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  • 1. Abramowski, A.
    et al.
    Aharonian, F.
    Benkhali, F. Ait
    Akhperjanian, A. G.
    Anguener, E. O.
    Backes, M.
    Balzer, A.
    Becherini, Y.
    Tjus, J. Becker
    Berge, D.
    Bernhard, S.
    Bernloehr, K.
    Birsin, E.
    Blackwell, R.
    Boettcher, M.
    Boisson, C.
    Bolmont, J.
    Bordas, P.
    Bregeon, J.
    Brun, F.
    Brun, P.
    Bryan, M.
    Bulik, T.
    Carr, J.
    Casanova, S.
    Chakraborty, N.
    Chalme-Calvet, R.
    Chaves, R. C. G.
    Chen, A.
    Chretien, M.
    Colafrancesco, S.
    Cologna, G.
    Conrad, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Couturier, C.
    Cui, Y.
    Davids, I. D.
    Degrange, B.
    Deil, C.
    deWilt, P.
    Djannati-Ata, A.
    Domainko, W.
    Donath, A.
    Drury, L. O'C.
    Dubus, G.
    Dutson, K.
    Dyks, J.
    Dyrda, M.
    Edwards, T.
    Egberts, K.
    Eger, P.
    Ernenwein, J-P.
    Espigat, P.
    Farnier, Christian
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Fegan, S.
    Feinstein, F.
    Fernandes, M. V.
    Fernandez, D.
    Fiasson, A.
    Fontaine, G.
    Foerster, A.
    Fuessling, M.
    Gabici, S.
    Gajdus, M.
    Gallant, Y. A.
    Garrigoux, T.
    Giavitto, G.
    Giebels, B.
    Glicenstein, J. F.
    Gottschall, D.
    Goyal, A.
    Grondin, M-H.
    Grudzinska, M.
    Hadasch, D.
    Haeffner, S.
    Hahn, J.
    Hawkes, J.
    Heinzelmann, G.
    Henri, G.
    Hermann, G.
    Hervet, O.
    Hillert, A.
    Hinton, J. A.
    Hofmann, W.
    Hofverberg, P.
    Hoischen, C.
    Holler, M.
    Horns, D.
    Ivascenko, A.
    Jacholkowska, A.
    Jamrozy, M.
    Janiak, M.
    Jankowsky, F.
    Jung-Richardt, I.
    Kastendieck, M. A.
    Katarzynski, K.
    Katz, U.
    Kerszberg, D.
    Khelifi, B.
    Kieffer, M.
    Klepser, S.
    Klochkov, D.
    Kluzniak, W.
    Kolitzus, D.
    Komin, Nu.
    Kosack, K.
    Krakau, S.
    Krayzel, F.
    Krueger, P. P.
    Laffon, H.
    Lamanna, G.
    Lau, J.
    Lefaucheur, J.
    Lefranc, V.
    Lemiere, A.
    Lemoine-Goumard, M.
    Lenain, J-P.
    Lohse, T.
    Lopatin, A.
    Lu, C-C.
    Lui, R.
    Marandon, V.
    Marcowith, A.
    Mariaud, C.
    Marx, R.
    Maurin, G.
    Maxted, N.
    Mayer, M.
    Meintjes, P. J.
    Menzler, U.
    Meyer, Manuel
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Mitchell, A. M. W.
    Moderski, R.
    Mohamed, M.
    Morå, Knut
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Moulin, E.
    Murach, T.
    de Naurois, M.
    Niemiec, J.
    Oakes, L.
    Odaka, H.
    Oettl, S.
    Ohm, S.
    Opitz, B.
    Ostrowski, M.
    Oya, I.
    Panter, M.
    Parsons, R. D.
    Arribas, M. Paz
    Pekeur, N. W.
    Pelletier, G.
    Petrucci, P-O.
    Peyaud, B.
    Pita, S.
    Poon, H.
    Prokoph, H.
    Puehlhofer, G.
    Punch, M.
    Quirrenbach, A.
    Raab, S.
    Reichardt, I.
    Reimer, A.
    Reimer, O.
    Renaud, M.
    de los Reyes, R.
    Rieger, F.
    Romoli, C.
    Rosier-Lees, S.
    Rowell, G.
    Rudak, B.
    Rulten, C. B.
    Sahakian, V.
    Salek, D.
    Sanchez, D. A.
    Santangelo, A.
    Sasaki, M.
    Schlickeiser, R.
    Schuessler, F.
    Schulz, A.
    Schwanke, U.
    Schwemmer, S.
    Seyffert, A. S.
    Simoni, R.
    Sol, H.
    Spanier, F.
    Spengler, Gerrit
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Spies, F.
    Stawarz, L.
    Steenkamp, R.
    Stegmann, C.
    Stinzing, F.
    Stycz, K.
    Sushch, I.
    Tavernet, J-P.
    Tavernier, T.
    Taylor, A. M.
    Terrier, R.
    Tluczykont, M.
    Trichard, C.
    Tuffs, R.
    Valerius, K.
    van der Walt, J.
    van Eldik, C.
    van Soelen, B.
    Vasileiadis, G.
    Veh, J.
    Venter, C.
    Viana, A.
    Vincent, P.
    Vink, J.
    Voisin, F.
    Voelk, H. J.
    Vuillaume, T.
    Wagner, S. J.
    Wagner, P.
    Wagner, Roger M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Weidinger, M.
    Weitzel, Q.
    White, R.
    Wierzcholska, A.
    Willmann, P.
    Woernlein, A.
    Wouters, D.
    Yang, R.
    Zabalza, V.
    Zaborov, D.
    Zacharias, M.
    Zdziarski, A. A.
    Zech, A.
    Zefi, F.
    Zywucka, N.
    Acceleration of petaelectronvolt protons in the Galactic Centre2016In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 531, no 7595, p. 476-+Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Galactic cosmic rays reach energies of at least a few petaelectronvolts(1) (of the order of 1015 electronvolts). This implies that our Galaxy contains petaelectronvolt accelerators ('PeVatrons'), but all proposed models of Galactic cosmic-ray accelerators encounter difficulties at exactly these energies(2). Dozens of Galactic accelerators capable of accelerating particles to energies of tens of teraelectronvolts (of the order of 10(13) electronvolts) were inferred from recent gamma-ray observations(3). However, none of the currently known accelerators-not even the handful of shell-type supernova remnants commonly believed to supply most Galactic cosmic rays-has shown the characteristic tracers of petaelectronvolt particles, namely, power-law spectra of.-rays extending without a cut-off or a spectral break to tens of teraelectronvolts(4). Here we report deep.-ray observations with arcminute angular resolution of the region surrounding the Galactic Centre, which show the expected tracer of the presence of petaelectronvolt protons within the central 10 parsecs of the Galaxy. We propose that the supermassive black hole Sagittarius A* is linked to this PeVatron. Sagittarius A* went through active phases in the past, as demonstrated by X-ray outbursts(5) and an outflow from the Galactic Centre(6). Although its current rate of particle acceleration is not sufficient to provide a substantial contribution to Galactic cosmic rays, Sagittarius A* could have plausibly been more active over the last 10(6)-10(7) years, and therefore should be considered as a viable alternative to supernova remnants as a source of petaelectronvolt Galactic cosmic rays.

  • 2.
    Abramsson, Mia
    et al.
    Swedish Energy Agency, Sweden.
    Jidesjö, Anders
    Swedish Energy Agency, Sweden.
    Research and development projects aiming to increase young adults’ knowledge of energy and energy efficiency2015In: eceee Summer Study proceedings / [ed] Therese Laitinen Lindström, Borg & Co, Stockholm, Sweden, European Council for an Energy Efficient Economy (ECEEE), 2015, p. 509-514Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Children and young adults are important target groups in order to decrease the climate change effects and increase an energy-efficient end use. With increased knowledge and awareness these target groups could play a constructive role in the current and future transition of the energy system. The correlation between knowledge, awareness and behavioral change is central for improved energy efficiency in the society. Children and young adults and their interest in the natural and technical science are central to ensure the long-term capability needed to transform the energy system.

    To support this development the Swedish Energy Agency started with young adults as a target group in research and development projects in 2008. Since then approximately 5 million EUR has been allocated for projects aiming to increase knowledge in these areas among young adults by developing practical methods and tools, educational material or in-service training for teachers. Around thirty projects have been supported and three of them, KNUT school development project, KNUT evaluation research project and The Energy Fall, will be discussed in this paper.


    The KNUT school development project is a national school project aiming at increasing students’ knowledge and interest in energy and energy efficiency. KNUT also stimulates learning and career choices related to energy, climate and resources and therefor strengthen Sweden's capacities and competitiveness future in these areas. To ensure the scientific base a research group from Linköping University (KNUT evaluation research project) has followed the project’s activities. Best practices of methods and tools have been tested and disseminated within the project at both regional and national level.


    The KNUT evaluation research project has identified and analyzed five success factors regarding energy, climate change and energy efficiency of importance for education: 

    • The relationships between the national, regional and local level

    • The function of education vary in time due to the development of society

    • Get to know the education content inside and outside of school

    • Successful meetings between different actors

    • The educational systems capacity to educate all and at the same time recruit some for specialization

    This paper will present an overview of the Swedish Energy Agency’s work on research and development projects aiming to increase young adults’ knowledge of energy and energy efficiency and the KNUT evaluation research project results, analysis and success factors.

  • 3.
    Achtel, Christian
    et al.
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Jedvert, Kerstin
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Materials and Production, IVF.
    Kostag, Marc
    University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    El Seoud, Omar A.
    University of Sao Paulo, Brazil.
    Heinze, Thomas
    Friedrich Schiller University Jena, Germany.
    Surprising Insensitivity of Homogeneous Acetylation of Cellulose Dissolved in Triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium Chloride/Molecular Solvent on the Solvent Polarity2018In: Macromolecular materials and engineering (Print), ISSN 1438-7492, E-ISSN 1439-2054, Vol. 303, no 5Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The homogeneous acetylation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) by acetyl chloride and acetic anhydride in triethyl(n-octyl)ammonium chloride (N2228Cl)/molecular solvents (MSs) is investigated. The reaction with both acylating agents shows the expected increase of the degree of substitution (DS) on reaction temperature and time. Under comparable reaction conditions, however, DS is surprisingly little dependent on the MS employed, although the MSs differ in empirical polarity by 7 kcal mol−1 as calculated by use of solvatochromic probes. The empirical polarities of (MCC + N2228Cl + MS) differ only by 0.8 kcal mol−1. The formation a polar electrolyte sheath around cellulose chains presumably contributes to this “leveling-off” of the dependence DS on the polarity of the parent MS employed. N2228Cl recovery and recycling is feasible. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim

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  • 4. Agarwal, Sahil
    et al.
    Wettlaufer, John S.
    Stockholm University, Nordic Institute for Theoretical Physics (Nordita). Yale University, USA; University of Oxford, UK.
    Fluctuations in Arctic sea-ice extent: comparing observations and climate models2018In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 376, no 2129, article id 20170332Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The fluctuation statistics of the observed sea-ice extent during the satellite era are compared with model output from CMIP5 models using a multifractal time series method. The two robust features of the observations are that on annual to biannual time scales the ice extent exhibits white noise structure, and there is a decadal scale trend associated with the decay of the ice cover. It is shown that (i) there is a large inter-model variability in the time scales extracted from the models, (ii) none of the models exhibits the decadal time scales found in the satellite observations, (iii) five of the 21 models examined exhibit the observed white noise structure, and (iv) the multi-model ensemble mean exhibits neither the observed white noise structure nor the observed decadal trend. It is proposed that the observed fluctuation statistics produced by this method serve as an appropriate test bed for modelling studies. This article is part of the theme issue 'Modelling of sea-ice phenomena'.

