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  • 1. Abel, S
    et al.
    Bäbler, Matthäus
    ETH, Inst Chem & Bioengn, Dept Chem & Appl Biosci.
    Arpagaus, C
    Mazzotti, M
    Stadler, J
    Two-fraction and three-fraction continuous simulated moving bed separation of nucleosides2004In: Journal of Chromatography A, ISSN 0021-9673, E-ISSN 1873-3778, Vol. 1043, no 2, 201-210 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

     A new experimental set-up and a new simulated moving bed (SMB) operation are presented in this work. A desktop SMB unit developed as a modification of the commercial AKTA(TM) explorer working platform has been utilized for the separation of different mixtures of nucleosides. Both two fraction and three fraction SMB separations have been carried out, the latter made possible by the adoption of a new SMB configuration and operating mode (three fraction SMB, 3F-SMB, operation). Experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the 3F-SMB operation, and confirm the trends predicted based on considerations about retention of the components to be separated along the unit. 

  • 2.
    Agalo, Faith
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Analytical Chemistry. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Synthesis of Insulin-Regulated Aminopeptidase (IRAP) inhibitors2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The need for alternative cognitive enhancers has risen due to the fact that clinical trial results of the drugs currently approved for treating these disorders have not been satisfactory.

    IRAP has become a possible drug target for treating cognitive impairment brought about by Alzheimer’s disease, head trauma or cerebral ischemia, among others. This came after the revelation that Angiotensin IV enhances memory and learning. Angiotensin IV, the endogenous ligand of IRAP has been structurally modified with the aim of producing potent IRAP inhibitors. However, the peptidic nature of these inhibitors restricts their use; they are not likely to cross the blood brain barrier.

    Other strategies for generating IRAP inhibitors have been through structure-based design and receptor based virtual screening. These drug-like molecules have exhibited positive results in animal studies.

    IRAP inhibitors have been identified via a HTS of 10500 low-molecular weight compounds to give the hit based on a spirooxindole dihydroquinazolinone scaffold, with an IC50 value of 1.5 µM. In this project, some analogues to this hit compound have successfully been synthesized using a known method, whereas others have been synthesized after additional method development.

    The application of the developed method was found to be limited, because poor yield was obtained when a compound with an electron withdrawing substituent on the aniline was synthesized. As a result of this, modification of this method may be required or new methods may have to be developed to synthesize these types of analogues.

    Inhibition capability of 5 new spirooxindole dihydroquinazolinones was tested through a biochemical assay. Compound 6e emerged as the most potent inhibitor in the series, with an IC50 value of 0.2 µM. This compound will now serve as a lead compound and should be used as a starting point for future optimization in order to generate more potent IRAP inhibitors.

     

  • 3.
    Andersson, C. David
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Forsgren, Nina
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, CBRN Defense and Security, Umeå.
    Akfur, Christine
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, CBRN Defense and Security, Umeå.
    Allgardsson, Anders
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, CBRN Defense and Security, Umeå.
    Berg, Lotta
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Engdahl, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Swedish Defense Research Agency, CBRN Defense and Security, Umeå.
    Qian, Weixing
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry. Laboratories for Chemical Biology Umeå (LCBU), Umeå University,.
    Ekström, Fredrik
    Swedish Defense Research Agency, CBRN Defense and Security, Umeå.
    Linusson, Anna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Divergent Structure-Activity Relationships of Structurally Similar Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors2013In: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, ISSN 0022-2623, E-ISSN 1520-4804, Vol. 56, no 19, 7615-7624 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The molecular interactions between the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and two compound classes consisting of N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]benzenesulfonamides and N-[2-(diethylamino)ethyl]benzenemethanesulfonamides have been investigated using organic synthesis, enzymatic assays, X-ray crystallography, and thermodynamic profiling. The inhibitors' aromatic properties were varied to establish structure activity relationships (SAR) between the inhibitors and the peripheral anionic site (PAS) of AChE. The two structurally similar compound classes proved to have distinctly divergent SARs in terms of their inhibition capacity of AChE. Eight X-ray structures revealed that the two sets have different conformations in PAS. Furthermore, thermodynamic profiles of the binding between compounds and AChE revealed class-dependent differences of the entropy/enthalpy contributions to the free energy of binding. Further development of the entropy-favored compound class resulted in the synthesis of the most potent inhibitor and an extension beyond the established SARs. The divergent SARs will be utilized to develop reversible inhibitors of AChE into reactivators of nerve agent-inhibited AChE.

