Change search
Refine search result
12345 1 - 50 of 227
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Oldest first
  • Newest first
Select all
  • 1.
    Ahlgren, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Remediation of diclofenac in a non-sterile bioreactor using the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    From an environmental perspective, it is interesting to assess new methods for efficient removal of drugs from wastewater. The purpose of this project was to assess the possibility of using the white rot fungus Trametes versicolor  to degrade diclofenac in a lab scale bioreactor. Two methods for quantitative analysis of diclofenac were developed, using GC-MS and UHPLC-Q-TOF (C18-column). Both methods were partly validated, with regard to sensitivity, linearity, accuracy and precision, which highlighted the superiority of UHPLC-Q-TOF over GC-MS. Two HILIC columns were also assessed, but proved unsuitable for quantitative analysis of diclofenac under the used conditions. The fungal mycelia were immobilized on plastic carriers in a nutrient solution. In initial E-flask experiments, 10 mg/L diclofenac was added to an active culture and a heat-killed control of T. versicolor . Samples were analyzed, and the results from the active culture indicated a 98% removal of diclofenac after 48 hours. The lab scale bioreactor was used in a semi-continuous mode with the influent containing 10 mg/L diclofenac. Samples were collected from the effluent to monitor the concentration over 7 days. The results showed a decline in concentration to a stable level of approximately 2 mg/L. The initial experiments showed that most of the removal (85%) was due to sorption of diclofenac, but a clear difference was seen between the active and heat-killed culture. It was impossible to conclude from the bioreactor experiment if the observed removal was due to sorption or to a combination of sorption and enzymatic remediation.

  • 2.
    Ahlström, Peter
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Aim, Karel
    Dohrn, Ralf
    Elliott, J Richard
    Jackson, George
    Jaubert, Jean Noël
    Rebello de A. Macedo, Maria Eugénia
    Pokki, Juha-Pekka
    Reczey, Kati
    Victorov, Alexey
    Fele Zilnik, Ljudmila
    Economou, Ioannis
    A Survey of the Role of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties in ChE University Education in Europe and the USA2010In: Chemical Engineering Education, ISSN 0009-2479, Vol. 44, no 1, 35-43 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thermodynamics and Transport Properties (TTP) is a central subject in the majority of chemical engineering curricula worldwide and it is thus of interest to know how it is taught today in various countries if chemical engineering education is to be improved. A survey of graduate thermodynamics education in the USA was performed a few years ago by Visco et al. [1] but as far as we know no systematic study of the undergraduate thermodynamics education has been performed, at least in recent years. In the present study, a survey about TTP education in Europe and the USA is presented. Results were obtained from nearly twenty different European countries and the USA and in total answers from about 150 universities were used for this study. The study is performed under the auspices of the Working Party of Thermodynamics and Transport Properties of the European Federation of Chemical Engineering. The survey was performed using a web based surveying system for which invitations were sent out to the universities by local representatives who were responsible for one or more countries each. Of the universities that answered more than 70 % offer BSc education 65 % offer MSc education and 55 % offer PhD education. Most universities offer at least two courses of thermodynamics. The following discussion is mainly based on the first two (undergraduate) courses reported. Half of these are taught to chemical engineers exclusively whereas the rest are taught with other branches of engineering, mainly mechanical and / or process engineering. In general two sets of course lengths were observed, corresponding either to a full semester of full time studies or to quarter of a semester. Most courses are centered around lectures and exercise classes with little or no laboratory work whereas home assignments are given in the vast majority (70-80 %) of the courses. The first course is mainly centered around the first and second law of thermodynamics whereas the second course is frequently more concentrated on phase equilibria. Both of these courses are mainly comprising of classical thermodynamics whereas the molecular interpretation often is touched upon. An analysis of the differences between thermodynamics education in Europe and the USA in presently being undertaken and results from this will also be presented. An investigation of the use of thermodynamics within industry is also on-going within the Working Party and results will be reported in the near future. [1] S.K.Dube, D.P. Visco, Chem. Eng. Ed., 2005, 258-263.

  • 3.
    Ahlström, Peter
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Moodley, Suren
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Bolton, Kim
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ramjugernath, D.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Computer Simulations of Vapor-Liquid-Liquid Equilibria Involving Hydrocarbons and Water2008In: Proceedings of the 100th Annual Meeting of the American Institute for Chemical Engineering, 2008, CHPC National Meeting, Durban, South Africa, December 9-10, 2008, AlChe Annual Meeting, Philadelphia, November 15-21, 2008, 2008Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 4. Aldea, Steliana
    et al.
    Snåre, Mathias
    Eränen, Kari
    Grenman, Henrik
    Rautio, Anne-Riika
    Kordás, Krisztian
    Mikkola, Jyri-Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry and Reaction Engineering, Johan Gadolin Process Chemistry Centre, Åbo Akademi University, Biskopsgatan 8, 20500 Åbo-Turku, Finland.
    Salmi, Tapio
    Murzin, Dmitry Y.
    Crystallization of Nano-Calcium Carbonate: The Influence of Process Parameters2016In: Chemie Ingenieur Technik, ISSN 0009-286X, E-ISSN 1522-2640, Vol. 88, no 11, 1609-1616 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Precipitated calcium carbonate was synthesized by carbonation of calcium hydroxide in the presence and absence of ultrasound (conventional stirring) at atmospheric as well as at elevated pressures and different initial concentrations of Ca(OH)2. Spherical morphology of the formed calcite was favored at high Ca(OH)2 concentrations and low CO2 pressures. The presence of ultrasound did not show any influence on the reaction rate in case of efficient mixing. A small increase of the reaction rate was observed at lower CO2 pressures. Elevated pressures in combination with ultrasound did not lead to notable changes of reaction rate or particle morphology.

  • 5.
    Ali Soomro, Razium
    et al.
    University of Bristol, England; University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Richard Hallam, Keith
    University of Bristol, England.
    Hussain Ibupoto, Zafar
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tahira, Aneela
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Jawaid, Sana
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Tufail Hussain Sherazi, Syed
    University of Sindh, Pakistan.
    Sirajjuddin,
    Univ Sindh, Natl Ctr Excellence Analyt Chem, Jamshoro 76080, Pakistan.
    Willander, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    A highly selective and sensitive electrochemical determination of melamine based on succinic acid functionalized copper oxide nanostructures2015In: RSC Advances, ISSN 2046-2069, E-ISSN 2046-2069, Vol. 5, no 127, 105090-105097 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study presents the development of a highly selective and sensitive electrochemical sensor for the determination of melamine from aqueous environments. The sensor system is based on functionalised marigold-like CuO nanostructures fabricated using a controlled hydrothermal process, where the utilised succinic acid is considered to play a dual role as a functionalising and growth controlling agent (modifier). The fabricated nanostructures exhibit sharp and well-ordered structural features with dimensions (thickness) in the range of 10-50 nm. The sensor system exhibits strong linearity within the concentration range of 0.1 x 10(-9) to 5.6 x 10(-9) M and demonstrates an excellent limit of detection up to 0.1 x 10(-10) M. The extreme selectivity and sensing capability of the developed sensor is attributed to the synergy of selective interaction between succinic acid and melamine moieties, and the high surface area of marigold-like CuO nanostructures. In addition to this, the developed sensor was also utilised for the determination of melamine from real milk samples collected from different regions of Hyderabad, Pakistan. The obtained excellent recoveries proved the feasibility of the sensor for real life applications. The sensor system offers an operative measure for detecting extremely low melamine content with high selectivity in food contents.

  • 6.
    Andersson Krohn, Robert
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Biomethane via Woodroll® - Investigation of Revenues & Profitability Analysis2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Woodroll® is a gasification technology developed by Cortus that produces synthetic gas (syngas) from biomass. Syngas can be used in several different applications. One interesting option is to convert it further into biomethane, which can be used as automotive fuel or replace natural gas in gas grids. The revenues and profitability of biomethane production is heavily dependent on policy instruments and support schemes. These subsidies can be either direct, where the producer receives a feed-in tariff for biomethane production, or indirect, where consumption rather than production is stimulated.

    This work has investigated which revenues that can be expected from biomethane production via Woodrooll® in Sweden, the Netherlands, Germany, the UK, France and Italy, both in terms of amounts and risks. A profitability analysis have also been carried out to preliminary compare the returns in the different countries, where two different scenarios for different revenues have been analyzed for two different feedstock prices.