  • 5.
    Ahammad, Shamim
    Södertörn University, School of Natural Sciences, Technology and Environmental Studies.
    Importance of Training in Hotel industry2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The highly competitive environment in which businesses operate today requires a skilful workforce in every organisation in order to remain a successful player in the competitive game of the industry. One of the main problems which occur in the workplace is the lack of training. A large number of employees can appear dissatisfied (Heinemann and Greenberger, 2002) due to being assigned responsibilities without-having the right knowledge and skills in that area. Training is an essential process which should be cautiously designed and implemented within all firms. The overall aim of this dissertation is to assess the importance of training- in work field.For many years now human capital has been regarded as vital for the efficient functioning of an organisation because of its contribution in improving productivity, business performance and economic growth (Schultz, 1961). Therefore it is important to invest in human resources through training (Lucas, 1988) in order to improve the competitive position of the firm, and because of the enhanced quality, innovation, continual increased productivity and in turn improved profitability that can be achieved through this (Taylor and Davies, 2004).Throughout this research the training system in Hilton Hotel will be examined and appropriate recommendations for a more effective training system will be given where appropriate. The overall aim of this study is to assess the importance of training in hospitality industry.

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  • 6.
    Ahlström, Elin
    Institutionen för Energi och Teknik, Sveriges lantbruksuniversitet.
    Beräkning av miljömässiga och ekonomiska konsekvenser vid källsortering av blandat byggavfall: samt analys av redovisningsmetoder för byggavfallsstatistik2015Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In a world where mankind is the only creature that generates waste that cannot be naturally decomposed, it is of great importance that we correctly take care of the waste we produce. The EU has therefore developed a list of priority regarding methods of waste treatment. It is called the waste hierarchy and is supposed to form the basis for legislation on waste management. In Sweden the construction sector is called “the 40 percent sector” which refers to the fact that 40 percent of Sweden’s waste is generated by this sector. By 2020, the EU has set up a goal that 70 weight percent of all construction and demolition waste must be recycled or reused. In order to present secure statistics that show the member nations’ progresses toward the goal, the waste statistics must be produced in a better way than today.

    This master thesis aimed to calculate the environmental and economic consequences with source sorting of the mixed construction waste and to determine the best available accounting method to produce construction waste statistics.

    A screening of the content of the mixed waste at a renovation project at Telge Bostäder together with data over the generated waste quantity in a previously conducted renovation project, were used to make the calculations. The existing management, where the waste was sorted as mixed waste, was then compared with a hypothetical scenario where the content encountered during the screening (plastic, wood and cardboard) was sorted out separately instead. Calculations were then made partly in a program (WAMPS) developed by IVL to calculate the emissions from household waste management and partly with own calculations of carbon dioxide emissions. The cost of sorting out the waste was determined using Sortera’s catalog and price list.

    The result of WAMPS was that emissions of 62 tons of carbon dioxide could be avoided from the waste management process by sorting about 71 tons of mixed construction waste at the construction site. The corresponding amount at own calculations was 95 tons. The cost of containers and cost of treatment of the sorted waste was lower than the costs for mixed waste, which meant that the total waste related cost of managing 71 tons of mixed waste would have been reduced by 63 000 Swedish crowns if the waste had been source sorted.

    The analysis over accounting methods indicated that in the short term, the most appropriate way to produce construction waste statistics is to use environmental reports from the treating companies as a basis. This method does not require a change in the law to be implemented and utilizes an existing reporting system.

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  • 7.
    Ahmad, Arslan
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Sustainable development, Environmental science and Engineering. Brabant Water NV, 5200 BC 's-Hertogenbosch, The Netherlands.
    Evaluation and optimization of advanced oxidation coagulation filtration (AOCF) to produce drinking water with less than 1 μg/L of arsenic2014Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Arsenic is an extremely poisonous element. It has been reported to cause contamination of drinking water sources in many parts of the world. The current drinking water permissible limit for arsenic in the European Union is 10 μg/L. The World Health Organization has a general rule that no substance may have a higher lifetime risk of more than 1 in 100,000. However, several studies on toxicity of arsenic suggest that purely based on health effects the arsenic limit of 10 μg/L is not sufficient. The main goal of this research was to develop an efficient arsenic removal technology that could be able to produce drinking water with an arsenic concentration of less than 1 μg/L. For this purpose, an innovative three step technique, Advanced Oxidation - Coagulation - Filtration (AOCF), was investigated through bench-scale and pilot scale experiments in the Netherlands at the water treatment plant of Dorst. Firstly, prior to the investigations on AOCF, the existing arsenic removal at the water treatment plant was investigated. Secondly, through a series of bench-scale experiments, the optimum type of coagulant, its combination dose with the selected chemical oxidant and optimum process pH were determined. Eventually, the partially optimized technique from the bench-scale was implemented at the pilot scale physical model of water treatment plant Dorst where AOCF was evaluated for arsenic removal and its effect on the removal of other common undesirable groundwater constituents. The optimized AOCF technology consistently removed arsenic from groundwater to below 1 ug/L when implemented at pilot scale. The overall effluent quality also remained acceptable. The method is efficient with both types of filtration media tested in this research i.e., virgin sand and metal oxide coated sand, however virgin sand media showed slightly better arsenic removal efficiency.

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    TRITA-LWR Report 2014-1_AOCF
  • 8.
    Ahmed, Lisa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education. Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Betydelsen av elevers sociala relationer för att må bra i skolan2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Avsikten med min studie är att veta hur sociala relationer stimulerar elever att må bra i skolan. Hur lärare och elevhälsoteam ser på sociala relationens betydelse för elevers välmående i skolan. Lärare och elevhälsoteam samarbetar i skolan för elevers välmående, men vilka hinder ser de för att utveckla elevers sociala relationer. För detta syfte har jag intervjuat ett antal lärare och kuratorer om deras arbetssätt, hur de planerar för en undervisning som bygger på sociala relationer, hur sociala relationer och elevhälsa förhåller sig till varandra enligt dem. Samtidigt har jag undersökt vilka hinder som de ser till att utveckla elevers sociala relationer samt hur de ser på vårdnadshavarens roll här.

    Det resultatet som jag ser i min studie är att i huvudsak anser samtliga pedagoger och kuratorer att sociala relationer har en avgörande roll i elevers välmående i skolan. Samtliga informanter tycker att elever som har bra sociala färdigheter mår bra både fysiskt och psykiskt och i sin tur lyckas bra i skolarbetet. De anser också att ett starkt samarbete mellan pedagoger, elevhälsoteam och hem är väldigt viktigt för att utveckla elevers sociala färdigheter. De tycker att om samarbetet mellan parter fungerar bra då elever känner sig trygga i skolan. Resultatet blir att elever som kan skapa en bärande relation både med vuxna och andra kompisar, blir även motiverade i skolarbetet och lyckas i skolan.

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  • 9.
    Aid, Graham
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Brandt, Nils
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Industrial Ecology.
    Action Research In Waste Management: Application to construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region2010In: Linnaeus ECO-TECH ´10 / [ed] Fabio Kaczala, Linnaeus University , 2010, p. 1009-1019Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The action research methodology and several of its methods have previously been highlighted and described by the authors as a fitting and rigorous framework approach for complex waste management systems.  This was in response to criticism of the ex ante selection of traditional empiric systems analysis tools to provide decision support and ‘sustainable improvement’ in such complex systems which often involve strong human and political factors.   Several of the action research methods described have recently been utilized in a case study around mineral (aggregate) construction and demolition waste in the Stockholm region.  These methods were integrated through a series of workshops and work areas undergone together with project members from several private and public sectors.  Leaving the problem fuzzy (loosely defined) in the beginning; utilizing convergent interviewing, rich pictures and focus groups allowed the researchers and partner stakeholders to identify not one but several problem areas within the system of focus.  Indicator creation and a dialectic processes were then used to identify qualitative and quantitative aspects of salience around these problem areas.  These resulting indicators were strengthened through a process of verification.  Each indicator was then analyzed by what was deemed to be appropriate and transparent means.  It is argued that this approach may create better communication, transparency, and understanding by the stakeholders.  These factors in turn allowing stronger stakeholder ownership of the process and assisting in more informed decisions and help to provide stability for desired change. However the process was not without its drawbacks such as intense communication and time requirements.

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    Action Research for Waste Management
  • 10.
    Aili, Hans
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Romance Studies and Classics.
    Pietsch, Theodore W
    University of Washington, Seattle.
    Jacob Theodor Klein's Critique of Peter Artedi's Ichthyologia (1738)2014In: Svenska Linnésällskapets årsskrift, ISSN 0375-2038, p. 39-84Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An anonymous critique of Peter Artedi’s (1705‒1735) Ichthyologia sive opera omnia de piscibus, the latter edited and published posthumously by Carolus Linnaeus (1707‒ 1778) in 1738, is shown to have been written by the Prussian jurist and naturalist Jacob Theodor Klein (1685‒1759), and sent to Hans Sloane (1660−1753) in London for his approval. The critique is transcribed and translated, and its contents assessed in light of Artedi’s contribution to Linnaean systematics. While in some ways highly critical of Artedi, Klein must have been well aware that by criticizing Artedi he was, by association, criticizing Linnaeus as well. Linnaeus’s editorial contributions to the Ichthyologia as well as his on-going antagonistic relationship with Klein are also discussed.

  • 11.
    Aldabaldetreku, Rita
    et al.
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Lautiainen, Juuso
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    Minkova, Alina
    Blekinge Institute of Technology, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Strategic Sustainable Development.
    The Role of Knowledge Management in Strategic Sustainable Development: Comparing Theory and Practice in Companies Applying the FSSD2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to explore the role of knowledge management (KM) in integrating sustainability into business strategy in companies applying the framework for strategic sustainable development (FSSD).Corporations have the potential to be key players in moving society towards sustainability, but they lack clear definitions and guidelines around strategic sustainable development (SSD). The authors focus on the benefits of KM in organisations applying the FSSD, which offers general strategic guidelines, but does not refer to the complexity of managing the new sustainability knowledge.This study first examines the scientific literature around KM and FSSD and compares it with the results of expert interviews to develop a State of the Art Model of KM for SSD. Then the model is compared to current practices of corporations applying the FSSD and the gap is examined.The results of the analysis show that the concept of KM is widely discussed in the literature, yet it does not have much presence in the business world. The value of knowledge is recognised, but KM is not much used and no structured practices were identified. It was concluded that companies would benefit from a strategic KM system when integrating sustainability.

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  • 12.
    Ali, Babar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, High Energy Physics.
    Study of the performance of the Level-1 track trigger in the H→ττ→ee channel in ATLAS at high luminosity LHC2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 13.
    Allenby, Patrick
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Geography, Media and Communication.
    Enkelstations-RTK eller Nätverks-RTK: I Naturvårdsuppdrag2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]





    I examensarbetet har det ingått ett verkligt ärende som handläggs av mig som MBK-ingenjör inom Lantmäteriet. Det är ett naturvårdsuppdrag från Länsstyrelsen och innefattar bl a inmätning och utstakning av gräns på ett blivande naturreservat.