  • 4.
    BHANDARI, SHASHANK
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    Design of a solvent recovery system in a pharmaceutical manufacturing plant2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Solvents play a crucial role in the Active Pharmaceutical Ingredient (API) manufacturing and are used in large quantities. Most of the industries incinerate the waste solvents or send it to waste management companies for destruction to avoid waste handling and cross-contamination. It is not a cost effective method and also hazardous to the environment. This study has been performed at AstraZeneca’s API manufacturing plant at Sodertalje, Sweden. In order to find a solution, a solvent recovery system is modeled and simulated using ASPEN plus and ASPEN batch modeler. The waste streams were selected based on the quantity and cost of the solvents present in them. The solvent mixture in the first waste stream was toluene-methanol in which toluene was the key-solvent whereas in the second waste stream, isooctane-ethyl acetate was the solvent mixture in which isooctane was the key-solvent. The solvents in the waste stream were making an azeotrope and hence it was difficult to separate them using conventional distillation techniques. Liquid-Liquid Extraction with water as a solvent followed by batch distillation was used for the first waste stream and Pressure Swing Distillation was used for the second waste stream. The design was optimized based on cost analysis and was successful to deliver 96.1% toluene recovery with 99.5% purity and 83.6% isooctane recovery with 99% purity. The purity of the solvents was decided based on the quality conventions used at AstraZeneca so that it can be recovered and recycled in the same system. The results were favorable with a benefit of €335,000 per year and preventing nearly one ton per year carbon dioxide emissions to the environment. A theoretical study for the recovery system of toluene-methanol mixture was performed. The proposed design was an integration of pervaporation to the batch distillation. A blend of polyurethane / poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PU / PDMS) membrane was selected for the separation of methanol and toluene mixture. The results of preliminary calculations show 91.4% toluene recovery and 72% methanol recovery with desired purity.

  • 5.
    Carlhäll, Sara
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Bladh, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Brynhildsen, Jan
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Claesson, Ing-Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Josefsson, Ann
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Sydsjö, Gunilla
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Thorsell, Annika
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences.
    Blomberg, Marie
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Clinical Sciences. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center of Paediatrics and Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Linköping.
    Maternal obesity (Class I-III), gestational weight gain and maternal leptin levels during and after pregnancy: a prospective cohort study2016In: BMC Obesity, ISSN 2052-9538, Vol. 3, no 28Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Maternal obesity is accompanied by maternal and fetal complications during and after pregnancy. The risks seem to increase with degree of obesity. Leptin has been suggested to play a role in the development of obesity related complications. Whether maternal leptin levels differ between obese and morbidly obese women, during and after pregnancy, have to our knowledge not been previously described. Neither has the association between maternal leptin levels and gestational weight gain in obese women. The aim was to evaluate if maternal plasma leptin levels were associated with different degrees of maternal obesity and gestational weight gain.

    Methods

    Prospective cohort study including women categorized as obesity class I-III (n = 343) and divided into three gestational weight gain groups (n = 304). Maternal plasma leptin was measured at gestational week 15, 29 and 10 weeks postpartum. Maternal Body Mass Index (BMI) was calculated from early pregnancy weight. Gestational weight gain was calculated using maternal weight in delivery week minus early pregnancy weight. The mean value and confidence interval of plasma-leptin were analysed with a two-way ANOVA model. Interaction effect between BMI and gestational weight gain group was tested with a two-way ANOVA model.

    Results

    The mean maternal leptin concentrations were significantly higher in women with obesity class III compared to women in obesity class I, at all times when plasma leptin were measured. The mean leptin concentrations were also significantly higher in women with obesity class II compared to women in obesity class I, except in gestational week 29. There was no difference in mean levels of plasma leptin between the gestational weight gain groups. No significant interaction between BMI and gestational weight gain group was found.

    Conclusions

    Plasma leptin levels during and after pregnancy were associated with obesity class but not with degree of gestational weight gain. These results are in concordance with epidemiological findings where the risk of obstetric complications increases with increased maternal obesity class. The effect on obstetric outcome by degree of gestational weight gain is less pronounced than the adverse effects associated with maternal obesity.