    The results showed that the Netherlands and Italy provides the potentially highest revenues. However, there are uncertainty factors associated with all cases. Sweden and Germany offers indirect support and negative market trends. The Netherlands and the UK are the only options that provide a feed-in tariff for biomethane production via gasification. In the Netherlands the tariff can be secured before making investment decision but is only disbursed for 12 years. The UK offers a fixed feed-in tariff for 20 years but the tariff is secured first after plant start-up and the tariff may be reduced on a quarterly basis. In fact, the tariff has been reduced with 40 % over the last 24 months, but there are discussions on introducing a separate tariff for gasification. Italy has the support schemes that potentially offer the highest revenues, but gasification is currently not eligible for support. The latter also holds for France, which may be an interesting case in the future.

    If risk is to be minimized, Cortus may either focus on the Netherlands or await the discussions in the UK and France on introducing a gasification tariff. The work on standardization of biomethane use should also be followed since Italy offers the potentially highest return of the investigated countries. It is also recommended to look further for other cases. The best-case scenario for the risk averse is the one that provides a fixed tariff for 20 years and in which the tariff can be secured before an investment decision is taken.

  • 7.
    Andersson, Sven
    et al.
    SP.
    Bäfver, Linda
    SP.
    Davidsson, Kent
    SP.
    Pettersson, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Schmidt, Hans
    SP.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Yngvesson, Johan
    SP.
    Skrubberintegrerat vått elfilter, WESP2012Report (Other academic)
  • 8.
    Ascue Avalos, Katia
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Avfallshanteringens miljöpåverkan - Fem avfallstypers koldioxidutsläpp i SÖRABs återvinningsprocess2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The climate change is one of the biggest environmental problems we face today and is due to the increased greenhouse effect caused by mainly carbon dioxide.  SÖRAB is a waste management company in Sweden who has been getting questions from its customers about the amount of carbon dioxide that is emitted when different types of waste is recycled through their process. This thesis answers this question for five different waste types: gypsum, plastic, textile, concrete and tires. In addition to the emissions from the recycling process in SÖRAB the emissions from another alternative process for each waste is estimated. The alternative process will be either incineration or landfill. With the help of both the alternative process and SÖRABs process an environmental benefit is calculated where a positive environmental benefit means that a saving of carbon dioxide emissions has been made by not sending the waste to incineration or landfill.

     

    The carbon emission from the following parts of the process is included:

    • Transportation of the waste (includes transport by truck and ferry)

      • Transportation within SÖRABs different facilities

      • Transportation from SÖRABs facilities external recycling companies.

    • The energy consumption from ”waste crusher” machine in SÖRAB

    • Fuel consumption from the machines in SÖRAB

    •  The carbon dioxide emissions from the external companies where the waste is recycled. This also includes the transportation in the case a part of the waste is further transported to be incinerated and the emission from the incineration itself.

     

    The results showed that the carbon dioxide emissions for each waste differed very much. The differences were due to each waste recycling process in SÖRAB, which differed in the transported weights, transport lengths, and emission levels in the external company. For plastics, textiles and tires, it was the transportation to the external companies which was the factor that contributed the most to the total carbon dioxide emission. For gypsum and concrete it was the emissions in the external companies that contributed the most, which is due to transport length being shorter for their recycling processes.

     

    The environmental benefit was the highest for the recycling of tires, 611 kg C02/ton plastic is saved by not sending it to incineration and instead recycle it through SÖRABs process.  The result is mainly due to the alternatives process emission from the ferry and incineration.

     

    The environmental benefits were positive for all the waste types except for plastic

     (-9,85)  kg CO2/ton textile) which had a long transportation length in comparison to the alternative process which was to send to incineration. In this report it was nevertheless concluded that this doesn’t mean that it would be a better option to incinerate the plastic since the real environmental benefit of plastic and all the other waste types is in the amount of carbon dioxide that is being saved by not needing to manufacture more of the material that is being regenerated through the recycling process.

     

  • 9.
    Barrientos, Javier
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Chemical Technology.
    Deactivation of cobalt and nickel catalysts in Fischer-Tropsch synthesis and methanation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

                A potential route for converting different carbon sources (coal, natural gas and biomass) into synthetic fuels is the transformation of these raw materials into synthesis gas (CO and H2), followed by a catalytic step which converts this gas into the desired fuels. The present thesis has focused on two catalytic steps: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) and methanation. The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis serves to convert synthesis gas into liquid hydrocarbon-based fuels. Methanation serves instead to produce synthetic natural gas (SNG). Cobalt catalysts have been used in FTS while nickel catalysts have been used in methanation.

                The catalyst lifetime is a parameter of critical importance both in FTS and methanation. The aim of this thesis was to investigate the deactivation causes of the cobalt and nickel catalysts in their respective reactions.

                The resistance to carbonyl-induced sintering of nickel catalysts supported on different carriers (γ-Al2O3, SiO2, TiO2 and α-Al2O3) was studied. TiO2-supported nickel catalysts exhibited lower sintering rates than the other catalysts. The effect of the catalyst pellet size was also evaluated on γ-Al2O3-supported nickel catalysts. The use of large catalyst pellets gave considerably lower sintering rates. The resistance to carbon formation on the above-mentioned supported nickel catalysts was also evaluated. Once again, TiO2-supported nickel catalysts exhibited the lowest carbon formation rates. Finally, the effect of operating conditions on carbon formation and deactivation was studied using Ni/TiO2 catalysts. The use of higher H2/CO ratios and higher pressures reduced the carbon formation rate. Increasing the temperature from 280 °C to 340 °C favored carbon deposition. The addition of steam also reduced the carbon formation rate but accelerated catalyst deactivation.

                The decline in activity of cobalt catalysts with increasing sulfur concentration was also assessed by ex situ poisoning of a cobalt catalyst. A deactivation model was proposed to predict the decline in activity as function of the sulfur coverage and the sulfur-to-cobalt active site ratio. The results also indicate that sulfur decreases the selectivity to long-chain hydrocarbons and olefins.

  • 10.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Puglisi, Donatella
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Schuetze, A.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Characterizing the Influence of Gate Bias on Electrical and Catalytical Properties of a Porous Platinum Gate on Field Effect Gas Sensors2016In: 2016 IEEE SENSORS, IEEE , 2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, we exposed an MIS capacitor with porous platinum as gate material to different concentrations of CO and NH3. Its capacitance and typical reaction products (water, CO2 and NO) were monitored at high and low oxygen concentration and different gate bias voltages. We found that the gate bias influences the switch-point of the binary CO response usually seen when either changing the temperature at constant gas concentrations or the CO/O-2 ratio at constant temperature. For NH3, the sensor response as well as product reaction rates increase with bias voltages up to 6 V. A capacitance overshoot is observed when switching on or off either gas at low gate bias, suggesting increasing oxygen surface coverage with decreasing gate bias.

  • 11.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. University of Saarland, Germany.
    Reimringer, W.
    3S GmbH, Germany.
    Conrad, T.
    3S GmbH, Germany.
    Schuetze, A.
    University of Saarland, Germany.
    Dynamic multi-sensor operation and read-out for highly selective gas sensor systems2016In: PROCEEDINGS OF THE 30TH ANNIVERSARY EUROSENSORS CONFERENCE - EUROSENSORS 2016, ELSEVIER SCIENCE BV , 2016, Vol. 168, 1685-1688 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We describe hardware and algorithms which enable highly selective and sensitive operation of the two gas sensor types used in the SENSIndoor project. The resistance of a metal-oxide semiconductor (MOS) type can rise above 1 G Omega in temperature cycled operation (TCO), which is measured using a logarithmic amplifier. A silicon-carbide based, gas-sensitive field-effect transistor (SiC-FET) driven with a combination of TCO and gate-bias cycled operation (GBCO) is used as second, complimentary sensor. The cyclic sensor signals exhibit distinct shape changes depending on the gas present which is captured by pattern recognition. In this study we use Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) for discrimination and Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) for quantification of ppb concentrations of target VOCs in changing ppm concentrations of interfering gases for indoor air quality assessment. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  • 12.
    Becker, Sebastian
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Inverkan av olika joner och jonconcentrationer på porstorleksfördelningen i trämassa-fibrer2011Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The basic ingredient of paper is the individual wood fibers. The property of the fibers depends on a variety of factors e.g., method of pulp production and processing. The final sheet quality depends in part on how the fibers interface between each other and therefore factors that affect the fiber size are of interest.