    Naturvårdsuppdraget Huskeberget ligger ca 5 km norr om Södra Finnskoga och sydväst om Höljes i norra Värmland. Omkrets 2,38 km. Områdets höjd är ca 550 m över havet och ligger på sydöstra sluttningen av Huskeberget.




    Lantmäteriet använder idag Leica Viva CS15/GS15 mätutrustning vid inmätning av brytpunkter och gränser. I detta fall det blivande naturreservatet. Under vissa omständigheter kan det ta tid att få fix-lösning eller helt utebli. Dessa omständigheter kan bero på ett flertal faktorer bl a kraftiga jonosfärsstörningar och/eller GPRS-nätets täckningsområde för mottagning av SWEPOS nätverks-RTK tjänst.




    Fokus har lagts på att utvärdera ett alternativ till nätverks-RTK, en sk enkelstations-RTK med uppkoppling till en tillfällig referensstation.


    Närmare undersökning har gjorts på tiden för initialisering vid varje enskild inmätning som sedan jämförts i de två mätmetoderna. Tiden för själva arbetet sätts sedan i relation till resultatet från undersökningen för att ge en helhetsbild av tidsåtgång i arbetet med vardera mätmetoden.




    Efter alla brytpunkter mätts in visade det sig att i just det här området inte fanns några anmärkningsvärda problem att få fix-lösning med någon av de valda mätmetoderna. Resultatet visar därmed små skillnader i tidsjämförelser.


    En oplanerad testmätning med nätverks-RTK gjordes i tät skog alldeles intill en inmätt brytpunkt utan framgång att få fix-lösning. Detta för att belysa problematiken med att få fix-lösning vid mätning i tät skog.


    Rapporten innehåller en kortfattad beskrivning av delar av arbetet i Lantmäteriets handläggning av naturvårdsuppdrag.

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  • 14.
    Almlöf Ambjörnsson, Heléne
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Östberg, Linda
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Schenzel, Karla
    Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Department of Natural Scinence III, Institute of Agriculture and Nutritional Science.
    Larsson, Per Tomas
    Innventia AB, Fibre and Material Science Business area Biorefining, Stockholm.
    Germgård, Ulf
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Enzyme pretreatment of dissolving pulp as a way to improve the following dissolution in NaOH/ZnO2014In: Holzforschung, ISSN 0018-3830, E-ISSN 1437-434X, Vol. 68, no 4, p. 385-391Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Alriksson, Anna
    Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, GIH, Department of Sport and Health Sciences.
    Könsbunden gymkultur?: en kvantitativ studie om hur kvinnor och män väljer att träna på gym.2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syfte och frågeställningar: Syftet med uppsatsen var att undersöka vad och hur vuxna tränade på gym för att se om det fanns några skillnader som gick att relatera till kön. De frågeställningar som användes för att besvara syftet var: Vilken form av träning föredrog vuxna att ägna sig åt på gymmet? I vilken utsträckning styrketränade vuxna i gymmets öppna lokaler? Vilka muskelgrupper och redskap premierades i samband med vuxnas styrketräning? Hur mycket tid lade vuxna på träning? Föredrog vuxna att träna på egen hand eller tillsammans med andra? Samtliga frågeställningar analyserades utifrån om det skiljde sig mellan kvinnor och män.

    Metod: För att besvara studiens frågeställningar som grundade sig i ett allmängiltigt intresse genomfördes en kvantitativ undersökning via ett strukturerat frågeformulär. Det egenkomponerade formuläret baserades på tidigare forskning och innehöll övervägande slutna svarsalternativ. Urvalet resulterade i ett stickprov av totalt 140 deltagare; 86 kvinnor (61,4%) och 54 män (38,6%). Undersökningen genomfördes på en stor träningsanläggning med ett varierande utbud och undertecknad befann sig på platsen under insamlingen av data.

    Resultat: Det fanns könsrelaterade skillnader i hur vuxna tränade på gymmet. Männen tenderade att träna mer och de föredrog individuell styrketräning med fria vikter och maskiner. Kvinnorna deltog oftare i ledarledd gruppaktivitet och/eller använde sig av sin egen kroppsvikt eller övriga redskap så som bollar och gummiband i samband med sin styrketräning. Utöver det lade männen större fokus på att utveckla sin överkropp medan kvinnorna tenderade att prioritera sin underkropp.

    Slutsats: Kvinnor och män tränade olika på gym och med tidigare forskning som stöd kan detta, till viss del, antas bero på yttre faktorer så som normer och kroppsideal. Denna vetskap bidrar till möjligheter att skapa ett gynnande bemötande från träningsbranschens sida som kan neutralisera den, till synes, styrda uppfattningen om träning. Genom att anpassa miljön och bemöta individen på ett sätt som främjar ett könsneutralt beteende i samband med träning ökar chanserna till en hållbar och optimal utveckling på både det fysiska och mentala planet, oavsett om du är kvinna eller man.

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  • 16.
    Amange, Basil
    Karlstad University.
    Elevernas uppfattning om teknikämnets användbarhet: Exempel på högstadieelevers syn på teknikämnets relevans för deras vardagsliv2016Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how secondary pupils perceive the usefulness of the subject technology. The starting point is what the School inspection (2014) has pointed out in its review of the subject technology when it comes to offering technology teaching, which secondary school pupils perceive as relevant. The focus area has been the students´ view on the relevance of  subject technology för their everyday lives. The method of this study is a qualitative study based on semi-structured interviews with eight pupils, 4 pupils from class 8 and 4 pupils from class 9. Those pupils are from two suburban schools which are located in Gothenburg, Sweden. My theoretical points have been some relevant research and also two learning theories; the socio-cultural perspective and pragmatism.

    The results of the study show a variation in a small scale between girls´ and boys´ appreciation of the usefulness of technology. The survey shows that all the interviewed pupils want to see the connection between technology education in school and life outside. In other words, one can say that it is significant for the pupils to understand the context in which a technology task may be relevant and productive in relation to humans and society.

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  • 17. Anderson, Bruce T.
    et al.
    Hassanzadeh, Pedram
    Caballero, Rodrigo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Persistent anomalies of the extratropical Northern Hemisphere wintertime circulation as an initiator of El Nino/Southern Oscillation events2017In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, article id 10145Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climates across both hemispheres are strongly influenced by tropical Pacific variability associated with the El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Conversely, extratropical variability also can affect the tropics. In particular, seasonal-mean alterations of near-surface winds associated with the North Pacific Oscillation (NPO) serve as a significant extratropical forcing agent of ENSO. However, it is still unclear what dynamical processes give rise to year-to-year shifts in these long-lived NPO anomalies. Here we show that intraseasonal variability in boreal winter pressure patterns over the Central North Pacific (CNP) imparts a significant signature upon the seasonal-mean circulations characteristic of the NPO. Further we show that the seasonal-mean signature results in part from year-to-year variations in persistent, quasi-stationary low-pressure intrusions into the subtropics of the CNP, accompanied by the establishment of persistent, quasi-stationary high-pressure anomalies over high latitudes of the CNP. Overall, we find that the frequency of these persistent extratropical anomalies (PEAs) during a given winter serves as a key modulator of intraseasonal variability in extratropical North Pacific circulations and, through their influence on the seasonal-mean circulations in and around the southern lobe of the NPO, the state of the equatorial Pacific 9-12 months later.

  • 18.
    Andersson, Dag
    et al.
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Tegehall, Per-Erik
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    Wetter, Göran
    RISE - Research Institutes of Sweden, Swerea, Swerea IVF.
    The impact of conformal coatings on the environmental protection of PCBassemblies and the reliability of solder joints2018Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 19.
    Andersson, Ing-Marie
    et al.
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Rosén, Gunnar
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    Fällstrand Larsson, Nina
    Dalarna University, School of Technology and Business Studies, Occupational science.
    A study visit to a vitual company2012In: NGL 2012  Next Generation Learning Conference: Conference proceedings, Falun: Högskolan Dalarna , 2012, p. 69-74Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    To integrate study visits to different workplaces in higher education implies important benefits for the course quality. The study visit gives the students a better understanding for the real situations they will meet in working life. However for practical and economical reasons is that not always possible. The purpose of this project is to create a virtual company that shall replace the real one for study visits. The goal is to create a realistic picture and that intended use of it can come as close as possible to a real study visit. It is also important to facilitate linking theory and practice. The virtual company is built up by pictures, videos and text. All material is made available on a web page and when entering the students will meet a layout of the company. From that position is it possible to walk around and look at videos from different workstations. Besides that can they also listen to interviews with managers and representatives of staff as well as reading reports concerning productivity and the work environment. The focus of the study visit is work sciences, therefore the material also include some visualized information about work hazards. On the web page there are also a number of tasks for the students to carry out. Until the autumn 2011, 132 students at Dalarna University have visited and produced reports from the virtual company. They were studying in programs for mechanical engineering, production technicians and human resource management. An evaluation among some ten students showed that the study visit to the virtual company is flexible in time and effective, but that students wish to have even more detailed information about the company. Experiences from four years of use in a number of classes show that the concept is worth further development. Furthermore with production of new material the concept is likely to be applicable for other purposes.

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    A study visit
  • 20.
    Andersson, Jan O
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Evolution of Patchily Distributed Proteins Shared between Eukaryotes and Prokaryotes: Dictyostelium as a Case Study2011In: Journal of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, ISSN 1464-1801, E-ISSN 1660-2412, Vol. 20, no 2, p. 83-95Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Protein families are often patchily distributed in the tree of life; they are present in distantly related organisms, but absent in more closely related lineages. This could either be the result of lateral gene transfer between ancestors of organisms that encode them, or losses in the lineages that lack them. Here a novel approach is developed to study the evolution of patchily distributed proteins shared between prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Proteins encoded in the genome of cellular slime mold Dictyostelium discoideum and a restricted number of other lineages, including at least one prokaryote, were identified. Analyses of the phylogenetic distribution of 49 such patchily distributed protein families showed conflicts with organismal phylogenies; 25 are shared with the distantly related amoeboflagellate Naegleria (Excavata), whereas only two are present in the more closely related Entamoeba. Most protein families show unexpected topologies in phylogenetic analyses; eukaryotes are polyphyletic in 85% of the trees. These observations suggest that gene transfers have been an important mechanism for the distribution of patchily distributed proteins across all domains of life. Further studies of this exchangeable gene fraction are needed for a better understanding of the origin and evolution of eukaryotic genes and the diversification process of eukaryotes.

  • 21.
    Andersson, Johanna
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Barns teckningar som utgångspunkt i det naturvetenskapliga samtalet2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Children's conceptions are an important part of their conceptualisation in science, something that is emphasized in constructivism, in this thesis a social constructivist view of learning constitutes the theoretical framework. The overall purpose is to contribute to the knowledge development within science education. This was done by investigating 4-13-year-old children’s conceptions of phenomena in natural science within four areas: heat, mixing, the human body and what is living/non-living. The following two research questions are addressed: What conceptions do children express in drawings and in conversations about natural science phenomena? What methodological possibilities and challenges are there in using drawings as a starting point and as a meaning-making tool for capturing children's conceptions? A multimodal method including drawings, conversations and children's activities was used in the data collection, which is in line with a social semiotic perspective.

