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  • 1.
    Abdulrazaq, Erol
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Henrik, Persson
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Kalmar Maritime Academy.
    Syresättning av avloppsvatten: En undersökning av luftningsmetoder på reningsverk2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This essay has been done at the request of Marinfloc AB. It consists of various measurements and experiments investigating the sewage water treatment on a number of different plants. The measurements were executed in the part of the plants called secondary treatment. The objective with secondary treatment is to let micro-organisms remove dissolved and suspended biological and organic matter. The factors which were investigated were which methods are used to oxygenate the sewage water, what level of oxygen saturation is obtained with each method and the power consumption required oxygenating the sewage water. An experiment was carried out on Marinflocs’ own sewage treatment plant with the objective to determine if there is any time difference in oxygenating pure water versus unprocessed sewage water. The conclusion reached was that the four land-based sewage treatment plants that were investigated oxygenate by the same principle. The oxygenation is done by aeration from the bottom in respective aeration tank. The level of oxygen saturation was between 1, 8 – 5, 9 mg oxygen per liter sewage water in all plants. Marinflocs’ current sewage treatment plant uses another principle to oxygenate and its oxygen saturation was measured to a level of 12 mg/l. The experiment on Marinflocs’ own sewage treatment plant concluded that there is a time difference in oxygenating pure water versus unprocessed sewage water. The pure water gets oxygenated faster. 

  • 2.
    Abrahamsson, Louise
    Linköping University, Department of Thematic Studies, Tema Environmental Change.
    Improving methane production using hydrodynamic cavitation as pre-treatment2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    To develop anaerobic digestion (AD), innovative solutions to increase methane yields in existing AD processes are needed. In particular, the adoption of low energy pre-treatments to enhance biomass biodegradability is needed to provide efficient digestion processes increasing profitability. To obtain these features, hydrodynamic cavitation has been evaluated as an innovative solutions for AD of waste activated sludge (WAS), food waste (FW), macro algae and grass, in comparison with steam explosion (high energy pre-treatment). The effect of these two pre-treatments on the substrates, e.g. particle size distribution, soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD), biochemical methane potential (BMP) and biodegradability rate, have been evaluated. After two minutes of hydrodynamic cavitation (8 bar), the mean fine particle size decreased from 489- 1344 nm to 277- 381 nm (≤77% reduction) depending of the biomasses. Similar impacts were observed after ten minutes of steam explosion (210 °C, 30 bar) with a reduction in particle size between 40% and 70% for all the substrates treated.  In terms of BMP value, hydrodynamic cavitation caused significant increment only within the A. nodosum showing a post treatment increment of 44% compared to the untreated value, while similar values were obtained before and after treatment within the other tested substrates. In contrast, steam explosion allowed an increment for all treated samples, A. nodosum (+86%), grass (14%) and S. latissima (4%). However, greater impacts where observed with hydrodynamic cavitation than steam explosion when comparing the kinetic constant K. Overall, hydrodynamic cavitation appeared an efficient pre-treatment for AD capable to compete with the traditional steam explosion in terms om kinetics and providing a more efficient energy balance (+14%) as well as methane yield for A. nodosum.

  • 3.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Brabant Water NV, 5200 BC 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.
    Evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation coagulation filtration (AOCF) to produce drinking water with less than 1 μg/L of arsenic2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is an extremely poisonous element. It has been reported to cause contamination of drinking water sources in many parts of the world. The current drinking water permissible limit for arsenic in the European Union is 10 μg/L. The World Health Organization has a general rule that no substance may have a higher lifetime risk of more than 1 in 100,000. However, several studies on toxicity of arsenic suggest that purely based on health effects the arsenic limit of 10 μg/L is not sufficient. The main goal of this research was to develop an efficient arsenic removal technology that could be able to produce drinking water with an arsenic concentration of less than 1 μg/L. For this purpose, an innovative three step technique, Advanced Oxidation - Coagulation - Filtration (AOCF), was investigated through bench-scale and pilot scale experiments in the Netherlands at the water treatment plant of Dorst. Firstly, prior to the investigations on AOCF, the existing arsenic removal at the water treatment plant was investigated. Secondly, through a series of bench-scale experiments, the optimum type of coagulant, its combination dose with the selected chemical oxidant and optimum process pH were determined. Eventually, the partially optimized technique from the bench-scale was implemented at the pilot scale physical model of water treatment plant Dorst where AOCF was evaluated for arsenic removal and its effect on the removal of other common undesirable groundwater constituents. The optimized AOCF technology consistently removed arsenic from groundwater to below 1 ug/L when implemented at pilot scale. The overall effluent quality also remained acceptable. The method is efficient with both types of filtration media tested in this research i.e., virgin sand and metal oxide coated sand, however virgin sand media showed slightly better arsenic removal efficiency.

  • 4.
    Akinbomi, Julius
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Fermentative hydrogen and methane productions using membrane bioreactors2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of energy as a stimulant for economic growth and environmental sustainabilityof any nation has made the focus on green fuels, including fermentative hydrogen (bioH2) andmethane (bioCH4), to be a priority for the World’s policy makers. Nigeria, as the most populousAfrican country, with worsening energy crisis, can benefit from the introduction of the bioH2 andbioCH4 technologies into the country’s energy mix, since such technologies have the potential ofgenerating energy from organic wastes such as fruit waste.Fruit waste was studied in detail in this work because of its great economic andenvironmental potential, as large quantities of the wastes (10–65% of raw fruit) are generatedfrom fruit consumption and processing. Meanwhile, bioH2 and bioCH4 productions involvinganaerobic microorganisms in direct contact with organic wastes have been observed to result insubstrate and product inhibitions, which reduce the gas yields and limit the application of thetechnologies on an industrial scale. For example, in this study, the first experimental work todetermine the effects of hydraulic retention times and fruit mixing on bioH2 production fromsingle and mixed fruits revealed the highest cumulative bioH2 yield to be equivalent to 30% ofthe theoretical yield. However, combining the fermentation process with the application ofmembrane encapsulated cells and membrane separation techniques, respectively, could reducesubstrate and product inhibitions of the microorganisms. This study, therefore, focused on theapplication of membrane techniques to enhance the yields of bioH2 and bioCH4 productions fromthe organic wastes.The second experimental work which focused on reduction of substrate inhibition,involved the investigation of the effects of the PVDF membrane encapsulation techniques on thebioH2 and bioCH4 productions from nutrient media with limonene, myrcene, octanol and hexanalas fruit flavours. The results showed that membrane encapsulated cells produced bioCH4 fasterand lasted longer, compared to free cells in limonene. Also, about 60% membrane protectiveeffect against myrcene, octanol and hexanal inhibitions was obtained. Regarding bioH2production, membrane encapsulated cells, compared to free cells, produced higher average dailyyields of 94, 30 and 77% with hexanal, myrcene and octanol as flavours, respectively. The finalpart of the study, which was aimed at reducing product inhibition, involved the study of theeffects of membrane permeation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the bioreactor hydrodynamicsin relation to bioH2 production. The investigation revealed that low transmembrane pressure of104Pa was required to achieve a 3L h-1m-2 critical flux with reversible fouling mainly due to cakelayer formation, and bioH2 production was also observed to restart after VFAs removal.The results from this study suggest that membrane-based techniques could improve bioH2and bioCH4 productions from fermentation media with substrate and product inhibitions.

  • 5. Alcamán, M. Estrella
    et al.
    Alcorta, Jaime
    Bergman, Birgitta
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Vásquez, Mónica
    Polz, Martin
    Díez, Beatriz
    Physiological and gene expression responses to nitrogen regimes and temperatures in Mastigocladus sp strain CHP1, a predominant thermotolerant cyanobacterium of hot springs2017In: Systematic and Applied Microbiology, ISSN 0723-2020, E-ISSN 1618-0984, Vol. 40, no 2, 102-113 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Cyanobacteria are widely distributed primary producers with significant implications for the global biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. Diazotrophic cyanobacteria of subsection V (Order Stigonematales) are particularly ubiquitous in photoautotrophic microbial mats of hot springs. The Stigonematal cyanobacterium strain CHPI isolated from the Porcelana hot spring (Chile) was one of the major contributors of the new nitrogen through nitrogen fixation. Further morphological and genetic characterization verified that the strain CHP1 belongs to Stigonematales, and it formed a separate Glade together with other thermophiles of the genera Fischerella and Mastigocladus. Strain CHP1 fixed maximum N-2 in the light, independent of the temperature range. At 50 degrees C niJH gene transcripts showed high expression during the light period, whereas the nifH gene expression at 45 degrees C was arrhythmic. The strain displayed a high affinity for nitrate and a low tolerance for high ammonium concentrations, whereas the narB and glnA genes showed higher expression in light and at the beginning of the dark phase. It is proposed that Mastigocladus sp. strain CHPI would represent a good model for the study of subsection V thermophilic cyanobacteria, and for understanding the adaptations of these photoautotrophic organisms inhabiting microbial mats in hot springs globally.

  • 6.
    Alessandro, Martini
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Biosensorsystem för övervakning av vattenkvalitet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Sweden's drinking water quality is considered to be high partly due to a high quality of the raw water and a well developed sewage infrastructure. Despite this, there is water contamination that could be prevented by installation of a sophisticated early warning system. Some of the major players in the production of drinking water have already invested in different types of early warning systems to ensure drinking water of high quality. There are various forms of early warning systems where automatic monitoring of E. Coli is an interesting alternative. Today's technology allows for this type of measurement, but it is often expensive and sometimes slow.

