The search for quieter internal combustion engines drives the quest for a better understanding of the acoustic properties of engine duct components. Simulations are an important tool for enhanced understanding; they give insight into the flow-acoustic interaction in components where it is difficult to perform measurements. In this work the acoustics is obtained directly from a compressible Large Eddy Simulation (LES). With this method complex flow phenomena can be captured, as well as sound generation and acoustic scattering.
The aim of the research is enhanced understanding of the acoustics of engine gas exchange components, such as the turbocharger compressor.In order to investigate methods appropriate for such studies, a simple constriction, in the form of an orifice plate, is considered. The flow through this geometry is expected to have several of the important characteristics that generate and scatter sound in more complex components, such as an unsteady shear layer, vortex generation, strong recirculation zones, pressure fluctuations at the plate, and at higher flow speeds shock waves.
The sensitivity of the scattering to numerical parameters, and flow noise suppression methods, is investigated. The most efficient method for reducing noise in the result is averaging, both in time and space. Additionally, non-linear effects were found to appear when the amplitude of the acoustic velocity fluctuations became larger than around 1~\% of the mean velocity, in the orifice.
The main goal of the thesis has been to enhance the understanding of the flow and acoustics of a thick orifice plate, with a jet Mach number of 0.4 to 1.2. Additionally, we evaluate different methods for analysis of the data, whereby better insight into the problem is gained. The scattering of incoming waves is compared to measurements with in general good agreement. Dynamic Mode Decomposition (DMD) is used in order to find significant frequencies in the flow and their corresponding flow structures, showing strong axisymmetric flow structures at frequencies where a tonal sound is generated and incoming waves are amplified.The main mechanisms for generating plane wave sound are identified as a fluctuating mass flow at the orifice openings and a fluctuating force at the plate sides, for subsonic jets. This study is to the author's knowledge the first numerical investigation concerning both sound generation and scattering, as well as coupling sound to a detailed study of the flow.With decomposition techniques a deeper insight into the flow is reached. It is shown that a feedback mechanism inside the orifice leads to the generation of strong coherent axisymmetric fluctuations, which in turn generate a tonal sound.