    The flexibility of the fibers depends in part on the pore water i.e., the fiber swelling. The sheet becomes less flexible at low water content which gives a loss in strength. Thus it becomes desirable to increase the water uptake.

    The experimental investigation described in this report consists of exposing the wood fibers to different ions and ionic strength and then measure the pore size by thermoporosimetry where a DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimeter) is used. DSC measures the freezing point of water in the pores of the wood fibers. As the freezing point varies with the pore size the size distribution can be determined.

    The results show that there are complications with thermoporosimetry measurements at different ion concentrations. The strength of the ionic solutions will contribute to a fictitious pore volume, which makes analysis difficult to interpret.

  • 13.
    Beretta, A.
    et al.
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Groppi, G.
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Lualdi, Matteo
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Tavazzi, I.
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Forzatti, P.
    Dipartiemento Energia- Politecnico di Milano.
    Experimental and modeling analysis of methane partial oxidation: transient and steady-state behavior of rh-coated honeycomb monoliths2009In: Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, ISSN 0888-5885, E-ISSN 1520-5045, Vol. 48, no 8, 3825-3836 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The present study consists of an experimental and theoretical study of the performance of Rh-coated honeycomb monoliths for methane partial oxidation. The thermal behavior of Rh-coated honeycomb monoliths was studied under representative operating conditions, at steady state and during light-off. Model analysis (based on a dynamic heterogeneous reactor model that incorporates a kinetic scheme of the process independently developed, and well-assessed correlations for heat and mass transfer) provided a key for interpreting the observed effects. The comprehension of how transport phenomena and surface kinetics affect the reactor behavior leads to the conclusion that the feasibility of small-scale production of syngas via CH(4) catalytic partial oxidation relies on thermal management of the short contact time reactor and not the obtainment of high syngas yields (which is not a challenging task). Severe operating conditions (and high surface temperatures) can deplete the catalyst activity and cause unstable reactor operation. Guidelines for optimal reactor design are proposed.

  • 14.
    Bergström, Lars Magnus
    et al.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemistry. YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Sweden .
    Eriksson, Jan Christer
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Chemistry. YKI, Institute for Surface Chemistry, Sweden .
    Synergistic effects in binary surfactant mixtures2004In: Progress in Colloid and Polymer Science, ISSN 0340-255X, E-ISSN 1437-8027, Vol. 123, 16-22 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    By considering the main contributions to the micellar free energy we have analysed the synergistic effect often seen on the CMC of a binary surfactant mixture. The synergistic effects are due mainly to the entropic free energy contributions related with the surfactant head groups. Several cases have been treated: (i) For a mixture of a monovalent ionic and a non-ionic surfactant in the absence of added salt we obtain, entirely because of electrostatic reasons, a negative deviation from the ideal behaviour corresponding to an interaction parameter β≈-1. Upon adding an inert salt we found that the magnitude of the synergistic effect first increases, reaches a maximum and eventually decreases. (ii) For mixtures of two ionic surfactants with the same charge number but with different hydrocarbon moieties β-values as low as -10 may arise. (iii) For mixtures of an anionic and a cationic surfactant enormous effects are anticipated yielding β≤-20 depending on the CMCs of respective pure surfactant. (iv) Synergistic effects due to different cross-section areas of the head groups are found to be rather small, with 0 > β > -1, provided the difference in head group size is modest but can become more significant when the size difference is larger.

  • 15. Bertram, F.
    et al.
    Zhang, Fan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Evertsson, J.
    Carla, F.
    Pan, Jinshan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemistry, Surface and Corrosion Science.
    Messing, M. E.
    Mikkelsen, A.
    Nilsson, J-O
    Lundgren, E.
    In situ anodization of aluminum surfaces studied by x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy2014In: Journal of Applied Physics, ISSN 0021-8979, E-ISSN 1089-7550, Vol. 116, no 3, 034902- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We present results from the anodization of an aluminum single crystal [Al(111)] and an aluminum alloy [Al 6060] studied by in situ x-ray reflectivity, in situ electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and ex situ scanning electron microscopy. For both samples, a linear increase of oxide film thickness with increasing anodization voltage was found. However, the slope is much higher in the single crystal case, and the break-up of the oxide film grown on the alloy occurs at a lower anodization potential than on the single crystal. The reasons for these observations are discussed as are the measured differences observed for x-ray reflectivity and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  • 16.
    Björn, Annika
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Hörsing, Maritha
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Mersiowsky, Ivo
    Hamburg, Germany.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Impacts of temperature on the leaching of organotin compounds from poly(vinyl chloride) plastics – A study conducted under simulated landfill conditions. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2007In: Journal of Vinyl & Additive Technology, ISSN 0193-7197, E-ISSN 1548-0577, Vol. 13, no 4, 176-188 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the study was to investigate whether organotin-stabilized poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) products could contribute to the pool of organotins observed in landfill leachates, and if the possible release could be related to different temperatures and landfill degradation phases. Small-scale anaerobic reactors filled with generic household waste, a mixture of inocula, and different PVC plastics were used in the study and incubated at 20, 37, 55, and 70°C. The reactor units incubated at temperatures of 20–55°C underwent the anaerobic degradation phases that are characteristic for the aging of landfilled waste material. There were, however, differences in the duration of the phases as well as in the total biogas production among the units. Under methanogenic conditions greater losses of organotin compounds were observed as compared to acidogenic conditions. It was shown that the release of organotin stabilizers increases considerably at temperatures above the glass transition of the PVC products. A dealkylation from di- into monoalkyltin species was observed, as well as a possible methylation of inorganic tin. However, the main part of the organotins was adsorbed into the solid waste matrix. J. VINYL ADDIT. TECHNOL., 13:176–188, 2007. © 2007 Society of Plastics Engineers

  • 17.
    Bohlin, Erik
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre.
    Johansson, Caisa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre.
    Lestelius, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences, Paper Surface Centre.
    Evaluation of ink penetration in porous coatings2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 18.
    BOOG RUDBERG, SUSANN
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Kylanläggning för småskalig ölproduktion anpassad för jäsning och lagring av lageröl2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There has been a large increase of microbreweries in Sweden in the past few years, most of which produce great beers such as ales and stouts. This is however a bit strange since most Swedes seem to prefer to drink lager; at least if you study the statistics of the Swedish alcohol monopoly’s top hundred most drunken beers last year. There might be several reasons for microbreweries not brewing lagers but one reason is the equipment needed for lager brewing. Apart from the regular brewing equipment needed for brewing ales, a cooling system is needed in lager brewing in order to reach the ideal temperatures for fermentation, 10°°C, and lagering. Lagering is a process where beer is stored for weeks or months in a cold place, typically around 0°C.  The cooling systems on the market are expensive and small start-up microbreweries do not have the funds to purchase these. One example of such a microbrewery is Brewing Költur, and this study aims to solve the cooling problem for them.

    The goal was to design a cheaper alternative for cooling a 300-litre batch of beer but without severe changes in quality. The product needs to be able to hold stable temperatures and also lower the temperatures from 10°°C to 0°°C, both without major fluctuations in temperature within the vessel. The project did not aim at solving other lager brewing related problems.

    The result was a Bag-in-Box: a chest freezer in which a disposable plastic bag, big enough to fit 300 litres of beer, was placed. An air gap was created in between the inside walls of the freezer and the bag to keep the sudden cold walls from damaging the yeast by cooling it to quickly.

    A prototype was put together in order to test the most important features of the product. The tests showed that the product could keep stable temperatures very well in the lower temperature intervals, while it needed manual stirring in the higher regions to avoid temperature gradients, especially when the temperature was lowered.

    The cost of the product is overall very low. The investment cost is very low, however since the disposable bags are somewhat costly the variable cost is fairly high, yet still significantly cheaper than the alternatives on the market.

    It is believed that the product could be used by many smaller microbreweries in the future due to the low investment cost, its ability to keep the temperatures relatively stable and also because it is easy to assemble.

     

  • 19.
    BORIS ERIC ALAIN, BIZET
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    From Sugar to Furfural Compounds Using Flow Chemistry2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Due to the need to find alternatives for the current fossil-based chemical industry, the use of blo-sourced platform chemicals as building blocks for the synthesis of a wide range of industrial and consumer chemicals has gained significantly in importance over the past years.