    This work aims to investigate whether the phenomenon of Extraordinary Optical Transmission (EOT) can be used as the technology of sensors for real-time measurement of indicators of fecal contaminated water. EOT is a transmissions peak which arises due to plasmon resonance. The study was conducted by performing verification measurements by spectrophotometry to detect the EOT. After this biomeasurements where done to show that the surface of the sample can be functionalized to provide the opportunity to choose which analytes should be detected.

    The verifying measurements showed that EOT was detected for one of the five samples where the hole size was 400 nm and the hole spacing was 600 nm. This is due to the high signal strength and to the fact that the phenomenon occurred within the measurement range of the instruments. Samples where designated with the name sPa where s indicates hole size in nm and a hole spacing in nm. The signal strength of the sample 140P600 and 200P600 was too low to determine whether EOT occurred. For samples 400P1000 and 600P1000 calculations showed that EOT occurred outside the measurement range, which meant that EOT could not be measured. Sample 400P600 was chosen to implement bio-measurements wherein the surface was functionalized with biotin Bovine serum albumin (B-BSA) to later bind with fluidMAG Streptavidin. Both B-BSA and streptavidin was bound as shown by the kinetic measurements. 

  • 7. Ali, Raja H.
    et al.
    Bark, Mikael
    Miró, Jorge
    Muhammad, Sayyed A.
    Sjöstrand, Joel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science (NADA). Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Swedish e-Science Research Centre, Sweden.
    Zubair, Syed M.
    Abbas, Raja M.
    Arvestad, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Numerical Analysis and Computer Science (NADA). Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab). Swedish e-Science Research Centre, Sweden.
    VMCMC: a graphical and statistical analysis tool for Markov chain Monte Carlo traces2017In: BMC Bioinformatics, ISSN 1471-2105, E-ISSN 1471-2105, Vol. 18, 97Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: MCMC-based methods are important for Bayesian inference of phylogeny and related parameters. Although being computationally expensive, MCMC yields estimates of posterior distributions that are useful for estimating parameter values and are easy to use in subsequent analysis. There are, however, sometimes practical difficulties with MCMC, relating to convergence assessment and determining burn-in, especially in large-scale analyses. Currently, multiple software are required to perform, e.g., convergence, mixing and interactive exploration of both continuous and tree parameters.

    Results: We have written a software called VMCMC to simplify post-processing of MCMC traces with, for example, automatic burn-in estimation. VMCMC can also be used both as a GUI-based application, supporting interactive exploration, and as a command-line tool suitable for automated pipelines.

    Conclusions: VMCMC is a free software available under the New BSD License. Executable jar files, tutorial manual and source code can be downloaded from https://bitbucket. org/rhali/visualmcmc/.

  • 8.
    Ambjörnsson, Linn
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Ewald, Katti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Johansson Kling, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Larsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Marie, Selenius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Elin, Svedberg
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Purification of arsenic contaminated water using ferrihydrite with consideration to current circumstances in Burkina Faso2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Ferrihydrite in a suspension has been studied as a solution for purification of arsenic contaminated water. Many development countries, amongst them Burkina Faso, have arsenic in their groundwater and the current methods for purification are too expensive. Measurements have shown extremely high levels of arsenic in the groundwater in several places in Burkina Faso. Since the availability of surface water is limited, the groundwater is still used as drinking water.

     

    A suspension of ferrihydrite has capacity to adsorb arsenic in water due to its chemical characteristics. Small-scale laboratory work with ferrihydrite suspensions has been performed in parallel in Uppsala, Sweden, and Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. To purify the water with regard to the economical and practical circumstances in Burkina Faso, a column with safety filter was made out of simple materials such as plastic bottles, plastic tubes and glass wool. The contaminated water was flowing upwards through the column to prevent the filter from clogging.

     

    In Uppsala it was discovered that a 1 L ferrihydrite suspension containing 10 g ferrihydrite can adsorb 0.7 g arsenic while it was shaken and centrifuged well. In Ouagadougou it was possible, in the setup, to clean 2 L arsenic contaminated water with the concentration of 100 µg/L. The conclusions from the experiments in this project are that ferrihydrite can adsorb arsenic in contaminated water but that the setup used needs to be further evaluated and developed

  • 9.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Indigenous microalgae-activated sludge cultivation system for wastewater treatment2016Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The municipal wastewater is mainly composed of water containing anthropogenic wastes that are rich in nutrients such as carbon, nitrogen and phosphorous. The cost for biological treatment of wastewater is increasing globally due to the population growth in urban cities. In general, the activated sludge (AS) process is a biological nutrient removal process used in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). The AS is composed of different microorganisms in which bacteria play a crucial role in wastewater treatment (WWT). During the process, air is bubbled to supply oxygen and methanol is added to improve nitrogen removal, which is released as a gas. Phosphorous is removed in the expense of precipitation chemicals. Altogether, the current process requires electrical energy, precipitation chemicals, handling of excess sludge and it emits carbon dioxide (CO2) as a by-product. This process is still in practise in the WWTPs since 1914 although numerous modifications are implemented to meet the stringent regulations in the European Union and globally.

    Microalgae are microorganisms that perform photosynthesis like plants. They are green and reproduce fast using available nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and CO2 from their environment in the presence of light. As a result of photosynthesis, oxygen is released as waste gas. The synthesised oxygen during this process can be implemented to support the AS bacteria that leads to the microalgae activated sludge (MAAS) process. The main advantage is combined removal of nutrients.

    The vision of the research is to implement the indigenous microalgae cultivation in activated sludge process to consume CO2 and recover the nutrients from wastewater. This study is performed to improve the understanding of the process such as: light utilisation, nutrient removal and recovery of the biomass from wastewater in closed photo-bioreactors. Photo-bioreactors are vessels where the cultivation is carried out in the presence of light. At first, the influence of the light spectrum on micro-algal cultivation is investigated for photosynthetic growth. This is followed by operational challenges of the microalgae cultivation during the AS process. The process is experimentally performed in the photo-bioreactors with different treatment time of the raw wastewater. The results showed that 2 - 6 days of treatment time can be used for reducing nutrients in wastewater if the process is optimised further. Also, nutrient ratio is analysed for the availability of the micro-algal growth. Furthermore, the biogas potential of MAAS showed a biogas yield of about 60-80% within 5 to 9 days.

    At last, the experimental verification of chemically precipitated wastewater showed limitation of phosphorous for micro-algal growth. Additionally, the optimal oxygen supply through light response is verified for photo-bioreactors. The outcome of this study shows that knowing the right conditions can lower the treatment time. By doing so, a stable nutrient removal and reduction of precipitation chemicals can be established as well as a better recovery of valuable nutrients as phosphorous and nitrogen.

  • 10.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindberg, Carl-Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Influence of light intensity and phosphorous on microalgae activated sludge in phosphate precipitated conditionManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 11.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Schwede, Sebastian
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Lindberg, Carl Fredrik
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. ABB AB, Corporate Research, Västerås, Sweden.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Influence of hydraulic retention time on indigenous microalgae and activated sludge process2016In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 91, 277-284 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Integration of the microalgae and activated sludge (MAAS) process in municipal wastewater treatment and biogas production from recovered MAAS was investigated by studying the hydraulic retention time (HRT) of semi-continuous photo-bioreactors. An average total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency (RE) of maximum 81.5 ± 5.1 and 64.6 ± 16.2% was achieved at 6 and 4 days HRT. RE of total phosphorous (TP) increased slightly at 6 days (80 ± 12%) HRT and stabilized at 4 days (56 ± 5%) and 2 days (55.5 ± 5.5%) HRT due to the fluctuations in COD and N/P mass ratio of the periodic wastewater. COD and organic carbon were removed efficiently and a rapidly settleable MAAS with a sludge volume index (SVI_10) of less than 117 mL g-1 was observed at all HRTs. The anaerobic digestion of the untreated MAAS showed a higher biogas yield of 349 ± 10 mL g VS-1 with 2 days HRT due to a low solids retention time (SRT). Thermal pretreatment of the MAAS (120 °C, 120 min) did not show any improvement with biogas production at 6 days (269 ± 3 (untreated) and 266 ± 16 (treated) mL gVS-1), 4 days (258 ± 11(untreated) and 263 ± 10 (treated) mL gVS-1) and 2 days (308 ± 19 mL (treated) gVS-1) HRT. Hence, the biogas potential tests showed that the untreated MAAS was a feasible substrate for biogas production. Results from this proof of concept support the application of MAAS in wastewater treatment for Swedish conditions to reduce aeration, precipitation chemicals and CO2 emissions. 

  • 12.
    Anbalagan, Anbarasan
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center. University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Toledo-Cervantes, A.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Posadas, E.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Rojo, E. M.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Lebrero, R.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    González-Sánchez, A.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Nehrenheim, Emma
    Mälardalen University, School of Business, Society and Engineering, Future Energy Center.
    Muñoz, R.
    University of Valladolid, Dr. Mergelina s/n, Valladolid, Spain.
    Continuous photosynthetic abatement of CO2 and volatile organic compounds from exhaust gas coupled to wastewater treatment: Evaluation of tubular algal-bacterial photobioreactor2017In: Journal of CO2 Utilization, ISSN 2212-9820, E-ISSN 2212-9839, Vol. 21, 353-359 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The continuous abatement of CO2 and toluene from the exhaust gas by an indigenous microalgal-bacterial consortium was investigated in a pilot tubular photobioreactor interconnected to an absorption column using diluted centrate in seawater as a free nutrient source. The removal efficiency of CO2 and toluene was maximised in the vertical absorption column by identifying an optimum liquid to gas (L/G) ratio of 15. The photobioreactor supported steady-state nitrogen and phosphorus removals of 91 ± 2% and 95 ± 4% using 15% diluted centrate at 14 and 7 d of hydraulic retention time (HRT), respectively. A decrease in the removal efficiencies of nitrogen (36 ± 5%) and phosphorus (58 ± 10%) was recorded when using 30% diluted centrate at 7 d of HRT. The volumetric biomass productivities obtained at an HRT of 7 d accounted for 42 ± 11 and 80 ± 3 mg TSS L-1 d-1 using 15 and 30% centrate, respectively. Stable CO2 (76 ± 7%) and toluene removals (89 ± 5%) were achieved at an L/G ratio of 15 regardless of the HRT or centrate dilution. Hence, this study demonstrated the potential of algal-bacterial systems for the continuous removal of CO2 and volatile organic compounds from exhaust gas coupled with the simultaneous treatment of centrate. 