    The thesis consists of four studies. The results of the first two studies show that children's conceptions about mixing were somewhat more developed than shown in previous studies, while their conceptions about heat were in line with what was previously reported.

    The third study shows that the children know more organs in the human body and, unlike in previous research, show an ability to draw connections between the organs. In the fourth study, a majority of the children talk about death as the opposite to life and some draw that what does not live should have lived before, such as dinosaurs. Children who are aware of microscopic objects classify them as living. Additionally, the explanations show inconsistency in their reasoning about plants as living or no-living things.

    Methodologically the results in the studies show that the children's drawings in combination with their explanations are valuable tools for capturing their conceptions. The drawings also serve as a tool for presenting and sharing different reasoning. Furthermore, children's drawing techniques are discussed in connection with problems that they faced alongside the scientific task. In the study of the human body, these problems deal with the difficulty of transferring the three-dimensional inside of the human body to two dimensions. Another difficulty was that the body's organs, skeleton, muscles and tissues are on top of each other. Here the children used X-ray drawing to show what is hidden. Children of different ages often solved these technical problems in a very creative way in combination with their oral/written comments. In addition to the significance of the drawings, the difference between contextualized and decontextualized tasks during data-collection is discussed. Further, different dimensions of science, such as structural and processual knowledge, are discussed. The four areas studied are also on different abstraction levels which affect the children's conceptions and representations in their drawings. In conclusion, learning in science involves different dimensions of both structural and processual knowledge. The multimodal method helped the children focus, structure and express their thoughts.

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    Barns teckningar som utgångspunkt i det naturvetenskapliga samtalet
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  • 22.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Löfgren, Ragnhild
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    What’s in the body? Children’s annotated drawings2020In: Journal of Biological Education, ISSN 0021-9266, E-ISSN 2157-6009, no 2, p. 176-190Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents a study of children’s ideas of the body’s internal structure. Children between four and 13 years (N = 170) individually produced drawings. During each drawing session the children explained their drawings to a facilitator and added written labels either by them- selves or, if they were too young to write, with the facilitator’s help. The results provide an updated comprehensive picture of children in differ- ent age groups and their views on the internal structure of the body. The type and numbers of organs drawn are similar to those documented in previous studies. However, in comparison to recent studies, the children drew more organs, the brain was indicated almost as often as the heart, and the Valentine heart was frequently used as a symbol. In contrast with previous research, children drew connections between organs. This result calls for caution regarding conclusions made from decontextua- lized questions. The importance of providing children with the opportu- nity to clarify their drawings is emphasised since it otherwise becomes a question of the researcher’s interpretation. The connections they draw, and explanations they give to their drawings, have interesting implica- tions for understanding children’s ideas, and hence both for teaching and learning and for science education research.

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  • 23.
    Andersson, Kristofer
    Kristianstad University, School of Education and Environment.
    Svedjebrukets slutskede: En studie av svedjebruket och landskapet i Algustorp, Röke socken, norra Skåne, ca 1800-19002017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Relativt lite forskning har de senaste årtiondena bedrivits gällande svedjebruket, i synnerhet förekomsten och utbredningen av svedjeland inom enskilda byar. Arealen svedjad mark i förhållande till arealen åkermark i byn Algustorp, Röke socken, norra Skåne utgör grunden för denna studie. Gunhild Weimarck publicerade 1953 en avhandling där arealen svedjad mark jämförs med arealen åkermark i Lönsboda, Örkened socken, nordöstra Skåne. För denna uppsats är jämförelser mellan de två byarna fundamental, det vill säga en komparativ studie där likheter och skillnader diskuteras utifrån olika parametrar. Uppsatsen ska dessutom ge ökad kännedom om svedjebrukets förekomst i fem närbelägna byar i anslutning till Algustorp, belysa svedjandets betydelse för agrarsamhället och framför allt redogöra för svedjelandens omfattning inom byn Algustorp. För att möjliggöra detta har källmaterial i form av frågelistsvar, jordeböcker och historiskt kartmaterial varit grundläggande för studien. Analyser av geografisk information i applikationen ArcMap har underlättat beräkningen av arealen svedjemark respektive åkermark i Algustorp. Resultatet visar att arealen svedjeland i Algustorp var mindre än byns åkerareal, till skillnad från Lönsboda, där svedjemarkens areal istället var större i förhållande till byns åkermark. Detta fenomen tycks bero på regionala skillnader, det vill säga olikartade markförhållanden i de olika byarna. Tillgången på odlingsbar mark framstår som mycket liten i Lönsboda. Därmed förekom större arealer svedjemark i Lönsboda till skillnad från Algustorp, där förutsättningarna för spannmålsodling till synes är mera gynnsamma. Det är med stor sannolikhet naturgivna förhållanden, främst jordartssammansättningen, som pådrivit ett större behov av att nyttja svedjebruk i Lönsboda.

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  • 24.
    Andersson, Marcus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Programmering i skolan: Vad är det enligt lärarna?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Syftet med denna uppsats är främst att undersöka hur lärare definierar begreppet programmering och hur definitionen inverkar på undervisningen. Undersökningen har genomförts med hjälp av metoderna enkätundersökning och intervjuer. Olika uppfattningar förekom, inte minst bland respondenterna i enkätundersökningen, men de intervjuade lärarna definierade programmering främst som att styra någonting. Deras beskrivning av den genomförda undervisningen antyder att denna uppfattning inverkar på utformningen av undervisningen. Det relativt begränsade underlaget i undersökningen gör att resultaten är svåra att generalisera.

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  • 25.
    Andersson, Ole
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Bengtsson, Ingemar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics.
    Ericsson, Marie
    Sjöqvist, Erik
    Geometric phases for mixed states of the Kitaev chain2016In: Philosophical Transactions. Series A: Mathematical, physical, and engineering science, ISSN 1364-503X, E-ISSN 1471-2962, Vol. 374, no 2068, article id 20150231Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Berry phase has found applications in building topological order parameters for certain condensed matter systems. The question whether some geometric phase for mixed states can serve the same purpose has been raised, and proposals are on the table. We analyse the intricate behaviour of Uhlmann's geometric phase in the Kitaev chain at finite temperature, and then argue that it captures quite different physics from that intended. We also analyse the behaviour of a geometric phase introduced in the context of interferometry. For the Kitaev chain, this phase closely mirrors that of the Berry phase, and we argue that it merits further investigation.

  • 26.
    Andersson, Ramona
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Technology and Science, Department of Energy, Environmental and Building Technology.
    Självförsörjande småhus med sol- och vindkraft: En simulering av energibehov, analys av miljöpåverkan och ekonomisk hållbarhet2014Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    One of EU´s biggest goals in climate policy is that carbon emissions shall be reduced by 20% before 2020 to inhibit global warming. By combining renewable energy sources with a more efficient energy system, it could go faster to achieve these goals.

    The purpose of this report is to find out if it is possible to construct a self-sufficient house, located in Karlstad, which uses solar and wind power for its energy demand. The house should not be dependent on the district electricity, but should be able to provide its own energy demand, by being equipped with an energy storage system. To reach the goals of the report an examination of the energy demand for an energy efficient house was made. This was done by comparing the house with a passive house. These calculations were simulated in the program VIP-Energy. The calculations of the solar and wind power were based on the energy demand of the house, and it was supplemented with a pellet stove and battery in order to make it self-sufficient. During the report, an investigation has been made as to the environmental impact of the house compared to an equivalent house that is heated by electricity. An economic analysis has also been calculated for the house.

    The project led to a passive house with a total energy requirement of 11.906 kWh per year. The process required a number of assumptions which may have given rise to some uncertainty in the results. In order to provide the energy need for the house a solar panel system with a maximum power of 12 kW and a wind turbine of 10 kW was chosen. This resulted in an excessive energy production during the summer months and yielded a large surplus of electricity. The solar and wind power generated a total surplus of 18.000 kWh per year. The surplus generated was a consequence of the house intending to be self-sufficient, therefore the calculations was made during the time of year when energy demand was greatest. The system was finally outfitted with a pellet stove and seven sections of 24V batteries with 250Ah/battery.

    The cost analysis estimated an initial cost of solar panels, wind turbine, pellet stove and the batteries. The initial cost was estimated to 403 500 kr and a pellet consumption of about 1000 kr per year. It would take a minimum of 25 years to repay the initial cost if the house was compared to an equivalent house that uses electricity for its energy demand. The amount of carbon dioxide emissions that is prevented compared to an electrically heated house is almost 1000 kg per year. This is equal to 266 one-way trips during a 25 year period between Gothenburg and Stockholm with a mid-sized car.

    Conclusions to be drawn from the report are that it would not be economically sustainable to construct a self-sufficient house. Since the house is not connected to the district electricity, it cannot sell the surplus electricity during the summer months. However, further studies could be done to determine the opportunities for the house to be fitted with a charging station for electric cars. In this way the house would be able to provide the intrinsic means of transport that does not give any effect on the climate. That could also save the cost of other fuels for transportation.

  • 27.
    Andersson, Sara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Stockholm Resilience Centre.
    Mapping supply and demand of ecosystem services in the Helge Å catchment area, Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 40 credits / 60 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Research on ecosystem services has accelerated the last few years, but there is a knowledge gap on how to integrate the concept into management in a way that is mindful of the complex, dynamic and non-linear dimensions of ecosystem services. Ecosystem services are often approached from a supply side, and more often than not services are approached individually without attempt to capture the trade-offs and synergies between services. The overall aim of this master’s thesis is to contribute to the operationalization of the ecosystem services concept, within a social-ecological systems framework. This is done through a case study of the Helge Å catchment in Southern Sweden, in which I use publically available data to map the supply and demand of a selection of locally relevant provisioning, regulating, and, to some extent, cultural ecosystem services. The thesis analyses some of the challenges of, as well as opportunities for, making tangible sense of this complex social-ecological concept in a way that can inform decision making on ecosystem services for sustainable development. The results show that mapping both supply and demand adds important dimensions to ecosystem service assessment that has value within management contexts. Especially important are the added social dimensions of ecosystem service provision, and the incorporation of societal demand as a factor in mapping. There are some obvious challenges still associated with this type of mapping, foremost associated with mapping of cultural ecosystem services and data availability, which have yet to be resolved through continued research efforts.