    In this context, 5-(chloromethyl)furfural (CMF) could become a very interesting target for  the implementation of a sugar-based biorefinery. Originating from the dehydration of cellulose,  hemlcellulose or sugar, it can for example be a precursor of bio-fuels and/or fuel additives. However, there are very few published examples on the CMF synthesis as well as its ability to be further converted in interesting derivatives.

    A simple procedure for the conversion of sugar-based feedstocks to CMF, using flow chemistry, is reported in this  master  thesis.  Sucrose  and  High  Fructose  Corn  Syrup  (HFCS-90  and  HFCS-55)  were  shown  to  be suitable feedstocks. The use of HFCS-90 has been demonstrated to be particularly promising, as it could be converted in a stable process which yields 70% of CMF.

    As a proof of concept, condensation reactions of 5-methylfurfural (MF) and CMF were performed with amine compounds, thus expanding the existing pool of CMF derivatives. MF condensations could be performed under harsh conditions, whereas CMF required milder treatments. Very high conversions were observed, especially when using aliphatic amines as starting materials.

  • 20.
    Boström, Dan
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Skoglund, Nils
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Boman, Christoffer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Backman, Rainer
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Öhman, Marcus
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Engineering.
    Grimm, Alejandro
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences and Mathematics, Energy Engineering.
    Ash transformation chemistry during energy conversion of biomass2010Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 21. Braovac, Susan
    et al.
    Fackler, Karin
    Bader, Thomas K.
    Ters, Thomas
    Chemical Composition of the Archaeological Oak Wood from the Oseberg Ship2011In: Cultural Heritage Preservation.EWCHP - 2011: Proceedings of the European Workshop on Cultural Heritage Preservation. Berlin, Germany, September 26 to 28, 2011, Fraunhofer IRB Verlag, 2011, 156-163 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 22.
    Broström, Markus
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Applied Physics and Electronics.
    Effects of alkali chlorides in biomass and waste-fired boilers2009Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
  • 23.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology. Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Helwig, Nikolai
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds in the ppb range with platinum-gate SiC-Field Effect Transistors2013In: SENSORS, 2013 IEEE, IEEE , 2013, 1-4 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this work, the use of a platinum gate gas-sensitive SiC Field Effect Transistor (SiC-FET) was studied for the detection of low concentrations of hazardous Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC). For this purpose, a new gas mixing system was built providing VOCs down to sub-ppb levels by permeation ovens and gas pre-dilution. Measurements have shown that benzene, naphthalene and formaldehyde can be detected in the ppb range and indicate a detection limit of 1-2 ppb for benzene and naphthalene. The sensitivity is high with a response of 5.5 mV for 10 ppb naphthalene in a humid atmosphere (at 20% relative humidity) and with additional 2 ppm ethanol the response to naphthalene was still 1.3 mV. Formaldehyde can be detected down to approximately 100 ppb under humid conditions. This is the first time that a metal gated SiC-FET was used to detect hazardous VOCs in the low ppb range making SiC-FETs suitable candidates for indoor air quality applications.

  • 24.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Bastuck, Manuel
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken,, Germany.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Influence of a Changing Gate Bias on the Sensing Properties of SiC Field Effect Gas Sensors2012In: IMCS 2012, 2012, 140-143 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Field effect transistors based on silicon carbide have previously been used with temperature cycled operation to enhance the selectivity. In this study the influence of a changing gate bias on the sensing properties of a platinum gate FET has been studied in order to extend the virtual multi-sensor approach. The sensor exhibits gas specific hysteresis when changing the gate bias indicating that additional information regarding selectivity is contained in the transient behavior. Measurements also showed that especially the shape of the sensor signal changes dramatically with different gas exposures (e.g. H2, CO or NH3) during relaxation after step changes of the gate bias. The changing shape primarily reflects the gas itself and not the concentration so that the selectivity of the sensor is increased.

  • 25.
    Bur, Christian
    et al.
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Bastuk, Emanuel
    Saarland University, Saarbrücken, Germany.
    Schütze, Andreas
    Saarland University, Saarbruecken, Germany.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Andersson, Mike
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Combination of temperature cycled and gate bias cycled operation to enhance the selectivity of MISiC-FET gas sensors2013In: Transducers 2013 & Eurosensors XXVII, IEEE , 2013, 2041-2044 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this paper temperature modulation and gate bias modulation of a gas sensitive field effect transistor are combined in order to increase the selectivity. Data evaluation was performed using multivariate statistics, here by Linear Discriminant Analysis. It was found that both temperature cycling and gate bias cycling are suitable for quantification of different concentrations of carbon monoxide. However, combination of both approaches enhances the quality of the separation. In addition, the presented method allows discrimination of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ammonia independent of the gas concentration.

  • 26. Bylin, Susanne
    et al.
    Olsson, Carina
    Westman, Gunnar
    Theliander, Hans
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Solvation behavior of cellulose and xylan in the MIM/EMIMAc ionic liquid solvent system: Parameters for small-scale solvation2014In: BioResources, ISSN 1930-2126, Vol. 9, no 1, 1038-1054 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ionic liquid treatment has been reported by several researchers as a possible step in the process of fractionating lignocellulosic biomass within the biorefinery concept. However, understanding how solvation can be achieved and how the feedstock biopolymers are affected is needed prior to a viable implementation. An effective two-component solvent system for the wood components cellulose and xylan has been developed. Furthermore, the solvation of these components in the system consisting of the ionic liquid (IL) 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate (EMIMAc) in a novel combination with the co-solvent 1-methylimidazole (MIM) is investigated. Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) particle characterization in combination with microscopic analysis and molecular weight determinations (xylan) shows that cellulose and xylan can be most efficiently solvated using only 3 to 4% IL (n/n anhydro-glucose units and n/n anhydro-xylose units) and 9% IL, respectively, while still avoiding any significant polymer degradation. A model for a two-step process of cellulose solvation in the present system is proposed.

  • 27.
    Bäck, Andreas
    et al.
    Alstom Power Sweden AB.
    Grubbström, Jörgen
    Alstom Power Sweden AB.
    Ecke, Holger
    Vattenfall Research and Development.
    Strand, Michael
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Pettersson, Jens
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Science and Engineering, School of Engineering.
    Operation of an Electrostatic Precipitator at a 30 MWth Oxyfuel Plant2011In: International Journal of Plasma Environmental Science and Technology, ISSN 1881-8692, Vol. 5, no 2, 141-145 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The performance of a full-scale ESP was studied at the Vattenfall AB oxyfuel pilot plant in Schwarze Pumpe. The lignite-fired boiler has a 30 MWth top-mounted pulverized coal burner and was operated under conventional air combustion as well as oxyfuel combustion. The ESP was operated with varying numbers of fields in service and at different current/voltage settings. Particle number size distributions downstream the ESP were established on-line in the size range 0.015-10 m, using an electrical mobility spectrometer and an aerodynamic particle sizer. The particle size distribution at oxyfuel operation was qualitatively very similar to the results obtained for air-firing. Gravimetric measurements of total fly ash concentration showed outlet emissions below 5 mg/Nm3 when the ESP was operated with two fields in service at oxyfuel conditions.

  • 28.
    Bäckström, Marie
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Global Manufacturing Training: The localization of the Powerformer Field Operator curricula at the Notre Dame de Gravenchon Refinery2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Global Manufacturing Training (GMT) project aims at homogenizing and raising the level of competency of the workforce at ExxonMobil plants in all countries where the company is active. This report presents and introduces the main structures of the GMT venture. It deals with important aspects of the project on a global scale, but it also details the implementation of training on a local level. The different pedagogical strategies are outlined, along with the resulting system of training documents.

    A global team of experts developed general training documents, called global modules in order to set the standard for the various training documents. The inherent differences between the plants in the ExxonMobil corporation makes it necessary to adapt the global modules to fit with the site in question. The differences between the plants are of both technical character, but also concern working procedures. The process of adapting each document according to the GMT outline is called Localization.

    In the current work, the localization of training documents for the Powerformer at the refinery in Notre Dame de Gravenchon-Port Jérôme (NDG-PJG) is detailed and explained. At the NDG-PJG refinery there are two units containing a Powerformer. The training documents concern the field operator, working on what is locally called the Reforming 2 position. The ensemble of the documents localized will be used for the habilitation of the process operator. Habilitation refers the preparatory training needed in order to be able to perform the tasks and procedures of a specific position. The work has resulted in the localization of 90 percent of the global documents concerning the Reforming 2 position.