  • 13.
    Andersson, Linn
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Evaluation of biosand filter as a water treatment method in Ghana: An experimental study under local conditions in Ghana2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The availability to clean drinking water is something a lot of people take for granted today. Daily, there are about 1.8 billion people around the world that drinks water from a contaminated water source. Unfortunately, the deficiency is a fact, and about 361 000 children under the age of five die each year because of diarrheal disease (WHO, 2016a). 

    Earlier studies show that a biosand filter is an easy and efficient water purification method that cleans the water both physically, biologically and chemically. A biosand filter is often built using local material and is filled with sand, which makes the construction cheap and easy to repair is needed. Earlier studies have shown that this purification method can reduce waterborne disease by 99,9% with the help of a biofilm layer which develop in the top layer of the sand if the conditions are meet (CAWST, 2009).

    The purpose with this study was to build and evaluate a biosand filter as a water treatment method in Ghana. In total, three biosand filters was built with local material, each with different sand heights. The evaluation was done by studying the waters physical, biological and chemical properties before and after the filtration, which then was compared to the water quality standards from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Sweden. The results show that none of the three filters could produce water which met the standards for drinking water, which might be caused by the high flow of water through the filter which prevented the biofilm to grow. With the help from the results in Ghana, a new design of a water filter has been made to reduce the flow of water through the filter. Which gave a new biosand filter design with a diameter of 42 cm that, sand height of 80 cm and gravel height of 15 cm.  

  • 14.
    Anlind, Nils
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Eriksson, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Gromova, Arina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Hong, Marcus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Ljungström, Sara
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Markstedt, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Marknadsanalys av proteinstandarder för kvantitativ masspektrometri2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    QPrEST är en ny intern standard för absolut kvantifiering av proteiner utvecklat av företaget Atlas Antibodies AB. I en marknad där det redan finns etablerade standarder kan det vara svårt att konkurrera ut de nuvarande produkterna. Därför har denna rapport gjorts vilken består av en marknadsanalys av nuvarande standarder, statistisk undersökning av publicerade artiklar inom absolut kvantitativ proteomik samt en global kundundersökning med 35 svarande. Resultaten har legat till grund för förbättringsförslag till Atlas Antibodies AB för bättre marknadsföring och lansering av sin nya produkt, QPrEST. Slutsatsen från denna rapport är att Atlas Antibodies AB måste nischa in sin produkt till kvantifiering av ett målprotein då det är där standarden presterar bäst.

  • 15.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Deshpande, Paritosh Chakor
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Ersoz, M.
    Lazarova, Z.
    Chitosan biopolymer: a treatment option for uranium(VI) removal from drinking waterManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 16.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ersoz, M.
    Lazarova, Z.
    Characterization of a chitosan biopolymer and arsenate removal for drinking water treatment2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, 745-747 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Chitosan biopolymer with a deacetylation degree of 85%, was assessed for its capability to adsorb As(V) from drinking water by batch experiments. To characterize the chitosan biopolymer, chitosan was analyzed by FTIR and SEM. The results showed that chitosan is an effective and promising sorbent for As(V) from drinking water. From the batch tests, results showed a maximum adsorption of 355 μg/L of As(V) with 1.18 μg g-1 adsorption capacity at pH 6. The kinetic data, obtained at pH 6 could be fitted with pseudo-second order equation (adsorption capacity: 0.923 μg g-1) and the process was suitably described by a Freundlich (R2 = 0.9933) model than by a Langmuir model (R2 = 0.9741). The results above indicated that chitosan is a very favorable sorbent for As(V) removal from aqueous solution.

  • 17.
    Annaduzzaman, Md.
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ersoz, M.
    Lazarova, Z.
    Evaluation and optimization of chitosan biopolymer as an adsorbent for arsenic(V) in drinking watert treatmentManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 18.
    Arvidsson, Daniel
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Estimation of the possible waste reduction by the implementation of SODIS: A numerical-, experimental- and social study executed in Ghana2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Lack of safe drinking water is one of the biggest humanitarian problems in the world today. Over one billion people in developing countries have no access to good quality drinking water, and subsequently, diarrhoea caused by unclean water leads to 1.8 million deaths of children under the age of five. That corresponds to 90 per cent of all deaths among children in that age group. However, by improving water and sanitation management, one tenth of all worldwide cases of disease can be prevented. In relation to this, the United Nations has launched the seventh millennium goal, which is to half the proportion of people lacking access to safe drinking water by year 2015 (compared with the proportion of year 2000). Therefore, it is important to both improve and develop water treatment techniques in order to achieve a sustainable development, especially in the third world.

     

    Kofi Ansah and Edumafa are two villages on the Ghanaian countryside. Here, as in the rest of Ghana, it is common to drink water from throwaway plastic containers. This is because the water quality is poor in the stationary water sources such as tanks and wells etc. The plastic containers contribute to a big waste problem and it´s therefore desirable to improve the water quality in stationary water sources in order to reduce the waste problem that now is occurring.

     

    Solar Disinfection, or SODIS, is a water treatment technique that is based on solar radiation. Water containers (usually PET bottles) are filled with water and then exposed to the sun for about six hours. The germicidal effect can be derived to thermal heating in combination with the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. The technique is suitable in the third world since the treatment procedure is both simple and inexpensive. The purpose of this study was to estimate the possible waste reduction regarding the small plastic containers by the implementation of SODIS as a water treatment technique, and evaluate if SODIS is an adequate way to improve the quality of water collected from stationary water distribution systems in Ghana.

     

    The study has shown that SODIS is an adequate method for producing low health risk water at a household level in Ghana. A solar exposure of six hours is enough to reach a safe bacterial content within the treated water. It is also clear that SODIS could reduce the present waste problem regarding the throwaway plastic containers by more than 1600 plastic bags per person and year, and that the Ghanaians attitude to start performing SODIS is positive.

     

    Further work should be aimed at implementing SODIS as a water treatment technique by teaching the Ghanaian people, especially in the rural areas, the importance of water and sanitation issues. The implementation of SODIS is a long term project that cannot be accomplished singlehandedly. It can be achieved by instructing certain people in the villages as to how the procedure is done. For this to be effective, these individuals should preferably be well educated and speak both English and the local language. These people can in turn educate and instruct the other villagers in how SODIS is executed and by doing so complete and secure a sustainable use of the technique.

  • 19.
    Arvidsson, Staffan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Berglund, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Ehrenborg, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Ghiassi Tari, Parisa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Ledent, Sofie
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Nordstedt, Martin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Nya dispenseringstekniker för feromoner: För ett hållbart jordbruk2012Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Projektets mål har varit att utveckla nya alternativa dispenseringstekniker för insektsferomoner som bekämpar skadeinsekter på fruktodlingar. Resultatet av projektet har gett tre teoretiskt möjliga förslag. Det första förslaget är en polymerbaserad feromondispensering som inte är baserad på någon nuvarande teknik. Förslaget är uppdelat i två koncept, antingen en polymer i gelform eller en gjuten polymer. Polymererna som ges i förslaget är biologiskt nedbrytbara och har egenskaper som inte finns i produkter på marknaden idag. Det andra förslaget grundar sig på vaxbaserad feromondispensering som är en nuvarande teknik. En vaxmassa blandas tillsammans med en specifik feromonlösing och appliceras direkt på ett bladverk eller i fällor. Genom att ha en definierad form på dispensrarna erhålls en bättre kontroll på utsöndring av feromon. Det tredje förslaget är en sprejbaserad feromondispensering även den grundas på nuvarande tekniker. Idén är att en sprejbehållare med tillhörande feromonlösning kan fjärrstyras genom att kopplas till ett kontrollsystem. Fördelen med tekniken är att en större kontroll över dispenseringen på fruktodlingsfältet kan uppnås utifrån information från en väderstation eller annan källa. Kontrollsystemet kan ställas in för att rätt mängd feromon skall släppas ut i olika väderförhållande.