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  • 28.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden; Department of Architecture and Civil Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Klingberg, Jenny
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gunnarsson, Bengt
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Cullinane, Kevin
    School of Business Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Ingela
    City of Gothenburg, Parks and Landscape Administration, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Hedblom, Marcus
    Department of Forest Resource Management, Landscape Analysis, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Knez, Igor
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Social Work and Psychology, Psychology.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Ode Sang, Åsa
    Department of Landscape Architecture, Planning and Management, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Alnarp, Sweden.
    Pleijel, Håkan
    Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Pontus
    Division of Applied Acoustics, Chalmers University of Technology, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    Urban Climate Group, Department of Earth Sciences, University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    A framework for assessing urban greenery's effects and valuing its ecosystem services2018In: Journal of Environmental Management, ISSN 0301-4797, E-ISSN 1095-8630, Vol. 205, p. 274-285, article id S0301-4797(17)30940-4Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ongoing urban exploitation is increasing pressure to transform urban green spaces, while there is increasing awareness that greenery provides a range of important benefits to city residents. In efforts to help resolve associated problems we have developed a framework for integrated assessments of ecosystem service (ES) benefits and values provided by urban greenery, based on the ecosystem service cascade model. The aim is to provide a method for assessing the contribution to, and valuing, multiple ES provided by urban greenery that can be readily applied in routine planning processes. The framework is unique as it recognizes that an urban greenery comprises several components and functions that can contribute to multiple ecosystem services in one or more ways via different functional traits (e.g. foliage characteristics) for which readily measured indicators have been identified. The framework consists of five steps including compilation of an inventory of indicator; application of effectivity factors to rate indicators' effectiveness; estimation of effects; estimation of benefits for each ES; estimation of the total ES value of the ecosystem. The framework was applied to assess ecosystem services provided by trees, shrubs, herbs, birds, and bees, in green areas spanning an urban gradient in Gothenburg, Sweden. Estimates of perceived values of ecosystem services were obtained from interviews with the public and workshop activities with civil servants. The framework is systematic and transparent at all stages and appears to have potential utility in the existing spatial planning processes.

  • 29.
    Anderssson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Hussenius, Anita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Gullberg, Annica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research. Högskolan i Gävle.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Scantlebury, Kathryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research. University of Delaware.
    Chafing borderlands: Obstacles for Science Teaching and Learning in Teacher Education2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A major Western concern is that young people avoid science and technology programs. At various times, and in different countries, governments, funding agencies and businesses have made large investments in recruitment campaigns with the objective to increase students’ interest and attract new groups of students to these disciplines. In particular, girls and women have been the target group for many of these campaigns. The assumption is that if young people understood how exciting and interesting science is, they would choose these subjects. In other words, the problem is that young people "don’t understand what is best for their own good".  In addition, research has shown that primary and pre-school student teachers often feel alienated by science education (Appleton & Kindt 2002) and that it may be difficult for these students to reconcile the role of teacher of young children with the role of science teacher in their identity formation (Danielsson & Warwick 2012).


    However, feminist science educators suggest that students’ lack of interest is caused by character and image of the disciplines (Brickhouse 2001; Scantlebury 2012). Feminist philosophers’ of science have challenged the view of natural sciences as objective, and argue that knowledge production is human activities that are socially and culturally situated (Haraway 1988; Harding 1986). A noted problem with science is its elitist image. Science is portrayed as difficult and demanding, and as requiring a special talent from those who study or engage with the discipline. A feminist pedagogical stance is to visualize and discuss cultural, social, and historical dimensions of science. This has also proved advantageous for the acquiring of science content knowledge (Sible et al 2006). Therefore, we argue, that one important aspect of science teacher education is to problematize science (education), e.g. by including feminist critiques of science (Capobianco 2007; Mayberry 1998).

    In this paper we explore the impact of a feminist teaching intervention within teacher education, focusing on the research question: What occurs when students are situated in the encounter between feminist critique of natural sciences and teacher education? What kind of obstacles can be identified and how will these effect pre-service teachers’ pedagogy of science?


    The intervention, data collection and analysis

    In an ongoing research and intervention project we are studying how an increased awareness of gender issues in science and in science teaching among student teachers influences their identities as teachers, and their teaching of science. We have followed a cohort of approximately 120 pre-service teachers (early years to lower secondary) from two universities in Sweden, through their first year of science courses. As an integral part of these science courses our intervention has introduced critical perspectives on gender and science as related to the culture of science and a feminist critique of the sciences. The project as a whole is framed theoretically by Hirdman's (1990) and Harding's (1986) theories of gender order in society, where gender is constituted on different levels: the structural, the symbolic and the individual (Harding 1986; Hirdman 1990; Rubin 1975). Hirdman (1990) describes this pattern from two perspectives: first, the separation of the two sexes and second, the superior status of the male standard. The formation of gender consolidates differences between the sexes and the female gender is always subordinate the male one, independent of status, class, time, and space.

  • 30.
    Anderssson, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Hussenius, Anita
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Scantlebury, Kathryn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research. University of Delaware.
    Gullberg, Annica
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Centre for Gender Research.
    Danielsson, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Educational Sciences, Department of Education.
    Critiquing science, thinking gender in science teacher education.2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 31.
    Anshammar, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Intern processkvalitet Region Bygg Mellersta: Totalkvalitetsgranskning på en byggregion i Peab Sverige AB2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 15 credits / 22,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]



    The intent of this study was to contribute to the future quality work in building construction line of business. By making a survey over potential factor that contribute to quality and to evaluate if there are some factors that contribute more than others to achieve quality. The study was done by reviewing a building project and Peab´s internal quality work in Middle Region of Building. There this study is based upon the concept of “Total quality”(Sandholm 2008), when analysing all facts that was confirmed in this survey. The research is based on documentation, company values, own building controls of quality and to do interviews with nine staff members to evalute the internal work at the company. All interview´s is based on the same questions, where some of the questions have different wording between leaders and craftsmen to get all staff to fully participate when answering each question, look at appendix 1 and 2. The documents and interviews where used to investigate what had happened in the construction process at the building site in this project. Where the interviews also contributed to get a clearer picture of what different professions felt during the whole process when building up Hasselbols kindergarten to a finished building.



    • To contribute with analysis to future perspective of quality in the building branch of construction companies. The intention is to establish where it is more important to put in resources to gain a good quality process in the construction process out at building site. This case study is based on the company Peab and their internal work with quality, the research work has been done with the perspective of Total quality.


    • To establish if there are factors that in a higher level influence quality then other factors at Peab in their internal quality work. Overlapping goal is to examine the internal quality work and to give the company suitable improvements to introduce in there working process.


    Sub targer:

    • It is to evaluate own controls of quality done by the company and documentation in the building project Hasselbols kindergarten built under the years 2013 to 2014. This is then compared with own demands made by Peab in the building and to evaluate if they succeed with their goals in this building project.
    • It is to examine the quality level in own controls and in documentation that has been done in the project.
    • It is to do the interviews with staff members at the company in this region.
    • It is to analysis the interviews.

    All analysis is based on and compared with company values and goals, visions, policy, strategy & demands of the company and the concept of Total quality.



    • Studies of Total quality as a concept was done by reading earlier done studies and other documents, to understand how it has been used in different line of business, companies and countries.
    • The projects all documentation was overviewed together with foreman of Hasselbols kindergarten project. Further investigation was done in building controls of the construction, other documentation done in the project tied to quality in construction and documentation of the internal work to establish quality in all steps of the progress in the building project.
    • Staff to Peab was interviewed with semi structured method.


    Result of the case study at Middle Region of Building

    • The company managed to fulfill their own demands of quality in the project Hasselbols kindergarten.
    • All internal controls and documentation in the project holds high quality. There were no remarks to be done by the cause of information missing in the project documents.
    • The interview indicates that the employees in Peab stand for the company values in high extent. Two out of four key values is clearly visible in the interview´s that has been done.
    • Interview shows that management for the examined project is better than average in the company for a management which is normal at good standard.
    • Interview gave that the tradespeople are not fully satisfied in there working day at the company. They all share the same feeling of that it is tough to get continual improvements to make a difference in the next building production; it means that the same problems appear at the next building site again and again.
    • The factor that showed up as crucially to gain quality in the building process and in the building is to have committed and skilled leaders in the management of the building project in the company´s organization. This means that if a company is to put in an effort to upgrade quality in the organization even more, the company must invest in their leaders with extension courses to gain higher quality. In the concept of “Total quality”(Sandholm 2008), it is the leadership that holds forward to succeed with continual improvements in the organization. This study shows that the concept of “Total quality” is accurate when pointing out that engaged leaders that drives improvements forward are the best way to drive the organization forward. This is the key factor to succeed with reorganizing the work functions at a company.


    Survey over the result at the company:

    It do holds high quality in relation to Total quality(Sandholm 2008) as a concept in leadership, information and analysis, production planning, the employed show a great interest in the company´s working methods and communicate the importance about their personally progress in the company, working process and the end result of the product.

    The leading management in the production line of building in Peab is actively working with quality in different ways, works on improvements on a day to day basis, routines, several of templates, different check list´s, internal education, internal revision, working methods, solutions of technical methods, collection of experience to improve building process, management system and the working environment. These things are all part in the concept that together is called the managements leading system (in Swedish VLS-VerksamhetsLedningsSystem).

    Analysis of the study

    • The analysis show that the building company Peab has in all building projects, high owns demands that should be achieved in every project. When it comes to sustainable environment, energy saving, new building solutions and customers satisfaction.
    • It was high quality in the documentation there it is only positive things to say about the documentation in the project. It was made a considerable amount of documentation in the project and not a single mistake was found in review. The documentation is of good workmanship and utterly done of the management in the project. The project documentation has been influenced from the management leaders in this project already from the very beginning of the projecting time of this project. The management of this project has made all documentation by them self’s in this project. The demands for documentation in Peab are guidelines & must do demands[1], law demands and customer demands.


    The pictured image that appear after the interviews are not all the same:

    • The first picture is from leading staff to Peab. They improve even more the picture that the company has made up in their own goals. The staff adequacy, engagement, will of variability, no need for prestige and in their work they have ambitions to lead the company Peab into the future.
    • The second picture is from the craftsmen, that they feel a frustration in their working environment on every day basis. The interpretation is that the craftsmen do not feel that they fully get the opportunity to participate, in the working process at the building site in all building project. The craftsmen felt that everything worked out very well in Hasselbols kindergarten project and there were all satisfied with the construction process at this build. The craftsmen considered this project was made in a higher level of the management then they are used to out at building sites, where the management usually holds a good standard when leading building projects.
    • The third picture is given from all staff members about the company Peab and it is development towards the future. They all have the same opinion about the company that it must develop on an everyday basis, to still be in a key position into the future.

    Overlapping analysis:

    • Peab has good control and there by good opportunities to develop the function and enterprise goals within the company, in those parts there the company has not succeeded in yet. After studying both the documentation and the interviews is the interpretation, that Peab continually works with improvements in the organization of every level in the organization. Middle Region of Building fully works by Total quality model SIQ-model(Sandholm 2008, s. 64).
    • Peab has decided that all project leaders should use procurement of work in the production line out of the building site with the staff. If that was done by every project management in production line in a more visible way to the craftsmen. Could this lead to that misunderstanding in communication can be avoided and even defects in the building under construction time reduces, would this also create a better flow in all parts of the building production?
    • Peab as a company should acquire how the information can be secured, that a procurement of work out at the building site has been done. Peab has already done a guided activity against this procurement of work before 2014 in earlier Region Karlstad in Division West[2], with improved the whole organization when it comes to accounting “Activities cards” of the projects activities.
    • Have all leaders within Middle Region of Building been educated in this quality improvement “Things Done Right by Me”[3]? Yes, through Berg[4] it has been confirmed that all leaders have participated in this material of quality education in the region, there all management shall use the method of procurement of work out in the building production. Peab Sweden AB started to use the method with procurement of work in the 1970´s. The craftsman experience is, that not all leaders of management use the method in such a way that the craftsmen always notice that it has been done.