  • 6.
    Decker, Daniel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Plant Physiology.
    UDP-sugar metabolizing pyrophosphorylases in plants: formation of precursors for essential glycosylation-reactions2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    UDP-sugar metabolizing pyrophosphorylases provide the primary mechanism for de novo synthesis of UDP-sugars, which can then be used for myriads of glycosyltranferase reactions, producing cell wall carbohydrates, sucrose, glycoproteins and glycolipids, as well as many other glycosylated compounds. The pyrophosphorylases can be divided into three families: UDP-Glc pyrophosphorylase (UGPase), UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase (USPase) and UDP-N-acety lglucosamine pyrophosphorylase (UAGPase), which can be discriminated both by differences in accepted substrate range and amino acid sequences.

    This thesis focuses both on experimental examination (and re-examination) of some enzymatic/ biochemical properties of selected members of the UGPases and USPases and UAGPase families and on the design and implementation of a strategy to study in vivo roles of these pyrophosphorylases using specific inhibitors. In the first part, substrate specificities of members of the Arabidopsis UGPase, USPase and UAGPase families were comprehensively surveyed and kinetically analyzed, with barley UGPase also further studied with regard to itspH dependency, regulation by oligomerization, etc. Whereas all the enzymes preferentially used UTP as nucleotide donor, they differed in their specificity for sugar-1-P. UGPases had high activity with D-Glc-1-P, but could also react with Frc-1-P, whereas USPase reacted with arange of sugar-1-phosphates, including D-Glc-1-P, D-Gal-1-P, D-GalA-1-P, β-L-Ara-1-P and α-D-Fuc-1-P. In contrast, UAGPase2 reacted only with D-GlcNAc-1-P, D-GalNAc-1-P and, to some extent, with D-Glc-1-P. A structure activity relationship was established to connect enzyme activity, the examined sugar-1-phosphates and the three pyrophosphorylases. The UGPase/USPase/UAGPase active sites were subsequently compared in an attempt to identify amino acids which may contribute to the experimentally determined differences in substrate specificities.

    The second part of the thesis deals with identification and characterization of inhibitors of the pyrophosphorylases and with studies on in vivo effects of those inhibitors in Arabidopsis-based systems. A novel luminescence-based high-throughput assay system was designed, which allowed for quantitative measurement of UGPase and USPase activities, down to a pmol per min level. The assay was then used to screen a chemical library (which contained 17,500 potential inhibitors) to identify several compounds affecting UGPase and USPase. Hit-optimization on one of the compounds revealed even stronger inhibitors of UGPase and USPase which also strongly inhibited Arabidopsis pollen germination, by disturbing UDP-sugar metabolism. The inhibitors may represent useful tools to study in vivo roles of the pyrophosphorylases, as a complement to previous genetics-based studies.

    The thesis also includes two review papers on mechanisms of synthesis of NDP-sugars. The first review covered the characterization of USPase from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms, whereas the second review was a comprehensive survey of NDP-sugar producing enzymes (not only UDP-sugar producing and not only pyrophosphorylases). All these enzymes were discussed with respect to their substrate specificities and structural features (if known) and their proposed in vivo functions.

  • 7. Hakala, Elina F.
    et al.
    Hanski, Leena
    Uvell, Hanna
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Yrjonen, Teijo
    Vuorela, Heikki
    Elofsson, Mikael
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Vuorela, Pia Maarit
    Dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Schisandra spp. selectively inhibit the growth of the intracellular bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis2015In: Journal of antibiotics (Tokyo. 1968), ISSN 0021-8820, E-ISSN 1881-1469, Vol. 68, no 10, 609-614 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Lignans from Schisandra chinensis berries show various pharmacological activities, of which their antioxidative and cytoprotective properties are among the most studied ones. Here, the first report on antibacterial properties of six dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans found in Schisandra spp. is presented. The activity was shown on two related intracellular Gram-negative bacteria Chlamydia pneumoniae and Chlamydia trachomatis upon their infection in human epithelial cells. All six lignans inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation and infectious progeny production. Schisandrin B inhibited C. pneumoniae inclusion formation even when administered 8 h post infection, indicating a target that occurs relatively late within the infection cycle. Upon infection, lignan-pretreated C. pneumoniae elementary bodies had impaired inclusion formation capacity. The presence and substitution pattern of methylenedioxy, methoxy and hydroxyl groups of the lignans had a profound impact on the antichlamydial activity. In addition our data suggest that the antichlamydial activity is not caused only by the antioxidative properties of the lignans. None of the compounds showed inhibition on seven other bacteria, suggesting a degree of selectivity of the antibacterial effect. Taken together, the data presented support a role of the studied lignans as interesting antichlamydial lead compounds.