  • 29.
    Caetano de Souza, Antonio Carlos
    et al.
    Department of Energy, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil.
    Silveira, José Luz
    Department of Energy, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Zanzi Vigouroux, Rolando
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    A low cost & safe system of hydrogen production utilizing NaBH4 and CoO catalysis2007In: 2nd International Congress University-Industry Cooperation (UNIDU07), 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the hydrogen production through hydrolysisof sodium borohydride (NaBH4) utilizing catalysts containing CoO. The reactant is safe and stable(when dry) at room temperature. Few works and studies have presented results of investigationsutilizing catalysts containing cobalt; however utilizing catalysts containing CoO were not found yet.In this work simple and cheap hydrogen generation system was developed having reactions atnormal conditions of temperature and pressure. A solution containing a gravimetric composition of10% wt. NaOH, 10% wt. NaBH4 and 80% wt. H2O was utilized. The reaction was carried out atvarious times using the same catalyst to evaluate its performance. This catalyst presented highrates of hydrogen production, especially at its start-up (about 99% of the theoretical hydrogenvolume was produced) at room temperature. After start-up, e.g., when more solution was put, rateof hydrogen production decreased having its production performance also decreased. Probablythis fact occurred due to the formation of the solid phase products such as NaBO2 which might fillthe porous catalyst structure; decreasing the catalytic area. This catalyst is suggested in situationswhere high production rates are necessary such as start-up of fuel cells.

  • 30.
    Caetano de Souza, Antonio Carlos
    et al.
    Department of Energy, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil.
    Silveira, José Luz
    Department of Energy, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Brazil.
    Kiros, Yohannes
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Zanzi Vigouroux, Rolando
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Hydrogen production through hydrolysis of NaBH4: The use of catalysts containing Pt and Pt-Ru2007In: 2nd International Congress University-Industry Cooperation (UNIDU07), 2007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Several works about hydrolysis of NaBH4 utilizing various catalysts (such as catalysts containing Pt or Ru) are available in the literature. Investigations involving NaBH4 has increased due to the possibility to produce hydrogen using simple and safe systems, even at room temperatures with very high efficiencies. A solution containing a gravimetric  composition of 10%wt. NaOH, 10%wt. NaBH4 and 80%wt. H2O was utilized and the reaction was initiated immediately as soon as this solution was put in the chosen catalysts, in this case, catalysts containing Pt and mixtures of Pt-Ru. Catalysts containing Pt and Pt-Ru presented high yields of hydrogen after the solution being inserted in the reaction vessel several times. In this study it was found out that the rates of hydrogen production were increased with catalysts containing Pt and Pt-Ru (99 and 96% of theoretical hydrogen production respectively). The catalysts containing Pt presented higher production rate, while the catalysts containing the mixed Pt-Ru presented a quasi-linear production, e.g., stable production rate.

  • 31. Castro, A.
    et al.
    Vilaplana, Francisco
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Glycoscience.
    Nilsson, L.
    Characterization of a water soluble, hyperbranched arabinogalactan from yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) roots2017In: Food Chemistry, ISSN 0308-8146, E-ISSN 1873-7072, Vol. 223, 76-81 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Poepp. & Endl.) roots are largely grown in Andean countries and have attracted recent interest due to their antioxidant and prebiotic effects. Yacon is typically consumed as a fruit due to its sweet taste and juiciness. The macromolecular properties of an aqueous extract of yacon are investigated using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) coupled to UV, multiangle light scattering (MALS) and differential refractive index (dRI) detection. The method allows for determination of molar mass and size over the size distribution. Three major populations were found of which one strongly dominates in concentration. Through collection of fractions from AF4, carbohydrate composition and glycosidic linkage analysis for the dominating population was performed. The results show that the dominating population consists of a highly branched arabinogalactan (type 2) with a molar mass of approximately 1–2 · 105 g/mol, a hydrodynamic radius of approximately 6–10 nm and a relatively high apparent density (approx. 70–150 kg/m3).

  • 32.
    Cedervall, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström.
    Synthesis and characterizationof rare earth free magnetic materialsfor permanent magnet applications2013Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this thesis the compounds Fe5SiB2 and Fe5PB2 have beensynthesized via high temperature synthesis, including arc melting anddrop synthesis. The structure for both compounds are of Cr5B3 typewith the space group I4/mcm. The cell parameters were refined toa = 5.5533 Å and c = 10.3405 Å for Fe5SiB2 and a = 5.4903 Å andc = 10.3527 Å for Fe5PB2. The saturation magnetization at roomtemperature for Fe5SiB2 has been measured to 138.8 Am2/kg and theanisotropy constant has been estimated to 79 kJ/m3. Theferromagnetic properties and the high anisotropy constant makesthese materials promising as permanent magnet materials, but moreinvestigations are necessary.

  • 33.
    Chamoun, Ninus
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Kjellvertz, Viktor
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Mahajan, William
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Song, Yuanchao
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Fate of Heavy Metals in Waste to Energy (WtE) Processes2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study was made to increase the understanding of how heavy metals in the aqueous phase are removed at low initial concentrations in different pH and Eh values. The reaction that has been studied is mainly hydroxide precipitation and adsorption in a condensate treatment. In the study, data from one of Vattenfalls waste incinerators was analysed and the results from the data were then compared to previous studies. To increase the understanding, modelling of the heavy metals behaviour in the given concentrations was then made with Medusa and PHREEQC. The heavy metals that were analysed were Sb, As, Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd. The low initial concentration that vary between 36.1-23600 μg/l complicates the removal process because it corresponds in a low driving force and the results are hard to compare to other studies since the initial concentrations vary between 10-100 mg/l.

    From the modelling and the measurement data it can be seen that Pb, Zn, Cr, and Cd was removed by hydroxide precipitation at pH 10. According to the speciation calculations, the dominant species at this pH are Pb(OH)

    2 , Cd(OH)2, Zn(OH)2 and Cr(OH)3. For arsenic a clear conclusion could not be drawn from the modelling and the measurement data because of low precision. Due to the limited thermodynamic parameters of antimony in comparison with other heavy metals in the database of Medusa and PHREEQC, the modelling of antimony behaviour in condensate treatment has relatively larger uncertainty is low. The modelling results show that the main species in acidic solutions for antimony is Sb(OH)3 and in basic solutions Sb(OH)-6. Further investigation for antimony in needed for a clear conclusions to be drawn