    According to Berg all management of building projects are using the method of procurement of work, it is clear when inspecting each projects documentation that has been done when looking in to if they have done all demands by Peab guidelines that has to be done in all building project. In all procurement of work there is an Activity card tied to each and every one, which has to be accounted for. All managements do not use the same accuracy, when writing down in their Activity cards after that they have done the procurement of work. The craftsmen also think that it is important when the management have done the procurement of work, that they after wards must also do the project control too see how the actives went on during installation time. The craftsmen also ask for that all the procurement of work and project control that have been done, must become more visible and noticeable out in the building production line at the building site for the craftsmen. In particular when the craftsmen come into new building projects, but here they feels that the same problem occur again and again in the following building project that they come into.


    Improvements to be done in Middle Region of Building

    They should at Peab:

    • To lift up the procurement of work again in the production line of building, display the benefits and the good use to gain from using the procurement of work. It is important that management use the working method in a clear and visible way during construction time of the building. The crucial is to in an easy way present all coming steps in the construction production that is going to be made by all involved in the project. The essential of having procurement of work shall be mediated out to management in building line of production. There is one suitable example located within this region of the company with leaders of management, that already use this method under construction time there all staff members is satisfied. They can show this procurement of work from a working perspective of opportunities in the construction work.


    • Internal search for how many leaders of management in production line there the craftsman do not conceives that procurement of work has been done out in building site, with joined meetings to go through the building project and construction progress with it. Peab has an annual staff question form “Handslaget”, there Peab could put up questions to answer only for the craftsmen for Peab to get a survey over procurement of work. Here could Peab get some answers if the staff are missing something in the procurement of work, how the staff feels about the project control in procurement of work and how the craftsmen thinks about how managements drives this at building sites. It could be used for bringing forward good examples in the organization. Maybe could the question about procurement of work even be asked to staff in management, to get their image of how it works out in the fields of operation? The estimation that is done here is that if all personnel did have the same point of view of the work load of how the procurement of work should be done to get the most out of it for all staff at building site. The company would there by gain efficient and flow in the working process when building.


    • To secure that knowledge of experience that has been done is going to be used, in a way that it starts to show at the next building site as well.


    • The company should overview the possibility to give the craftsmen the knowledge of experience/feedback in a clearer way then today. This could eventually be done of the project management by making a short summary over the building project and then send it out to all staff member that have been engaged in the building project. All craftsmen are not left in the building project until it is ended, this should make that they all get to take part in the project by getting the same information when it is finally done. Peab has usually only one craftsman together with management that is taking part in making up the final summery of the project. A short summery that is send out to all craftsman involved in the building process, would lead to that all staff will get the same information of the building project. The information should include the outcome of the project building line but also circumstances that influenced the project in a larger perspective, knowledge that has come out of the building project and even key factors to the project success shall be a part of the summary.


    • Search for internal factors to what cause there is that makes building project start before all drawings at the building is finished. Is it possible in any way to change something in the planning process of the building project, which could help the client to easier make deliberations of what they want to establish in the new desired building? By doing some changes it could make it easier to achieve drawings in an earlier stage then today.


    • Insure that the craftsman get better and clearer feedback on what they done in their work. That the craftsmen can feel that they are valuable for the company and an important part in production line of building. It is desirable that the feed-back is given in a continuous way in the craftsman daily work. It even might be fitted into the procurement of work when feed-back is done over earlier done work stages of installation.



    • To examine how management leads the process of the project out at the building site under construction. It seems as small changes in management leading would improve the craftsman working day at the building site. How the leading management act in their leading profession out in the production line at site. It is important to create team-spirits where all committed to the project are a part of and includes in the process of construction work, towards the same goal of the project as one unit of a team.


    Expected result                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    

    The estimated result before reviewing Middle Region of Building was that if there were going to be some absence in information it should have been in the documents of the project and that all earlier surveys should be implemented in Peab.

      After done review the expected results turned out to be

    The documentation had high quality in it is contents and there was nothing to remark on. All studies done at Peab Sweden AB where almost but not entirely implemented in the function at Middle Region of Building. It turned out to be a good result for Peab those things that not were implemented fully is going to be implemented soon at Peab. Only one thing was not implemented it was a working method that Middle Region of Building did not use in the construction work of tool handling in the company.


    Keywords:     Total quality, Peab, internal function, own controls.

    [1]Must do demands is marked in red on the map of productions line at Peab, made on the 16th of September 2013.

    [2]In 2014 changed Karlstad Region, West Division to Middle Region of Building (there Central Sweden is the new region).

    [3]The material is about projecting, planning & procurement of work, logistics and team-spirit.

    [4] Jonas Berg Manager of production support, Middle Region of Building, Peab Sweden AB, the interview was made on the 30th of April 2014.

    Download full text (pdf)
  • 32. Arcavi, Iair
    et al.
    Howell, D. Andrew
    Kasen, Daniel
    Bildsten, Lars
    Hosseinzadeh, Griffin
    McCully, Curtis
    Wong, Zheng Chuen
    Katz, Sarah Rebekah
    Gal-Yam, Avishay
    Sollerman, Jesper
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Taddia, Francesco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Leloudas, Giorgos
    Fremling, Christoffer
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Nugent, Peter E.
    Horesh, Assaf
    Mooley, Kunal
    Rumsey, Clare
    Cenko, S. B. Radley
    Graham, Melissa L.
    Perley, Daniel A.
    Nakar, Ehud
    Shaviv, Nir J.
    Bromberg, Omer
    Shen, Ken J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Ofek, Eran O.
    Cao, Yi
    Wang, Xiaofeng
    Huang, Fang
    Rui, Liming
    Zhang, Tianmeng
    Li, Wenxiong
    Li, Zhitong
    Zhang, Jujia
    Valenti, Stefano
    Guevel, David
    Shappee, Benjamin
    Kochanek, Christopher S.
    Holoien, Thomas W. -S.
    Filippenko, Alexei V.
    Fender, Rob
    Nyholm, Anders
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Astronomy. Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmo Particle Physics (OKC).
    Yaron, Ofer
    Kasliwal, Mansi M. .
    Sullivan, Mark
    Lagorodnova, Nadja B.
    Walters, Richard S.
    Lunnan, Ragnhild
    Khazov, Danny
    Andreoni, Igor
    Laher, Russ R.
    Konidaris, Nick
    Wozniak, Przemek
    Bue, Brian
    Energetic eruptions leading to a peculiar hydrogen-rich explosion of a massive star2017In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 551, no 7679, p. 210-213Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Every supernova so far observed has been considered to be the terminal explosion of a star. Moreover, all supernovae with absorption lines in their spectra show those lines decreasing in velocity over time, as the ejecta expand and thin, revealing slower-moving material that was previously hidden. In addition, every supernova that exhibits the absorption lines of hydrogen has one main light-curve peak, or a plateau in luminosity, lasting approximately 100 days before declining(1). Here we report observations of iPTF14hls, an event that has spectra identical to a hydrogen-rich core-collapse supernova, but characteristics that differ extensively from those of known supernovae. The light curve has at least five peaks and remains bright for more than 600 days; the absorption lines show little to no decrease in velocity; and the radius of the line-forming region is more than an order of magnitude bigger than the radius of the photosphere derived from the continuum emission. These characteristics are consistent with a shell of several tens of solar masses ejected by the progenitor star at supernova-level energies a few hundred days before a terminal explosion. Another possible eruption was recorded at the same position in 1954. Multiple energetic pre-supernova eruptions are expected to occur in stars of 95 to 130 solar masses, which experience the pulsational pair instability(2-5). That model, however, does not account for the continued presence of hydrogen, or the energetics observed here. Another mechanism for the violent ejection of mass in massive stars may be required.

  • 33.
    Arkå Nilsson, Joakim
    et al.
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Hallberg, Henric
    Halmstad University, School of Education, Humanities and Social Science.
    Diabetes typ 2, hjärt- kärlsjukdomar och kost i en läromedelskontext: En litteraturstudie om livsstilssjukdomar och kostråd i fyra läromedel för gymnasiet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Inledning. Dålig kosthållning kan medföra negativa konsekvenser för individens hälsa senare i livet. En individ som har kunskaper om kost är också bättre utrustad att fatta goda beslut. Vi har därför valt att undersöka vilka aspekter inom livsstilssjukdomar, som typ 2-diabetes och hjärt- och kärlsjukdomar, som beskrivs samt vilka kostråd som presenteras i ett antal läromedel inom ämnet Naturkunskap på gymnasiet.

    Metod. Vi har gjort en innehållsanalys av fyra olika läromedel. Analysen resulterade i ett antal teman som belyser olika aspekter av livsstilssjukdomar och kostråd. De teman vi hittade var “forskningsläget och orsaker till sjukdom”, “förebyggande åtgärder”, “konsekvenser” och “allmänna kostråd”.

    Tidigare forskning. Forskningen vi har tagit del av visar att en diet som är rik på livsmedel från växtriket och som samtidigt begränsar intaget av fett är bra för dels de som ligger i riskzonen att drabbas av hjärt- kärlsjukdom eller typ 2-diabetes, dels personer med diagnostiserad sjukdom. Växtbaserad kost hanterar dessutom samtliga kostrelaterade riskfaktorer för båda livsstilssjukdomarna, vilket är önskvärt med tanke på att prevention utifrån enstaka riskfaktorer inte har samma effekt som ett helhetsgrepp. Även behovet av förebyggande arbete bland barn och skolungdomar poängteras, då utvecklingen av sjukdomarna startar tidigt i livet.

    Resultat. Vår studie visar att läromedelsförfattare väljer att fokusera på olika aspekter av livsstilssjukdomarna med skillnader avseende orsak, möjlighet till förebyggande och konsekvenser. Kostråden varierar också, där fokus läggs på alltifrån sunt förnuft och tallriksmodellen till Nordiska Näringsrekommendationer. Gemensamt för majoriteten av de analyserade läromedlen är dock att de i någon bemärkelse rekommenderar enskilda näringsämnen såsom essentiella aminosyror, kostfibrer, kolhydrater, omättade fettsyror och protein samt livsmedel i form av fisk, frukt, fullkornsprodukter, grönsaker och olja. Vad som bör undvikas är för mycket fett, socker, salt, mättat fett, tillsatser, sötningsmedel samt tomma kalorier som läsk och godis. Likheter med WHO:s kostråd syns. När andelen fett av kaloriintaget nämns, anges 25-40 E%.

    Slutsats och Diskussion. Referenshanteringen i läromedlen uteblir, varför flera av författarnas påståenden blir svåra att bemöta. Nyttan av en vegetarisk diet behandlas heller inte. Istället framställs vegetariska kostmönster som något svårt eller riskabelt − ofta med utgångspunkt i felaktiga beskrivningar om aminosyrainnehåll eller andra enskilda näringsämnen. En fettsnål kost rekommenderas heller inte och skillnaden mellan intaget på 25-40 E% i läromedel utgör en kontrast till de ca 10 E% som avhandlas i tidigare forskning.

    Didaktiska implikationer. I rollen som lärare blir det viktigt att komplettera den bild som läromedlen förmedlar. Resultatet visar på en fragmenterad bild av kost i relation till hälsa och lärarens ansvar blir att brygga klyftan mellan läromedel och forskning.