  • 8.
    Jama, Fosia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Evaluation of amino acids in Aminoven 10 % and Vamin 18EF with UPLC using Waters AccQTag method2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim with this project was to evaluate Waters AccQTag method which was ananalytical method that Waters Corporation provides for determination of aminoacids. The amino acid analysis was carried out by reversed-phase AQUITY UPLCH-Class, using a BEH C18-column and a PDA detector.Both primary and secondary amino acids were analyzed after precolumnderivatization with the AccQTag reagent kit by a manual procedure and, detected at260 nm. Fresenius Kabis existing products, Aminoven 10 % and Vamin 18EF wereused as samples. The evaluation was based on external calibration curves withprepared standard solutions from Fresenius Kabi, with the addition of the internalstandard L-Norvaline. Waters amino acid standard was used for the system suitabilitytest. A validation according to the ICH guidelines were performed with the followingparameters: specificity, linearity, precision, LOQ, LOD and robustness.Complementary parameters for system suitability test (SST) and stability of standardand reagent were also evaluated. The validation showed that the % RSD values forspecificity, system suitability test and robustness were within the acceptance criteriaof equal or less than 3 % for amino acids. Although the precision were between1.3-7.5 % which was higher than the acceptance criteria of equal or less than 3 %, thiswas likely due to sensitive sample preparation. The linearity was bad which made itimpossible to quantify the method since the calibration curves were below 0.999. Itwas concluded that the system was robust and can be used to analyze amino acids inAminoven 10 % and Vamin 18EF but the preparation step should if possible beautomatized to achieve better precision in the analytical work. Two amino acids,cysteine and histidine, needs to be studied further; cysteine gave three peaks insteadof one and histidine gave a peak split at higher injection volume than 0.5 uL.

  • 9.
    KOLAKOWSKI, MARCIN JANUSZ
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE).
    CFD simulation of fluid flow in milliliter vials used for crystal nucleation experiments2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This work investigates the fluid flow in a cylindrical millilitre vial stirred by a magnetic stirred bar using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). Stirred millilitre vials are used to study nucleation phenomena and crystallization as an outline of literature study of nucleation and crystallization phenomena and the role of stirring in this process. The baffle free vial was meshed with around 500,000 cells. To simulate the stirring a rotary frame and moving walls were used. Stirring speeds were between 100 and 1000 rpm where considered, correspondently to a stirrer Reynolds number between 260 and 2600. For stirring speeds bellow 500 rpm, simulations by both the both laminar flow model and the k-ε model where run, while above 500 rpm only k-ε was used. Results of the two models were very similar indicative the adequacy of k-ε to simulate the flow even at low Reynolds. The flow shows expected circulation pattern with upwards pumping close to side walls and downwards pumping in the centre of cylindrical vial. At 1000 rpm circulation patterns expands up to the top of the vial while at 300 rpm and lower the upper half of the vial is poorly mixed. The average turbulent energy of the flow is very low comparing with the squared stirrer tip speed and the power number decrees with Reynolds number, indicating that the flow is not fully turbulent.

