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  • 1.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Frias, J
    Oliveira, F.A.R.
    Singh, R.P.
    Modelling textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions2001In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 566, 323-328 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Acidification can be used to improve the quality of canned vegetables because it can decrease thermal processing requirements. Moreover, there is some evidence that acidified vegetables retain a better texture than non-acidified ones. Optimisation of the acidification processes requires the knowledge of the relationship between texture and thermal process at low/moderate temperature. The main objective of this work was the modelling of textural changes of vegetables during acidification under isothermal conditions, and the application of the model to predict textural changes in non-isothermal processes. Turnip was the vegetable used in the experiments. The effect of pre-treatments (blanching, freezing/thawing, calcium addition and vacuum infusion of water before acidification) on the kinetics of textural changes during acidification was also studied. Turnips were acidified in acetic acid under isothermal (20, 50, 70, 80, 90 and 100°C) and non-isothermal conditions (20 to 90°C). Texture was modelled by a two subtract first order kinetic model, assuming an Arrhenius-type dependence of the rate constants on temperature. The model parameters were estimated by nonlinear regression. At temperatures lower then 70°C no significant changes in texture were detected. At higher temperatures the model showed a good fit to the data for all the conditions tested. Acidification decreased the percentage of heat labile substrate from 96% to 62%, thus improving firmness retention. The parameters of the kinetic model estimated under isothermal conditions provided an adequate prediction of texture changes under non-isothermal conditions. The methodology developed in this work can be further applied to model the textural changes of vegetables during other thermal processes, such as drying, blanching, and frying.

  • 2.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Gonzalez-Martinez, G
    Sjoholm, I
    Nilsson, Katarina
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Improvement of texture by modifying processing conditions2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 604, 277-283 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Fruit and vegetable processors, faced with the challenge of gaining and maintaining a healthy position in the competitive fruit and vegetable sector, are optimising traditional processes towards product quality. Using frozen potatoes as a case study, the aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of improving the texture of potatoes by modifying the processing conditions. The texture of processed frozen potatoes is the result of the integral effect of the unit operations applied through the production chain. Production of frozen potatoes includes a blanching, a freezing, thawing/cooking step before being served. In this study, blanching temperatures from 70 to 97 °C up to 10 minutes were tested and combined with freezing by two freezing methods, impingement and air-blast freezing. The texture was measured after cooking of frozen potatoes in boiling water. Besides texture, water holding capacity, microstructural evaluation and pectinmethylesterase (PME) activity were determined. Blanching of potatoes prior to freezing can both improve water holding capacity and texture of potatoes, but this effect depends on the freezing rate and blanching temperature. Potatoes frozen with fastest freezing method are firmer and hold more water than the ones frozen by air-blast freezing. Blanching at 70 °C can lead to potatoes that after cooking retain a firmer texture, compared with blanching at 90 °C. The duration of the blanching treatment has also an important effect on texture changes. The studies of PME activity showed a good correlation between texture and PME for blanching at 90 °C, but for blanching at 70°C and longer times, the development of texture does not seem to be solely related to PME activity. Microstructural studies showed that the differences in texture are due to differences in the degree of starch gelatinisation and integrity of the cellular structure.

  • 3. Albinsson, Berit
    et al.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK Swedish Inst. Food & Biotechnol, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Åström, Annika
    Handbok i sensorisk analys2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den första utgåvan av Birgit Lundgrens Handbok i Sensorisk Analys utkom 1981. Den har sedan dess blivit en klassiker inom sensoriska kretsar och i ordets verkliga bemärkelse blivit använd som just en handbok – en bok att hålla fast vid i alla typer av sensoriska sammanhang. Vi vill med denna uppdaterade nyutgåva beskriva de traditionella metoderna med dagens termer samt komplettera med några nya metoder.

  • 4.
    Alison, Lauriane
    et al.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Dept Mat, Complex Mat, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Ruhs, Patrick A.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Dept Mat, Complex Mat, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Tervoort, Elena
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Dept Mat, Complex Mat, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Teleki, Alexandra
    DSM Nutr Prod Ltd, Nutr R&D Ctr Formulat & Applicat, POB 2676, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland..
    Zanini, Michele
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Interfaces Soft Matter & Assembly, Dept Mat, Complex Mat, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Isa, Lucio
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Interfaces Soft Matter & Assembly, Dept Mat, Complex Mat, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Studart, Andre R.
    Swiss Fed Inst Technol, Dept Mat, Complex Mat, CH-8093 Zurich, Switzerland..
    Pickering and Network Stabilization of Biocompatible Emulsions Using Chitosan-Modified Silica Nanoparticles2016In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 32, no 50, 13446-13457 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Edible solid particles constitute an attractive alternative to surfactants as stabilizers of food-grade emulsions for products requiring a long-term shelf life. Here, we report on a new approach to stabilize edible emulsions using silica nanoparticles modified by noncovalently bound chitosan oligomers. Electrostatic modification with chitosan increases the hydrophobicity of the silica nanoparticles and favors their adsorption at the oil water interface. The interfacial adsorption of the chitosan-modified silica particles enables the preparation of oil-in-water emulsions with small droplet sizes of a few micrometers through high-pressure homogenization. This approach enables the stabilization of food-grade emulsions for more than 3 months. The emulsion structure and stability can be effectively tuned by controlling the extent of chitosan adsorption on the silica particles. Bulk and interfacial rheology are used to highlight the two stabilization mechanisms involved. Low chitosan concentration (1 wt % with respect to silica) leads to the formation of a viscoelastic film of particles adsorbed at the oil water interface, enabling Pickering stabilization of the emulsion. By contrast, a network of agglomerated particles formed around the droplets is the predominant stabilization mechanism of the emulsions at higher chitosan content (5 wt % with respect to silica). These two pathways against droplet coalescence and coarsening open up different possibilities to engineer the long-term stabilization of emulsions for food applications.

  • 5. Al-Naamani, Laila
    et al.
    Dobretsov, Sergey
    Dutta, Joydeep
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics, Functional Materials, FNM.
    Chitosan-zinc oxide nanoparticle composite coating for active food packaging applications2016In: Innovative Food Science & Emerging Technologies, ISSN 1466-8564, E-ISSN 1878-5522, Vol. 38, 231-237 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study antimicrobial properties of chitosan and chitosan-zinc oxide (ZnO) nanocomposite coatings on PE films were studied. Oxygen plasma pretreatment of PE films led to increased adhesion by 2% of chitosan and the nanocomposite coating solutions to the packaging films. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) revealed uniform coatings on PE surfaces. Incorporation of ZnO nanoparticles into the chitosan matrix resulted in 42% increase in solubility; swelling decreased by 80% while the water contact angle (WCA) increased from 60 to 95 compared to chitosan coating. PE coated with chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite films completely inactivated and prevented the growth of food pathogens, while chitosan-coated films showed only 10-fold decline in the viable cell counts of Salmonella enterica, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus after 24-h incubation compared to the control. Industrial relevance: One of the greatest challenges of food industry is microbial contamination. The present study suggests that PE coating with chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite is a promising technique to enhance antimicrobial properties of the films. Chitosan-ZnO nanocomposite coatings improved antibacterial properties of PE by inactivating about 99.9% of viable pathogenic bacteria. Hence, our results show the effectiveness of the nanocomposite coating in the development of active food packaging in order to prolong the shelf life of food products.

  • 6. Aminlashgari, Nina
    et al.
    Shariatgorji, Mohammadreza
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Ilag, Leopold L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Analytical Chemistry.
    Hakkarainen, Minna
    Nanocomposites as novel surfaces for laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry2011In: Analytical Methods, ISSN 1759-9660, Vol. 3, no 1, 192-197 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The possibility to utilize nanocomposite films as easy-to-handle surfaces for surface assisted laser desorption ionization-mass spectrometry (SALDI-MS) of small molecules, such as pharmaceutical compounds, was evaluated. The signal-to-noise values of acebutolol, propranolol and carbamazepine obtained on the nanocomposite surfaces were higher than the values obtained on plain PLA surface showing that the nanoparticles participate in the ionization/desorption process even when they are immobilized in the polymer matrix. The advantages of nanocomposite films compared to the free nanoparticles used in earlier studies are the ease of handling and reduction of instrument contamination since the particles are immobilized into the polymer matrix. Eight inorganic nanoparticles, titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide, hydroxyapatite, montmorillonite nanoclay, halloysite nanoclay, silicon nitride and graphitized carbon black at different concentrations were solution casted to films with polylactide (PLA). There were large differences in signal intensities depending on the type of drug, type of nanoparticle and the concentration of nanoparticles. Polylactide with 10% titanium oxide or 10% silicon nitride functioned best as SALDI-MS surfaces. The limit of detection (LOD) for the study was ranging from 1.7 ppm up to 56.3 ppm and the signal to noise relative standard deviations for the surface containing 10% silicon nitride was approximately 20-30%. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated in most cases a good distribution of the nanoparticles in the polymer matrix and contact angle measurements showed increasing hydrophobicity when the nanoparticle concentration was increased, which could influence the desorption and ionization. Overall, the results show that nanocomposite films have potential as surfaces for SALDI-MS analysis of small molecules.

  • 7.
    Arding, Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Sensory evaluation and quality assessment of an alternative inner coating film in yogurt cartons2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The dairy food industry is continuously striving towards products with higher quality and longer shelf-life available to the customer at low prices. Arla Foods in Linköping, Sweden, is currently investigating the possibilities of changing the material in yogurt packaging containers by replacing the currently used carton with a different and cheaper alternative. A successful switch will give the company an economical advantage without affecting the sensory attributes (smell, taste, sight, and consistency), aroma profile or other important trademarks of the yogurt. This study is designed to examine and compare yogurt that has been stored in different packaging cartons, one coated with a single-layered low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and one coated with a currently used multi-layered ethylene-vinyl alcohol (EVOH).

    The study was based on the analysis and measurement of sensory attributes performed by experts, physical properties in laboratory and chemical composition in GC-FID/MS together with a discriminative test where a group of people would identify any difference between the yogurts. Together, these analyses would provide an explanation about any differences between the packaging materials by connecting physical, chemical and/or sensory characteristics. The collected results would give a better and more comprehensive picture than each analysis would do separately.

    The results from the study show that there is a difference between yogurts stored in LDPE-based containers and yogurts stored in EVOH-based containers and that the product was chemically affected, mainly by the level of oxygen in contact with the food. The overall assessment is that the largest difference was discovered in the taste.

  • 8.
    Bagge, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Hedman, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Smedsrud, Sabina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Svärdström, Cornelia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Söderberg, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Valdez, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Utveckling av metodik för påvisning och typning av Listeria i livsmedelskedjan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9.
    Bengtsson, Viktor
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Skarheden, Philip
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Mechanical Engineering.
    Ökat kapacitetsutnyttjande genom reducerad processvariation: 2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 180 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Studien är utförd på ett fallföretag med syftet att skapa en djupare förståelse för hur stabilisering av en produktionsprocess påverkar kapacitetsutnyttjandet.

    Nuläget analyserades genom observationer, intervjuer och företagets egen dokumentation. Två experiment utfördes vilket resulterade i att ett samband hittades mellan variationer och kapacitetsutnyttjandet i en produktionsprocess. Vidare avgränsades vilka produktionsförutsättningar som gav högst kapacitetsutnyttjande. Slutligen presenteras hur det ökade kapacitetsutnyttjandet påverkar de ekonomiska resultaten samt studiens slutsats och rekommendationer till fallföretaget. 

  • 10.
    Bengtzon, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Ageing and changes in the chemical senses related to food perception : a literature review2002Report (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Borch, Elisabeth
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Arinder, Pernilla
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Bacteriological safety issues in red meat and ready-to-eat meat products, as well as control measures2002In: Meat Science, ISSN 0309-1740, E-ISSN 1873-4138, Vol. 62, no 3, 381-390 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of Eschericha coli O157, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium DT104 as meat-borne pathogens is well established. Pathogenic bacteria such as Aeromonas spp., Arcobacter spp., psychrotrophic Bacillus cereus, Campylobacter spp., Clostridium botulinum and non-invasive Listeria monocytogenes can be regarded as rookies, but not yet firmly associated with today's production of red meat and meat products. The development of PCR and other DNA-based techniques will shed new light on so called emerging pathogens. Important safety issues in meat production, such as insufficient cleaning and disinfection (including the stable/lairage, processing environment), carcass decontamination and chilling, and cross contamination are discussed. Furthermore, probability modelling of survival and growth is identified as an important way to achieve a better understanding of how to deal with the complexity of further processing, including heat treatment and storage. © 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 12.
    Bosha, Abraham
    et al.
    Haramaya University, Ethiopia; Wolaita Sodo University, Ethiopia.
    Lagibo Dalbato, Abitew
    Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Tana, Tamado
    Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
    Mohammed, Wassu
    Haramaya University, Ethiopia.
    Tesfaye, Buzayew
    Hawassa University, Ethiopia.
    Karlsson, Laila
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Swedish University of Agriculture Science, Sweden.
    Nutritional and chemical properties of fermented food of wild and cultivated genotypes of enset (Ensete ventricosum)2016In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145, Vol. 89, 806-811 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The multipurpose crop enset (Ensete ventricosum) has been traditionally cultivated in Ethiopia since ancient times. The main food product is the starch-rich fermented kocho made from the pseudostem and corm. There are many vegetatively propagated landraces utilised by farmers, but no concisions breeding have taken place, and there are requests for improved cultivars. There are also populations of wild ensets which propagate sexually, and the variation in characteristics among the wild is not studied. We suggest investigating the variation among the wild, in order utilise the most proper combinations of parent plants when breeding for different purposes. We analysed kocho, after 30 and 90 days of fermentation, from three wild genotypes and three cultivars, to compare how and how much they differ in components and perceived food quality. The three cultivars scored generally higher than all the three wild genotypes for protein, fat, sugar and minerals, while the wild had larger fraction of starch. On average, panellists rated all the cultivated significantly higher than all the wild regarding the investigated characteristics (colour, texture, taste and overall). However, there were nine out of 25 panellists who rated at least one wild genotype higher or equal to at least one cultivar regarding taste, showing that people can be open for unfamiliar kocho. Therefore, we conclude that further investigations of the variation among wild plants should be done, aiming to get a larger gene pool with improved characteristics as e.g. disease tolerance or superior mineral uptake; by careful selection of parent plants, desired combinations can be achieved. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 13.
    Dahl Petersson, Charlotta
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Rojas Carvajal, Carlos
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Uhlmann, Jenny
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Svenska baljväxter från förr: en sensorisk beskrivning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Legumes have many favourable health and environmental benefits and are predicted to be the diet of the future. Sweden sits on a cultural treasure when it comes to legumes from the past that have been collected by The programme of cultivated diversity, POM. A sensory description would be a valuable tool to reach the consumer and a way to increase the consumption and value of the product.

    Purpose: The purpose of this thesis is to identify and bring forward sensory descriptive words for six Swedish legumes from the past. This thesis will also describe the Swedish legumes using the sensory descriptive words to evaluate whether there are sensory differences.

    Method: Six different types of legumes were used in the two surveys. The first survey consisted of a qualitative group discussion and the goal was to bring forward sensory descriptive words for the legumes. The second survey consisted of a quantitative intensity evaluation of the legumes. Both surveys were made by a panel of experts, chosen for their knowledge of legumes.

    Result: The sensory words which best describes the legumes are sweet, sour/acidic, bitter, chestnut, nutty, buttery, fresh, rich taste and with variations in aftertaste. The mouthfeel can be described as mealy, crisp, solid and tender. The evaluation of intensity proved the legumes to have few taste varieties, but despite the sensory descriptions each of the six legumes were possible to distinguish.

    Conclusion: The sensory descriptive words that this thesis have lead to can help the consumer to chose the right product, increase the value of the product an at the same time preserve a cultural treasure of Sweden. It is also possible for the consumer to create a cultural identity with all the good benefits that the legumes possess.

  • 14. Dalvi-Isfahan, M.
    et al.
    Hamdami, N.
    Le-Bail, A.
    Xanthakis, E.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    The principles of high voltage electric field and its application in food processing: A review2016In: Food Research International, ISSN 0963-9969, E-ISSN 1873-7145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food processing is a major part of the modern global industry and it will certainly be an important sector of the industry in the future. Several processes for different purposes are involved in food processing aiming at the development of new products by combining and/or transforming raw materials, to the extension of food shelf-life, recovery, exploitation and further use of valuable compounds and many others. During the last century several new food processes have arisen and most of the traditional ones have evolved. The future food factory will require innovative approaches food processing which can combine increased sustainability, efficiency and quality. Herein, the objective of this review is to explore the multiple applications of high voltage electric field (HVEF) and its potentials within the food industry. These applications include processes such as drying, refrigeration, freezing, thawing, extending food shelf- life, and extraction of biocompounds. In addition, the principles, mechanism of action and influence of specific parameters have been discussed comprehensively. © 2016.

  • 15. Eduardo, M.
    et al.
    Svanberg, U.
    Ahrné, L.
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage2016In: Food Science & Nutrition, E-ISSN 2048-7177, Vol. 4, no 4, 636-644 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to <20.0 N. The melting peak temperature was increased from 52 C to between 53.0 C and 57.0 C with added hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers. The melting enthalpy of the retrograded amylopectin was lower in composite bread with hydrocolloids and emulsifiers, 6.7–11.0 J/g compared to 20.0 J/g for the reference bread. These results show that emulsifiers in combination with hydrocolloids can improve the quality and extend the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat breads. © 2015 The Authors. Food Science & Nutrition published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  • 16.
    Emtfors, Sandra
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Holgersson, Lisbeth
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Friedrich, Robert
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Smaksatt proteinberikad havredryck: en vegetabilisk dryck fri från allergener2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There are constantly new studies with various health advice regarding diet and physicalactivity on how to avoid obesity, hypertension and cardiovascular disease. The interestof the protein's effect on building muscle during physical activity has increased. Thishas resulted in a variety of different drinks with protein supplements on the market,mainly derived from animal origin.The purpose of this report was to develop a vegetable protein enriched oat drink that isexpected to help the body during recovery. The work meant to develop a recipe basedon the Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2004 (NNR) with a focus on protein,carbohydrates and fat. The target was also to exclude allergens. The drink was based onan average from the physically active and older people's nutritional needs, in order tobroaden the prospective drink's target audience.Four flavored drinks were made with different energy content from two oat drinks, oneplain and one oat drink enriched with calcium. To evaluate the public's perception of thedifferent beverages composition a consumer test was performed. The results of theconsumer test showed that there was a statistically significant difference on texture,taste and appearance. However, the majority of respondents were positive about thebeverages sensory properties.

  • 17. Eneroth, Hanna
    et al.
    Gunnlaugsdóttir, Helga
    Ilbäck, Nils-Gunnar
    Lillegaard, Inger Therese Laugsand
    Poulsen, Morten
    Rönnqvist, Maria
    Risk-benefit assessment of food: Report from a Nordic workshop September 20162017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this workshop held in Uppsala, Sweden 22-23 September 2016 was to initiate Nordic collaboration on risk-benefit assessment of foods.

    The importance of assessing both risks and benefits with foods to improve public health through appropriate dietary habits was emphasized. Risk-benefit assessments are resource demanding, and the methodological challenges extensive. Workshop participants decided to jointly develop this area further within the Nordic region and a Nordic risk-benefit group was formed.

    This report summarizes the presentations from invited speakers (Hans Verhagen, EFSA, Géraldine Boué, ONIRIS-INRA, France and Maarten Nauta, Denmark Technical University), the reports of ongoing risk-benefit activities in the Nordic countries and the discussions on topics and modes of future collaboration.

  • 18. Fabech, Bente
    et al.
    Christiansen, Mette
    Furuhagen, Christin
    Guðjónsdóttir, Katrín
    Holm, Mette
    Håland, Julie Tesdal
    Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg
    Kostamo, Pirkko
    Legind, Charlotte
    Li, Ågot
    Mikkelsen, Bjørg
    Norström, Åsa Lagerstedt
    Rajakangas, Liisa
    Sem, Signe
    Tollin, Agneta
    Virtanen, Merja
    Nordic checklist food contact materials: Declaration of compliance and supporting documentation2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Documentation of compliance with the legislation is a corner stone in the control of food contact materials (FCM). In-house control is an important pre-requisite to limit contamination from FCM and shall be based on the declaration of compliance and supporting documentation at the responsible business operators in the supply chain. The goal of this project was to develop a Nordic checklist on documentation of compliance for FCM. The Nordic checklist contains several templates. The different templates provide check points on the minimum requirements for a declaration of compliance for all types of materials. The templates are meant to be used by industry and trade as guidance for drafting a declaration of compliance. Furthermore, the check lists are also meant to be tools for the public food and FCM inspection.

  • 19.
    Fallgren, Karl
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Sundborg, Håkan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Entrepreneurship and innovation. KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Economics and Management (Dept.), Industrial Management.
    Future grocery: A study of the e-commerce grocery basket business in Sweden 2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The era of the Internet has become increasingly important in our daily life. Internet channels are rapidly growing into sophisticated businesses. This thesis purpose is therefore to conduct an initial study on a newly approaching e-commerce business, namely the grocery basket business. As there has not yet been much research in this field the overall aim is to contribute to the research in this business area. There are many who argue that in relation to the Internet and e-commerce fields there are two other important fields: business model and supply chain.

    A qualitative approach is used, based on triangulation methodology including a multiple case study and a survey. The cases are two different types of e-commerce companies: brick-and-clicks and pure-players. An empirical investigation covering twenty interviews and a questionnaire with one thousand respondents has been conducted.

    Findings supported by the interviews and the questionnaire reveal much knowledge about the grocery basket business. This are analyzed in relation to literature of business model and supply chain and according to the two cases of companies in the business.

    The study concludes that there is a great deal of challenges facing the grocery basket business in both fields of business model and supply chain. In both cases it is a challenge to retain customers, flexibility for customers, competition and supply chain development. Regarding brick-and-clicks a major challenge is to make their physical channel and online channel work together. Regarding pure-players a major challenge is their dependency of wholesalers. In addition, recommendations to these acknowledged challenges are benchmarking on other successful grocery companies and/or other successful e-commerce companies. Additional recommendation for pure-players is that they should cooperate with a brick-and-mortar company. Finally, the study shows some decent potential in the business to reduce emissions. This by providing eco-friendly products with pre planned recipes to fit with the products, and having fewer products in stock.

  • 20. Fitzpatrick, J.J.
    et al.
    Ahrné, Lilia
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Food powder handling and processing: Industry problems, knowledge barriers and research opportunities2005In: Chemical Engineering and Processing, ISSN 0255-2701, E-ISSN 1873-3204, Vol. 44, no 2, 209-214 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 21. Forsman, M.
    et al.
    Bernmark, E.
    Nilsson, B.
    Pousette, S.
    RISE, Innventia.
    Mathiassen, S.E.
    Participative development of packages in the food industry: Evaluation of ergonomics and productivity by objective measurements2012In: Work: A journal of Prevention, Assesment and rehabilitation, ISSN 1051-9815, E-ISSN 1875-9270, no SUPPL.1, 1751-1755 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Frick, Maria
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Honiball, Jonathan
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Nilsson, Ted
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Potatis som håller: En jämförelse av kvalitetsförändringar över tid i två metoder för konservering av skalad, kyllagrad potatis2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Marknaden för förpackad, minimalt processad, rå, skalad potatis har ökat kraftigt de senaste åren. Samtidigt efterfrågar konsumenterna ”naturliga” produkter fria från tillsatser. Då potatis vid skalning blir känsligare för mikrobiella angrepp såväl som för fysiologiska förändringar ställer detta krav på metoder som bibehåller kvaliteten på råvaran. Detta med så få tillsatser som möjligt. I denna studie undersöktes en ny sådan metod som går under namnet Vakuum Syra Kyla (VSK). Metoden innebär att skalad potatis dippas i en lösning med 1 % äpplesyra och 1 % askorbinsyra, vakuumförpackas och förvaras i 4ºC.

    Denna metod jämfördes med samarbetspartnern SolanumOdlarna AB:s Produkt Alströmmer Primus Potatis. Primus är en förblancherad skalad potatis som finns på marknaden idag och som har en hållbarhetstid på 18 dagar. Syftet med studien var att undersöka och jämföra kvalitetsförändringen mellan de båda produkterna med avseende på kemiska, sensoriska och mikrobiella aspekter, sett över två veckors kylförvaring (4ºC).Produkterna undersöktes mikrobiologiskt genom bakteriell odling på agar efter 1, 7 och 14 dagar. Odlingar gjordes för totalantal aeroba mikroorganismer, totalantal anaeroba mikroorganismer samt för mjölksyrabakterier. Kemiska tester togs i form av torrsubstansmätning med desikator enligt gällande standard samt i form av kontinuerlig pH-mätning. Sensoriska tester gjordes med deskriptiv analys där intensiteten för 16 sensoriska attribut bedömdes i datorprogrammet FIZZ av en tränad panel bestående av 4 – 7 bedömare. Resultaten analyserades statistiskt med tvåsidigt t-test och regressionsanalys i Microsoft Excel samt med variansanalys i FIZZ.

    Resultatet visar att antalet mikroorganismer var högre för VSK än för Primus i samtliga prover som togs. Tillväxtkurvorna tycks dock följa varandra och löpte mer eller mindre parallellt under hela testperioden. De högre värdena för VSK kan delvis tänkas bero på en högre ursprungsflora. pH-värdet för VSK sjönk efter en veckas lagring. Ett signifikant samband mellan pH-värde, lagringstid och en uppgång i de sensoriska attributen syrlig smak och bismak kunde även påvisas för VSK. För primus förelåg inga signifikanta samband mellan lagringstid och sensorisk förändring. Jämförelsen mellan Primus och VSK visade att VSK sensoriskt låg närmre en nyskalad färsk potatis i början av lagringsperioden. Primusen höll dock en acceptabel sensorisk nivå genom hela testperioden medan VSK endast gjorde det i en vecka.

  • 23. Gadde, Lars-Erik
    et al.
    Amani, Pegah
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Environment.
    Food supply in a network context: An alternative framing and managerial consequences in efforts to prevent food waste2016In: British Food Journal, ISSN 0007-070X, E-ISSN 1758-4108, Vol. 118, no 6, 1407-1421 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose– The purpose of this paper is to present a “network” framing of food supply arrangements. Such frameworks have been asked for in previous research as supplements to prevailing supply chain conceptualizations.Design/methodology/approach– The framework builds on industrial network theory. According to this approach, business reality is analyzed in three inter-related dimensions: the activities undertaken, the resources used for this undertaking, and the actors controlling resources and activities. For each dimension, relevant concepts are derived for analysis of the features of food supply and food waste.Findings– The network framing was useful for analyzing the prerequisites and consequences for two approaches to reduce food waste: one based on extension of shelf-life, the other relying on enhanced responsiveness in the supply arrangement. The framework was then used for suggesting managerial actions to reduce food waste through increasing activity coordination, resource combining, and actor interaction with consideration of potential consequences of such actions.Practical implications– Managerial issues in food supply are discussed with regard to the role of activity coordination, the role of resource combining, and the role of actor interaction in efforts to prevent food waste.Originality/value– The paper suggests a novel approach for analyzing food supply networks with particular focus on food waste reduction. Such framings are applied in other supply systems, and requested by food supply researchers.

  • 24.
    Homer, Stephen
    et al.
    CSIRO Food and Nutrition, Victoria, Australia..
    Dunstan, D E
    University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia..
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Bioscience and Materials, Agrifood and Bioscience.
    The role of pH in microstructural assembly2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Proteins are important biopolymers that can contribute significantly to food structure. Controlling the manner in which they aggregate and form matrices within food systems is fundamental to sensory attributes and can have an impact on digestive properties. This work investigated the structuring behaviour whey protein isolate (WPI) over the entire acidic pH range from pH 1.0-6.8. WPI is a commercially available mixture of several proteins. β-lactoglobulin is most abundant and tends to dominate the functionality. Some important aspects are the clarity of protein solutions in beverages, the temperature of denaturation, the aggregation characteristics and consequently the gel forming properties. pH is a key factor which affects all of these properties and there remains aspects worthy of further investigation. In this presentation, the role of pH in denaturation, aggregation and structuring will be discussed in detail along with the trends observed. Some previously unknown aspects surrounding the behaviour of whey proteins at specific pH points and their applicability to commercial products will be highlighted

  • 25.
    Homer, Stephen
    et al.
    CSIRO Food and Nutrition, Victoria, Australia.
    Lundin, Leif
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience.
    Dunstan, Dave E.
    University of Melbourne, Victoria, Australia.
    Modifying the microstructure and mechanical properties of whey protein isolate gels using large deformation oscillatory strain2016In: Food Hydrocolloids, ISSN 0268-005X, E-ISSN 1873-7137, Vol. 61, 672-677 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The effect of oscillatory shear during heat-induced gelation of whey protein isolate has been investigated. For each gel sample, a single oscillating strain was applied during the gelation process from within the range of 0-1.0. A strain sweep was then used to evaluate the linear viscoelastic region as well as the fracturing properties of each gel. The application of strains lower than ∼0.01 during gelation did not affect the storage modulus while larger strains resulted in lower storage moduli in the linear viscoelastic region. Furthermore, gels produced under small (<0.01) strain amplitudes showed a single fracture point, while gels produced under high (>0.01) amplitude strain were characterised by a two-step fracture pattern. Between the fracture steps, strain hardening behaviour was observed. Confocal laser scanning microscopy was used to identify structural differences between the gels. Greater inhomogeneity was found in gels produced under large amplitude compared to small amplitude strain. It is suggested that localised redistribution of aggregates due to shear during gelation increases the average pore size and possibly creates two distinct types of aggregate structure with differing moduli. The combined effect of heating rate and oscillatory strain was also investigated. We postulate that the mechanism underlying our observations is generic to many gel systems.

  • 26.
    Hussein, JB
    et al.
    Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola, Nigeria..
    Sanusi, MS
    University of Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Filli, Kalep
    RISE, SP – Sveriges Tekniska Forskningsinstitut, SP Food and Bioscience, Structure Design.
    Evaluation of drying methods on the content of some bio-actives (lycopene, β-carotene and ascorbic acid) of tomato slices2016In: African Journal of Food Science, ISSN 1996-0794, E-ISSN 1996-0794, Vol. 10, no 12, 359-367 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersycum L.) is one of the most important vegetables worldwide. As it is a relatively short duration crop and gives a high yield, it is economically attractive. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of drying method on the quality of the dried tomatoes based on three parameters viz; lycopene, ß-carotene and ascorbic acid contents. Thirty-six kilograms of tomatoes were sorted, cleaned, blanched and divided into three equal portions of 12 kg each. The tomatoes were sliced into 4, 6 and 8 mm, then sun, solar and hybrid dried, respectively. The value of lycopene content obtained for sun dried tomatoes ranged from 23.89 to 18.77 mg/100 g, solar dried ranged from 24.51 to 22.56 mg/100 g and hybrid dried ranged from 25.12 to 24.65 mg/100 g. The average value of β-carotene content obtained for sun dried tomatoes ranged from 4.12 to 3.72 mg/100 g, solar dried ranged from 4.94 to 4.25 mg/100 g and hybrid dried ranged from 4.98 to 4.65 mg/100 g. The values of ascorbic acid obtained for sun dried tomatoes ranged from 17.04 to 5.60 mg/100 g, solar dried ranged from 23.73 to 13.37 mg/100 g and hybrid dried ranged from 29.20 to 24.82 mg/100 g. Hybrid dried tomatoes slice showed higher retention of lycopene, ß-Carotene and ascorbic acid than both the solar and open sun dried methods.

  • 27.
    Hägg, Göran M.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, School of Technology and Health (STH), Health Systems Engineering, Ergonomics.
    Karltun, Johan
    McGorry, R.W.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, Mass., USA.
    How do different temperatures affect knife force?2015In: Ergonomics Open Journal, ISSN 1875-9343, no 8, 27-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat cutters have long since claimed that knife forces increase with lower meat temperatures. This study was performed to find out what effects the meat temperature has on cutting forces. In addition, the same issue was addressed for pure fat. One hundred and forty four samples of lean meat and of fat respectively were collected and put overnight inone of three refrigerators with temperatures 2, 7 and 12°C, 48 in each. These samples were cut while measuring cutting forces in an Anago KST Sharpness Analyzer machine. The results show that there were no significant differences in knife forces concerning lean meat at the three temperatures. However, the force in pure fat at 2°C was significantly increased by 30% compared to the other temperatures. The forces in fat were generally three times higher than for lean meat, regardlessof temperature.

  • 28.
    Hägg, Göran M.
    et al.
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Vogel, Kjerstin
    KTH, Ergonomi.
    Karltun, Johan
    Jönköping University, School of Engineering, JTH. Research area Industrial Production.
    McGorry, R.W.
    Liberty Mutual Research Institute for Safety, Hopkinton, Mass., USA.
    How do different temperatures affect knife force?2015In: Ergonomics Open Journal, ISSN 1875-9343, no 8, 27-31 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Meat cutters have long since claimed that knife forces increase with lower meat temperatures. This study was performed to find out what effects the meat temperature has on cutting forces. In addition, the same issue was addressed for pure fat. One hundred and forty four samples of lean meat and of fat respectively were collected and put overnight inone of three refrigerators with temperatures 2, 7 and 12°C, 48 in each. These samples were cut while measuring cutting forces in an Anago KST Sharpness Analyzer machine. The results show that there were no significant differences in knife forces concerning lean meat at the three temperatures. However, the force in pure fat at 2°C was significantly increased by 30% compared to the other temperatures. The forces in fat were generally three times higher than for lean meat, regardlessof temperature.

  • 29.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Humanvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Research Environment Food and Meals in Everyday Life (MEAL).
    Experimental methods for measuring coalescence during emulsification: a critical review2016In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 178, 47-59 p.Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Emulsification is a common process in the production in many non-solid foods. These food-emulsions often have high disperse phase volume fractions and slow emulsifier dynamics, giving rise to substantial coalescence during emulsification. Optimal design and operation of food-emulsification requires experimental methods to study how emulsification in general and coalescence in particular progresses under different conditions. Methods for coalescence quantification during emulsification has been suggested in literature but they are rarely used in food-emulsification research. This contribution offers a critical review of the different methods that have been suggested with special emphasis on their applicability to technical food-emulsification. The methods are critically compared in terms of design limitations, degree of quantification and applicability. A state-of-the-art in the form of two methods is identified and guidelines for their application are suggested. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 30.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Innings, Fredrik
    Tetra Pak Processing Systems.
    Trägårdh, Christian
    Lund University.
    Bergenståhl, Björn
    Lund University.
    A high-pressure homogenization emulsification model: improved emulsifier transport and hydrodynamic coupling2013In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 91, 44-53 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The high-pressure homogenizer emulsification modelling framework by Håkansson et al. (2009a, Chemical Engineering Science 64, 2915–2925; 2009b. Food Hydrocolloids 23, 1177–1183), is further developed in this study. The model, including the simultaneous fragmentation of drops, coalescence of drops and kinetic adsorption of macromolecular emulsifiers, is improved with regard to two points. First, the transport of adsorbed emulsifier between drops of different sizes due to the fragmentation and coalescence of drops, is included using bivariate population balances. Second, the coupling of hydrodynamics to the emulsification model is improved using information from recent hydrodynamic investigations. The proposed framework is exemplified using a set of physically reasonable kernels and a production scale high-pressure homogenizer geometry, showing realistic emulsification results.

  • 31.
    Håkansson, Andreas
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Trägårdh, Christian
    Lund University.
    Bergenståhl, Björn
    Lund University.
    A method for estimating effective coalescence rates during emulsification from oil transfer experiments2012In: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, ISSN 0021-9797, E-ISSN 1095-7103, Vol. 374, no 1, 25-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Oil Transfer Technique (OTT) was developed by Taisne et al. [1] to measure coalescence during emulsification and has been applied since in several studies. One of the main drawbacks of this technique is that it only gives a qualitative measure of coalescence. This paper proposes a new evaluation method of OTT experimental results for estimating qualitative coalescence rates, e.g. for investigating the scaling of coalescence with emulsification parameters (such as homogenizing pressure, and emulsifier concentration).

    The method is based on comparison with simulated OTT experiments using bivariate Population Balance Equation models. Simulations have been performed under a wide variety of conditions in order to investigate the influence of assumptions on coalescence and fragmentation kernels. These investigations show that the scaling of coalescence rates could be determined accurately when the scaling of efficient residence time of drops in the active region of homogenization is known. The proposed evaluation method is also exemplified by analyzing OTT data from two previously published studies.

  • 32. Jacobsson, A
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I
    Influence of packaging material and storage temperature on the texture, colour, and weight of broccoli2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 600, 323-326 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sophisticated packaging solutions can be used in order to preserve vegetables during storage and transport. Polymeric films with selective barriers matching the respiration of the produce, thereby creating an ideal atmosphere inside the package, are available on the market. Fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica 'Monterey') heads were packed in 4 different commercially available polymeric films, and stored at 4 and 10°C respectively. During storage the weight, colour, chlorophyll content and texture were monitored. The investigated polymer materials were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two types of polyethylene (PE) packagings. The choice of packaging material had an impact on the measured quality parameters of broccoli. Storage in OPP resulted in the longest storage life. Broccoli stored in PVC film deteriorated faster than broccoli packaged in the other materials. It was also observed that the influence of the type of packaging material was more important at the higher temperature. The implications of this work for the packaging and storage of fresh broccoli will be discussed.

  • 33. Jacobsson, A
    et al.
    Nielsen, Tim
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wendin, Karin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Sjoholm, I
    The effect of packaging material on the sensory properties of broccoli2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 599, 91-95 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Three different commercially available polymeric films were studied to determine their effect on the sensory properties of fresh broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. Italica cv. 'Marathon'). The polymer materials investigated were oriented polypropylene (OPP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and one low density polyethylene (LDPE) which contained an ethylene absorber. The fresh broccoli was packaged and stored for one week at 10°C or 3 days at 4°C followed by 4 days at 10°C. The oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations inside the packages were monitored during storage. After storage the broccoli was evaluated according to sensory analyses, i.e. triangle test and quantitative descriptive analysis, by an analytical panel. The panel judged the broccoli according to smell, taste, texture and appearance. The triangle test showed significant differences between the smell of the broccoli samples, stored in the different packaging materials, when cooked. However, no differences between the raw broccoli, stored in the different packaging materials could be detected. The quantitative descriptive analysis showed that the following attributes; fresh smell and taste, chewing resistance, and crispness, differed significantly between the packaged broccoli when cooked. The appearance was shown to be the sensory property of broccoli most affected by the storage conditions, i.e. packaging material used and storage temperature. The results indicated the importance of the packaging material for maintaining the broccoli quality. However, one packaging material that was able to maintain all the studied sensory properties could not be identified. Copyright © ISHS 2003.

  • 34.
    Jonsson, Lena
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Thermal degradation of carotenes and influence on their physiological functions1991In: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology, ISSN 0065-2598, E-ISSN 2214-8019, Vol. 289, 75-82 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 35. Kang, Jinho
    et al.
    Choi, Moon-Young
    Kang, Sunmi
    Kwon, Hyuk Nam
    Wen, He
    Lee, Chang Hoon
    Park, Minseok
    Wiklund, Susanne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Kim, Hyo Jin
    Kwon, Sung Won
    Park, Sunghyouk
    Application of a 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomics approach combined with orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis as an efficient tool for discriminating between Korean and Chinese herbal medicines2008In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 56, no 24, 11589-11595 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Correct identification of the origins of herbal medical products is becoming increasingly important in tandem with the growing interest in alternative medicine. However, visual inspection of raw material is still the most widely used method, and newer scientific approaches are needed. To develop a more objective and efficient tool for discriminating herbal origins, particularly Korean and Chinese, we employed a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics approach combined with an orthogonal projections to latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) multivariate analysis. We first analyzed the constituent metabolites of Scutellaria baicalensis through NMR studies. Subsequent holistic data analysis with OPLS-DA yielded a statistical model that could cleanly discriminate between the sample groups even in the presence of large structured noise. An analysis of the statistical total correlation spectroscopy (STOCSY) spectrum identified citric acid and arginine as the key discriminating metabolites for Korean and Chinese samples. As a validation of the discrimination model, we performed blind prediction tests of sample origins using an external test set. Our model correctly predicted the origins of all of the 11 test samples, demonstrating its robustness. We tested the wider applicability of the developed method with three additional herbal medicines from Korea and China and obtained very high prediction accuracy. The solid discriminatory power and statistical validity of our method suggest its general applicability for determining the origins of herbal medicines.

  • 36. Kent, M
    et al.
    Knochel, R
    Daschner, F
    Schimmer, O
    Oehlenschlager, J
    Barr, Ulla-Karin
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Intangible but not intractable: The prediction of fish 'quality' variables using dielectric spectroscopy2007In: Measurement science and technology, ISSN 0957-0233, E-ISSN 1361-6501, Vol. 18, no 4, 1029-1037 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In many fields the concept and measurement of quality is of prime importance. The fish industry is no exception to this and many sensory approaches have been devised to quantify this rather intangible property. The EU 5th framework project 'SEQUID' has concentrated on the measurement of the dielectric properties of fish tissue as a function of time both in frozen and chilled storage. The many deteriorative biochemical and microbiological processes that take place during the gradual spoilage of such materials have a subtle influence on the dielectric properties across the spectrum but notably in the microwave frequency region. In this region the complex interactions of water, solutes and structure-forming proteins are systematically changed by death and decay. Chilling or freezing may slow these processes but such preservation techniques do not halt them entirely. The SEQUID project has shown that it is possible, using a combination of time domain reflectometry and multivariate analysis, to predict certain quality-related variables, both sensory and biochemical, with comparable accuracy to existing methods. These results are presented in this paper. © 2007 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  • 37. Lagerqvist, Anne
    et al.
    Birgisdóttir, Bryndís Eva
    Halldorsson, Thorhallur Ingi
    Thomsen, Catherine
    Darnerud, Per Ola
    Kotova, Natalia
    Human biomonitoring and policy making: Human biomonitoring as a tool in policy making towards consumer safety2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report is based on the seminar “Human biomonitoring (HBM) as a tool in policy making towards consumer safety” directed towards professionals involved in HBM programs, legislators and other policy-makers, risk assessors as well as researchers from universities and other higher educational institutions. It was organized by the Swedish National Food Agency in collaboration with the Norwegian Food Safety Authority, the Norwegian Institute of Public Health, the University of Iceland, and Karolinska Institute, Sweden. Experts from Europe, USA, and Canada within the field of HBM participated. It was agreed that HBM provides a powerful tool in policy making towards consumer safety. It was also concluded that there is interest to develop the Nordic collaborative efforts within the area of HBM and that there would, unquestionably, be benefits from this in terms of harmonization.

  • 38.
    Langton, Maud
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Åström, Annika
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Hermansson, Ann-Marie
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedelsforskning.
    Texture as a reflection of microstructure1996In: Food Quality and Preference, ISSN 0950-3293, E-ISSN 1873-6343, Vol. 7, no 42067, 185-191 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The perception of texture has been correlated to the micro-structure of particulate whey protein gels. A full, two-level, factorial experimental design was used in which the processing conditions, pH, heating rate and addition of salt were used as design factors. The texture of the gels was analyzed by a sensory panel, and the microstructure was analysed by light and electron microscopy. The microstructure was quantified by using different types of image analysis. In this study of particulate whey protein gels, the test principles of analysing texture were divided into two groups: destructive tests and non-destructive tests. The micro-structural parameters can also be divided into two groups: overall network dimensions (pore size and particle size) and strand characteristics. The texture as measured with destructive methods was sensitive to overall network dimensions, whereas texture as measured with non-destructive methods was sensitive to the strand characteristics of particulate protein gels.

  • 39. Li, Ågot
    et al.
    Sem, Signe
    Håland, Julie Tesdal
    Petersen, Jens Højslev
    Jensen, Lisbeth Krüger
    Nordic project food contact materials: Control of declarations of compliance (DoC)2015Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Denmark, Finland, Faroe Islands, Iceland, Norway and Sweden have in 2013–2015 conducted a Nordic project on food contact materials. Food contact materials are used in all stages of food production and can be a general source of contamination. The food safety authorities in most of the Nordic countries have had a limited focus on the FCM area with the exception of Denmark and Finland. The aim of the project was therefore to control establishments producing, importing or using plastic food contact materials as well as to increase the knowledge of the inspectors performing these controls. The focus of the inspections was to control the declaration of compliance (DoC) for plastic food contact materials. The requirement for a Doc is mandatory in order to ensure that the FCM complies with the legislation. In addition some products were analyzed for phthalates.

  • 40.
    lindblom, andreas
    Halmstad University, School of Business and Engineering (SET).
    mätning utav kallrökning2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 41.
    Lindborg, PerMagnus
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Speech, Music and Hearing, TMH, Music Acoustics. Nanyang Technological University, Singapore.
    A taxonomy of sound sources in restaurantsIn: Applied Acoustics, ISSN 0003-682X, E-ISSN 1872-910XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Restaurants are complex environments where all our senses are engaged. Physical and psychoacoustic factors have been shown to be associated with perceived environmental quality in restaurants. More or less designable sound sources such as background music, voices, and kitchen noises are believed to be important in relation to the overall perception of the soundscape. Previous research publications have suggested typologies and other structured descriptions of sound sources for some environmental contexts, such as urban parks and offices, but there is no detailed account that is relevant to restaurants. While existing classification schemes might be extendable, an empirical approach was taken in the present work. We collected on-site data in 40 restaurants (n = 393), including perceptual ratings, free-form annotations of characteristic sounds and whether they were liked or not, and free-form descriptive words for the environment as a whole. The annotations were subjected to analysis using a cladistic approach and yielded a multi-level taxonomy of perceived sound sources in restaurants. Ten different classification taxa were evaluated by comparing the respondents' Liking of sound sources, by categories defined in the taxonomy, and their Pleasantness rating of the environment as a whole. Correlation analysis revealed that a four-level clade was efficient and outperformed alternatives. Internal validation of the Pleasantness construct was made through separate ratings (n = 7) of on-site free-form descriptions of the environment. External validation was made with ratings from a separate listening experiment (n = 48). The two validations demonstrated that the four-level Sound Sources in Restaurants (SSR) clade had good construct validity and external robustness. Analysis  of the data revealed two findings. Voice-related characteristic sounds including a ‘people’ specifier were more liked than those without such a specifier (d = 0.14 SD), possibly due to an emotional crossmodal association mechanism. Liking of characteristic sounds differed between the first and last annotations that the respondents had made (d = 0.21 SD), which might be due to an initially positive bias being countered by exposure to a task inducing a mode of critical listening. We believe that the SSR taxonomy will be useful for field research and simulation design. The empirical findings might inform theory, specifically research charting the perception of sound sources in multimodal environments.

  • 42.
    Mattsson, Berit
    et al.
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Wallen, E
    Environmental Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of organic potatoes2003In: Acta Horticulturae, ISSN 0567-7572, Vol. 619, 427-435 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An LCA of organic potatoes cultivated in southern Sweden was carried out to gain more knowledge about the environmental impact and resource use along the food chain. Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is a method for analysis and assessment of the potential environmental impact caused by products (ISO 14040). Included in the study were the production of inputs to agriculture, agricultural production, sorting and packaging, distribution and the household phase. The use of energy, water and other resources were also included as well as basic environmental impact categories such as global warming, acidification, eutrophication, toxicity, ozone depletion and photo-oxidant formation. A major finding was that the agricultural production accounted for almost all the emissions contributing to eutrophication and acidification. Other findings were that agricultural production, production of packaging materials and the household phase were the main contributors to global warming, while the energy use was rather evenly distributed among the life cycle stages. The primary improvement options identified in the study were to reduce nitrogen emissions contributing to acidification and eutrophication and to reduce potato losses due to poor quality. The organic potato yields are generally very low, typically about 60% of the conventional levels. Increased yields would be beneficial from an environmental point of view.

  • 43.
    Mazinanian, Neda
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Odnevall Wallinder, Inger
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Hedberg, Yolanda
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Comparison of the influence of citric acid and acetic acid as simulant for acidic food on the release of alloy constituents from stainless steel AISI 2012015In: Journal of Food Engineering, ISSN 0260-8774, E-ISSN 1873-5770, Vol. 145, 51-63 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To ensure the safety of metals and alloys intended for food contact, a new European test protocol (CoE protocol) using citric acid as a food simulant was published in 2013. This study investigated the influence of citric acid and exposure conditions on the metal release from an austenitic manganese stainless steel (AISI 201). Exposures in 5 g/L citric acid resulted in significantly lower metal releases compared with specific release limits set by the CoE protocol. 5 g/L (0.3 vol%) citric acid was more aggressive than 3 vol% acetic acid (Italian protocol) due to higher metal complexation. Studies on abraded surfaces revealed that most metals were released during the first 0.5 h of exposure due to surface passivation. Surface abrasion, increased temperature (40-100 degrees C), increased surface area to solution volume ratio (0.25-2 cm(2)/mL) and increased citric acid concentration (0-21 g/L) all resulted in increased released metal quantities.

  • 44. Møller, Hanne
    et al.
    Hagtvedt, Therese
    Lødrup, Nina
    Andersen, Jens Kirk
    Madsen, Pernille Lundquist
    Werge, Mads
    Aare, Ane Kirstine
    Reinikainen, Anu
    Rosengren, Åsa
    Kjellén, Jimmy
    Stenmarck, Åsa
    Youhanan, Lena
    Food waste and date labelling: Issues affecting the durability2016Book (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the project has been to identify how date labelling legislation on food is practised in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden and how the durability can be affected in the food supply chain. The project recommends enhanced guidance for manufacturers, retailers and consumers. When prolonging the durability of the product, the retail waste decreased significantly. The results show that the type of packaging gas and storage temperature is of great importance for the durability of food products. Consumer studies reveal a need for guidance on how long products may be eaten after opening of the package. The individual consumer needs clearer and more easily accessible information on different labelling, storage temperature and durability of products.

  • 45.
    Navrátil, Marián
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Cimander, Christian
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Mandenius, Carl-Fredrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    On-line multisensor monitoring of yogurt and Filmjolk fermentations on production scale2004In: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, ISSN 0021-8561, E-ISSN 1520-5118, Vol. 52, no 3, 415-420 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Near-infrared (NIR) spectrometry and electronic nose (EN) data were used for on-line monitoring of yogurt and filmjölk (a Swedish yogurt-like sour milk) fermentations under industrial conditions. The NIR and EN signals were selected by evaluation of principal component analysis loading vectors and further analyzed by studying the variability of the selected principal components. First principal components for the NIR and the EN signals were used for on-line generation of a process trajectory plot visualizing the actual state of fermentation. The NIR signals were also used to set up empirical partial least-squares (PLS) models for prediction of the cultures' pH and titratable acidity (expressed as Thorner degrees, °T). By using five or six PLS factors the models yielded acceptable predictions that could be further improved by increasing the number of reliable and precise calibration data. The presented results demonstrate that the fusion of the NIR and EN signals has a potential for rapid on-line monitoring and assessment of process quality of yogurt fermentation.

  • 46.
    Nilsson, Miriana
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Aronsson Johnson, Kajsa
    Kristianstad University, School of Health and Society.
    Mikroalger: en växande del av vår kost?2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Det här examensarbetet har gjorts i samarbete med företaget Simris Alg. Fokus har varit på att förhindra sedimenteringen av företagets kosttillskott av mikroalger. Sedimenteringen har förebyggts med olika förtjockningstillsatser där salt från en makroalg var den tillsats som gav bäst resultat. Tillsatserna blandades direkt i biomassan och utvärderingen gjordes i olika tillfällen under en vecka.

    Mikrobiologiska tester gjordes för att säkerställa kvalitén på biomassan. De tester som gjordes var för totalantal bakterier, Enterobacteriaceae och Vibrio. Till de två senare bakterierna användes selektiv agar och ingen mikrobiologiskt kontaminering visades. För kontroll av totalantalet bakterier var värdet 830 cfu/ml. Detta innebär att bakterier finns i produkten men förklarar inte av vilken sort de är. Det betyder att det lika gärna kan vara bra som skadliga bakterier som finns i produkten.

    En enkät gjordes för att undersöka människors inställning till alger och ta reda på om de känner till mikroalgernas egenskaper som livsmedel. 45 personer deltog, 26 kvinnor och 19 män. Resultatet av enkäten visade att kunskapen om mikroalgernas egenskaper var bristfälliga men de flesta var positiva med att använda alger som livsmedel. Generellt var män mer positiva till mikroalger än kvinnor.

  • 47.
    Norén, Björn
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå University School of Restaurant and Culinary Arts.
    Lagrad fisk: Ett innovativt sätt att hantera fisk2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 48.
    Nyflött, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Structure-Performance Relations of Oxygen Barriers for Food Packaging2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Food packaging should ensure the safety and quality of food, minimize spoilage and provide an easy way of storing and handling it. Barrier coatings are generally used to meet the demands placed on fibre-based food packages, as these have the ability to regulate the amount of gases that can enter them. Some gases are detrimental to food quality: oxygen, for example, initiates lipid oxidation in fatty foods. Using both experimental data and computer modelling, this thesis explains some aspects of how the structure of barrier coatings influences the mass transport of oxygen with the aim of obtaining essential knowledge that can be used to optimize the performance of barriers.

    Barrier coatings are produced from polyvinyl alcohol and kaolin blends that are coated onto a polymeric support. The chemical and physical structures of these barriers were characterized according to their influence on permeability in various climates. At a low concentration of kaolin, the crystallinity of polyvinyl alcohol decreased; in the thinner films, the kaolin particles were orientated in the basal plane of the barrier coating. The experimental results indicated a complex interplay between the polymer and the filler with respect to permeability.

    A computer model for permeability incorporating theories for the filled polymeric layer to include the polymer crystallinity, addition of filler, filler aspect ratio and surrounding moisture was developed. The model shows that mass transport was affected by the aspect ratio of the clay in combination with the clay concentration, as well as the polymer crystallinity. The combined model agreed with the experiments, showing that it is possible to combine different theories into one model that can be used to predict the mass transport.

    Four barrier coatings: polyethylene, ethylene vinyl alcohol + kaolin, latex + kaolin and starch were evaluated using the parameters of greenhouse gas emissions and product costs. After the production of the barrier material, the coating process and the end-of-life handling scenarios were analysed, it emerged that starch had the lowest environmental impact and latex + kaolin had the highest.

  • 49.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Overcoming barriers to globalization: A European prospective2004In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 69, no 5, R151-R152 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50.
    Ohlsson, Thomas
    SIK – Institutet för livsmedel och bioteknik.
    Food waste management by life cycle assessment of the food chain2004In: Journal of Food Science, ISSN 0022-1147, E-ISSN 1750-3841, Vol. 69, no 3, CRH107-CRH109 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In the past, environmental activities in the food industry used to be focused on meeting the requirements set by authorities on waste and sewage disposal and, more recently, regarding emissions to air. Today environmental issues are considered an essential part of the corporate image in progressive food industries. To avoid sub-optimization, food waste management should involve assessing the environmental impact of the whole food chain. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is an ISO-standardized method to assess the environmental impact of a food product. It evaluates the resources used to perform the different activities through the chain of production from raw material to the user step. It also summarizes the emission/waste to air, water, and land from the same activities throughout the chain. These emissions are then related to the major environmental concerns such as eutrophication, acidification, and ecotoxicity, the factors most relevant for the food sector. The food industry uses the LCAs to identify the steps in the food chain that have the largest impact on the environment in order to target the improvement efforts. It is then used to choose among alternatives in the selection of raw materials, packaging material, and other inputs as well as waste management strategies. A large number of food production chains have been assessed by LCAs over the years. This will be exemplified by a comparison of the environmental impact of ecologically grown raw materials to those conventionally grown. Today LCA is often integrated into process and product development, for example, in a project for reduction of water usage and waste valorization in a diversified dairy.

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