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  • 34.
    Arnkil, Harald
    et al.
    Aalto University School of Art and Design, Helsinki .
    Fridell Anter, Karin
    University College of Arts, Crafts and Design.
    Klarén, Ulf
    University College of Arts, Crafts and Design.
    Matusiak, Barbara
    Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Architectural Design, Form and Colour Studies, Trondheim.
    PERCIFAL: Visual analysis of space, light and colour2011In: AIC 2011, Interaction of Colour & Light in the Arts and Sciences, Midterm Meeting of the International Colour Association, Zurich, Switzerland, 7–10 June 2011: Conference Proceedings, CD / [ed] Verena M. Schindler and Stephan Cuber, Zurich: pro/colore, 2011 , 2011, p. 229-232Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper addresses the need for better and more accurate methods of recording and analyzing the visual experience of architectural space. PERCIFAL (Perceptive Spatial Analysis of Colour and Light) is an ongoing project that aims at developing a method of analysis that can capture coherent spatial experiences of colour and light. The starting point for PERCIFAL is a method of visual evaluation of space and light, developed by Professor Anders Liljefors at the former department of architectural lighting at KTH Architecture. PERCIFAL is based on direct visual observations and the recording of these observations by verbal-semantic descriptions using a questionnaire. It has been developed primarily as an educational tool, but we see in it potential for a design tool for professionals as well as for an analytical method for research. The first test results, conducted in Sweden, Norway and Finland, show that the method has significant pedagogical merits and that it allows interesting comparisons between physical measurements and visual experiences of space, light and colour. 

    Download full text (pdf)
    PERCIFAL Visual analysis AIC Zurich 2011
  • 35. Artiglia, Luca
    et al.
    Edebeli, Jacinta
    Orlando, Fabrizio
    Chen, Shuzhen
    Lee, Ming-Tao
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physics. Paul Scherrer Institut, Switzerland.
    Arroyo, Pablo Corral
    Gilgen, Anina
    Bartels-Rausch, Thorsten
    Kleibert, Armin
    Vazdar, Mario
    Carignano, Marcelo Andres
    Francisco, Joseph S.
    Shepson, Paul B.
    Gladich, Ivan
    Ammann, Markus
    A surface-stabilized ozonide triggers bromide oxidation at the aqueous solution-vapour interface2017In: Nature Communications, ISSN 2041-1723, E-ISSN 2041-1723, Vol. 8, article id 700Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidation of bromide in aqueous environments initiates the formation of molecular halogen compounds, which is important for the global tropospheric ozone budget. In the aqueous bulk, oxidation of bromide by ozone involves a [Br center dot OOO-] complex as intermediate. Here we report liquid jet X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements that provide direct experimental evidence for the ozonide and establish its propensity for the solution-vapour interface. Theoretical calculations support these findings, showing that water stabilizes the ozonide and lowers the energy of the transition state at neutral pH. Kinetic experiments confirm the dominance of the heterogeneous oxidation route established by this precursor at low, atmospherically relevant ozone concentrations. Taken together, our results provide a strong case of different reaction kinetics and mechanisms of reactions occurring at the aqueous phase-vapour interface compared with the bulk aqueous phase.

  • 36.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sträckprognoser E62013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Road stretch forecasting is a method for forecasting the weather situations or road conditions, especially slipperiness. This project has been a start on implementing the road stretch forecasting technique on Swedish roads. Road stretch forecasting is already implemented in several parts of the world including Norway and the Czech Republic and is a method for forecasting the weather situations or road conditions on the stretches between the existing Road Weather Information System outstations (RWIS). RWIS outstations are located all over Sweden and mainly in places where there is a high probability of slipperiness. But if the area around the station is changed, for example modifications of the vegetation, the conditions can be changed compared to the original mapping of the road. This leads to a high probability for extreme points in road stretches in between the RWIS outstations. To make a model that describes the road, it is necessary to make a thermal mapping and an analysis of the topoclimate to know the variations in temperature, altitude, shading etcetera, along the road. Then the road is divided into segments representing the different variations of the road. The model calculates the forecast for the road surface temperatures and road conditions, the modelled values are compared and adjusted with the measured temperatures from the thermal mapping. In conclusion, the results regarding this road stretch along E6 show good congruence between the modelled values and the measured temperatures.

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  • 37.
    Arvidsson, Anna K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Infrastructure, Infrastructure maintenance.
    Sustainability and climate change considerations in winter maintenance2015Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 38.
    Arwidsson, Anna-Karin
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Digital kompetens, från osäkerhet till förtrogenhet: En studie av lärares kunskaper och svårigheter i arbetet med interaktiva skrivtavlor i grundskolans senare år2014Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Att integrera IKT-verktyg i skolans verksamhet, och då specifikt interaktiva skrivtavlor, har blivit en allt vanligare företeelse för att främja elevers digitala kompetens. En kommun som har gjort en storskalig satsning på att integrera dessa interaktiva skrivtavlor är Linköpings och i dagsläget är varje klassrum i samtliga av deras grundskolor utrustade med en. Denna studie syftar till att ge en inblick i hur den satsningen har påverkat undervisningen ur ett lärarperspektiv, och då specifikt lärare i de naturvetenskapligt orienterande ämnena.

    Genom semistrukturerade intervjuer ämnar studien att sammanställa de förhållningssätt och erfarenheter lärare ger uttryck för gentemot de interaktiva skrivtavlorna. Studien avser att ge en uppfattning om vad lärare anser som betydelsefulla faktorer då en skola genomgår en satsning på interaktiva skrivtavlor i utbildningssyfte. Fokus ligger på begreppen möjligheter, svårigheter samt kunskaper och andra faktorer.

    Resultaten av denna studie visar att lärarna upplever de interaktiva skrivtavlorna som ett verktyg med potential till att ge positiva effekter i undervisningen, och på flera sätt också har det. Att de interaktiva skrivtavlorna möjliggör projektorfunktion och internetuppkoppling på ett snabbt och smidigt sätt är en av de största fördelarna som lärarna i denna studie ger uttryck för. Däremot framkommer även svårigheter med verktyget, och flera av dem är sådana hinder att användningen på ett eller annat sätt begränsas. De hinder som tydligast framträder är tekniska svårigheter, både vad gäller support, mjuk- och hårdvara, fortbildning samt tid. Att lärarna i studien önskar stöttning i sitt arbete med att bekanta sig med verktyget och involvera det i undervisningen är tydligt.

    Utifrån lärarnas berättelser föreslår studien att ge ökade möjligheter till tid och fortbildning, utveckla den tekniska supporten och öka lärarnas möjligheter till kollegiala samtal för att minska dessa svårigheter och den känsla av oro som de skapar för att utöka användningen och verktygets effekter. Lokala strategier, och deras förankring i verksamheten, har också visats ha en mycket betydande roll i detta, då de kan verka stöttande och styrande i och med ett uttalat syfte, mål och tillvägagångssätt.

    Att skolornas användning av IKT-verktyg behöver stöttas har även påpekats utifrån av bland annat Skolverket, och det senaste förslaget är att Sverige utarbetar en nationell IT-strategi. Studiens resultat visar på att detta förslag har potential att ge goda effekter på undervisningen.

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  • 39.
    Augustsson, Fredrik
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Idrottslärares inställning till gym i undervisningen2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • 40.
    Augustsson, Johanna
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    De öppna fältens rationalisering i områden med olika ägarstruktur i nordöstra Helsingborg under perioden 1947–2017: Med fokus på trädrader och habitatöar2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    De senaste 50 åren har intensifieringen av jordbruket ökat i takt med maskinernas framfart. Detta på bekostnad av att livsviktiga biotoper för djur och växter försvunnit, då åkerlandskapet blivit allt mer homogent. Skogen och jordbrukslandskapet är två av de artrikaste landskapstyperna och utgör idag störst hot för Sveriges rödlistade arter. Undersökningsområdet ligger i nordvästra Skånes åkerlandskap och uppsatsen behandlar jordbruksmarkens öppna fält och dess utveckling. Uppsatsen belyser även skillnader mellan små- och medelstora jordbruk jämfört med storjordbruk i ett område bestående av Fleninge, Kropp, Holk och Rosendal, belägna i nordöstra Helsingborgs kommun. Undersökningsområdet är intressant för att studera olika markägares förhållningssätt till jordbruksmarken. En GIS-analys över områdets landskapsutveckling av öppna fält, trädrader och habitatöar presenteras för åren 1947, 1965 och 2017. Analysen visar att medelstorleken på de öppna fälten, betesmarken och åkermarken i båda undersökningsområdena har mer än fördubblats på 70 år, med störst förändring på storjordbruket. Det syns även tydligt att antalet fält successivt minskat med åren då 197 fält har försvunnit på de små- och medelstora jordbruken samtidigt som 69 försvunnit i storjordbruksområdet. En genomsnittlig minskning av trädrader, med cirka 129 meter per år, sker på det små- och medelstora jordbruket, där minskningen är störst. Habitatöarna går från att ha varit vanligare inom storjordbruket till att merparten försvinner under undersökningsperiodens senare del. På det små- och medelstora jordbruket ökar antalet habitatöar även om en stor andel habitatöar avlägsnas, så tillkommer många. År 2017 finns totalt 99 habitatöar i undersökningsområdet, vilket innebär en minskning med cirka 0,4 habitatöar per år. Habitatöarna har dock varit svåra att analysera, detta ser dock ut att hänga samman med att glesa typer av trädrader tillkommer där, vilka enligt gängse kategoriseringskriterier inte räknas till trädrader utan blir individuella habitatöar. Denna utveckling har troligen en negativ inverkan på den biologiska mångfalden i området. Då minskning av habitat och biotoper är ett av de största hoten för biodiversiteten och arters utrotning är det grundläggande att jordbruket istället bidrar till bevarande av arter för en hållbar framtid.

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  • 41.
    Backlund, Sanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    #Ständigtuppkopplad: Hur påverkar de sociala medierna unga barns hälsa ochmående?2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Detta arbete har som syftet att ta reda på hur barn i åldrarna 7-11 år använder sig av de sociala medierna, i hur stor utsträckning och vad de har för erfarenheter av detta. Förutom det vill jag ta reda på hur de sociala medierna påverkar elevernas hälsa och mående i åldrarna som jag har valt att fokusera på. Jag är även intresserad av att ta reda på hur man arbetar och talar om de sociala medierna i skolan. Vad man ska tänka på och vad det kan finnas för fördelar och nackdelar med dessa. Det empiriska materialet består av en kvantitativ enkätundersökning med elever i en årskurs 3 samt 4 kvalitativa intervjuer med både lärare och kuratorer. Utifrån det resultatet som jag fått genom tidigare forskning, enkätundersökningen och intervjuerna så har jag kunnat se ett samband mellan användandet av sociala medier och barnens hälsa och mående. Barn är idag uppkopplade ca 2-3 timmar per dag och kan där ta del av otroligt mycket information. När det handlar om barn i de yngre åldrarna och utsatthet och nätmobbning så handlar det oftast om att det sker via spel, att barn får utstå elaka kommentarer från en motspelare. Det är också vanligare med enstaka, enskilda kommentarer istället för en långdragen, ständigt pågående nätmobbning. Lärare behöver bli mer uppdaterade om hur eleverna använder de sociala medierna och hur de kan arbeta med det i skolan. Sommaren 2018 träder en ny, uppdaterad läroplan i kraft och förhoppningsvis leder den till att ämnet tar mer plats i undervisningen och att lärare får möjligheten attutveckla sina kunskaper om detta.