  • 10.
    Lindh, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Svensson, Fredrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Schaal, Wesley
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Zhang, Jin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Sköld, Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Brandt, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Karlén, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Toward a Benchmarking Data Set Able to Evaluate Ligand- and Structure-based Virtual Screening Using Public HTS Data2015In: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling, ISSN 1549-9596, Vol. 55, no 2, 343-353 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual screening has the potential to accelerate and reduce costs of probe development and drug discovery. To develop and benchmark virtual screening methods, validation data sets are commonly used. Over the years, such data sets have been constructed to overcome the problems of analogue bias and artificial enrichment. With the rapid growth of public domain databases containing high-throughput screening data, such as the PubChem BioAssay database, there is an increased possibility to use such data for validation. In this study, we identify PubChem data sets suitable for validation of both structure- and ligand-based virtual screening methods. To achieve this, high-throughput screening data for which a crystal structure of the bioassay target was available in the PDB were identified. Thereafter, the data sets were inspected to identify structures and data suitable for use in validation studies. In this work, we present seven data sets (MMP13, DUSP3, PTPN22, EPHX2, CTDSP1, MAPK10, and CDK5) compiled using this method. In the seven data sets, the number of active compounds varies between 19 and 369 and the number of inactive compounds between 59 405 and 337 634. This gives a higher ratio of the number of inactive to active compounds than what is found in most benchmark data sets. We have also evaluated the screening performance using docking and 3D shape similarity with default settings. To characterize the data sets, we used physicochemical similarity and 2D fingerprint searches. We envision that these data sets can be a useful complement to current data sets used for method evaluation.

  • 11.
    Liti, Samone
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Analytical Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Evaluation of sample preparation techniques for MALDI-TOF-MS analysis of oligosaccharides2016Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to optimize the sample preparation and methods for analysis of oligosaccharides of hyaluronic acid with MALDI- TOF-MS. The analysis was carried out on an Autoflex speed MADLI-TOF- MS instrument with both linear and reflectron mode. Matrices used in this study were 2,5-DHB and Super-DHB and type of matrix was chosen depending on the size of the analyzed oligosaccharides. The application of sample and matrix on the target that gave the most homogenous crystallization was sandwich and the laser power in the MALDI was kept at 65 %. Since it is known that salts and buffers interfere with the analysis, sample clean-up such as solid phase extraction (SPE) in pipette tips and dialysis was performed. SPE worked best for low mass oligosaccharides and provided high intensity and little noise. With SPE a concentration of the analyte could be done which was the advantage over dialysis. Dialysis worked well for larger oligosaccharides and mixtures of different sized oligosaccharides. Another way of using MALDI for biomolecule analysis is with TLC-MALDI. A fast and accurate separation was achieved and analysis could be done directly from the plate. The optimized methods were evaluated according to linearity and precision, LOD, mass accuracy and matrix stability. The linearity and precision was good in a higher concentration range (50 μg/mL and higher), but the test for limit-of-detection (LOD) indicated that concentrations from 20-30 μg/mL could be analyzed with no interference from the background. The mass accuracy was within the acceptable limits according to Bruker Daltonics when a mass calibration was done for each analyzed sample. The stability of the matrix in solution was difficult to study because of the day-to-day variation in intensities given by the MALDI-TOF-MS technique. 

  • 12. Nicholson, James
    et al.
    Azim, Syed
    Rebecchi, Mario J.
    Galbavy, William
    Feng, Tian
    Reinsel, Ruth
    Rizwan, Sabeen
    Fowler, Christopher J.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Pharmacology and Clinical Neuroscience, Pharmacology.
    Benveniste, Helene
    Kaczocha, Martin
    Leptin Levels Are Negatively Correlated with 2-Arachidonoylglycerol in the Cerebrospinal Fluid of Patients with Osteoarthritis2015In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, no 4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    ` Background There is compelling evidence in humans that peripheral endocannabinoid signaling is disrupted in obesity. However, little is known about the corresponding central signaling. Here, we have investigated the relationship between gender, leptin, body mass index (BMI) and levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of primarily overweight to obese patients with osteoarthritis. Methodology/Principal Findings Patients (20 females, 15 males, age range 44-78 years, BMI range 24-42) undergoing total knee arthroplasty for end-stage osteoarthritis were recruited for the study. Endocannabinoids were quantified by liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry. AEA and 2-AG levels in the serum and CSF did not correlate with either age or BMI. However, 2-AG levels in the CSF, but not serum, correlated negatively with CSF leptin levels (Spearman's. -0.48, P=0.0076, n=30). No such correlations were observed for AEA and leptin. Conclusions/Significance In the patient sample investigated, there is a negative association between 2-AG and leptin levels in the CSF. This is consistent with pre-clinical studies in animals, demonstrating that leptin controls the levels of hypothalamic endocannabinoids that regulate feeding behavior.