  • 34.
    Cho, Sung-Woo
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Polymeric Materials.
    Protein-based Packaging Films, Sheets and Composites: Process Development and Functional Properties2009Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The depletion of the petroleum resources and a number of environmental concerns led to considerable research efforts in the field of biodegradable materials over the last few decades. Of the diverse range of biopolymers, wheat gluten (WG) stands out as an alternative to synthetic plastics in packaging applications due to its attractive combination of flexibility and strength, high gas barrier properties under low humidity conditions and renewability. The availability of raw materials has also been largely increased with an increase in the production of WG as a low-cost surplus material due to increasing demand for ethanol as fuel. In this study, WG was processed into films, sheets and composites using some of the most widely used techniques including solution casting, compression molding, extrusion and injection molding, accompanying process optimizations and characterization of their functional properties. This thesis consists mainly of six parts based on the purpose of the study. The first part addresses the aging and optical properties of the cast film in order to understand the mechanisms and reasons for the time-dependant physical and chemical changes. The films plasticized with glycerol were cast from acidic (pH 4) and basic (pH11) solutions. The film prepared from the pH 11 solution was mechanically more stable upon aging than the pH 4 film, which was initially very ductile but became brittle with time. It was revealed that the protein structure of the pH 4 film was initially less polymerized/aggregated and the polymerization increased during storage but it did not reach the degree of aggregation of the pH 11 film. During aging, the pH 4 film lost more mass than the pH 11 film mainly due to migration of glycerol but also due to some loss of volatile mass. In addition the greater plasticizer loss of the pH 4 film was presumably due to its initial lower degree of protein aggregation/polymerization. Glycerol content did not significantly change the opacity and pH 4 films showed good contact clarity because of less Maillard reaction. In the second part, the heat-sealability of WG films was investigated, using an impulse-heat sealer, as the sealability is one of the most important properties in the use of flexible packaging materials. It was observed that the WG films were readily sealable while preserving their mechanical integrity. The sealing temperature had a negligible effect on the lap-shear strength, but the peel strength increased with sealing temperature. The lap-shear strength increased with increasing mold temperature and the failure mode changed. The third part describes the possibility of using industrial hemp fibers to reinforce wheat gluten sheets based on evaluation of the fiber contents, fiber distribution and bonding between the fibers and matrix. It was found that the hemp fibers enhanced the mechanical properties, in which the fiber contents played a significant role in the strength. The fiber bonding was improved by addition of diamine as a cross-linker, while the fiber distribution needed to be improved. The fourth part presents a novel approach to improve the barrier and mechanical properties of extruded WG sheets with a single screw extruder at alkaline conditions using 3-5wt.% NaOH with or without 1 wt.% salicylic acid. The oxygen barrier, at dry conditions, was improved significantly with the addition of NaOH, while the addition of salicylic acid yielded poorer barrier properties. It was also observed that the WG sheets with 3 wt.% NaOH had the most suitable combination of low oxygen permeability and relatively small time-dependant changes in mechanical properties, probably due to low plasticizer migration and an optimal protein aggregation/polymerization. In the fifth part WG/PLA laminates were characterized for the purpose of improving the water barrier properties. The lamination was performed at 110°C and scanning electron microscopy showed that the laminated films were uniform in thickness. The laminates significantly suppressed the mass loss and showed promising water vapor barrier properties in humid conditions indicating possible applications in packaging. The final part addresses the development of injection molding processes for WG. Injection-molded nanocomposites of WG/MMT were also characterized. WG sheets were successively processed using injection molding and the process temperatures were found to preferably be in a range of 170-200°C, which was varied depending on the sample compositions. The clay was found to enhance the processability, being well dispersed in the matrix. The natural clay increased the tensile stiffness, whereas the modified clay increased the surface hydrophobicity. Both clays decreased the Tg and increased the thermal stability of the nanocomposites. The overall conclusion was that injection molding is a promising method for producing WG items of simple shapes. Further studies will reveal if gluten can also be used for making more complex shapes.

  • 35. Cracknell, R. F.
    et al.
    Head, R. A.
    McAllister, L. J.
    Andrae, Johan
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology.
    Octane sensitivity in gasoline fuels containing nitro-alkanes: A possible means of controlling combustion phasing for HCCI2009In: SAE technical paper series, ISSN 0148-7191Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Addition of nitroalkanes to gasoline is shown to reduce the octane quality. The reduction in the Motor Octane Number (MON) is greater than the reduction in the Research Octane Number (RON). In other words addition of nitroalkanes causes an increase in octane sensitivity. The temperature of the compressed air/fuel mixture in the MON test is higher then in the RON test. Through chemical kinetic modelling, we are able to show how the temperature dependence of the reactions responsible for break-up of the nitroalkane molecule can lead to an increase in octane sensitivity. Results are presented from an Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engine with a homogeneous charge in which the air intake temperature was varied. When the engine was operated on gasoline-like fuels containing nitroalkanes, it was observed that the combustion phasing was much more sensitive to the air intake temperature. This suggests a possible means of controlling combustion phasing for HCCI.

  • 36.
    Cunha, Gisera
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center. INRA, Biopolymeres Interact & Assemblages, France.
    Mougel, Jean-Bruno
    Cathala, Bernard
    Berglund, Lars A.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Biocomposites. KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Centres, Wallenberg Wood Science Center.
    Capron, Isabelle
    Preparation of Double Pickering Emulsions Stabilized by Chemically Tailored Nanocelluloses2014In: Langmuir, ISSN 0743-7463, E-ISSN 1520-5827, Vol. 30, no 31, 9327-9335 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Nanocelluloses are bio-based nanoparticles of interest as stabilizers for oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsions. In this work, the surface chemistry of nanocelluloses of different length, nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC, long) and cellulose nanocrystals (CNC, short), was successfully tailored by chemical modification with lauroyl chloride (C12). The resulting nanofibers were less hydrophilic than the original and able to stabilize water-in-oil (w/o) emulsions. The combination of the two types of nanocelluloses (C12-modified and native) led to new surfactant-free oil-in-water-in-oil (o/w/o) double emulsions stabilized by nanocellulose at both interfaces. Characterization was performed with respect to droplet size distribution, droplet stability over time, and stability after centrifugation. Nanocellulose-based Pickering emulsions can be designed with a substantial degree of control, as demonstrated by the stability of the chemically tailored NFC double emulsions. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that increased nanofiber length leads to increased stability.

  • 37.
    DAmico, A.
    et al.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy.
    Di Natale, C.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; IDASC CNR, Italy.
    Falconi, C.
    University of Roma Tor Vergata, Italy; IDASC CNR, Italy.
    Pennazza, G.
    University of Campus Biomed Roma, Italy.
    Santonico, M.
    University of Campus Biomed Roma, Italy.
    Lundström, Ingemar
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Equivalent electric circuits for chemical sensors in the Langmuir regime2017In: Sensors and actuators. B, Chemical, ISSN 0925-4005, E-ISSN 1873-3077, Vol. 238, 214-220 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents an equivalent electric circuit model that describes adsorption-desorption processes occurring on bio and chemical sensor surfaces under the Langmuir hypothesis and considers the following practical case: the pressure or concentration of the particles in the test chamber is not perturbed by these processes and keeps its initial value, as in the cases of relatively high pressure or concentration values with zero molecular flow, or in the presence of a molecular flow at any pressure or concentration value. It is also pointed out that the equivalent circuit for Langmuir adsorption is similar to the circuit proposed for enzymatic reactions. Even if this work essentially covers theoretic aspects, a way is suggested for the possible experimental determination of both adsorption-desorption parameters and adsorption-desorption site density. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 38.
    Darmastuti, Zhafira
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Bhattacharyya, Partha
    Bengal Engineering and Science University, India.
    Basu, Sukumar
    Jadavpur University, India.
    Käll, Per-Olov
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Ojamäe, Lars
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    Lloyd Spetz, Anita
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Sensor Science. Linköping University, The Institute of Technology.
    SiC - FET Sensors for methanol leakage detection2012In: Proceeding of the 14th International Meeting on Chemical Sensors (IMCS 2012), 2012, 1579-1582 p.Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Pt and Ir SiC based Field Effect Transistor sensors were tested to detect low concentration of methanol (<200 ppm) for both process control and leak detection applications. Pt sensors gave good and very fast response at 200°C, while Ir sensors gave larger but much slower response. The presence of oxygen improved the response of the sensor which was favorable for the leak detection application. The influence of hydrogen and propene to the sensor response was also studied. Beside the experimental work, the detection mechanism and different sensing behavior of Pt and Ir were studied by quantum chemical calculations.

  • 39.
    Deshpande, Raghu
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    The initial phase of the sodium bisulfite pulping of softwood dissolving pulp2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The sulfite pulping process is today practised in only a small number of pulp mills around the globe and the number of sulfite mills that use sodium as the base (cation) is less than five. However, due to the increasing interest in the wood based biorefinery concept, the benefits of sulfite pulping and especially the sodium based variety, has recently gained a lot of interest. It was therefore considered to be of high importance to further study the sodium based sulfite process to investigate if its benefits could be better utilized in the future in the production of dissolving pulps. Of specific interest was to investigate how the pulping conditions in the initial part of the cook (≥ 60 % pulp yield) should be performed in the best way.

    Thus, this thesis is focused on the initial phase of single stage sodium bisulfite cooking of either 100 % spruce or 100 % pine wood chips. The cooking experiments were carried out with either a lab prepared or a mill prepared cooking acid and the temperature and cooking time were varied. Activation energies for different wood components were investigated as well as side reactions concerning the formation of thiosulfate and sulfate.

  • 40.
    Done, Victoria
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    General description of measures for environmental compliance of substations owned by Svenska kraftnät in protected areas with focus on oil spill2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Svenska kraftnät is the Swedish transmission system operator, responsible for the national electrical grid with power lines of 220 kV and 400 kV, and the electrical substations of the grid. In this master thesis an old substation located in a sensitive environmental area is inspected and its environmental risks defined and assessed. From this “worst case scenario” measures are recommended, that should be applicable on other existing substations, and for new constructed substations. This thesis is limited to a more detailed analysis on how oil spill can be handled. The insulating oil is used in different machines and equipment on the substation to avoid electrical charges.