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  • 42. Baeza-Delgado, Carlos
    et al.
    von Heijne, Gunnar
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics. Stockholm University, Science for Life Laboratory (SciLifeLab).
    Marti-Renom, Marc A.
    Mingarro, Ismael
    Biological insertion of computationally designed short transmembrane segments2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 23397Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The great majority of helical membrane proteins are inserted co-translationally into the ER membrane through a continuous ribosome-translocon channel. The efficiency of membrane insertion depends on transmembrane (TM) helix amino acid composition, the helix length and the position of the amino acids within the helix. In this work, we conducted a computational analysis of the composition and location of amino acids in transmembrane helices found in membrane proteins of known structure to obtain an extensive set of designed polypeptide segments with naturally occurring amino acid distributions. Then, using an in vitro translation system in the presence of biological membranes, we experimentally validated our predictions by analyzing its membrane integration capacity. Coupled with known strategies to control membrane protein topology, these findings may pave the way to de novo membrane protein design.

  • 43.
    Bagewitz, Cornelia
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Gustavsson, Emelie
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Metoder för minskat matsvinn: ett fokuserat fältarbete på gymnasieskolor2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]


    About one-third of all food produced for human consumption in the world is either wasted or lost. This means that large amounts of resources, which are used in the production of food, are used in vain. If the food waste would decrease it would reduce the carbon dioxide emissions, lower the energy- and raw material consumption and reduce the environmental impact. Food waste is not a new area of research, however, there is a need for more studies that address methods for reducing it. A big part of the food waste in Sweden comes from large-scale catering establishments, especially from schools, which leads to the aim of this study.



    The aim is to study which methods a couple of upper secondary schools are using for reducing their food waste, the employees experience of the methods and their thoughts on measures of improvement.  



    Interviews and observations were carried out using focused ethnography in four upper secondary schools in Helsingborg. The collected data was reviewed using thematic analysis. The literature in the study was used as an analytical tool.



    The methods used by the schools consisted of different ways of serving, re-using food, smaller garbage cans, communication, competition, and measuring and keeping track of the food waste. 



    The methods perceived as most efficient were smaller sized serving tools, utilizing and re-using food, smaller garbage cans and measuring the food waste, while spoons used to taste the food before serving yourself was not considered as useful. The communication between the school and the kitchen staff needs to improve to facilitate the task of reducing food waste. Lectures about food waste could be a way to involve the students in the task.

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  • 44.
    Balk, Lennart
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Hägerroth, Per-Åke
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Gustavsson, Hanna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Sigg, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Åkerman, Gun
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Ruiz Munoz, Yolanda
    Honeyfield, Dale C.
    Tjärnlund, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Oliveira, Kenneth
    Ström, Karin
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    McCormick, Stephen D.
    Karlsson, Simon
    Ström, Marika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    van Manen, Mathijs
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry. Utrecht University, Germany.
    Berg, Anna-Lena
    Halldorsson, Halldor P.
    Strömquist, Jennie
    Collier, Tracy K.
    Börjeson, Hans
    Mörner, Torsten
    Hansson, Tomas
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Widespread episodic thiamine deficiency in Northern Hemisphere wildlife2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 38821Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many wildlife populations are declining at rates higher than can be explained by known threats to biodiversity. Recently, thiamine (vitamin B-1) deficiency has emerged as a possible contributing cause. Here, thiamine status was systematically investigated in three animal classes: bivalves, ray-finned fishes, and birds. Thiamine diphosphate is required as a cofactor in at least five life-sustaining enzymes that are required for basic cellular metabolism. Analysis of different phosphorylated forms of thiamine, as well as of activities and amount of holoenzyme and apoenzyme forms of thiaminedependent enzymes, revealed episodically occurring thiamine deficiency in all three animal classes. These biochemical effects were also linked to secondary effects on growth, condition, liver size, blood chemistry and composition, histopathology, swimming behaviour and endurance, parasite infestation, and reproduction. It is unlikely that the thiamine deficiency is caused by impaired phosphorylation within the cells. Rather, the results point towards insufficient amounts of thiamine in the food. By investigating a large geographic area, by extending the focus from lethal to sublethal thiamine deficiency, and by linking biochemical alterations to secondary effects, we demonstrate that the problem of thiamine deficiency is considerably more widespread and severe than previously reported.

  • 45.
    Balksten, Kristin
    Kalkputs: porstrukturens betydelse för beständighet2005Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    When restoring historic lime plaster it can be difficult to reach the required durability. Today newly made lime plaster can fall off due to frost damages after only a couple of winters. To understand and solve these problems, the subject has been studied from different perspectives. Several factors in the production step are making an influence on the durability of lime plaster: 1. A binder, suitable for the building, must be chosen along with sandthat gives good material properties in both fresh mortar and in plasters. 2. The lime/sand ratio and the mixing technique should be chosen from the properties in the lime and the sand, in order to get a mortar with good workability. 3. The craftsmanship should be adjusted to the mortar, the weather and the underlying materials. A plaster with good frost resistance has a certain pore structure. The plaster should have some round air pores that contain air even when the material is filled capillary with water. Such air pores give the water a free space to expand when it is freezing. If the air pores are missing, the ice crystals may damage the plaster when expanding. To increase the chance of making a frost resistant lime plaster, the lime/sand ration must be adjusted so the lime can fill up well in the sand. Otherwise a collapsed pore system can easily occur, which means an open pore system without distinct air pores. A collapsed pore system contains many pores well connected with each other. Such a system is easily damaged by frost. To increase the chance of success, it is of great importance to work the surface of the lime plaster at the right time and in the correct way. Before working on a surface the mortar must be aloud to stiffen. Only then a homogeneous material can be created; cracks due to shrinkage can be pressed together and the result is a more compact material with an open surface. The time necessary for mortars to stiffen is related to the water content of the mortar, the suction of the underlying surface and the weather conditions. If the surface is worked on while the mortar is still fresh, the binder can form a hard lime shell on the surface. Inside thematerial a lack of binder can appear. Such plasters have a very low frost resistance. Other durability problems related to plaster are damages in the underlying materials, i.e. rotten wood in covered constructions or leached lime in old joints. Such damages can occur if the covering mortar is made of strong hydraulic lime or cement, since they form plasters with a low permeability in comparison to lime. Due to mentioned findings, it is important to study how a pore structureis influenced by materials, mixture and craftsmanship. Only then it is possible to understand how damages can be decreased.

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  • 46.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Broström, Tor
    Gotland University, School of Culture, Energy and Environment.
    Permeability in lime plaster in relation to durability of covered materials2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In restoration of old buildings, lime plasters are used for reasons of authenticity and for technicalreasons as well. In many traditional constructions, there is wood behind the plasters or there is old limemortar in the masonry. For the durability of both these underlying materials, it is important that therelative humidity, RH is not too high under a long time of exposure. This can lead to an accelerateddegradation process of wood and leaching of lime in mortars. To prevent this, the plaster must have aproper permeability.The permeability of a material determines its ability to transport gas and moisture. In lime plasters,permeability affects hardening, carbonation as well as durability of the underlying materials. In thepresent paper, eleven mixtures of lime mortar were studied. The binders used were lime slaked in fourdifferent ways, hydraulic lime and cement.The following measurements were made to analyse the permeability and the pore structure of thesamples. Gas permeability and draining curves give an indication of rate of carbonation. Vapourpermeability shows the ability of plaster to transmit moisture at different RH. Thin sections were madefor microscopically investigations of the samples.The investigations show that both the vapour permeability and gas permeability decreases with anincreased amount of hydraulic binder in the lime plasters. Even small amounts of hydraulic binderhave a significant effect.By connecting these results with examples from reality, the picture becomes clearer. In the medievaltown Visby in Sweden, there are several examples of both rotten wood and disintegrated lime mortars.It is constructions from 13th to 19th centuries and low permeable cementitious plasters have coveredthem all, during the middle of the 20th century.

  • 47.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Klasén, Kenth
    The influence of craftsmanship on the inner structures of lime plasters2005Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The use of traditional lime plaster in restoration of old buildings is motivated by bothtechnical and historic reasons. The plasterer deals daily with a multivariable problem wherethe variables are related in such a complex way that we are not even close to findingconverging solutions by traditional scientific methods. The decisions and actions of thecraftsman will have an influence on both the surface structure and the inner structure of thelime plaster. The present paper will focus on the time between application of mortar andworking on the surface to make a floated finish. In total, 32 lime plaster surfaces have beenanalysed. Half of them have been worked on after they have stiffened up and half of themhave been worked on while they are still fresh. The results clearly show that the time betweenapplication of mortar and working the surface is a critical parameter. If you wait until theright time, you receive a more homogeneous and compact material with an open surface anda higher frost resistance.

  • 48.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Humanities and Social Sciences, Faculty of Arts, Department of Art History.
    Lindholm, Martin
    Lange, Johanna
    Increased salt and frost damages in solid neo-Gothic brickwork masonry due to low permeable restoration materials of the 20th century2014In: 9th IMC, Book of Abstract / [ed] Paulo B. Lourenco, Barry A. Haseltine, Graca Vasconcelos, 2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In Gothenburg many stone buildings of brickwork were built during the neo-Romanesque and neo-Gothic period in the late 19th century. The masonry was solid with a wall of bricks often covered with facing bricks with a hard burned water repellent surface. At Örgryte new church the bricks were put in lime mortar but the surface of the joints was made with a thin cement mortar layer. Salt problems are known in this church since early 20th century and the subsequent need of maintenance have led to several extensive restorations with replacement of external facing bricks and internal lime plaster during the years. In each restoration more low permeable facing bricks and more low permeable cement mortars have been chosen, followed by new problems inside the wall as the water transport properties in the wall has changed. Whereas salts have caused problems mainly on the surface, the restoration materials have caused problems with frost and salt damages in bricks and lime mortars in the wall core behind them.

  • 49.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Magnusson, Sophia
    The pore structure in lime plaster as a key to understanding moisture transportation properties and frost damages2004In: 10th International Congress on the Deterioration and Conservation of Stone, 2004Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The pore structure is of great importance for a materials ability to hold and transport gasand moisture. In lime plaster, it affects hardening, carbonation as well as durability againstfrost damage. In the present paper, eleven mixtures of lime mortar were studied withrespect to frost damages. The binders used were lime slaked in four different ways,hydraulic lime and cement.Several analyses were made to characterize the transport properties and the porestructure of the materials; density, porosity, sorption curves, capillary water suction andthin sections. This study shows that there is a correlation between pore structure andimportant material properties. By studying these parameters, it is possible to get a goodpicture of the materials ability to resist frost damages. The study also gives an indication ofwhat materials in the mortar such as binders, aggregates and water, give a good porestructure.

  • 50.
    Balksten, Kristin
    et al.
    Myrin, Malin
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Lime-based Repair Mortars: Influence by Surface Working Methods onBehaviour and Durability of Mortar2006Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The main purpose of this study was to observe the influence by different surface working methodson behaviour, durability and appearance of lime-based stone-repair mortars.The findings are based on:

    - Observations made during restoration work

    - Observations from field stations

    - Microscopic analysis of thin sections of mortar

    - Parallel studies on lime plaster

    The results show clear differences in durability, appearance and behaviour of lime-based mortar dependingon at which stage of the drying process the mortar is worked on. For achieving durable mortar it is importantto avoid the development of a surface lime-film. The study implies that the mortar, only when worked on at aspecific stage of drying, will be durable and have a structure, texture and porosity compatible with the surroundingstone material.

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