  • 13.
    Nordeman, Patrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Preclinical PET Platform.
    Development of Palladium-Promoted 11C/12C-Carbonylations and Radiosynthesis of Amyloid PET Ligands2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the first part of this thesis, palladium(0)-catalyzed and -mediated carbonylations are discussed. Paper I describes a new method for the safe, efficient use of a solid carbon monoxide source in the synthesis of primary and secondary benzamides. In total, 35 benzamides were synthesized from aryl iodides (20 examples, 69-97% yield) and aryl bromides (15 examples, 32-93% yield). Reduction-prone groups were used successfully in the reactions. In paper II, the same protocol was adopted for the palladium(0)-catalyzed synthesis of N-cyanobenzamides from aryl iodides/bromides, carbon monoxide and cyanamide. In total, 22 N-cyanobenzamides were synthesized (42-88% yield). The radiosynthesis of [11C]N-cyanobenzamides is discussed in paper III. In total, 22 compounds were synthesized from various aryl halides in 28-79% decay corrected radiochemical yield. The protocol was then applied to the radiosynthesis of [11C]N-cyanobenzamide analogs of flufenamic acid and dazoxibene.

    In the second part of this thesis, compounds of interest in relation to amyloid diseases are discussed. Paper IV describes the solid-phase synthesis of BACE-1 enzyme inhibitors containing secondary and tertiary hydroxyl as the transition state isostere. In total, 22 inhibitors were synthesized. The most potent compound (IC50= 0.19 µM) was co-crystallized at the active site of the enzyme to reveal a new binding mode. In paper V, the evaluation of a potent BACE-1 inhibitor as a potential radiotracer for use in PET is described. The radiolabeled [11C]BSI-IV was obtained in 29±12% decay corrected radiochemical yield by a three-component palladium(0)-mediated aminocarbonylation. Its properties as a potential PET tracer were investigated in vitro by autoradiography and in vivo in rats using small animal PET-CT. A new class of amyloid-binding PET ligands is described in paper VI. Three polythiophenes were labeled with carbon-11 or fluorine-18 (26-43% decay-corrected radiochemical yield). The in vitro studies showed that these ligands bind specifically to amyloid deposits. In vivo PET showed low uptake in the organs of interest in healthy rats and a monkey. These results suggest the labeled thiophenes derivatives could be useful as PET tracers for the study of amyloid diseases.

  • 14.
    Öhrngren, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Organic Pharmaceutical Chemistry.
    Tertiary Alcohol- or β-Hydroxy γ-Lactam-Based HIV-1 Protease Inhibitors: Microwave Applications in Batch and Continuous Flow Organic Synthesis2011Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the outbreak of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the 1980s, the disease has cost the lives of over 30 million people, and a further 33 million are currently living with the HIV infection. With the appropriate treatment, HIV/AIDS can today be regarded as a chronic but manageable disease. However, treatment is not available globally and UNAIDS still estimates that there are currently 5000 AIDS-related deaths worldwide per day.

    HIV protease inhibitors (PIs) constitute one of the fundaments of HIV treatment, and are commonly used in so-called highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), together with reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Although there are ten PIs on the market, there is still a need for novel structures. The rapid development of resistant strains, due to the high frequency of mutations, together with the commonly observed adverse effects of the drugs available, illustrate the need to develop new potent structures.

    Two novel scaffolds were investigated in this work. A tertiary alcohol-containing scaffold comprising a three-carbon tether, and a β-hydroxy γ-lactam-based scaffold were designed, synthesized and evaluated using enzyme- and cell-based assays. X-ray analyses of inhibitors from each class provided information on inhibitor–protease interactions. The inhibitors containing the tertiary alcohol provided at best an enzymatic inhibition (Ki) of 2.3 nM, and an inhibition in the cell-based assay (EC50) of 0.17 µM. The γ-lactam-based inhibitors exhibited better inhibition than the first series; the best values being Ki = 0.7 nM and EC50 = 0.04 µM.

    The second part of these studies involved the evaluation of a novel non-resonance continuous-flow microwave instrument. The instrument was validated regarding heating capacity, temperature stability and temperature homogeneity. A number of model reactions were performed with low- and high-microwave-absorbing solvents. It was found that the microwave heating source allowed rapid temperature adjustment, together with easily regulated, flow-dependent reaction times, providing an efficient tool for reaction optimisation.

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