    The inspected substation has a special feature; a pipe system that connects wells on the substation area, water pipes from the substation house, and transformer pits to an oil-water separation house. The oil pits are made of concrete and placed under machines with large amounts of oil to capture the oil in case of a breakdown or leakage. In the oil-water separation house oil is separated from water and the clean water is sent to a lake in the vicinity. The most severe environmental risks found are the filter in the oil-water separation house and the risk of oil leakage from the open water-cooling system of the synchronous generator. In addition, there is no way to catch oil spill from current and voltage transformers and it is not known if the pipe system that transports water and oil spills is completely sealed. Finally, there is no permanent installation to catch spills from tank filling areas and Svenska kraftnät does rarely follow up the environmental work of the entrepreneurs.

    Svenska kraftnät is recommended to use the products and services from the companies Qlean Scandinavia AB and TTL Miljöteknik AB to attend to the noted environmental risks. Qlean Scandinavia AB offers an environmental friendly cleaning procedure with ultraclean water and sealing of concrete, which can be used for the transformer pits and oil-water separation house. They also sell profile planks as a fire-extinguishing layer for transformer pits. These are considered better and safer than the conventional stones used. The price is almost the same, however the maintenance costs are lower for the profile planks, since they are easier to clean and do not require heavy transports to landfill. They also require less space than the stones, therefore a smaller transformer pit can be built, and cost savings can be made on concrete.

    TTL Miljöteknik AB has products based on environmental friendly oil solidifying polymers placed in different textiles and filters. They let water and other substances pass, but react with hydrocarbons, like oil, forming a tight rubberlike mass. These installations are new to Europe, but more than 12 000 installations have been made, mainly in the United States and Australia. For the inspected substation in this thesis it is recommended to manage oil spill at each machine and to clean the pipe system. An HFF-filter should be installed in cleaned and sealed transformer pits. The filter lets water from precipitation pass, but binds oil, thanks to the solidifying polymers. The clean water is further transported through the pipe system to the oil-water separation house and from there water is pumped to the lake. Wells must be sealed and the pipes from the substation house led to a septic tank. Agent X, a type of filter mat, should be placed on the substation area to catch oil spills from current and voltage transformers, since previous breakdowns show that oil can be spread over a large area.

    For plants without a pipe system the water will be released outside the transformer pits. For new constructions it is suggested that transformer pits are built with a polyvinyl mat in the bottom and a filter on the sides, which will capture the oil. A concrete fundament still needs to be built to support the machine; therefore the price will almost be the same as for the conventional transformer pit in concrete, although less concrete is needed. However, with this technique the transformer pit will not require any maintenance.

  • 41.
    EDRISI, KEYVAN
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Fastställande av PGM-tillgänglighet för dieseloxidationskatalysator med hjälp av kemisorption2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC) is subjected to harsh conditions, causing its performance to

    diminish over time as the result of different aging mechanisms, which either decreases or lowers the

    accessibility to the catalyst’s active sites. Previous work using chemisorption to quantify aging progression

    has resulted in a reproducibility of 17%. In this study it has been attempted to lower this, while

    also performing performance evaluations to see if correlations exist between dispersion and Light-Off

    Temperature (LOT).

    Two catalysts have been investigated, LLC (Low Loading Catalyst) and HLC (High Loading Catalyst).

    These were hydrothermally aged at 600 C, 700 C and 800 C. In addition to these, two HLC engine cell

    samples were also investigated.

    To ensure sample homogeneity, different sample preparation methods were investigated. Catalyst samples

    were crushed, or had their washcoat layer removed, or were milled and then sieved. A total of 5 runs were

    done using fresh catalysts of LLC and HLC to calculate the standard deviation. Evaluation of performance

    was done on all samples using Synthetic Catalyst Activity Testing (SCAT).

    It was deemed that the only viable sample preparation method was to mill and sieve as other methods

    would be hard to reproduce. The results showed that the reproducibility for LLC was %STD = 4% and

    for HLC %STD = 2%. For LLC, a correlation between catalytic activity and dispersion was found. The

    activity dropped with respect to the dispersion in a close to linear fashion without a large effect on BET

    surface area. For HLC the dispersion decreased largely upon hydrothermal aging, however no correlation

    was found with the activity; only when aged at 800 C a significant change in LOT was noted. The BET

    surface area measurements were inconsistent. Lower dispersion sometimes resulted in higher surface area.

    Engine cell samples exhibited notable decrease in dispersion, but not in surface area, and did not correlate

    to the hydrothermally aged catalysts, which might be due to other effects inhibiting CO chemisorption

    during measurements.

  • 42.
    Edström, Evelina
    et al.
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Hillström, Martin
    Mälardalen University, School of Innovation, Design and Engineering, Innovation and Product Realisation.
    Produktutveckling miljöteknik: Framtagning av produkt som varnar vid förskämning av mjölk2017Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of the thesis, industrial product design PPU304, is to develop a new product that will reduce food waste of dairy products in households. The main objective is that the product will be able to measure and signal when the milk has expired.The thesis is a start to find the solution to some of the food waste in households which is a major environmental issue in today's society. The goal is to develop a flexible expiration date that can reduce food wastage. With today's sensor technology bacterial levels can be calculated from the milk and that can increase the time a pack of milk can be used. The greater knowledge and awareness humanity have for environmental issues the better world we will live in. To understand the question, “what is it that makes the milk unfit for consumption?” A part of the work has gone into researching the technological aspect. In consumer ready milk there is different bacteria that will grow over time and eventually spoil the milk, how this process works varies depending on what or which bacteria manage to grow the most. Therefore, the most appropriate technique is to measure bacteria in the milk and identify at which level the milk passes its actual expiration date.The design of the product has been guided by two major factors, the predetermined dimensions of the circuit board and the adaptation to the size of the milk carton. The shape of the product is an oblong rear part with a spherical body at the front. The edges are rounded to give a pleasantand smooth feeling to the hand using the product.The thesis in industrial product design resulted in a final concept. The product analyses the amount of bacteria in the milk through sensors that measure bacterial metabolism. The data gets interpreted and displayed through the use of LEDs. To save energy the concept is equipped with a photo resistor that deactivates the LEDs when the fridge is closed and dark. The conclusion of the thesis, performed at Millcroft AB is at a conceptual level. To go from idea to product, is a process that takes a long time to complete and often involves many different moments. The timeframe during this study is considered too short to cover all parts of the product and therefore the boundaries set and the focus has been on constructing a design that fits the estimated technology as well as consumer needs. Some suggestions are that more research in the technical aspect of the product should be concluded. Further testing of dairy sustainability should be conducted on a larger scale and further development of the technology to send data.

  • 43.
    Eita, Mohamed
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Fibre and Polymer Technology, Fibre Technology.
    In situ study of the adsorption of humic acid on the surface of aluminium oxide by QCM-D reveals novel features2011In: SOFT MATTER, ISSN 1744-683X, Vol. 7, no 2, 709-715 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Novel features of the adsorption of humic acid on the surface of aluminium oxide were revealed by means of an in situ study by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). The adsorption of humic acid on the surface of aluminium oxide shows a special case at pH 3 where the adsorption takes place in two steps. Each step has characteristic thickness, kinetics and viscoelasticity. While the first step shows low thickness, fast kinetics and almost no viscoelastic character, indicating a rigidly adsorbed humic acid monolayer, the second step is of much higher thickness, slower kinetics and with significant viscoelastic character, indicating a large diffuse layer with significant bulk contributions. In contrast, adsorption at pH 5 and 6.8 was found to be limited to a monolayer which is more rigid at pH 5 than at pH 6.8. Ellipsometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) were used to prove and quantify the adsorption in the dry state. The monolayer thickness measured by ellipsometry is close to the Sauerbrey thickness obtained by QCM-D. Adsorption takes place at a dilute concentration of 1 mg L-1, followed by saturation at a concentration of 10-20 mg L-1. XPS spectra of the carbon 1s peak indicated almost no desorption of the adsorbed humic acid layer after immersion in water for 48 hours, implying irreversible adsorption based on a strong binding between humic acid and aluminium oxide.