  • 20. Asim, Muhammad
    et al.
    Kumar, N. T. Uday
    Martin, Andrew R.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology.
    Feasibility analysis of solar combi-system for simultaneous production of pure drinking water via membrane distillation and domestic hot water for single-family villa: pilot plant setup in Dubai2016In: Desalination and Water Treatment, ISSN 1944-3994, E-ISSN 1944-3986, Vol. 57, no 46, 21674-21684 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the feasibility study of installation of a solar-driven integrated MD desalination system for simultaneous production of pure drinking water and solar domestic hot water in United Arab Emirates (UAE) for a single-family villa comprising of 4-5 persons. In order to satisfy the current and future demand of water for domestic purposes, the desalination of seawater is considered to be one of the most effective and strategic technique in UAE. The stress on the underground water aquifers, rapid industrial growth, and increase in urban population in UAE results in the tremendous increase in fresh water demand during the past few decades. Since the local municipalities also provide the desalinated fresh water to the people but they mostly rely on bottled water for drinking purpose. In this paper, the pilot setup plant is designed, commissioned, and installed on site in UAE using air gap membrane distillation desalination process to fulfill the demand of 15-25 L/d of pure drinking water and 250 L/d of domestic hot water for a single-family villa. Experimental analyses have been performed on this setup during summer on flat plate solar collectors having different aperture areas (Experiments have been performed for aperture area of 11.9 m(2) in this research study for feasibility purpose). The average hot-side temperature ranges from 50 to 70 degrees C and average cold-side temperature of 35 degrees C.

  • 21.
    Asplund, Malin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Mark- växtsystem för behandling av lakvatten: utvärdering av reningseffekter vid Häradsuddens deponi2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En av de viktigaste miljöaspekterna när det gäller deponering av avfall är utsläpp till vatten. Tidigare leddes lakvatten från de flesta deponier till kommunala reningsverk, men på senare tid har trenden gått mot allt mer lokala lösningar i mark- växtbaserade system.

    Vid Häradsuddens deponi i Norrköpings kommun har Econova mellan åren 2007 och 2011, i etapper, anlagt ett kombinerat system med lakvattenrecirkulering, luftad damm, intermittent översilning samt våtmark för rening av lakvattnet. Syftet med denna studie var att klarlägga vattenbalans och reningsfunktion för Häradsuddens reningssystem samt ge förslag på eventuella förbättringar.

    Resultaten i undersökningen tyder på en avsevärt högre belastning på våtmarken än de kända flöden som pumpas till lakvattensystemet, vilket tyder på utläckage av lakvatten från deponin. Reningssystemet klarade dock med god marginal reningskraven avseende halt för NH4-N och Ptot. Begränsande för möjligheten att släppa vattnet till recipient är halten TOC. Med anledning av lakvattnets sammansättning samt de förhållandevis höga halterna i tillrinnande vatten kan det bli svårt att komma ner i TOC-halter som säkrar möjlighet till utsläpp av behandlat lakvatten.

    Den areaspecifika reningen varierade beroende på om hänsyn togs till förmodat inläckage. Den areaspecifika reningen avseende NH4-N och Ntot var i princip obefintlig om ingen hänsyn togs till inläckage av lakvatten medan den var 80 respektive 50 g/m2·år om en beräkning av möjligt inläckage räknades med. När det gäller Ptot ökade avskiljningen från 1 till 2 g/m2·år vid hänsyn tagen till inläckage. Avskiljningen var något låg jämfört med etablerade våtmarker, men borde kunna öka med tiden.

    Analysunderlag för den luftade lakvattendammen och översilningen är otillräckligt och osäkert för att det ska kunna gå att dra några långtgående slutsatser avseende reningseffekt för dessa delar. De bedöms dock kunna ha potential för att öka avskiljningen, varför en noggrann utredning av reningseffekt och olika driftstrategier för lakvattendammen och översilningen rekommenderas.

  • 22.
    Assefa, Edom
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Ngabonziza, Bertrand
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Building, Energy and Environmental Engineering.
    Dagvattenhantering i urban miljö: Komplettering av befintliga avvattningssystem i Hemlingby2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to propose appropriate solutions that can complete Hemlingbys existing stormwater treatment systems. The solutions presented in this study has been developed with regards to the current situation, which includes water drainage systems and ponds. The study includes a survey of the current stormwater management within the district, as a result, the authors have localized two problem areas that should be investigated, i.e. are Hemlingbybäcken and Kryddstigen. The stormwater recipient i.e. Hemlingbybäcken is affected by human activities. Contaminates that affect the stream consist mainly of copper, lead and zinc. Due to the lack of stormwater storage capacity problems associated with stormwater flooding occurred from nearby buildings and industrial areas. Kryddstigen is an area in the district where business in technology and trade are located, these activities contribute to pollution that degrades groundwater and recipient conditions. The northern part of Hemlingby consist mostly of hard surfaces, which reduces the possibility of a natural infiltration of rain water, this in turn has caused an increased risk of flooding in the area. Gävle municipality have through earlier investigations identified some of the problems and tried to prevent them by implementing ponds that can delay incoming stormwater. Follow-up works proves that the ponds serve a larger catchment area than previously estimated, which adverse the ponds efficiency. Capacity problems have therefore arisen, for instance wetland ponds are sized to handle 10-yearsrain from a catchment area of 19 hectares. However, the existing wetland ponds can only handle a 2-yearsrain from a catchment area of 2400m3. This study presents open stormwater management as alternative solution, this has been proposed based on existing sewerage systems and ponds. Open stormwater solutions are applied mostly in urban environment to delay and locally dispose stormwater. This is done by vegetation which makes it possible to achieve a natural infiltration. The public can also take use of open stormwater solutions by turning an unattractive city to a beautiful one. It can also be beneficial to the community because open stormwater solutions contribute with an aesthetically pleasing environment and increasing biodiversity. The alternatives are described as follows: Green roofs, permeable ground surfaces, ditch with macadam basin and, rain gardens. These solutions are then assessed together with the existing solutions based on internal and external aspects concerning stormwater management. External aspects include legislation and stormwater policy, internal aspects take into account factors such as economy, technology, social and environment conditions. Assessment methodology that are presented in this study aims to evaluate and prepare documentation that is relevant for decision- making and the development of technical solutions based on the current situation. The evaluation method used in this study is inspired by PESTEL- analysis model. This method has been adapted to assess stormwater solutions. An overall description of what a PESTEL- analysis is given in this study as well as the interpretation and application of the assessment method. The result for single alternatives is presented and discussed with respect to existing solutions in the area of this study.

  • 23.
    Axelsson, Karolin
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Konstanzer, Vera
    KTH.
    Rajarao, Gunaratna Kuttuva
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Terenius, Olle
    Seriot, Lisa
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Nordenhem, Henrik
    Nordlander, Goran
    Borg-Karlson, Anna-Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. Tartu University, Estonia.
    Antifeedants Produced by Bacteria Associated with the Gut of the Pine Weevil Hylobius abietis2017In: Microbial Ecology, ISSN 0095-3628, E-ISSN 1432-184X, Vol. 74, no 1, 177-184 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil, Hylobius abietis, is a severe forest pest insect as it feeds on newly planted conifer seedlings. To identify and develop an antifeedant could be one step towards the protection of seedlings from feeding damage by the pine weevil. With the aim to trace the origin of the antifeedants previously found in feces of the pine weevil, we investigated the culturable bacteria associated with the gut and identified the volatiles they produced. Bacterial isolates were identified by 16S ribosomal RNA gene analysis. The volatile emissions of selected bacteria, cultivated on NB media or on the grated phloem of Scots pine twigs dispersed in water, were collected and analyzed by solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The bacterial isolates released a variety of compounds, among others 2-methoxyphenol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 3-octanone, dimethyl disulfide, and dimethyl trisulfide. A strong antifeedant effect was observed by 2-phenylethanol, which could thus be a good candidate for use to protect planted conifer seedlings against feeding damage caused by H. abietis.

  • 24.
    Azeem, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry. COMSATS Inst Informat Technol, Dept Chem, Abbottabad 22060, Pakistan.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Terenius, Olle
    Nordlander, Goran
    Nordenhem, Henrik
    Nagahama, Kazuhiro
    Norin, Emil
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    Borg Karlsson, Anna Karin
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Organic Chemistry.
    A fungal metabolite masks the host plant odor for the pine weevil (Hylobius abietis)2015In: Fungal ecology, ISSN 1754-5048, Vol. 13, 103-111 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pine weevil is one of the most important pest insects of conifer reforestation areas in Europe. Female pine weevils cover their eggs with chewed bark and feces (frass) resulting in avoidance behavior of feeding conspecifics towards egg laying sites. It has been suggested that microorganisms present in the frass may be responsible for producing deterrent compounds for the pine weevil. The fungi Ophiostoma canum, O. pluriannulatum, and yeast Debaryomyces hansenii were isolated from aseptically collected pine-weevil frass. The isolated fungi were cultured on weevil frass broth and their volatiles were collected by SPME and identified by GC MS. D. hansenii produced methyl salicylate (MeS) as a major compound, whereas, in addition, O. canum and O. pluriannulatum produced 6-protoilludene. In a multi-choice lab bioassay, MeS strongly reduced pine weevil's attraction to the Pinus sylvestris volatiles. Thus, a fungal metabolite was found that strongly affects the pine weevil host-odor search. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The British Mycological Society. All rights reserved.

  • 25.
    Bagge, Joakim
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Hedman, Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Smedsrud, Sabina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Svärdström, Cornelia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Söderberg, Elisabeth
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Valdez, Fernando
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Utveckling av metodik för påvisning och typning av Listeria i livsmedelskedjan2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 26.
    Bakare, Fatimat Oluwatoyin
    University of Borås, Faculty of Textiles, Engineering and Business.
    Development of biocomposites from lactic acid thermoset resins and cellulose fibre reinforcements2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Synthesis of polymers from renewable origin has been reported by many authors and it has been found out that it has enormous potential and can serve as alternative to conventional thermoplastics and thermosets in many applications. The use of these renewable resources will provide sustainable platforms to substitute fossil fuel-based materials. To date, efforts made to produce 100% bio-based thermosetting materials have yet to be achieved. Many studies have been reported on increasing the renewability ratio of thermoset materials produced.

    A lot of reports have been made on the synthesis of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid for biomedical applications such as tissue engineering but only few reports have been made on composite applications. The issue of high melt viscosity of thermoplastic resins from lactic acid has been of paramount problem because of its difficulty in impregnation into fibre reinforcement. Bio-based thermoset resins have been produced for composite applications from plant oils and improved mechanical properties have been achieved.

    In this thesis, an alternative route for synthesis of lactic acid based thermoset resins have been explored to solve the above problem. Thermoset resins were synthesized from lactic acid with different co-reactants and were characterized using NMR, FT-IR, DSC, DMA and TGA. Their rheological properties were also investigated. The resins were reinforced with natural and regenerated cellulose fibres in non-woven and woven form, and with different fibre alignment and fibre loading. The resulting composites were characterized by mechanical testing regarding tensile, flexural and impact strength, and by SEM analysis regarding morphology.

    The results showed that these composites could possibly be used in automobile, transport, construction and furniture applications, particularly for interior purposes. The resins produced were found to be promising materials for composite production due to the good mechanical properties achieved.

  • 27. Beijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Bjorlenius, Berndt
    Shaik, Siraz
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Brunstrom, Bjorn
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Removal of pharmaceuticals and unspecified contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by activated carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses and chemical analysis2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, 342-351 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Kappala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87-95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Kappala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O-3/m(3)) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O-3/m(3)) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Kappala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A5 and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies.

  • 28.
    Beijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Björlenius, Berndt
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Albanova Univ Ctr, Sch Biotechnol, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Shaik, Siraz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology. IUF Leibniz Res Inst Environm Med, Hennekamp 50, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany..
    Lindberg, Richard H.
    Umea Univ, Dept Chem, KBC 6A Linnaeus Vag 6, SE-90187 Umea, Sweden..
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Removal of pharmaceuticals and unspecified contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by activated carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses and chemical analysis2017In: Chemosphere, ISSN 0045-6535, E-ISSN 1879-1298, Vol. 176, 342-351 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Traces of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) and other chemicals are demonstrated in effluents from sewage treatment plants (STPs) and they may affect quality of surface water and eventually drinking water. Treatment of effluents with granular activated carbon (GAC) or ozone to improve removal of APIs and other contaminants was evaluated at two Swedish STPs, Kappala and Uppsala (88 and 103 APIs analyzed). Biomarker responses in rainbow trout exposed to regular and additionally treated effluents were determined. GAC and ozone treatment removed 87-95% of the total concentrations of APIs detected. In Kappala, GAC removed 20 and ozonation (7 g O-3/m(3)) 21 of 24 APIs detected in regular effluent. In Uppsala, GAC removed 25 and ozonation (5.4 g O-3/m(3)) 15 of 25 APIs detected in effluent. GAC and ozonation also reduced biomarker responses caused by unidentified pollutants in STP effluent water. Elevated ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity in gills was observed in fish exposed to effluent in both STPs. Gene expression analysis carried out in Kappala showed increased concentrations of cytochrome P450 (CYP1A5 and CYP1C3) transcripts in gills and of CYP1As in liver of fish exposed to effluent. In fish exposed to GAC- or ozone-treated effluent water, gill EROD activity and expression of CYP1As and CYP1C3 in gills and liver were generally equal to or below levels in fish held in tap water. The joint application of chemical analysis and sensitive biomarkers proved useful for evaluating contaminant removal in STPs with new technologies.

  • 29.
    Benselfelt, Tobias
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biotechnology. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Flow Cytometry Sensor System Targeting Escherichia Coli as an Indicator of Faecal Contamination of Water Sources2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Poor water quality is a global health concern affecting one billion people around the world. It is important to monitor water sources in order to maintain the quality of our drinking water and to avoid disease outbreaks. Targeting Escherichia coli as a faecal indicator is a widely used procedure, but the current methods are time consuming and not adequate to prevent spreading of faecal influence.

     

    This Master thesis demonstrates the development of a near infrared fluorescence flow cytometer sensor system targeting Escherichia coli, using fluorescently labeled chicken IgY antibodies. The near infrared light was chosen to avoid fluorescence from blue-green algae that are present in the water source.

     

    The hardware was developed with a 785  nm laser line to detect Alexa Fluor 790 labeled antibodies, using a photomultiplier tube or two different CMOS cameras. The antibodies were labeled using a commercial labeling kit, and evaluated using antibody binding assays and the developed hardware.

     

    The IgY antibodies were successfully labeled with Alexa Fluor 790 and the function was maintained after the labeling process. The result demonstrates the principles of the sensor system and how it solved to the problem with fluorescence from blue-green algae. An aperture was used to overcome the suboptimal laser and filter setup, and to increase the sensitivity of the system. However, only a small fraction of the cells could be detected, due to challenges with the focal depth and loss of sensitivity in the photomultiplier tube at near infrared wavelengths. Further development is required to create a working product.

  • 30.
    Bentzen, Armand
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Institute of Design.
    Frisk: Showcasing Design Opportunities in a World of Change2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Three global trends are about to greatly influence the world we live in; collaborate consumption, a strong environmental awareness and a third industrial revolution that includes 3D printing, advanced robotics and open source software. This project is addressing these changes in order to evoke new enthusiasm for cars among the general public and again be a creative and positive driving force in our modern society.

    The proposal is illustrated through a halo car for a local car sharing fleet targeted at the Norwegian market. The car seeks to create immediate attention through dynamic design elements as well as long lasting enthusiasm through non-compromised usability.

  • 31.
    Bercoff, Alexandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology.
    Investigation of the treatment process at Kungsberget's wastewater treatment plant under periods of irregular and low loads2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At Kungsberget ski-resort in Gävleborg county all wastewater produced at the facility is treated on-site. The treatment takes place at their own wastewater treatment plant in a so-called Sequence Batch Reactor (SBR), which has been in operation for about a year before this study. Kungsberget AB is currently in charge of the facility but their goal is to hand responsibility over to Sandviken Energy AB. In order for this handover to occur Kungsberget has to produce three approved treatment results. This means that the concentrations of BOD7 needs to lie under 0.3 mg/l and total phosphorous under 10 mg/l in the effluent water for three consecutive samples. The results show momentaneous values. These limits are stated in the permit Kungsberget received from the Environmental Protection Division. Kungsberget has had problems with high and fluctuating phosphorous concentrations and therefore the transfer has not yet taken place.

    In this project several parameters have been analysed in order to obtain an overview of prevailing influent and effluent concentrations. Some of the parameters that have been analysed are; phosphorous, nitrogen, BOD7, suspended solids and pH. A lot of time and effort has been put into elucidating operational routines at the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) and gaining knowledge from available literature regarding different parameters’ effect on treatment results.  

    Kungsberget has had problems adapting operating routines and reaching stable treatment results as the load is highly effected of seasonal fluctuation. This has not been taken into account earlier and the WWTP has been operated in the same manner all year around. Suggestions to how operating routines can be modified in to better meeting the needs have been produced and alternative treatment methods have been presented in the report. Two of the suggestions include biological phosphorous removal and adding carrier media to increase bacteria growth.

    An aerobic solids retention time has been calculated in order to evaluate whether nitrifying bacteria have enough time for grow and maintain a stable population. The calculation was carried out by measuring suspended solids and aeration time and the result was a solids retention time of approximately 6 days.

  • 32. Bergenholtz, Sa Schoug
    et al.
    Wessman, Per
    Wuttke, Anne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Cell Biology.
    Håkansson, Sebastian
    A case study on stress preconditioning of a Lactobacillus strain prior to freeze-drying2012In: Cryobiology, ISSN 0011-2240, E-ISSN 1090-2392, Vol. 64, no 3, 152-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Freeze-drying of bacterial cells with retained viability and activity after storage requires appropriate formulation, i.e. mixing of physiologically adapted cell populations with suitable protective agents, and control of the freeze-drying process. Product manufacturing may alter the clinical effects of probiotics and it is essential to identify and understand possible factor co-dependencies during manufacturing. The physical solid-state behavior of the formulation and the freeze-drying parameters are critical for bacterial survival and thus process optimization is important, independent of strain. However, the maximum yield achievable is also strain-specific and strain survival is governed by e.g. medium, cell type, physiological state, excipients used, and process. The use of preferred compatible solutes for cross-protection of Lactobacilli during industrial manufacturing may be a natural step to introduce robustness, but knowledge is lacking on how compatible solutes, such as betaine, influence formulation properties and cell survival. This study characterized betaine formulations, with and without sucrose, and tested these with the model lactic acid bacteria Lactobacillus coryniformis Si3. Betaine alone did not act as a lyo-protectant and thus betaine import prior to freeze-drying should be avoided. Differences in protective agents were analyzed by calorimetry, which proved to be a suitable tool for evaluating the characteristics of the freeze-dried end products.

  • 33.
    Berglund, Björn
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Dienus, Olaf
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Sokolova, Ekaterina
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Berglind, Emma
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Matussek, Andreas
    County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden; Karolinska University of Lab, Sweden.
    Pettersson, Thomas
    Chalmers, Sweden.
    Lindgren, Per-Eric
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Molecular Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. County Hospital Ryhov, Sweden.
    Occurrence and removal efficiency of parasitic protozoa in Swedish wastewater treatment plants2017In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 598, 821-827 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica and Dientamoeba fragilis are parasitic protozoa and causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans. G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in particular are the most common protozoa associated with waterborne outbreaks in high-income countries. Surveillance of protozoan prevalence in wastewater and evaluation of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies of protozoan pathogens is therefore imperative for assessment of human health risk. In this study, influent and effluent wastewater samples from three wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were collected over nearly one year and assessed for prevalence of parasitic protozoa. Quantitative real-time PCR using primers specific for the selected protozoa Cryptosporidium spp., G, intestinalis, E. histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and D. fragilis was used for protozoan DNA detection and assessment of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies. Occurrence of G. intestinalis, E. dispar and D. fragilis DNA was assessed in both influent (44, 30 and 39 out of 51 samples respectively) and effluent wastewater (14, 9 and 33 out of 51 samples respectively) in all three wastewater treatment plants. Mean removal efficiencies of G. intestinalis, E. dispar and D. fragilis DNA quantities, based on all three wastewater treatment plants studied varied between 67 and 87%, 37-75% and 20-34% respectively. Neither E. histolytica nor Cryptosporidium spp. were detected in any samples. Overall, higher quantities of protozoan DNA were observed from February to June 2012. The high prevalence of protozoa in influent wastewater indicates the need for continued monitoring of these pathogens in wastewater-associated aquatic environments to minimise the potential risk for human infection. (C) 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 34.
    Bergqvist, Cecilia
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Jafferali, Mohammed Hakim
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Gudise, Santhosh
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Markus, Robert
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    Hallberg, Einar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Neurochemistry.
    An inner nuclear membrane protein induces rapid differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells2017In: Stem Cell Research, ISSN 1873-5061, E-ISSN 1876-7753, Vol. 23, 33-38 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ability of iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells) to generate any cell type in the body makes them valuable tools for cell replacement therapies. However, differentiation of iPSCs can be demanding, slowand variable. During differentiation chromatin is re-organized and silent dense heterochromatin becomes tethered to the nuclear periphery by processes involving the nuclear lamina and proteins of the INM(inner nuclearmembrane). The INM protein, Samp1 (Spindle AssociatedMembrane Protein 1) interacts with Lamin A/C and the INMprotein Emerin, which has a chromatin binding LEM(Lap2-Emerin-Man1)-domain. In this paperweinvestigate if Samp1 can play a role in the differentiation of iPSCs. Samp1 levels increased as differentiating iPSCs started to express Lamin A/C. Interestingly, even under pluripotent culturing conditions, ectopic expression of Samp1 induced a rapid differentiation of iPSCs, ofwhich some expressed the neuronal marker beta III-tubulin already after 6 days. This suggests that Samp1 is involved in early differentiation of iPSCs and could potentially be explored as a tool to promote progression of the differentiation process.

  • 35.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Hossain, Mohammed
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Ahmed, K. M.
    Hasan, M. A.
    Von Brömssen, M.
    Groundwater arsenic pollution: A conceptual framework for sustainable mitigation strategy2014In: One Century of the Discovery of Arsenicosis in Latin America (1914-2014): As 2014 - Proceedings of the 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, CRC Press, 2014, 881-885 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tubewells installed by local drillers, provide access of drinking water in rural Bangladesh. Significant proportion of these wells contains arsenic (As) above the WHO guideline and the Bangladesh Drinking Water Standard. Various attempts for mitigation at household and community scale have resulted in limited success, but through the local driller's initiatives, the tubewells are the source of priority drinking water supply. We have developed a concept of Sustainable Arsenic Mitigation (SASMIT) to identify and target the safe aquifers through detailed hydrogeological studies for scientific validation of the water quality with respect to the color of the shallow sediments as perceived by local drillers. Together with water quality monitoring, we have also targeted the Intermediate Depth Aquifers (IDA) for providing As-safe and low manganese (Mn) water. SASMIT intervention logic also considered the relevant socio-economic scenario, such as household distribution, poverty issues and available safe water access for prioritizing safe well installation.

  • 36.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Thunvik, Roger
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering.
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. International Groundwater Arsenic Research Group.
    von Brömssen, Mattias
    Department of Soil and Water Environment Ramböll Sweden AB.
    Targeting Arsenic-Safe Aquifers in Regions with High Arsenic Groundwater and its Worldwide Implications (TASA)2015Report (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Mukherjee, Abhijit
    Nath, Bibhash
    Alexanderson, Helena
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Jacks, Gunnar
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Shallow hydrostratigraphy in an arsenic affected region of Bengal Basin: Implication for targeting safe aquifers for drinking water supply2014In: Science of the Total Environment, ISSN 0048-9697, E-ISSN 1879-1026, Vol. 485, 12-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    To delineate arsenic (As) safe aquifer(s) within shallow depth, the present study has investigated the shallow hydrostratigraphic framework over an area of 100 km(2) at Chakdaha Block of Nadia District, West Bengal. Drilling of 29 boreholes and subsequent hydrostratigraphic modeling has identified three types of aquifer within 50 m below ground level (bgl). Aquifer-1 represents a thick paleochannel sequence, deposited parallel to the River Hooghly and Ichamati. Aquifer-2 is formed locally within the overbank deposits in the central floodplain area and its vertical extension is strictly limited to 25 m bgl. Aquifer-3 is distributed underneath the overbank deposits and represents an interfluvial aquifer of the area. Aquifer-3 is of Pleistocene age (similar to 70 ka), while aquifer-1 and 2 represent the Holocene deposits (age <951 ka), indicating that there was a major hiatus in the sediment deposition after depositing the aquifer-3. Over the area, aquifer-3 is markedly separated from the overlying Holocene deposits by successive upward sequences of brown and olive to pale blue impervious clay layers. The groundwater quality is very much similar in aquifer-1 and 2, where the concentration of As and Fe very commonly exceeds 10 mu g/L and 5 mg/L, respectively. Based on similar sediment color, these two aquifers have jointly been designated as the gray sand aquifer (GSA), which constitutes 40% (1.84 x 10(9) m(3)) of the total drilled volume (4.65 x 10(9) m(3)). In aquifer-3, the concentration of As and Fe is very low, mostly <2 mu g/L and 1 mg/L, respectively. This aquifer has been designated as the brown sand aquifer (BSA) according to color of the aquifer materials and represents 10% (4.8 x 10(8) m(3)) of the total drilled volume. This study further documents that though the concentration of As is very low at BSA, the concentration of Mn often exceeds the drinking water guidelines.

  • 38.
    Biswas, Ashis
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Gustafsson, Jon Petter
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Neidhardt, Harald
    Halder, Dipti
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Kundu, Amit K.
    Chatterjee, Debashis
    Berner, Zsolt
    Bhattacharya, Prosun
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering, Land and Water Resources Engineering.
    Role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic in groundwater of Bengal Basin: Insight from surface complexation modeling2014In: Water Research, ISSN 0043-1354, E-ISSN 1879-2448, Vol. 55, 30-39 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study assesses the role of competing ions in the mobilization of arsenic (As) by surface complexation modeling of the temporal variability of As in groundwater. The potential use of two different surface complexation models (SCMs), developed for ferrihydrite and goethite, has been explored to account for the temporal variation of As(III) and As(V) concentration, monitored in shallow groundwater of Bengal Basin over a period of 20 months. The SCM for ferrihydrite appears as the better predictor of the observed variation in both As(III) and As(V) concentrations in the study sites. It is estimated that among the competing ions, PO43- is the major competitor of As(III) and As(V) adsorption onto Fe oxyhydroxide, and the competition ability decreases in the order PO43- >> Fe(II) > H4SiO4 = HCO- (3.) It is further revealed that a small change in pH can also have a significant effect on the mobility of As(III) and As(V) in the aquifers. A decrease in pH increases the concentration of As(III), whereas it decreases the As(V) concentration and vice versa. The present study suggests that the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide alone cannot explain the observed high As concentration in groundwater of the Bengal Basin. This study supports the view that the reductive dissolution of Fe oxyhydroxide followed by competitive sorption reactions with the aquifer sediment is the processes responsible for As enrichment in groundwater.

  • 39.
    Bjarne, Katrin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control.
    Optimerad förfällning med hydrolys och fermentation av primärslam för utvinning av kolkälla till efterdenitrifikation.2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Water treatment is costly, from both an economic and environmental point of view, since the need for precipitation chemicals, carbon sources and energy is high. It is therefore desirable to look for alternative solutions that enable plants to be more self-sustaining.

    Hammarby Sjöstadsverket is a pilot plant for wastewater treatment located in Henriksdal, a southeastern neighborhood of Stockholm. The plant is owned by IVL, Svenska Miljöinstitutet and Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan (KTH). Since the pilot plant was built in 2002, several different cleaning techniques have been evaluated with focus on striving for eco-friendly and eco-adapted systems. For instance, a pre-precipitation technique, so-called three step precipitation have been evaluated. The three step precipitation implicates that a metal salt followed by two different polymers are added in the flocculation chamber in the particular order to thereby enable to reduce a higher content of the organic material. In previous precipitation tests at Hammarby Sjöstadsverket, one managed to remove up to 90 % of the organic material using the three step precipitation (IVL, Hammarby Sjöstadsverket, 2011). This can be compared to a removal of only 75 % with ordinary pre-precipitation.

    This thesis aims to validate already obtained results within three step precipitation and with biological hydrolysis of primary sludge, extract a carbon source for post-denitrification containing as high concentrations of Volatile Fatty Acids (VFA) as possible and to investigate the cost of a wastewater treatment plant with three step precipitation, biogas generation and collection of internal carbon source from primary sludge at an upscaling corresponding to 100,000 person equivalents.

    Precipitation experiments were carried out in pilot scale with the precipitation chemicals, PAX-XL 36, combined with a low molecular weight organic polymer, Purfix-120, followed by a high molecular weight inorganic polymer, Super Flock C-494. The purpose of the three step precipitation was to validate the already produced results within three step precipitation and thus separate as large amounts of organic material as possible in the precipitation so that a primary sludge containing a high chemical oxygen demand (COD) can be obtained.Two different dosages of Purfix-120 were tested: 45 and 60 g/m3. The best reduction of COD and phosphorus were obtained when 193 g/m3 PAX XL-36 was combined with 60 g/m3 Purfix-120 and 0.025 g/m3 Super Flock C-494. Hereby a COD reduction of 75 % and a total phosphorus removal of 83 % were obtained.

    By hydrolysis of primary sludge in batch experiments Total Solid (TS) concentrations of 1, 2 and 3 % and residence times of up to eight days were examined. The purpose of the hydrolysis in this case was to investigate which TS concentration and residence time that gave the highest production of VFA. The experiments showed that a TS concentration of 3 % produced the highest amount of VFA and that the VFA production of the three different TS concentrations peaked at the second day. The VFA and COD production increased linearly for the three TS concentrations up until day five. After day five the COD and VFA production, for the TS concentrations of 1 and 2 %, started to decrease slightly. However TS 3 % did not show the same declining trend for VFA. Furthermore the daily ammonium and pH were investigated.  As the VFA and COD concentration increased the ammonium concentration increased as well. pH had overall a  decreasing trend.

    Four different denitrification tests were performed in batch experiments with the extracted hydrolyzate. The added COD content from the hydolyzate was either 3.3 or 4 times the initial nitrate concentration. The denitrification tests showed denitrification rates between 4.3 and 7 mg NO3-N / g volatile suspended solids * h with carbon-nitrogen ratios (C/N ratio) between 3.9 and 12.3 mg COD/mg NO3-N. The lowest C/N ratio received the lowest denitrification rate. However, it could not be concluded that the maximum C/N ratio had the highest denitrification rate.

    Futhermore the financial aspects were examined in order to investigate the cost of a wastewater treatment plant with three step precipitation, biogas generation and collection of internal carbon source from primary sludge at an upscaling corresponding to 100,000 person equivalents. The extraction of an internal carbon source would, despite loss of biogas production, be economically beneficial. Gain, in terms of not having to purchase an external carbon source, in this case ethanol, amounts to the amount of the biogas loss. The three step precipitation chemical costs were the largest item, amounting to 8,060,000 SEK. This cost versus less energy utilization in the biological step was also examined. In this case the savings in the biological step amounted to about 1/8 of precipitation chemical cost. Since the three step precipitation only managed to remove 75 % of the COD, a removal which corresponds to an ordinary pre-precipitation, the three step precipitation is considered to be economically unfavorable as it involves additional costs of polymers. Instead the three step precipitation should be replaced with a pre-precipitation.

    In summary it can be stated that an internal carbon source in the form of hydrolyzed primary sludge could replace an external carbon source in a functional way. However, steps must be taken to minimize the production of ammonium during sludge hydrolysis. From an economic perspective, the extraction of an internal carbon source would only be economical favorable if the three step precipitation is replaced with pre-precipitation.

     

  • 40.
    Björklund, Erland
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Svahn, Ola
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap. Kristianstad University, Plattformen för molekylär analys.
    Bak, Søren
    Danmark.
    Bekoe, Samuel Oppong
    Ghana.
    Hansen, Martin
    USA.
    Pharmaceutical residues affecting the UNESCO biosphere reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike wetlands: sources and sinks2016In: Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, ISSN 0090-4341, E-ISSN 1432-0703, Vol. 71, no 3, 423-436 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study is the first to investigate the pharmaceutical burden from point sources affecting the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve Kristianstads Vattenrike, Sweden. The investigated Biosphere Reserve is a >1000 km(2) wetland system with inflows from lakes, rivers, leachate from landfill, and wastewater-treatment plants (WWTPs). We analysed influent and treated wastewater, leachate water, lake, river, and wetland water alongside sediment for six model pharmaceuticals. The two WWTPs investigated released pharmaceutical residues at levels close to those previously observed in Swedish monitoring exercises. Compound-dependent WWTP removal efficiencies ranging from 12 to 100 % for bendroflumethiazide, oxazepam, atenolol, carbamazepine, and diclofenac were observed. Surface-water concentrations in the most affected lake were ≥100 ng/L for the various pharmaceuticals with atenolol showing the highest levels (>300 ng/L). A small risk assessment showed that adverse single-substance toxicity on aquatic organisms within the UNESCO Biosphere Reserve is unlikely. However, the effects of combinations of a large number of known and unknown pharmaceuticals, metals, and nutrients are still unknown.

  • 41.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Borgström, Ylva
    Pöyry Sweden AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas Fuels AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Nilsson, Fredrik
    Pöyry Sweden AB, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Svensson, Bo
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Biogasproduktion inom svensk pappers- och massaporduktion : Syntes av möjligheter och begränsningar samt teknisk utvärdering: Bilaga 2 Etablering/effektivisering av biogasproduktion inom svensk pappers- och massaindustri2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Linköpings Universitet har tillsammans med Pöyry och Scandinavian Biogas Fuels drivit projektet ”Etablering/effektivisering av  biogasproduktion inom svensk pappers- och massaproduktion”. Potentialen hos det organiska materialet i avloppsvatten från svensk pappers- och massaindustri (PMI) till biogasproduktion skattades vid projektstart till 100 milj. Nm3 metan per år (1 TWh). Denna rapport är en syntes av resultaten från projektet med syfte att ge visa hur de genererade resultaten kan omsättas i teknisk praktik med tillhörande ekonomiska insatser. Syftet är att ge underlag och stöd till PMI-branschen och externa intressenter, som överväger att implementera biogasproduktion inom PMI.

    Substraten för biogasproduktion som återfinns i pappers- och massaindustrins avloppsvatten och slam kännetecknas av stora volymer med låga COD-halter. Detta kräver rötningstekniker, som tillåter mycket korta uppehållstider jämfört med mer traditionellt utformade biogasanläggningar för att inte tankstorleken ska bli för stor. Två tekniker, som utvecklats inom projektet, klarar detta: EGSB (expanded granular sludge bed) och CSTR (completely stirred tank reactor) med slamåterföring. Dessa tekniker har därför utvärderats för tre olika typbruk, ett CTMP-bruk, ett TMP-bruk och ett sulfatmassabruk. Resultaten från dessa experimentella studier är utgångspunkten för i utvärderingen i föreliggande rapport. För varje processkoncept har en grov kostnadsuppskattning (±20 %) gjorts för den investering som krävs för biogasproduktion.

    En EGSB på ett TMP-bruk med ett totalavlopp på 1500 m3/h, där hela blekeriavloppet från peroxidblekningen och en del av det övriga avloppet behandlas i en 4000 m3 reaktor förväntas ge 2,5 milj Nm3 metan/år. Investeringskostnaden för anläggningen uppskattas till 75 milj. SEK (±20 %).

    En EGSB på ett CTMP-bruk med ett totalavlopp på 170 m3/h där hela avloppet behandlas i en 3000 m3 reaktor förväntas ge 1,8 milj Nm3 metan/år. Investeringskostnaden för anläggningen uppskattas till 64 milj. SEK (±20%).

    En CSTR med slamåterföring som körs på bioslam från ett sulfatmassabruk där ett bioslamflöde på 46 m3/h behandlas i en 4000 m3 reaktor förväntas ge 1,0 milj Nm3 metan/år. I denna design är strategin för den aeroba bioreningen ändrad för att producera ett bioslam optimerat för att ge högsta möjliga biogaspotential. Detta innebär produktion av större mängd slam, som i största mån kan rötas till metan, dvs mängd metan per mängd rötat organiskt material samtidigt som COD-reduktionen i vattenreningen bibehålls. Investeringskostnaden för anläggningen uppskattas till 32 milj. SEK (±20%).

    Baserat på de COD-kvantiteter som når de luftade dammarna inom PMIs vattenreningssystem förbrukas årligen ca 0,8 TWh el. Införande av biogasproduktion i massaindustrins spillvattenrening skulle reducera mängden COD med mellan 30-50%, vilket får till följd att den årliga elförbrukningen i samband med den aeroba reningen går ner med ca 0,2-0,4 TWh. Detta innebär alltså ett energitillskott av 0,9 – 1,1 TWh givet att hela den tillgängliga biogaspotentialen skulle byggas ut. Till detta kommer eventuella vinster relaterade till slamhanteringen.

  • 42.
    Bo, Mattiasson
    et al.
    Lunds universitet.
    Mårtensson, Lennart
    Kristianstad University, Research environment Man & Biosphere Health (MABH). Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment, Avdelningen för Naturvetenskap.
    Nilsson, Anders
    Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet.
    FoU-strategi för biogas: ett uppdrag inom ramen för Skånes färdplan för biogas2014Report (Other academic)
  • 43.
    Bodlund, Ida
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Coagulant Protein from plant materials: Potential Water Treatment Agent2013Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Access to fresh water is a human right, yet more than 780 million people, especially in rural areas, rely on unimproved sources and the need for finding ways of treating water is crucial. Although the use of natural coagulant protein in drinking water treatment has been discussed for a long time, the method is still not in practice, probably due to availability of material and limited knowledge. In this study, about hundred different crude extracts made from plant materials found in Southern India were screened for coagulation activity. Extracts of three Brassica species (Mustard, Cabbage and Cauliflower) were showing activity comparable to that of Moringa oleifera and were further investigated. Their protein content and profile were compared against each other and with coagulant protein from Moringa. Mustard (large) and Moringa seed proteins were also studied for their effect against clinically isolated bacterial strains. The protein profiles of Brassica extract showed predominant bands around 9kDa and 6.5kDa by SDS-PAGE. The peptide sequence analysis of Mustard large identified the 6.5kDa protein as Moringa coagulant protein (MO2.1) and the 9kDa protein band as seed storage protein napin3. Of thirteen clinical strains analysed, Moringa and Mustard large were proven effective in either aggregation activity or growth kinetic method or both in all thirteen and nine strains respectively. To my knowledge this is the first report on the presence of coagulant protein in Brassica seeds. Owing to the promising results Brassica species could possibly be used as a substitute to Moringa coagulating agent and chemicals in drinking water treatment. 

  • 44.
    Bodlund, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Pavankumar, Asalapuram Ramachand
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Chelliah, R.
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Kasi, S.
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Sankaran, K.
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Industrial Biotechnology.
    Coagulant proteins identified in Mustard: a potential water treatment agent2014In: International Journal of Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1735-1472, Vol. 11, no 4, 873-880 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of natural coagulant protein in drinking water treatment has been discussed for a long time, though the method is still not in practice, probably due to limited knowledge and availability of material. In the present work, different Mustard varieties were tested for the presence of coagulant protein compared with Moringa seed extract and their potential application in water treatment. The coagulation activity of the protein extract was measured using synthetic clay solution as well as water from pond. The protein content was determined by Bradford method, molecular mass determined by Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and peptide sequence was analyzed by Mass spectrometry. Extract of Mustard (large) and Moringa seed showed coagulation activity of a parts per thousand...70 and a parts per thousand...85 % after 90 min, respectively. Interestingly, seed extracts from other Mustard varieties had coagulation activity after heat activation at 95 A degrees C for 5 h. However, the coagulation activity of Mustard seed extract against turbid pond water was higher (a parts per thousand...60 %) compared to Moringa seed extract (a parts per thousand...50 %). The peptide sequence analysis of 6.5 and 9 kDa proteins was found to be homologous to Moringa coagulant protein and napin3, respectively. To our knowledge, this could be the first report on Mustard seed having coagulant protein. The coagulation activity of Mustard (large) against highly turbid pond water suggested that it could be a potential natural coagulant for water treatment.

  • 45.
    Bodlund, Ida
    et al.
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Sabarigirisan, K
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Chelliah, R
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Sankaran, K
    Anna University, Chennai.
    Kuttuva Rajarao, Gunaratna
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Environmental Microbiology.
    Screening of Coagulant Proteins from Plant Materials in Southern IndiaManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 46.
    Bohlin, Ulrika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Mathematics and Computer Science, Department of Information Technology, Division of Systems and Control.
    Comparing Cork Filters to Conventional Sand Filters: A Pilot Study of Process Water Treatment2011Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Process water is used for cooling and for transporting material in all kinds of industries. To clean the water for reuse, various types of filters can be used. Many conventional process water treatment plants incorporate sand filters, which readily clean the water from suspended matters. However, at some circumstances the sand filters do not remove high enough concentrations of metals.

    This master thesis compares the water treatment abilities of activated cork, produced by Spikes & Cogs AB, to those of the sand filters used at steel making company Ovako Hofors AB in Hofors. As an on-site pilot study, the thesis investigates the cleaning capacity of three types of activated cork filters: Fats, Oils and Solvents (FOSS) filter, Fast Acting Digesting Enzymes (FADE) filter, and Metal Adsorption and Concentration (MAAC) filter.

    The cork filters were compared to the sand filters during normal operation and, because of previous problems with the stability of the sand filter performance, during stress tests. The results show that the cleaning capacity of the sand filters is higher than the cleaning capacity of the cork filters at normal operation. At the conditions of the stress tests, at which the sand filters do not function, the cleaning capacity of the cork filters was somewhat lowered but was still well within acceptable limits.

    An important result from the experiments is that the cork filters neutralize the pH. The sand filters are sensitive to changes in the pH, meaning that the cork filters could function as a buffering unit prior to the sand filters.

  • 47.
    Bohman, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    I vått och torrt? : En studie av nationell vattenkatastrofgrupp VAKA: Underlag till den statliga dricksvattenutredningen2016Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här rapporten har studerat VAKA-gruppens verksamhet med speciellt fokus på hur de som larmat VAKA upplevt hjälpen, vilka konsekvenser som kunnat undvikas genom VAKA:s stöd samt hur insatserna skulle kunna organiseras och finansieras framöver. Studien utgår från 26 intervjuer med aktörer som larmat VAKA någon gång mellan 2010 och 2015.

    Sammanfattningsvis kan det konstateras att de intervjuade kommunerna upplever att VAKA erbjuder en synnerligen effektiv och professionell hjälp som bidragit till att olycksförloppen kunnat både mildras och förkortas avsevärt. Man har bistått med kvalificerad experthjälp vad gäller lägesanalys, provtagningar och analyser, bistått i organisationen av krisledningen och även förmedlat erfarenheter och kunskaper gällande media hantering samt kommunikation gentemot allmänheten. VAKA har dessutom tillgång till ett brett kontaktnät och har i de fall då man själv inte besitter rätt expertis snabbt kunnat förmedla kontakt med rätt person/instans. De intervjuade kommunerna har framhållit att man fått mental stöttning av VAKA i situationer som varit belastande för krisledningen. Att ha tillgång till erfarna människor som bollplank och som en part i diskussionen i ett kritiskt läge framhålls som otroligt viktigt för de inblandade.

    Flertalet av de intervjuade bedömer att det kan finnas en viss betalningsvilja för VAKA:s tjänster på kommunal nivå men ser en överhängande risk med att vissa kommuner eventuellt avvaktar en kontakt om denna är avgiftsbelagd. I sammanhanget bör man också beakta att andra aktörer än kommuner i dagsläget är berättigade att nyttja VAKA:s tjänster varför en exklusiv kommunavgift inte framstår som en optimal lösning framgent.

    Ingen av de intervjuade ser någon fördel med att VAKA verksamhet skulle organiseras på privat konsultbasis alternativt ersättas med regional kompetensutveckling. Det senare alternativet menar man känns inte realistiskt med tanke på att VAKA besitter vad som måste betraktas som nationell spetskompetens och att det skulle vara svårt att sprida denna till alla regioner.

    Förslag på verksamhetens utveckling som framkommit gäller bl.a. tillgången till nödvattenutrustning där tillgängligheten skulle kunna förbättras både via tätare avstånd mellan lagren samt en koordinering av samutnyttjande av resurser mellan kommuner. Man tror även att kännedomen om VAKA skulle kunna förbättras via informationsinsatser.

    Ytterligare ett förslag på verksamhetens utveckling gäller tillgång till laboratorier där man föreslår att VAKA alternativt Livsmedelsverket skulle administrera en central upphandling för att säkerställa att det alltid finns tillgång till laboratorieresurser.

    Baserat på rapportens samlade bedömning rekommenderas det att VAKA gruppens verksamhet även fortsättningsvis bör bedrivas i sin nuvarande form men med en fast finansiering från näringsdepartementet som möjliggör en mer långsiktig planering av verksamheten.

    Avslutningsvis bör det återigen understrykas att effekterna av framtida klimatförändringar medför att riskerna för dricksvattenförsörjningen ökar och att antalet incidenter kopplat till dricksvattenförsörjning med stor sannolikhet kommer att öka. Behovet av VAKA-gruppens tjänster blir därmed större i framtiden.

  • 48. Borghei, Seyed Mahmood
    et al.
    Nekooie, Mohammad Ali
    Sadeghian, Hadi
    Ghazizadeh, Mohammad Reza Jalili
    Parvaneh, Ali
    Yang, James
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Civil and Architectural Engineering, Hydraulic Engineering.
    Javaheri, Amir
    Kabiri-Samani, Abdorreza
    Discussion: Triangular labyrinth side weirs with one and two cycles2016In: Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: Water Management, ISSN 1741-7589, E-ISSN 1751-7729, Vol. 169, no 3, 111-114 p.Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Bourne, D.
    et al.
    Univ Glasgow, Sch Math & Stat, Glasgow.
    Fatima, T.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Math & Comp Sci, NL.
    van Meurs, P.
    Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Math & Comp Sci, NL.
    Muntean, Adrian
    Eindhoven University of Technology,.
    Is adding charcoal to soil a good method for CO2 sequestration? -: Modeling a spatially homogeneous soil2014In: Applied Mathematical Modelling, ISSN 0307-904X, E-ISSN 1872-8480, Vol. 38, no 9-10, 2463-2475 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 50. Brandin, Jan
    et al.
    Liliedahl, Truls
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Unit operations for production of clean hydrogen-rich synthesis gas from gasified biomass2011In: Biomass and Bioenergy, ISSN 0961-9534, Vol. 35, S8-S15 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The rebuild of the Vaxjo Varnamo Biomass Gasification Center (VVBGC) integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) plant into a plant for production of a clean hydrogen rich synthesis gas requires an extensive adaptation of conventional techniques to the special chemical and physical needs found in a gasified biomass environment. The CHRISGAS project has, in a multitude of areas, been responsible for the research and development activities associated with the rebuild. In this paper the present status and some of the issues concerning the upgrading of the product gas from gasified biomass into synthesis gas are addressed. The purpose is to serve as an introduction to the scientific papers written by the partners in the consortium concerning the unit operations of the process.

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