan fyra specialistkliniker i bettfysiologi un-der en 4-månadersperiod år 2001. De flesta remitterade patienter var kvinnor i åldern 20 år och uppåt. Bland de remitterade kvinnorna var smärta den dominerande orsaken medan männen lika ofta remittera-des för sömnstörning som för smärta. 86 procent av patienterna som remitterats för smärta värderade smärtans intensitet som måttlig till väldigt svår. Hos 80 procent av dessa patienter var smärtan långvarig.

  • 41. Agdal, Maren Lillehaug
    et al.
    Raadal, Magne
    Öst, Lars-Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology.
    Skaret, Erik
    Quality-of-life before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients with intra-oral injection phobia2012In: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica, ISSN 0001-6357, E-ISSN 1502-3850, Vol. 70, no 6, p. 463-470Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective. To evaluate quality-of-life (QoL), before and after cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) in patients diagnosed with intra-oral injection phobia according to DSM-IV and to compare with the general population. This study also aimed to evaluate if QoL was associated with self-reported injection anxiety, dental anxiety, time since last dental treatment and oral health. Materials and methods. Subjects were 55 patients (mean age 35.5 +/- 12.2, 78.2% women) who participated in a treatment study in which 89% managed an intra-oral injection at 1 year follow-up. The patients completed a set of questionnaires including Quality of Life Inventory (QOLI), Injection Phobia Scale-Anxiety, Dental Anxiety Scale and a single-item question assessing self-perceived oral health. Objective measures of oral health and treatment needs were based on clinical examination. QOLI-scores from a non-clinical sample were used for comparison. Results. Before treatment the general and health specific QoL were lower among intra-oral injection phobics than in the non-clinical sample. At 1 year follow-up the QoL in general had improved significantly and was similar to that of the non-clinical sample. Poor self-reported oral health and long-term avoidance of dental treatment were associated with lower general and health-specific QoL. Self-reported injection anxiety and dental anxiety were not associated with QoL. Conclusions. Patients with intra-oral injection phobia report lower QoL compared with a general population. Phobia treatment seems to increase QoL to normative levels. Self-perceived poor oral health is associated with reduced QoL in these patients.

  • 42.
    Agerbaek, Mette R
    et al.
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Comparisons of bacterial patterns present at implant and tooth sites in subjects on supportive periodontal therapy. I. Impact of clinical variables, gender and smoking.2006In: Clinical Oral Implants Research, ISSN 0905-7161, E-ISSN 1600-0501, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 18-24Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    OBJECTIVE: (I) To compare the oral microflora at implant and tooth sites in subjects participating in a periodontal recall program, (II) to test whether the microflora at implant and tooth sites differ as an effect of gingival bleeding (bleeding on probing (BOP)), or pocket probing depth (PPD), and (III) to test whether smoking and gender had an impact on the microflora.

    MATERIAL AND METHODS: Data were collected from 127 implants and all teeth in 56 subjects. Microbiological data were identified by the DNA-DNA checkerboard hybridization.

    RESULTS: PPD> or =4 mm were found in 16.9% of tooth, and at 26.6% of implant sites (P<0.01). Tooth sites with PPD> or =4 mm had a 3.1-fold higher bacterial load than implant sites (mean difference: 66%, 95% confidence interval (CI): 40.7-91.3, P<0.001). No differences were found for the red, orange, green, and yellow complexes. A higher total bacterial load was found at implant sites with PPD> or =4 mm (mean difference 35.7 x 10(5), 95% CI: 5.2 (10(5)) to 66.1 (10(5)), P<0.02 with equal variance not assumed). At implant sites, BOP had no impact on bacterial load but influenced the load at tooth sites (P<0.01).

    CONCLUSION: BOP, and smoking had no impact on bacteria at implant sites but influenced the bacterial load at tooth sites. Tooth sites harbored more bacteria than implant sites with comparable PPD. The 4 mm PPD cutoff level influenced the distribution and amounts of bacterial loads. The subject factor is explanatory to bacterial load at both tooth and implant sites.

  • 43. Agerbaek, Mette R
    et al.
    Lang, Niklaus P
    Persson, G. Rutger
    University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland & University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.
    Microbiological composition associated with interleukin-1 gene polymorphism in subjects undergoing supportive periodontal therapy.2006In: Journal of Periodontology, ISSN 0022-3492, E-ISSN 1943-3670, Vol. 77, no 8, p. 1397-1402Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Interleukin-1 gene polymorphism (IL-1 gene) has been associated with periodontitis. The present study examined the subgingival microbiota by IL-1 gene status in subjects undergoing supportive periodontal therapy (SPT).

    METHODS: A total of 151 subjects with known IL-1 gene status (IL-1A +4845/IL-1B -3954) (IL-1 gene) were included in this study. Clinical data and subgingival plaque samples (40 taxa) were collected. These taxa were determined by the checkerboard DNA-DNA hybridization method.

    RESULTS: Gender, smoking habits (n-par tests), age, and clinical periodontal conditions did not differ by IL-1 gene status. IL-1 gene-negative subjects had a higher total bacterial load (mean difference, 480.4 x 10(5); 95% confidence interval [CI], 77 to 884 x 10(5); P <0.02). The levels of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans (mean difference, 30.7 x 10(5); 95% CI, 2.2 to 59.5 x 10(5); P <0.05), Eubacterium nodatum (mean difference, 4.2 x 10(5); 95% CI, 0.6 to 7.8 x 10(5); P <0.02), Porphyromonas gingivalis (mean difference, 17.9 x 10(5); 95% CI, 1.2 to 34.5 x 10(5); P <0.05), and Streptococcus anginosus (mean difference, 4.0 x 10(5); 95% CI, 0.2 to 7.2 x 10(5); P <0.05) were higher in IL-1 gene-negative subjects, an observation specifically found at sites with probing depths <5.0 mm.

    CONCLUSIONS: Bleeding on probing did not differ by IL gene status, reflecting clinical SPT efficacy. IL-1 gene-negative subjects had higher levels of periodontal pathogens. This may suggest that among subjects undergoing SPT, a lower bacterial load is required in IL-1 gene-positive subjects to develop the same level of periodontitis as in IL-1 gene-negative subjects.

  • 44.
    Aghazadeh, Ahmad
    et al.
    Uppsala Käkkirurgiska Centrum.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Renvert, Stefan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    A single-center randomized controlled clinical trial on the adjunct treatment of intra-bony defects with autogenous bone or a xenograft: results after 12 months2012In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, E-ISSN 1600-051X, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 666-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Limited evidence exists on the efficacy of regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis Materials and methods Subjects receiving antibiotics and surgical debridement were randomly assigned to placement of autogenous bone (AB) or bovine derived xenograft (BDX) with placement of a collagen membrane. The primary outcome was: evidence of radiographic bone fill and the secondary outcomes included reductions of probing depth (PD) bleeding on probing (BOP) and suppuration. Results 22 subjects were included in the AB and 23 subjects in the BDX group. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate differences for 38/39 variables assessed at baseline. At 12 months, significant better results were obtained in the BDX group for bone levels (p < 0.001), BOP (p = 0.004), PI (p = 0.003), and suppuration (p < 0.01). When adjusting for number of implants treated per subject, a successful treatment outcome PD≤ 5.0 mm, no pus, no bone loss and BOP at 1/4 sites the likelihood of defect fill was higher in the BDX group (LR: 3.2, 95 % CI: 1.0 to 10.6, p < 0.05). Conclusions Bovine xenograft provided more radiographic bone fill than autogenous bone. The success for both surgical regenerative procedures was limited. Decreases in PD, BOP, and suppuration were observed.

  • 45. Aghazadeh, Ahmad
    et al.
    Persson, G. Rutger
    Renvert, Stefan
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, School of Health Science.
    A single-centre randomized controlled clinical trial on the adjunct treatment of intra-bony defects with autogenous bone or a xenograft: results after 12 months2012In: Journal of Clinical Periodontology, ISSN 0303-6979, Vol. 39, no 7, p. 666-673Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Limited evidence exists on the efficacy of regenerative treatment of peri-implantitis. Material and Methods Subjects receiving antibiotics and surgical debridement were randomly assigned to placement of autogenous bone (AB) or bovine-derived xenograft (BDX) and with placement of a collagen membrane. The primary outcome was evidence of radiographic bone fill and the secondary outcomes included reductions of probing depth (PD) bleeding on probing (BOP) and suppuration. Results Twenty-two subjects were included in the AB and 23 subjects in the BDX group. Statistical analysis failed to demonstrate differences for 38/39 variables assessed at baseline. At 12 months, significant better results were obtained in the BDX group for bone levels (p < 0.001), BOP (p = 0.004), PI (p = 0.003) and suppuration (p < 0.01). When adjusting for number of implants treated per subject, a successful treatment outcome PD = 5.0 mm, no pus, no bone loss and BOP at 1/4 or less sites the likelihood of defect fill was higher in the BDX group (LR: 3.2, 95% CI: 1.010.6, p < 0.05). Conclusions Bovine xenograft provided more radiographic bone fill than AB. The success for both surgical regenerative procedures was limited. Decreases in PD, BOP, and suppuration were observed.

  • 46.
    Agren, Martin
    et al.
    Prosthodont Specialist Clin, Sweden.
    Sahin, Christofer
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland.
    Pettersson, Mattias
    Umea Univ, Sweden.
    The effect of botulinum toxin injections on bruxism: A systematic review2020In: Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, ISSN 0305-182X, E-ISSN 1365-2842Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective To systematize evidence on the efficacy of botulinum toxin type A (BTA) in the treatment of bruxism measured through bite force or electromyography (EMG) at the masseter muscle. Method Identification of relevant articles through databases PubMed, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Ovid and EBSCO and manual search were performed for sources from review articles. Studies scoring less than 3 on the Jadad Scale were excluded. Results Four articles were included after an exclusion of 333 articles. 3 articles measured EMG and 1 bite force. 1 article did not record a significant drop of activity, 1 article recorded reduction midway and at final endpoint. 2 articles recorded initial reduction, but a non significant difference at later follow up. Conclusion The available research is inconclusive and does not show enough evidence that bruxism can be treated with BTA injections. However, promising results have been shown in individual studies and further research in this area is needed.

  • 47.
    Ahlgren, Camilla
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Dental gold and contact allergy2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Guld har i många år använts som rekonstruktionsmaterial vid bettrehabilitering. Mer än 50% av Sveriges vuxna befolkning har kronor och/eller broar framställda i guldlegering och guld används också till stift i rotfyllda tänder, på vilka sedan kronor kan fästas. Guld har länge betraktats vara inert, dvs. ej kunna ge några reaktioner vid användning i kroppen, men på senare år har en ökad frekvens av kontaktallergi mot guld kunnat konstateras. Kontaktallergi är en typ av allergi, som vid upprepad kontakt med ämnet kan ge patienten en reaktion i hud och slemhinna. När det gäller guld kan kontaktallergi uppstå t.ex. under guldringar, av örhänge eller av halsband. När man utreder patienter för kontaktallergi mot guld – s.k. lapptestning, fäster man en häfta med guldsaltet guldnatriumtiosulfat (GSTS) på ryggen i 48 timmar. Patienten tar efter dessa två dygn bort testlappen och 3–4 samt 7 dagar efter exponeringen värderas den eventuellt uppkomna reaktionen av en hudläkare. Reaktionerna kan klassas som ospecifika irritationsreaktioner, negativa reaktioner, tveksamma reak-tioner och allergiska (positiva) reaktioner av eksemtyp. 1991 började man i Malmö rutinmässigt använda GSTS vid lapptestning av kontaktallergi mot guld, och då kunde konstateras att 10 % av de testade uppvisade kontaktallergi mot guld. Man har också visat att ett positivt lapptest är en manifestation av kontaktallergi. GSTS är, efter nickelsulfat, det näst vanligaste allergenet, som ger positiv hudreaktion vid rutintestning av eksempatienter. Detta tillsammans med en enkätstudie, som indikerade att kontaktallergi för guld var överrepresenterat hos patienter som hade guld i munnen, utgör bakgrunden till detta avhandlingsprojekt. I det första delarbetet studerades om dentalt guld (kronor, broar, inlägg) kunde sättas i samband med kontaktallergi för guld. Patienterna som ingick i studien var patienter som skulle testas eftersom de hade eksem. Resultaten visade att de patienter som vid tandläkarundersökning visat sig ha guld i munnen också i större utsträckning hade kontaktallergi för guld vid lapptestning. Symtom i munnen eller tecken på munslemhinnereaktioner kunde dock inte sättas i samband med dentalt guld eller positivt lapptest för guld. Däremot kunde det konstateras att de som hade mycket guld i munnen i större utsträckning hade kontaktallergi mot guld. I delarbete två studerades guldhalten i blodet hos samma patientpopulation. Det kunde konstateras att de patienter som hade dentalt guld hade förhöjda värden av guld i blod. I tredje delarbetet undersöktes mängden guld i blod efter att patienterna fått guldinlägg, vilket motsvarar en krona men med en fyllnings utsträckning. Patienterna hade mer guld i blodet efter att inläggen satts in jämfört med mängden guld i blod innan inläggen sattes fast. Fortfarande 15 år efter att inläggen sattes in hade patienterna förhöjda värden av guld i blod, vilket måste tolkas som en kontinuerlig frisättning av guld från dentalt guld till blod. Förhöjda värden av guld i blod har visat sig ha betydelse för hudens reaktion i kontakt med guld. Huruvida det föreligger ett samband mellan dentalt guld, kontaktallergi mot guld och munslemhinnelesioner, är inte väl utrett. Dock har studier på patienter med oral lichen indikerat att dessa patienter skulle kunna vara allergiska mot guld, men även mot andra tandvårdsmaterial. I fjärde delarbetet undersöktes därför patienter med oral lichen, med avseende på kontaktallergi mot guld i jämförelse med kontrollpatienter, vilka var remitterade till Yrkes- och miljödermatologiska avdelningen, Hudkliniken i Malmö, för misstanke om allergiskt kontakteksem. I denna studie kunde man finna en numerär skillnad avseende kontaktallergi för guld men inte någon statistisk skillnad mellan grupperna. Det är därför av vikt att i fortsatta studier, med större undersökningsmaterial, försöka utröna om det finns ett statistiskt säkert samband mellan oral lichen och kontaktallergi mot guld eller andra tandvårdsmaterial eftersom dessa patienter kan uppleva perioder med stora besvär, vilka kan försvåra både födointag och upprätthållande av en adekvat munhygien.

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  • 48.
    Ahlgren, Camilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Axéll, Tony
    Möller, Halvor
    Isaksson, Marléne
    Liedholm, Rolf
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bruze, Magnus
    Contact allergies to potential allergens in patients with oral lichen lesions2014In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 18, no 1, p. 227-237Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the present controlled study was to investigate a possible relationship between contact allergies to potential allergens and oral lichen lesions. Eighty-three patients with oral lichen lesions (OLL) and control groups of age- and gender-matched dermatitis patients (DP, n = 83) and patch-tested dermatitis patients randomly selected from files (PSFF, n = 319) were included in the study. OLL and DP groups were patch-tested epicutaneously and examined intraorally. The frequencies of contact allergy to mercury and carvone were statistically higher in the OLL group than in the DP group. Surfaces of amalgam and composite restorations were statistically more frequent in the OLL group compared to the DP group. Contact allergy to nickel and colophony, the latter with a statistically significant difference, was more common in the DP group. The numerical difference found for nickel allergy was, however, not significant comparing the OLL and PSFF groups. Contact allergy to mercury was overrepresented in patients with OLL and has been reported in previous studies, but the present finding of an overrepresentation of contact allergy to carvone in patients with oral lichen lesions has not been reported previously. Carvone, in addition to mercury and gold, as previously suggested, can be one of the causative or maintenant factors for oral lichen lesions. Carvone-hypersensitive patients with oral lichen lesions should therefore avoid carvone-containing products for oral use.

  • 49.
    Ahlgren, Camilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bruze, Magnus
    Möller, Halvor
    Gruvberger, Birgitta
    Axéll, Tony
    Liedholm, Rolf
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Nilner, Krister
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Contact Allergy to Gold in Patients with Oral Lichen Lesions2012In: Acta Dermato-Venereologica, ISSN 0001-5555, E-ISSN 1651-2057, Vol. 92, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aetiology of oral lichen lesions is obscure. In this study the frequency of contact allergy to gold in 83 patients with oral lichen lesions was compared with that in two control groups, comprising 319 age- and gender-matched patients with dermatitis selected from files and 83 clinically examined dermatitis patients. All patients were tested epicutaneously with gold sodium thiosulphate. The two control groups tested were under examination for a tentative diagnosis of allergic dermatitis not related to oral problems. The frequency of contact allergy to gold was 28.9% in the patients with oral lichen lesions, 18.2% in patients selected from files, and 22.9% in the clinically examined control patients. The difference in frequency between patients with oral lichen lesions and those taken from files was statistically significant.

    Download full text (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 50.
    Ahlgren, Camilla
    et al.
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Isaksson, Marlene
    Möller, Halvor
    Axéll, Tony
    Liedholm, Rolf
    Malmö högskola, Faculty of Odontology (OD).
    Bruze, Magnus
    The necessity of a test reading after 1 week to detect late positive patch test reactions in patients with oral lichen lesions2014In: Clinical Oral Investigations, ISSN 1432-6981, E-ISSN 1436-3771, Vol. 18, no 5, p. 1525-1531Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Establishing the clinical relevance of contact allergy to dental materials in patients with oral lichen lesions (OLL) may be difficult, and tests are often read only on day 3 or day 4; also, concentration of the tested allergens may vary. Several studies on dermatitis patients have shown that additional positive patch test reactions can be found after day 4. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to analyse the frequency of late positive reactions to potential allergens in patients with OLL. Eighty-three of 96 consecutive patients with biopsy-verified OLL were patch-tested with a recently developed lichen series. The patches were removed after 48 h and reactions read 3 and 7 days after application. A total of 129 contact allergies were found, and 26 (20.2 %) of the allergic reactions in 23 patients were seen on day 7 only. The 25.2 % increase in positive test reactions with an additional reading on day 7 in addition to day 3 was statistically significant. Metals were the substances with the highest frequency of late positive reactions. Patients with OLL cannot be considered properly investigated with regard to contact allergy, unless the testing has been performed with mandatory readings on day 3 (or day 4) and day 7. Late patch test readings are crucial in order to elucidate the role of contact allergy to dental materials in the aetiology of OLL.

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