  • 44.
    Eklund, Patrik
    et al.
    Department of Computer Science, Åbo Akademi, Åbo, Finland.
    Forsström, Jari
    University of Turku, Department of Clinical Chemistry, Central Laboratory, Turku University Central Hospital, SF-20520 Turku, Finland.
    Diagnosis of nephropathia epidemica by adaptation through Lukasiewicz inference1990In: Computational Intelligence, III: Proceedings of the International Symposium "Computational Intelligence 90", Milan, Italy, 24-28 September, 1990. / [ed] Nick Cerone, Francesco Gardin, co-editor, George Valle, Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 1990, 237-246 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper describes a method how to arrive at a medical expert system (as a knowledge based system) to support physicians in classifying patients in diagnosis of Nephropathia epidemica (NE). We thereby present a link between Lukasiewicz inference and learning in neural nets, as a formal connection between uncertainty in logical implication and synaptic weights. The system presented uses clinical findings and laboratory investigations to arrive at predictions whether or not patients suffer from NE. Although we are willing to call our system a medical expert system, it could equally well be called a decision support system, this being more in spirit to what such a system really offers a physician.

  • 45.
    Ekspong, Joakim
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Sharifi, Tiva
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Shchukarev, Andrey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Klechikov, Alexey
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Wågberg, Thomas
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Gracia-Espino, Eduardo
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Physics.
    Stabilizing Active Edge Sites in Semicrystalline Molybdenum Sulfide by Anchorage on Nitrogen-Doped Carbon Nanotubes for Hydrogen Evolution Reaction2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 37, 6766-6776 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Finding an abundant and cost-effective electrocatalyst for the hydrogen evolu-tion reaction (HER) is crucial for a global production of hydrogen from water electrolysis. This work reports an exceptionally large surface area hybrid catalyst electrode comprising semicrystalline molybdenum sulfi de (MoS 2+ x) catalystattached on a substrate based on nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (N-CNTs), which are directly grown on carbon fiber paper (CP). It is shown here that nitrogen-doping of the carbon nanotubes improves the anchoring of MoS 2+ xcatalyst compared to undoped carbon nanotubes and concurrently stabilizes a semicrystalline structure of MoS 2+ x with a high exposure of active sites for HER. The well-connected constituents of the hybrid catalyst are shown to facilitate electron transport and as a result of the good attributes, the MoS 2+ x/N-CNT/CPelectrode exhibits an onset potential of −135 mV for HER in 0.5 M H2SO4, a Tafel slope of 36 mV dec −1, and high stability at a current density of −10 mA cm −2.

  • 46.
    Ekstrand, Eva-Maria
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Marielle
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Truong, Xu-Bin
    Scandinavian Biogas.
    Björn, Annika
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Karlsson, Anna
    Scandinavian Biogas.
    Svensson, Bo H.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Ejlertsson, Jörgen
    Scandinavian Biogas.
    The route towards stable and efficient anaerobic digestion of fibrous wastewater from pulp and paper mills in high-rate CSTRs with sludge recirculation2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The pulp and paper industry carries high costs in wastewater treatment. By combining present techniques with anaerobic digestion (AD), expenses for electricity use and sludge disposal can be reduced. The large wastewater volumes require high-rate systems sensitive to suspended solids, and this has so far excluded treatment of the energy-rich wood fibres. In this study, AD of fibrous wastewater was examined in high-rate CSTRs with sludge recirculation. Two lab-scale reactors (4L) were run for 780 days. Once a day, reactor sludge was withdrawn and centrifuged. The main part of the supernatant was discarded, while the pellet was suspended with the substrate and returned to the reactor. This gave a sludge retention time of 10-16 days and a hydraulic retention time of 4-8 days. One reactor (denoted R1) was fed with fibre sludge, and the second reactor (denoted R2) was co-digesting fibre sludge and activated sludge. Both substrates were taken from a Kraft mill in Sweden. Initially, both reactors experienced frequent drops in pH, and continuous alkali supplements were necessary for process stability. Additions of magnesium and potassium were also needed to obtain stable process performance at an OLR of 3 g VS L-1·day-1. R1 and R2 behaved similarly, but R2 (co-digestion) was more robust with less or no fluctuations in VFA and pH. Addition of activated sludge also to R1 allowed an increase in OLR to 4 g VS L-1·day-1. In summary, stable and efficient operation of a high-rate CSTR with sludge recirculation digesting fibre sludge was achieved at an OLR of 4 g VS L-1·day-1, a HRT of 4 days and a methane production of 260±20 Nml. In addition, co-digestion with activated sludge stabilized the performance at increased OLR and thus gave more methane produced per reactor volume.

  • 47.
    Elhag, Sami
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Chemically Modified Metal Oxide Nanostructures Electrodes for Sensing and Energy Conversion2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The goal of this thesis is the development of scalable, low cost synthesis of metal oxide nanostructures based electrodes and to correlate the chemical modifications with their energy conversion performance. Methods in energy conversion in this thesis have focused on two aspects; a potentiometric chemical sensor was used to determine the analytical concentration of some components of the analyte solution such as dopamine, glucose and glutamate molecules. The second aspect is to fabricate a photo-electrochemical (PEC) cell. The biocompatibility, excellent electro-catalytic activities and fast electron transfer kinetics accompanied with a high surface area to volume ratio; are properties of some metal oxide nanostructures that of a potential for their use in energy conversion. Furthermore, metal oxide nanostructures based electrode can effectively be improved by the physical or a chemical modification of electrode surface. Among these metal oxide nanostructures are cobalt oxide (Co3O4), zinc oxide (ZnO), and bismuth-zincvanadate (BiZn2VO6) have all been studied in this thesis. Metal oxide nanostructures based electrodes are fabricated on gold-coated glass substrate by low temperature (< 100 0C) wet chemicalapproach. X-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to characterize the electrodes while ultraviolet-visible absorption and photoluminescence were used to investigate the optical properties of the nanostructures. The resultant modified electrodes were tested for their performance as chemical sensors and for their efficiency in PEC activities. Efficient chemically modified electrodes were demonstrated through doping with organic additives like anionic, nonionic or cationic surfactants. The organic additives are showing a crucial role in the growth process of metal oxide nanocrystals and hence can beused to control the morphology. These organic additives act also as impurities that would significantly change the conductivity of the electrodes. However, no organic compounds dependence was observed to modify the crystallographic structure. The findings in this thesis indicate the importance of the use of controlled nanostructures morphology for developing efficient functional materials.

  • 48.
    Emera, Flory
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Method development for copper dispersion evaluation and copper-based catalysts characterization2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    N2O chemisorption technique for copper dispersion determination was developed and optimized for accurate and reproducible results. With this technique, the bulk oxidation of pre-reduced catalyst can be prevented by N2O decomposition at low temperature (30oC). Only surface copper atoms are oxidized. The amount of freshly oxidized surface coppers is determined from H2-back-titration of fixed oxygen.The impact of temperature and time of exposure during oxidation was studied. Measurements made at higher temperature (60oC) resulted in overestimation of copper dispersion due to oxygen diffusion into the bulk and sub-layers. Much longer exposure time may also have an impact on copper dispersion estimation.For accurate results and good precision, it is recommended to work under mild conditions (isothermal oxidation at 30oC for 45 min.The developed method was successfully applied to fresh and spent catalyst. As expected, the copper dispersion for fresh catalyst was significantly higher than copper dispersion for spent catalyst.

  • 49.
    Englund, Sven
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Controlling Co-capping in sintering of cermets2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This master thesis includes a literature study and experimental work to understandthe conditions where a binder phase layer, Co-capping, could be produced orinhibited, for three different cermet grades in order to suggest changes in thesintering processes and two production units. The effect of C activity and sinteringatmosphere, e.g. flow rate, pressure were investigated. The results show that the Co-capping occurs on the cooling stage, when the binder phase, Co, solidifies. Co-capping could be inhibited by using a high C activity and high pressure (50 bar). Itwas further found that Co-capping could be evaporated using low pressure, i.e. vacuum, which has not been discussed in earlier studies on Co-capping. Evaporation was also found to have a relation with the solidification temperature of the grades,since grades with higher solidification temperature get Co-capping at a highertemperature, which consequently will be exposed to higher temperatures.

  • 50.
    Erdtman, Edvin
    et al.
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Gebäck, Tobias
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Ahlström, Peter
    University of Borås, School of Engineering.
    Atomistic Modelling of Protein Superabsorbents2012Conference paper (Other academic)
12345 1 - 50 of 227
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • harvard1
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf