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  • 1.
    Abrouk, Michael
    et al.
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Balcarkova, Barbora
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Simkova, Hana
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Kominkova, Eva
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Martis, Mihaela-Maria
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Institute for Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, Helmholtz Center Munich, Neuherberg, Germany.
    Jakobson, Irena
    Department of Gene Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, Tallinn 19086, Estonia.
    Timofejeva, Ljudmilla
    Department of Gene Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, Tallinn 19086, Estonia.
    Rey, Elodie
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Vrana, Jan
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Kilian, Andrzej
    Diversity Arrays Technology Pty Ltd, Yarralumla, ACT2600, Australia.
    Järve, Kadri
    Department of Gene Technology, Tallinn University of Technology, Akadeemia tee 15, Tallinn 19086, Estonia.
    Dolezel, Jaroslav
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    Valarik, Miroslav
    Institute of Experimental Botany, Centre of the Region Hana for Biotechnological and Agricultural Research, Olomouc, Czech Republic.
    The in silico identification and characterization of a bread wheat/Triticum militinae introgression line: Characterization of alien introgression in wheat2017In: Plant Biotechnology Journal, ISSN 1467-7644, E-ISSN 1467-7652, Vol. 15, no 2, p. 249-256Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The capacity of the bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome to tolerate introgression from related genomes can be exploited for wheat improvement. A resistance to powdery mildew expressed by a derivative of the cross bread wheat cv. Tähti ⨯ T. militinae (Tm) is known to be due to the incorporation of a Tm segment into the long arm of chromosome 4A. Here, a newly developed in silico method termed RICh (rearrangement identification and characterization) has been applied to characterize the introgression. A virtual gene order, assembled using the GenomeZipper approach, was obtained for the native copy of chromosome 4A; it incorporated 570 4A DArTseq markers to produce a zipper comprising 2,132 loci. A comparison between the native and introgressed forms of the 4AL chromosome arm showed that the introgressed region is located at the distal part of the arm. The Tm segment, derived from chromosome 7G, harbors 131 homoeologs out of the 357 genes present on the corresponding region of Chinese Spring 4AL. The estimated number of Tm genes transferred along with the disease resistance gene was 169. Characterizing the introgression's position, gene content and internal gene order should facilitate not only gene isolation, but may also be informative with respect to chromatin structure and behavior studies.

  • 2.
    Agnas, Axel Jönses Bernard
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Non-Independent Mate Choice in Female Humans (Homo sapiens): Progression to the Field 2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 30 credits / 45 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    There is much evidence that mate-choice decisions made by humans are affected by social/contextual information. Women seem to rate men portrayed in a relationship as more desirable than the same men when portrayed as single. Laboratory studies have found evidence suggesting that human mate choice, as in other species, is dependent on the mate choice decisions made by same-sex rivals. Even though non-independent mate choice is an established and well-studied area of mate choice, very few field studies have been performed. This project aims to test whether women’s evaluation of potential mates desirability is dependent/non-independent of same-sex rivals giving the potential mates sexual interest. This is the first field study performed in a modern human’s natural habitat aiming to test for non- independent mate choice in humans.

    No desirability enhancement effect was found. The possibilities that earlier studies have found an effect that is only present in laboratory environments or have measured effects other than non-independent mate choice are discussed. I find differences in experimental design to be the most likely reason why the present study failed to detect the effect found in previous studies. This field study, the first of its sort, has generated important knowledge for future experimenters, where the most important conclusion is that major limitations in humans ability to register and remember there surrounding should be taken in consideration when designing any field study investigating human mate choice. 

  • 3.
    Ahrné, Karin
    et al.
    SLU.
    Bengtsson, Bengt Åke
    Björklund, Jan-Olof
    Cederberg, Björn
    Eliasson, Claes
    Hydén, Nils
    Jonasson, Jan
    Lindeborg, Mats
    Lst Kalmar Län.
    Ohlsson, Anders
    Palmqvist, Göran
    Ryrholm, Nils
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Health and Occupational Studies, Department of Occupational and Public Health Sciences, Biology.
    Rödlista över fjärilar Lepidoptera2015In: Rödlistade arter i Sverige 2015 / [ed] Westling, Anna, Uppsala: ArtDatabanken SLU , 2015, p. 98-112Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 4.
    Ajawatanawong, Pravech
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Baldauf, Sandra
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    An automatable method for high throughput analysis of evolutionary patterns in slightly complex indels and its application to the deep phylogeny of Metazoa2014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Insertions/deletions (indels) in protein sequences are potential powerful evolutionary markers. However, these characters have rarely been explored systematically at deep phylogenetic levels. Previous analyses of simple (2-state) clade defining indels (CDIs) in universal eukaryotic proteins found none to support any major animal clade. We hypothesized that CDIs might still be found in the remaining population of indels, which we term complex indels. Here, we propose a method for analyzing the simplest class of complex indels the “slightly complex indels”, and use these to investigate deep branches in animal phylogeny. Complex indels with two states, called bi-state indels, show similar evolutionary patterns to singleton simple indels and confirms that insertion mutations are more common than deletions. Exploration of CDIs in 2- to 9-state complex indels shows strong support for all examined branches of fungi and Archaeplastida. Surprisingly, we also found CDIs supporting major branches in animals, particular in vertebrates. We then expanded the search to non-bilaterial animals (Porifera, Cnidaria and Ctenophora). The phylogenetic tree reconstructed by CDIs places the Ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi as the deepest branch of animals with 6 CDIs support. Trichoplax adhaerens is closely related to the Bilateria. Moreover, the indel phylogeny shows Nematostella vectensis and Hydra magnipapillata are paraphyletic group and position of Cnidarian branches seems to be problematic in the indel phylogeny because of homoplasy. This might be solved if we discover CDIs from animal specific proteins, which emerged after the universal orthologous proteins.Evolutionary Patterns in Slightly Complex Protein Insertions/Deletions (Indels) and Their Application to the Study of Deep Phylogeny in Metazoa

  • 5.
    Al Saleem, Evan
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO).
    Improving unnatural amino acid mutagensis efficiency and selectivity in mammalian cell2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Genetically encoded, site-specific incorporation of unnatural amino acids (UAA)into proteins through selective recoding of an amber stop codon provides apowerful route for expressing synthetic proteins in living cells. Recoding of theamber stop codon is achieved by introducing an amber suppressortRNA/synthetase pair orthogonal to the endogenous tRNA complement intocells. Methanosarcina is a methane producing archaea with the unusualcapability of suppressing the stop codon (specifically the amber codon). Bysuppressing the amber codon Methanosarcina facilitate the incorporation of thenon-canonical amino acid pyrrolysine (pyl). The suppressing mechanismoriginates from a evolutionary unique Pyrrolysyl-tRNA synthetase (PylRS) and itsmatching tRNApyl. The PylRS has been further evolved and modified to allowincorporation of a wide range of UAAs. Amber suppression is today used tocontrol and study protein function in living cells. By making a series of wellcontrolledexperiments with HEK293T cells we aimed to develop this techniqueinto a robust and general tool for mammalian cell biology. Specifically we weretesting the incorporation of the unnatural amino acid bicyclononyne (BCN) by aset of known PylRS mutants. Our results suggest the mutant aaRS PylRS “AF” isthe most robust and efficient synthetase for BCN. We have improved ambersuppression by determining which factors leads to a more efficient method andsimultaneously decreasing the cost of the method.

  • 6. Alava, Mikko
    et al.
    Ardelius, John
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Aurell, Erik
    KTH, School of Computer Science and Communication (CSC), Computational Biology, CB.
    Kaski, P.
    Krishnamurthy, S.
    Orponen, P.
    Seitz, S
    Circumspect descent prevails in solving random constraint satisfaction problems2008In: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, ISSN 0027-8424, E-ISSN 1091-6490, Vol. 105, no 40, p. 15253-15257Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We study the performance of stochastic local search algorithms for random instances of the K-satisfiability (K-SAT) problem. We present a stochastic local search algorithm, ChainSAT, which moves in the energy landscape of a problem instance by never going upwards in energy. ChainSAT is a focused algorithm in the sense that it focuses on variables occurring in unsatisfied clauses. We show by extensive numerical investigations that ChainSAT and other focused algorithms solve large K-SAT instances almost surely in linear time, up to high clause-to-variable ratios a; for example, for K = 4 we observe linear-time performance well beyond the recently postulated clustering and condensation transitions in the solution space. The performance of ChainSAT is a surprise given that by design the algorithm gets trapped into the first local energy minimum it encounters, yet no such minima are encountered. We also study the geometry of the solution space as accessed by stochastic local search algorithms.

  • 7.
    Alfjorden, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Experimental Spironucleus infections in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar): Hidden secrets of the life cycle of Spironucleus salmonicida revealed2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    We have performed experimental infections of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) from the Baltic Sea region with the protozoan parasite Spironucleus salmonicida. By this infection trial we have been able to show that the life cycle may use an alternative route of transmission. Instead of the commonly used faecal-oral route, the parasites can also be excreted directly into the surrounding water from the mucous layer of the skin or from an ulcerated skin lesion. Three different stages of the infection were identified: one intestinal, one blood stage and one tissue stage. New putative life-cycle forms of S. salmonicida cells detected by ex-vivo cell-cultures. Similar cells were also observed in imprints from skin lesions sampled during the experimental infection trials. The cells differed morphologically, from normal trophozoite cells and indicate an alternative cell-cycle when exposed to salmonid host cells.

    The full text will be freely available from 2023-12-31 19:13
  • 8. Ali, Imran
    et al.
    Penttinen-Damdimopoulou, Pauliina E
    Mäkelä, Sari I
    Berglund, Marika
    Stenius, Ulla
    Akesson, Agneta
    Håkansson, Helen
    Halldin, Krister
    Institutet för miljömedicin, Karolinska Institutet.
    Estrogen-like effects of cadmium in vivo do not appear to be mediated via the classical estrogen receptor transcriptional pathway.2010In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 118, no 10, p. 1389-94Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd), a ubiquitous food contaminant, has been proposed to be an endocrine disruptor by inducing estrogenic responses in vivo. Several in vitro studies suggested that these effects are mediated via estrogen receptors (ERs).

    OBJECTIVE: We performed this study to clarify whether Cd-induced effects in vivo are mediated via classical ER signaling through estrogen responsive element (ERE)-regulated genes or if other signaling pathways are involved.

    METHODS: We investigated the estrogenic effects of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) exposure in vivo by applying the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) rodent uterotrophic bioassay to transgenic ERE-luciferase reporter mice. Immature female mice were injected subcutaneously with CdCl2 (5, 50, or 500 µg/kg body weight) or with 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) on 3 consecutive days. We examined uterine weight and histology, vaginal opening, body and organ weights, Cd tissue retention, activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and ERE-dependent luciferase expression.

    RESULTS: CdCl2 increased the height of the uterine luminal epithelium in a dose-dependent manner without increasing the uterine wet weight, altering the timing of vaginal opening, or affecting the luciferase activity in reproductive or nonreproductive organs. However, we observed changes in the phosphorylation of mouse double minute 2 oncoprotein (Mdm2) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk1/2) in the liver after CdCl2 exposure. As we expected, EE2 advanced vaginal opening and increased uterine epithelial height, uterine wet weight, and luciferase activity in various tissues.

    CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that Cd exposure induces a limited spectrum of estrogenic responses in vivo and that, in certain targets, effects of Cd might not be mediated via classical ER signaling through ERE-regulated genes.

  • 9. Ali, N.
    et al.
    Junaid, M.
    Ahmad, D.
    urRahman, M.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Katzenmeier, G.
    Antibacterial and antifungal activity of solvent extracts from Plumeria obtusa Linn2014In: Tropical Biomedicine, ISSN 0127-5720, Vol. 31, no 4, p. 607-615Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Extracts of Plumeria obtusa are widely used in ethnomedicine and have been investigated for a variety of biological activities; however, the antimicrobial activity of P. obtusa flowers is poorly characterized. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of different solvents (petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, chloroform, isobutanol and ethanol) extracts from flowers of P. obtusa were investigated by a disc diffusion method against Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and a fungus. All extracts exhibited growth inhibition of all microorganisms at variable degrees as measured by relative zones of inhibition, however, the petroleum ether extract was ineffective against Klebsiella pneumonia and ethyl acetate and isobutanol extracts were ineffective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The most susceptible Gram-positive bacterium was Bacillus subtilis while the most resistant Gram-positive bacterium was Staphylococcus aureus. Erwinia carotovora was the most susceptible Gram-negative bacterium while P. aeruginosa was highly resistant among the Gram-negative bacteria. In this study, for the first time, we investigated the antimicrobial activity of several different solvent extracts from flowers of P. obtusa against a broad spectrum of human-pathogenic microorganisms. These compounds warrant further investigation by isolation and structural elucidation with the aim to find novel and affordable bioactive compounds for the treatment of infectious diseases.

  • 10.
    Alkaissi, Hammoudi
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Ekstrand, Jimmy
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Jawad, Aksa
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Nielsen, Jesper Bo
    University of Southern Denmark, Denmark.
    Havarinasab, Said
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Söderkvist, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Cell Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Hultman, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, Division of Neuro and Inflammation Science. Linköping University, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences. Region Östergötland, Center for Diagnostics, Department of Clinical Pathology and Clinical Genetics.
    Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Genes Related to Renal Mercury Concentrations in Mice2016In: Journal of Environmental Health Perspectives, ISSN 0091-6765, E-ISSN 1552-9924, Vol. 124, no 7, p. 920-926Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Following human mercury (Hg) exposure, the metal accumulates in considerable concentrations in kidney, liver, and brain. Although the toxicokinetics of Hg have been studied extensively, factors responsible for interindividual variation in humans are largely unknown. Differences in accumulation of renal Hg between inbred mouse strains suggest a genetic interstrain variation regulating retention or/and excretion of Hg. A. SW, DBA/2 and BALB/C mouse strains accumulate higher amounts of Hg than B10.S.

    OBJECTIVES: We aimed to find candidate genes associated with regulation of renal Hg concentrations.

    METHODS: A. SW, B10.S and their F1 and F2 offspring were exposed for 6 weeks to 2.0 mg Hg/L drinking water. Genotyping with microsatellites was conducted on 84 F2 mice for genome-wide scanning with ion pair reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (IP RP HPLC). Quantitative trait loci (QTL) were established. Denaturing HPLC was used to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms for haplotyping and fine mapping in 184 and 32 F2 mice, respectively. Candidate genes (Pprc1, Btrc and Nfkb2) verified by fine mapping and QTL were further investigated by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Genes enhanced by Pprc1 (Nrf1 and Nrf2) were included for gene expression analysis.

    RESULTS: Renal Hg concentrations differed significantly between A. SW and B10. S mice and between males and females within each strain. QTL analysis showed a peak logarithm of odds ratio score 5.78 on chromosome 19 (p = 0.002). Haplotype and fine mapping associated the Hg accumulation with Pprc1, which encodes PGC-1-related coactivator (PRC), a coactivator for proteins involved in detoxification. Pprc1 and two genes coactivated by Pprc1 (Nrf1 and Nrf2) had significantly lower gene expression in the A. SW strain than in the B10. S strain.

    CONCLUSIONS: This study supports Pprc1 as a key regulator for renal Hg excretion.

  • 11.
    Amalia, Clausson
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Hormonet leptin och dess funktioner2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 12.
    Amnebrink, Dennis
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Transcriptomic profiling of marine bacteria between development and senescence phases of a phytoplankton bloom2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Bacterioplankton provide important ecosystem functions by carrying out biogeochemical cycling of organic matter. Playing an important role in the microbial loop they help remineralize carbon and nutrients. Bacteria also interact with phytoplankton during phytoplankton blooms. However, fundamental understanding on the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in the degradation of phytoplankton-derived organic matter is still in its infancy. Therefore, we analysed data from a mesocosm experiment following a natural phytoplankton-bloom from an upwelling system in the North- East Atlantic Ocean. The purpose was to contribute a mechanistic understanding based on functional gene expression analysis of natural microbial assemblages. Our results show the difference in functional gene expression within a bacterial metacommunity and how this functional response drastically switches between bloom build up and senescence. Transcripts showed a broad change in gene expression involving major SEED categories, with the bloom senescence phase exhibiting a higher relative abundance in major categories such as Carbohydrates, Protein Metabolism and Amino Acids and Derivatives. Within these categories genes connected to carbon utilization and transport systems (Ton and Tol) as well as chemotaxis showed a higher abundance during bloom senescence. The change in functionality based on transcripts showed a different bacterial community composition appearing over a very short time. We thus conclude that the bacterial functional gene expression response between build-up and degradation bloom phases is remarkably different and associated with a change in the identity of bacteria with active expression. Our findings highlight the importance of bacterial substrate specialists with different functional roles during different time points of phytoplankton blooms.

  • 13.
    Anderson, Jennifer L
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology.
    Nieuwenhuis, Bart P. S.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Division of Evolutionary Biology, Faculty of Biology, Ludwig- Maximilians-Universität München.
    Johannesson, Hanna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Evolutionary Biology. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Systematic Biology.
    Asexual reproduction and growth rate: independent and plastic lifehistory traits in Neurospora crassa2018In: The ISME Journal, ISSN 1751-7362, E-ISSN 1751-7370Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14.
    Andersson, Fredrika
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Barns tankar om den egna kroppen!: Vad vet fyraåringar och sexåringar om sin kropp!2009Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this research was to investigate the concepts among five and six year old children regarding the human body. Six children were interviewed by means of qualitative interviews. The children's concept regarding the human body differed depending on their age. The six year old children knew more about the body than the four year old children. Spontaneously the children knew we had heart, brain, blood, brain cells, muscles and skeleton

  • 15.
    Andersson, Helene
    et al.
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Signal Processing. University of Twente, Netherlands .
    Van Den Berg, A.
    From LOC to LIC: Using individual cells as experimentation platforms2005In: Nanobiotechnology, ISSN 1551-1286, Vol. 1, no 3, p. 319-321Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many efforts today trying to mimic the properties of single cells in order to design chips that are as efficient as cells. However, cells are nature's nanotechnology engineering at the scale of atoms and molecules. Therefore, it might be better to vision a microchip that utilizes a single cell as experimentation platform. A novel, so-called Lab-in-a-Cell (LIC) concept is described, where advantage is taken of micro/nanotechnological tools to enable precise control of the biochemical cellular environment and possibility to analyze the composition of single cells.

  • 16.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Exploring childrens' views of what's inside the body2012Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The importance of living a healthy life in an everyday context is promoted in schools and preschools. The discussion often focuses on what food is healthy, and that one should eat enough but not too much. The connection between food and beverages and their role in the body is seldom discussed. Students’ ideas about how the human body functions have been investigated in several studies but few have focused on young children. In this study, we investigate young children’s conceptions related to this topic and how their ideas develop. Seventy-nine pre- and primary school children, aged 4-11, participated in individual focus interviews wherein the children were asked to draw and explain their understanding. Our results confirm several findings observed by other workers. However, in contrast with earlier studies, 10 of seventeen 4-5 year-old children indicated the stomach, and more than half of those children described how food can be utilized in the body to extract energy. Furthermore, the brain was among the most commonly mentioned organs cross all age groups. Interestingly, the level of expertise varied and did not covariate with age. For example, five of eight of the 4 year-old children draw 5-8 organs, while a single 10 year-old child could only mention three. Similarly, two of thirteen 7-year old children provided an almost completely correct description of the digestive tract and its function, while most of the older children expressed a much less developed understanding. The results reflect the wide range of different conceptual ideas that teachers confront in a day-to-day classroom context.

  • 17.
    Andersson, Johanna
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Social and Welfare Studies, Learning, Aesthetics, Natural science. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Tibell, Lena A.E.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Educational Sciences.
    Children's reasoning and representations about living and non-living things2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Understanding of the concept ‘life’ and what characterise ‘living things’ is important as a foundation for learning in biology. In a more general view, this understanding can make children develop awareness, respect and responsibility for life as members of a society and in decision making for sustainable development. The present pilot study aim to investigate 5-6 year old pre-school children’s reasoning and representations about living and nonliving things. In cognitive developmental research, the concept of life is well investigated but, questions still remain regarding how children reason around and represent these concepts. Previous research has found that children have difficulties in including plants as living things. Moreover, it is found that young children include e.g. the sun, clouds and rocks as living things. The methods that have been used are often quantitative and use picture-cards with different objects for the children to categorize. In the present pilot study a modified methodology was applied. Children’s drawings of what they consider as living and non-living were collected and picture-cards were used as point of departure for reasoning. In interviews the children were encouraged to explain and express their ideas. The drawings and the cards mainly worked as a meaning making tool for the children. Results from the study will be presented and discussed. 

  • 18.
    Andersson, Magnus
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Bergviksäpplet och dess fruktsättning2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Trees of Bergvik apple (Bergviksäpple) planted between 2001 and 2007 have shown varying harvest. This study investigates why some trees gets low or no harvest while others get significantly higher harvest. The aim is to identify some reasons why fruiting differs between the trees and if possible suggest and/or enlighten the tree owners what can be done to improve fruiting. The study includes 25 trees, mostly located in Hälsingland, Sweden. The tree owners have answered two questionnaires, first in the spring with questions regarding flowering and the second in the autumn, regarding harvest. The answers to these questionnaires form the foundation for this work.

    The result of the study reveals differences in harvest. Older trees and/or trees with good vegetative growth have larger harvest while trees with poor growth in some cases didn’t even get flowers. Younger trees with good growth gave good harvest. This concludes that the single most important factor to get good harvest is good vegetative growth.

  • 19.
    Andersson, Niki
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Biology and biodiversity of tardigrades in the world and in Sweden: Current status and future visions2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Tardigrades are small water-dwelling invertebrates that can live almost anywhere in the world. Even though they are well-known our knowledge about them is still scarce. The aim of this study was therefore to explore our current knowledge about tardigrades by: (1) explore their global phylogeny and biogeography based on bioinformatics (2) screen for tardigrades in select locations of northern Sweden and compare with other Swedish locations, and (3) identify at least one tardigrade from northern Sweden and explore the published biomarkers for further identification. The bulk of this thesis was based on evaluation of the Silva database for analyzing SSU (small subunit) and LSU (large subunit) tardigrade sequences and create phylogenetic trees. Some initial lab work was performed using samples of moss and lichen from Piteå, Vindeln and Öland. Results show that only few countries have been explored with regard to tardigrades, and in Sweden more research have been performed in the south compared to the north. The phylogenetic trees give a rough overview of tardigrade relatedness but many of the sequences need to be improved and more sequence work from additional environments is needed. In the lab tardigrades were only found from the Piteå samples, and one of those was identified as Macrobiotus hufelandi, for which a new biomarker was created. Overall, tardigrade research need to continue and expand to other regions in order to understand how these organisms differ between different environments, and more work is needed to ensure higher quality of sequences added to databases.

  • 20.
    Andersson, Rebecca
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biology.
    An Evaluation of Two Presumptive Blood Tests and Three Methods to Visualise Blood2017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10,5 credits / 16 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to validate the two presumptive blood tests LMG, LCV and the three visualising blood methods Bluestar Forensics, Lumiscene and the Ruhoff method. The methods’ sensitivity, durability, matrices effects, false positive results and the methods effect on subsequent DNA analysis were studied. DNA analyses were also performed to assess the detection limit of the forensic DNA analysis. Drops of diluted blood were applied on different absorptive matrices and the sensitivity was investigated. The solutions were also placed under different conditions to investigate the durability of the solutions. The solutions were applied upon panels using different chemicals and materials and the false positive results were studied. The DNA analyses were performed by diluting the blood with Bluestar Forensics, the hydrogen peroxide method, the Ruhoff method and deionised water. The study showed that the LMG with a 3 % H2O2 concentration performs the best and it is suited for practical casework. The positive results of LMG was easier to interpret than those of LCV, this is probably due to the fixative agent of the used LCV solution. Bluestar Forensics and Lumiscene did perform similar on the different matrices tested, but the Lumiscene solution had a slightly higher durability. The results strongly indicate that the Ruhoff method can be used without luminol, hence only as a hydrogen peroxide solution (the hydrogen peroxide method). All three visualising blood methods decreases chances of retrieving a positive DNA profile, however the visualising blood methods could be used if the blood cannot be found in any other way. A DNA profile was obtained from the one blood sample analysed at dilution of 1:256 in deionized water.

  • 21.
    Anstrén, Ludwig
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    The Reliability of Cooper ́s Test in Subjects Between 28-60 Years of Age2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) is a determinant of an individual’s ability to handle oxygen during maximal exercise. To measure VO2max expensive equipment and expertise personnel are required. To make the process of measuring VO2max easier, several submaximal and maximal tests have been created in which an estimation of VO2max could be made. Cooper’s 12-minute run (12MR) was created in 1968 and was tested on 115 military men with a mean age of 22 years. Since then the 12MR test has been re- tested and validated towards maximal treadmill tests on several occasions. When an age of 30 years is reached, VO2max starts to decline with 9-10 percent per decade but can be halted by different forms of exercise. With exercise of moderate to high intensity the decline can be halted by almost 50 percent. Objective: To investigate the reliability of estimated VO2max in a test retest scenario of Cooper ́s 12MR on a mixed healthy population between the ages of 28-60. Method: Nine women and five men, healthy subjects with a mean age of 43 ± 8 participated in the present study. A test retest of Cooper ́s 12MR took place with a minimum of seven days between tests. The subjects had to run as many laps as possible on the track during a 12-minute period. Finished laps were then counted and the fraction of the last lap was measured with a measuring wheel and then added to the total distance. To estimate the subjects’ VO2max Cooper ́s table was used. Results: The single measure Intraclass correlation (ICC) that was found, between the estimated VO2max made from the initial test to the retest on Cooper ́s 12MR, was 0.979. ICC showed a small error variance correlation between the tests and was close to the optimal correlation of 1.0. Conclusion: A standardized protocol for performing Cooper ́s 12MR showed good repeatability for estimating VO2max in two separate tests for a mixed population between 28 to 60 years of age. 

  • 22.
    Appel, Madeleine
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kulturarvets mosaiklandskap i ny tappning för trädgårdar och balkonger: En litteraturstudie med designförslag som bidrag för bevarandet av mångfalden för solitära bins överlevnad2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. The purpose of this study is to find out what can be done in gardens and balconies for solitary bees survival, species have already been lost or are red-listed because of poor conditions in terms of habitat. What can design-proposals look like for gardens and balconies? What do suitable habitats contain and what do threats look like for solitary bees?The goal with this literature study was to find answers to my questions. Based on facts that emerged from the results, design proposals have been made for gardens and balconies. Increased biotope-surface from ancient times mosaic-landscape can in modern environments like gardens and balconies be designed as non-toxic and flower-rich meadows, flowering border zones, ditches and flower beds, potted plants, flowering trees and shrubs. Solitary bees need shelter, water to drink and food to eat as in nectar and pollen-rich plants. They need flowering plants from early spring to late autumn to survive. It´s important to spread knowledge and understanding how solitary bees live their lives, that people can cooperate to achieve long-term sustainable habitat solutions. Solitary bees need many flowering plant-surfaces that can act as dispersal corridors in to urban environments, where every single square meter flowering-surface is of importance. Solitary bees increase in number with increasing biotope-surfaces which are facts that design proposals are based on. Devastating threats for solitary bees are floral shortage in urban areas, spraying with various poisons, domestic bees spreading diseases, human fear of small insects and altered habitats.

  • 23.
    Ardabili, Sahar
    KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), Proteomics and Nanobiotechnology.
    Microfluidic bases sample preparation for blood stream infections2014Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Microfluidics promises to re-shape the current health-care system by transferring diagnostic tools from central laboratories to close vicinity of the patient (point-of-care). One of the most important operational steps in any diagnostic platform is sample preparation, which is the main subject in this thesis. The goal of sample preparation is to isolate targets of interest from their surroundings. The work in this thesis is based on three ways to isolate bacteria:  immune-based isolation, selective cell lysis, size-based separation.

    The first sample-preparation approach uses antibodies against lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which are surface molecules found on all gram-negative bacteria. There are two characteristics that make this surface molecule interesting. First, it is highly abundant: one bacterium has approximately a million LPS molecules on its cell-wall. Second, the molecule has a conserved region within all gram-negative bacteria, so using one affinity molecule to isolate disease-causing gram-negative bacteria is an attractive option, particularly from the point of view of sample preparation. The main challenge, however, is antigen accessibility. To address this, we have developed a treatment protocol that improves the capturing efficiency.

    The strategy behind selective cell lysis takes advantage of the differences between the blood-cell membrane and the bacterial cell-wall. These fundamental differences make it possible to lyse (destroy) blood-cells selectively while keeping the target of interest, here the bacteria, intact and, what is more important alive. Viability plays an important role in determining antibiotic susceptibility.

    Difference in size is another well-used characteristic for sample- separation. Inertial microfluidics can focus size-dependent particle at high flow-rates. Thus, particles of 10 µm diameter were positioned in precise streamlines within a curved channel.  The focused particles can then be collected at defined outlets.  This approach was then used to isolate white blood cells, which account for approximately 1% of the whole blood.  In such a device particles of 2µm diameter (size of bacteria) would not be focused and thereby present at every outlet. To separate bacteria from blood elasto-inertial microfluidics was used. Here, e blood components are diverted to center of the channels while smaller bacteria remain in the side streams and can subsequently be separated.

  • 24.
    Arinell, Karin
    et al.
    Örebro University, School of Health Sciences. Department of Cardiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Sahdo, Berolla
    Department of Clinical Medicine, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.
    Evans, Alina L.
    Faculty of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway; Section of Arctic Veterinary Medicine, Norwegian School of Veterinary Science, Tromsø, Norway.
    Arnemo, Jon M.
    Faculty of Forestry and Wildlife Management, Hedmark University College, Evenstad, Norway; Department of Wildlife Fish and Environmental Studies, Faculty of Forest Sciences, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Umeå, Sweden.
    Baandrup, Ulrik
    Department of Pathology, Vendsyssel Hospital, Hjørring, Denmark; Faculty of Medical Sciences, Aalborg, Denmark.
    Fröbert, Ole
    Örebro University Hospital. Örebro University, School of Medical Sciences. Department of Cardiology, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Sweden.
    Brown Bears (Ursus arctos) Seem Resistant to Atherosclerosis Despite Highly Elevated Plasma Lipids during Hibernation and Active State2012In: Clinical and Translational Science, ISSN 1752-8054, E-ISSN 1752-8062, Vol. 5, no 3, p. 269-272Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Hibernation is an extreme physiological challenge for the brown bear (Ursus arctos) in which metabolism is based mainly on lipids. The study objective was to compare plasma lipids in hibernating and active free-ranging brown bears and relate them to arterial histopathology. Blood was drawn from seven immobilized free-ranging brown bears (three females, 23 years old) during hibernation in February and from the same bears while active in June and analyzed by enzymatic and automated hematology methods within 48 hours of sampling. Left anterior descending coronary arteries and aortic arches from 12 bears (six females, 1.512 years old) killed in hunting were examined by histopathology. Total plasma cholesterol decreased from hibernation to the active period (11.08 +/- 1.04 mmol/L vs. 7.89 +/- 1.96 mmol/L, P= 0.0028) as did triglyceride (3.16 +/- 0.62 mmol/L vs. 1.44 +/- 0.27 mmol/L, P= 0.00012) and LDL cholesterol (4.30 +/- 0.71 mmol/L vs. 2.02 +/- 1.03 mmol/L, P= 0.0075), whereas HDL cholesterol was unchanged. No atherosclerosis, fatty streaks, foam cell infiltration, or inflammation were seen in any arterial samples. Brown bears tolerate elevated cholesterol levels, obesity, physical inactivity, and circulatory slow flow during hibernation without signs of -atherosclerosis. This species might serve as a reverse translational model for atherosclerosis resistance.

  • 25.
    Askvärn, Elisabeth
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Electronics, Mathematics and Natural Sciences.
    Kan växter lindra klimakteriebesvär?: Behandling av vasomotoriska symptom med hjälp av örtmedicin2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use of herbal medicine for vasomotor symptoms during menopause. The questions posed were which herbs that were used, what parts of the herbs that were used, and how the plant parts were prepared and utilized. The last question covered how much the plants alleviated the vasomotor symptoms.

    A review of the scientific literature was carried out. In the articles, 20 herbs and plants were used, but only five of them were said to relieve the vasomotor symptoms. The five plants were Actaea racemosa, Angelica sinensis, Ginkgo biloba, Glycine sp. and Pimpinella anisum.  The most commonly used parts of the herbs were the roots, often through extracts that were processed in order to increase the concentration and to transform the plant parts into powder. The powder was then for the most part transformed to tablets and capsules. Sometimes, information was missing, such as the scientific names of the plants, what parts of the plants that were used and how the herbs were prepared and utilized.

    On average, the herbs alleviated the vasomotor symptoms by 60 %. Most of the herbs appeared to relieve mild symptoms more than they alleviated strong symptoms. An exception was P. anisum, which decreased both the amount of and the strength of the flushes by 74 %.

    This literature study shows that there are plants that influence the vasomotor symptoms in a positive direction. At the same time, it shows that the information in the articles is sometimes incomplete and that the scientists do not always study if the herbs can give side effects.

    Herbal medicine could be an alternative for women who, for different reasons, cannot or do not want to take synthetic hormones or other pharmacological medicines. However, in order to make herbal medicine part of the treatment offered by public health care, longitudinal studies that also investigate possible side effects or risks are needed for securing the effect of the herbs on the human body.

  • 26.
    Baas, Pauline
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    van der Valk, Tom
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Vigilant, Linda
    Ngobobo, Urbain
    Binyinyi, Escobar
    Nishuli, Radar
    Caillaud, Damien
    Guschanski, Katerina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Animal ecology.
    Population-level assessment of genetic diversity and habitat fragmentation in critically endangered Grauer's gorillas2018In: American Journal of Physical Anthropology, ISSN 0002-9483, E-ISSN 1096-8644, Vol. 165, no 3, p. 565-575Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objectives: The critically endangered Grauer's gorilla (Gorilla beringei graueri) has experienced an estimated 77% population decline within a single generation. Although crucial for informed conservation decisions, there is no clear understanding about population structure and distribution of genetic diversity across the species' highly fragmented range. We fill this gap by studying several core and peripheral Grauer's gorilla populations throughout their distribution range.

    Materials and Methods: We generated genetic profiles for a sampling of an unstudied population of Grauer's gorillas from within the species' core range at 13 autosomal microsatellite loci and combined them with previously published and newly generated data from four other Grauer's gorilla populations, two mountain gorilla populations, and one western lowland gorilla population.

    Results: In agreement with previous studies, the genetic diversity of Grauer's gorillas is intermediate, falling between western lowland and mountain gorillas. Among Grauer's gorilla populations, we observe lower genetic diversity and high differentiation in peripheral compared with central populations, indicating a strong effect of genetic drift and limited gene flow among small, isolated forest fragments.

    Discussion: Although genetically less diverse, peripheral populations are frequently essential for the long-term persistence of a species and migration between peripheral and core populations may significantly enrich the overall species genetic diversity. Thus, in addition to central Grauer's gorilla populations from the core of the distribution range that clearly deserve conservation attention, we argue that conservation strategies aiming to ensure long-term species viability should include preserving peripheral populations and enhancing habitat connectivity.

  • 27.
    Babateen, Omar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Korol, Sergiy V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Jin, Zhe
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Bhandage, Amol K.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Ahemaiti, Aikeremu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Developmental Genetics.
    Birnir, Bryndis
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neuroscience, Physiology.
    Liraglutide modulates GABAergic signaling in rat hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons predominantly by presynaptic mechanism2017In: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology, E-ISSN 2050-6511, Vol. 18, article id 83Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the main inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain where it regulates activity of neuronal networks. The receptor for glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is expressed in the hippocampus, which is the center for memory and learning. In this study we examined effects of liraglutide, a GLP-1 analog, on GABA signaling in CA3 hippocampal pyramidal neurons.

    Methods

    We used patch-clamp electrophysiology to record synaptic and tonic GABA-activated currents in CA3 pyramidal neurons in rat hippocampal brain slices.

    Results

    We examined the effects of liraglutide on the neurons at concentrations ranging from one nM to one μM. Significant changes of the spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (sIPSCs) were only recorded with 100 nM liraglutide and then in just ≈50% of the neurons tested at this concentration. In neurons affected by liraglutide both the sIPSC frequency and the most probable amplitudes increased. When the action potential firing was inhibited by tetrodotoxin (TTX) the frequency and amplitude of IPSCs in TTX and in TTX plus 100 nM liraglutide were similar.

    Conclusions

    The results demonstrate that liraglutide regulation of GABA signaling of CA3 pyramidal neurons is predominantly presynaptic and more limited than has been observed for GLP-1 and exendin-4 in hippocampal neurons.

  • 28.
    Backius, Helena
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Biology.
    Förändring av kärlväxters artsammansättning vid återupptagen hävd i skogligt avgränsade ängs- och hagmarker2011Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Old agricultural landscapes house a great biodiversity. To conserve this diversity the European Union award financial support in the form of environmental grants to encourage farmers to maintain pastures and hay meadows using old-fashioned methods. But are the measures effective and do they meet their purpose? The purpose of this study was to re-inventory ten sample plots from 2002 on the farm Brofallet to see how species composition of vascular plants had been affected by the nine seasons of using these old-fashioned methods management. The farm is completely surrounded by forest, isolated from other agricultural land. No significant overall change was observed concerning the composition of vascular plant species favored by traditional management. Qualitative observations, however, showed an increase in some species favored by traditional management. The conclusion is that the five-year commitment that farmers make to receive the environmental grants is not adequate enough to be able to detect changes in total diversity of vascular plants on a farm such as Brofallet, but that changes may occur faster at other levels in the ecosystem. Moreover, a ramification of this study is the idea that even environmental measures and documentation should be characterized by diversity. In summary, small-scale extensive farming may prove to be important in the overall quest for a sustainable society, both to exploit land for food production using extensive farming, and to maintain biodiversity at the landscape level.

  • 29.
    Balck, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Phthalates in preschool dust: the relation between phthalates and parameters in the preschool environment2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Children are constantly exposed to many chemicals via the products they come in contactwith in their everyday life. One chemical group is phthalates, the most commonly usedplasticisers in the world. Phthalates are used mainly in PVC plastic products like floors, toys,food containers and wallpaper but they are also used in rubber, glue, paint, cables etc. Sincethese chemicals are weakly chemically bound to the PVC they can leak and migrate to the air,food, water and skin. Children are exposed to phthalates mainly through food, but because ofthe hand to mouth behaviour they are also exposed via dust inhalation and dust ingestion.About ten years ago regulations of the most toxic phthalates in toys and child care productswere implemented in the EU and from February 2015 it is a general prohibition for the use ofDEHP (diethylhexyl phthalate), DnBP (di-n-butyl phthalate), DiBP (diisobutyl phthalate) andBBzP (butyl benzyl phthalate). DiNP (diisononyl phthalate) is a relatively new phthalate andit has replaced DEHP to some extent in floors and toys. In phthalate free products DINCH(1,2-cyclohexane dicarboxylic acid diisononyl ester) is one of the plasticizer replacingphthalates. The banned phthalates have been shown to cause adverse effects on reproductionand recent research also investigates links between phthalate exposure and asthma and allergysymptoms in children. More experimental animal studies are needed to further investigate theasthma and allergy correlation.

    In the present project dust samples were collected from 30 preschool indoor environments inthe Stockholm city area to evaluate the levels of the six substances mentioned and thephthalate DEP (diethyl phthalate). The main aim of this thesis project was to search forrelations and links between the phthalate concentrations in dust and parameters from theindoor environment in preschools. Studied parameters are e.g. construction year, floor type,cleaning routines and quantity of toys and furniture made of plastic or foam. The project wascommissioned by the Swedish EPA and performed at the Institute of Environmental Medicine(IMM) at Karolinska Institutet.

    A negative relation was found between dust phthalate (DEHP and DnBP) concentrationand construction year. Also rooms with old PVC floors had higher concentrations of DEHPand DnBP in dust than rooms with new PVC floors. There was also a trend that dust frompreschools with PVC floors had higher DiNP concentration than dust from preschools withother floor types. The preschools that used foam mattresses for resting had higher DiNPconcentrations than those with no foam mattresses. Most preschools had new foammattresses, which could indicate a more common use of DiNP in new mattresses or mattress2covers compared to old mattresses that contains more DEHP. The four Waldorf preschoolsthat participated had lower DiNP dust concentrations than the other preschools, which wasexpected since Waldorf orientation includes using as little plastic material as possible. Norelation was found between the phthalate dust concentrations and the quantity of toys made ofsoft plastic in the sampled area.

    Many preschools had made a plastic inventory where they removed old and soft plastic toysand material. Also many preschools recently replaced old foam mattresses used for resting.This could be due to the big chemical focus in the media and authorities and the brochuresthat have been sent out the last couple of years about what preschool can do to decrease thechemical exposure of children. This interest and awareness seen in the preschools waspositive and hopefully the trend spreads to more preschools. Since children spend a big part oftheir time at preschools it is an important mission for society and the government to decreasethe exposure to hazardous chemicals there. Hopefully what has been done so far is just thebeginning.

  • 30.
    Balck, Marianne
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    Utgör användning av p-piller ett hot mot livskraftiga grodpopulationer?: Etinylöstradiols och levonorgestrels effekter hos arterna Xenopus leavis, Xenopus tropicalis och Rana temporaria2013Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    En eskalerande minskning hos grodpopulationer och grodarter har skett världen över sedan 1980. Minskningen har påverkats av flera faktorer, bland annat utsläpp av endokrina ämnen till vattendrag. Endokrina ämnen är naturliga och syntetiska hormoner och kemikalier som stör människors och djurs hormonsystem. Syntetiska hormoner finns i p-piller och andra preventivmedel och hormonerna släpps ut i vattendrag via urinen. Det har visats att grodor påverkas av de syntetiska hormonerna etinylestradiol och levonorgestrel som finns i p-piller. Den här litteraturstudien syftar till att undersöka vilka effekter de två hormonerna har på modellarterna Xenopus laevis och Xenopus trolpicalis och på svenska grodarter såsom Rana temporaria. Effekterna är främst förändrad könskvot, med honor i majoritet, samt minskad fertilitet. Fertiliteten försämras genom missbildade könsorgan, genom att äggen mognar långsammare och honor kan bli sterila med avsaknad av äggledare. Hormonexponering kan leda till försenad metamorfos och det kan bli en högre mortalitet hos juvenila grodor. Även hormonuttryck kopplade till reproduktion och fertilitet kan påverkas av hormonexponering. Dock behövs mer forskning, särskilt i fält då mestadels experimentella studier gjorts hittills i laboratorier. Hormonutsläpp är en bidragande faktor till att sex av Sveriges åtta grodarter är rödlistade och i världen handlar det om tusentals arter. Även den så kallade cocktail effekten, det vill säga de effekter flera olika ämnen skapar tillsammans, bör undersökas närmare.

  • 31.
    Bate Holmberg, Kristina
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Biology Education Centre.
    En skogsträdgårds näringspotential2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    I agroforestry brukas marken genom att kombinera vedartade växter, perenner och annueller.Skogsträdgårdar, som är en typ av agroforestry, vilka besitter flera olika nyttoegenskaper som tillexempel bevarandet av biologiska mångfalden, är en markanvändning av delvis eller endast perennaväxter, som ibland kompletteras av annueller. Några av skogsträdgårdars positiva egenskaper är attväxterna gynnar varandra och producerar/bidrar med livsmedelsproduktion, kolbindning ochkvävefixering. Intressant är att ta reda på huruvida livsmedlen som en skogsträdgård i Sverige kanbidra med kan täcka en människas dagliga näringsintag och även hur växternas kulinariskaegenskaper fungerar. Genom att besöka och samla in växter från två av tretton skogsträdgårdar, medgemensam odlingsdesign, som deltagit i forskningsprojektet Hållbar livsmedelsproduktion – attodla och äta från perenna system har näringsvärdena med avseende på kolhydrater, proteiner ochfett undersökts. Med hjälp av optimeringsmodellen dietproblemet visade det sig att gårdarna kantäcka en vuxen människas dagliga intag med avseende på energi, fett, kolhydrater och protein sålänge växterna ger tillräckligt, minst 600 gram skörd per dygn. Hasselnöt (Corylus avellana),bärhäggmispel (Amelanchier alnifolia), frön från sibirisk ärtbuske (Caragana arborescens) och frönfrån lungrot (Chenopodium bonushenricus) är de mest energitäta och därmed nyckelarterna. Detfinns stort behov av att utveckla beståndet av skogsodlingar för att se ytterligare se potentialen hosperenna växter i Sverige som livsmedelskälla.

  • 32.
    Bazyan Pihl, Saloume
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Andraspråkselevers upplevelser, deras svårigheter och frånvaro i biologi-/naturkunskapsämnet2018Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Sedan början av 1980-talet har Sverige haft Europas största flyktinginvandring per capita. Den ökade invandringen har lett till stor inverkan på den svenska skolan. I varje skola och varje klass sitter några som har utländsk bakgrund och ett annat modersmål än svenska. Därför krävs ändrade förutsättningar i klasserna. Läraren, skolpolitiker och skolledaren behöver diskutera djupare och förbereda nya undervisningsmetoder, förhållningssätt, lämplig pedagogik etc. Det kräver ett tydliggörande av vilka faktorer som är betydelsefulla i språkinlärningen av andraspråkselever och hur lärarna kan anpassa sin undervisning till elevens behov och svårigheter. I denna uppsats granskas problemen för andraspråkselever i undervisningen av biologiämnet på gymnasieskolan. Genom en enkätundersökning lyfts problem och hinder som både lärare och andraspråkselever står inför i undervisningen av biologi-/naturkunskapsämnet. En gynnsam relation med elever, anpassade undervisningmetoder och kravet på ett bedömningssystem som inte bara är baserat på svenska språket, är sådan professionell hjälp som påverkar andraspråkselevers studieframgång. Elevernas svårigheter i biologi-/naturkunskapsämnet, vilket är ett begreppsbaserat ämne, visar hur språkförståelse påverkar elevernas prestation och frånvaro. Biologiämnet innebär både praktiska undersökningar och en teoretisk del. Analysen av resultatet i de två delarna och av resultaten i fråga om elevernas delaktighet, visar att brister i språket begränsar deras studieframgång och ökar andraspråkselevers frånvaro. Dessutom visar analysen att praktiska undersökningar och ett väl planerat grupparbete kan motivera andraspråkselever i utvecklingen av kunskaper och förbättring i skolresultat. Därtill spelar en trygg miljö i skolan och klassrummet en stor roll för att höja intresse och motivation hos andraspråkselever inför vidare studier samt ger en minskning i långvarig frånvaro. Andraspråkselevers framtid, kultur och kunskap är knutna till framtiden för Sverige, och deras aktiviteter kan senare ha både positiv och negativ påverkan på samhället. Brist i språkkunskap utestänger människor med utländsk bakgrund från den svenska arbetsmarknaden. Svårigheten att komma in på arbetsmarknaden leder till att deras barn presterar sämre i skolan och får därmed svårt att komma in på arbetsmarknaden senare. Med hjälp av högre utbildning och utveckling av deras tankar, insikter och kunskaper kan vi skapa ett bättre samhälle, med en blandning av olika kulturer.

  • 33.
    Beckman, Sara
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Naturen som mötesplats2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 34.
    Beijer, Kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Jönsson, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Shaik, Siraz
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Behrens, Daphné
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Azoles additively inhibit cytochrome P450 1 (EROD) and 19 (aromatase) in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss)2018In: Aquatic Toxicology, ISSN 0166-445X, E-ISSN 1879-1514, Vol. 198, p. 73-81Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Antifungal azoles are widely used in medicine, agriculture, and material protection and several antifungal azoles have been found in environmental samples. Although these compounds were designed to inhibit fungal enzymes such as lanosterol-14-demethylase (cytochrome P450 (CYP) 51), it is well established that the inhibitory actions of azoles are not specific for fungal CYP isozymes.

    We refined a gill filament assay to determine the inhibition of CYP1, measured as reduced 7-ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase (EROD) activity, in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) gill tissue ex vivo. The advantage of this method is that both induction and inhibition of EROD are performed ex vivo. Among thirteen azoles studied, the five that caused the strongest inhibition of gill EROD activity at a concentration of 5 μM were selected for concentration–response assessment. These compounds (bifonazole, clotrimazole, imazalil, miconazole, and prochloraz) showed IC50 values ranging from 0.1 to 1.5 μM. CYP19 (aromatase) inhibition was measured using microsomes from rainbow trout brains. Concentration-response curves for CYP19 inhibition were determined for letrozole, bifonazole, clotrimazole, imazalil, miconazole and prochloraz, which gave IC50 values ranging from 0.02 to 3.3 μM. It was further found that mixtures of the five most potent azoles reduced both CYP1 and 19 catalytic activity in an additive fashion (IC50 = 0.7 μM and 0.6 μM, in the respective assay). Bifonazole (IC50 = 0.1 μM) is not previously known to inhibit CYP1 activity.

    The additive inhibition of CYP1 and CYP19 catalytic activity is an important finding of the present study. We conclude that this additive action of azoles could mediate adverse impacts on CYP regulated physiological functions in environmentally exposed fish.

  • 35.
    Beijer, kristina
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Shaik, Siraz
    Berndt, Björlenius
    KTH.
    Lindberg, Richard
    Umeå Universitet.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental toxicology.
    Reduction of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants in sewage treatment effluents by active carbon filtration and ozonation: Evaluation using biomarker responses in fish and chemical analysisManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 36.
    Benlloch, Reyes
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Kim, Min Chul
    Division of Applied Life Science (BK21 Program), Plant Molecular Biology and Biotechnology Research Center, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea.
    Sayou, Camille
    Thevenon, Emmanuel
    CEA, iRTSV, Laboratoire Physiologie Cellulaire et Végétale, F-38054 Grenoble, France.
    Parcy, Francois
    CEA, iRTSV, Laboratoire Physiologie Cellulaire et Végétale, F-38054 Grenoble, France.
    Nilsson, Ove
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Umeå Plant Science Centre (UPSC).
    Integrating long-day flowering signals: a LEAFY binding site is essential for proper photoperiodic activation of APETALA12011In: The Plant Journal, ISSN 0960-7412, E-ISSN 1365-313X, Vol. 67, no 6, p. 1094-1102Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition to flowering in Arabidopsis is characterized by the sharp and localized upregulation of APETALA1 (AP1) transcription in the newly formed floral primordia. Both the flower meristem-identity gene LEAFY (LFY) and the photoperiod pathway involving the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) and FD genes contribute to this upregulation. These pathways have been proposed to act independently but their respective contributions and mode of interaction have remained elusive. To address these questions, we studied the AP1 regulatory region. Combining in vitro and in vivo approaches, we identified which of the three putative LFY binding sites present in the AP1 promoter is essential for its activation by LFY. Interestingly, we found that this site is also important for the correct photoperiodic-dependent upregulation of AP1. In contrast, a previously proposed putative FD-binding site appears dispensable and unable to bind FD and we found no evidence for FD binding to other sites in the AP1 promoter, suggesting that the FT/FD-dependent activation of AP1 might be indirect. Altogether, our data give new insight into the interaction between the FT and LFY pathways in the upregulation of AP1 transcription under long-day conditions.

  • 37. Berg, Andreas
    et al.
    Lindblad, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Molecular Biomimetics.
    Svensson, Bo Håkan
    Cyanobacteria as a source of hydrogen for methane formation2014In: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, ISSN 0959-3993, E-ISSN 1573-0972, Vol. 30, no 2, p. 539-545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a study during the 1970s co-variation of nitrogenase activity and methane formation associated with Sphagnum riparium was observed. This was suggested as evidence for a possible mechanism of hydrogen transfer from cyanobacteria to methanogens. We show experimentally that such a pathway is feasible. In a series of laboratory experiments, using a hydrogenase deficient strain of the heterocystous cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme and the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanospirillum hungateii in co-cultures, increasing light intensities resulted in elevated nitrogenase activity and methane production. The increase in methane production can be directly deduced from the nitrogenase activity of the N. punctiforme based on hydrogen balance calculations. These experimental results clearly suggest the possible existence of a novel photosynthetically regulated pathway for methane formation.

  • 38.
    Berg, Cecilia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    An Amphibian Model for Studies of Developmental Reproductive Toxicity2012In: Developmental Toxicology: Methods and Protocols / [ed] Craig Harris, Jason M Hansen, Humana Press , 2012, p. 73-83Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 39.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brunström, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Müllerian Duct Dysgenesis: a common cause for female reproductive disorders2012In: Toxicology Letters, ISSN 0378-4274, E-ISSN 1879-3169, Vol. 211, no suppl., p. S184-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Lundstedt-Enkel, KatrinUppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.Malmsten, JonasSLU.Persson, SaraSLU.
    Reproductive Disorders in Baltic Vertebrate Wildlife (BALTREP 2011): What is the status of, and the threats to reproductive health in Baltic region wildlife?2011Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
  • 41.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Säfholm, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Progestins: potent endocrine disrupters of the female reproductive system2012In: Abstract book: Part 2, 2012, p. 179-179Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 42.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Säfholm, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet.
    Norder, Anna
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Environmental progestin concentrations disrupt oogenesis in amphibians2012In: Abstract book: part 1, 2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Berg, Cecilia
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Säfholm, Moa
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Jansson, Erika
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Olsson, A. Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Fick, Jerker
    Umeå universitet.
    Brandt, Ingvar
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Organismal Biology, Environmental Toxicology.
    Combined Exposure to Progestin and Estrogen Mixtures: effects on vitellogenin and hormone receptor mRNA expression2012In: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology A, ISSN 1095-6433, E-ISSN 1531-4332, Vol. 163, no suppl., p. S56-S57Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Berg Junker, Maria Constance
    University of Skövde, School of Bioscience.
    Neural correlates of romantic love and romantic attachment2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In the field of neuroscience, being in love and feeling romantically attached to a partner is described as a dynamic process. Romantic love may be viewed as a motivational system, changing throughout time and place, fluctuating on the interest and motivation of the individual. Early memories and attachment towards a caregiver, lay the foundation for later attachment behavior, also known as attachment styles. In this thesis, an exploratory approach is present. The thesis aims to introduce and describe the neural correlates of romantic love and romantic attachment. Brain regions concerned with reward, emotion and thought processing, such as the reward circuitry network of the brain and the limbic system, are being investigated. So are other brain areas involved in romantic love and romantic attachment. Research findings suggest that brain areas responsible for affection, emotional control, learning, memory and social judgment are all involved in the complex processes of being in love and feeling romantically attached. These findings are represented by the involvement of the frontal lobe, cerebral cortex, limbic system, orbitofrontal cortex, and hippocampus, anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), ventral tegmental area (VTA), caudate tail, including the reward pathways of the brain. Distribution and regulation of neurotransmitters such as; vasopressin, oxytocin, dopamine, corticosterone and serotonin are all present in the state of romantic  attachment and romantic love. Overlapping evidence confirms the involvement of the reward circuitry network, together with the limbic system as crucial in the formation and maintenance of a romantic relationship.

  • 45.
    Berggren, Åsa
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013).
    Predatorinducerad fekunditet hos Daphnia pulex vid simulerade årstidsbundna temperaturvariationer2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Female growth, number of eggs and egg growth of Daphnia pulex were studied at four temperatures, 12, 16, 18 and 20°C. I hypothesized that female growth and number of eggs would be lower and the size of the eggs larger in the presence of a predator (kairomones) than in its absence. This effect was expected to be more evident at lower temperatures. I could not find any effect of kairomones on female growth, number of eggs or egg size, although there was a weak tendency for an effect on number of eggs. There was, however, an effect of temperature, regardless of predator treatment (i. e. presence vs absence of kairomones), on number of eggs, where females produced fewer numbers of eggs with increasing temperature. The effect temperature on the number of eggs was not anticipated. Two of the temperatures, 12 and 18°C, were carried out in darkness due to malfunctioning equipment. In addition, for some unknown reason, a high ratio between the number of ephippia and eggs occurred at at16 and 18°C, regardless of predator treatment. These complicating factors (darkness and ephippia) can have had a negative effect on detecting a response by Daphnia to kairomones.

  • 46.
    Berglund, Marie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Science Education and Mathematics.
    Är ute inne?: 15-åriga elevers uppfattningar om uteskola2016Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 47.
    Berglund, Sara
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences.
    Förskolepedagogers tankar om skogen som utbildningsplats2013Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is an interview study with eleven preschool teachers. The purpose with this study has been to find out teachers view on the forest as an educational resource. The result shows that the interviewed consider the forest as an educational resource. With educational resource means that the pedagogs saw the forest as an access in children’s learning process. They use the forest in the learning of science, but also, for example, Swedish and mathematics. Some difficulties were encountered during the interviews; one was the lack of interest and knowledge of science and the forest. The other thing was that many of the children come from war- torn countries which made it difficult to work with the forest as an educational resource. Because these children and their families found the forest as an insecure and dangerous environment.

  • 48.
    Berglund, Åsa
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Responses to reduced industrial metal emissions: An ecotoxicological study on Pied Flycatcher (Ficedula hypoleuca, Aves)2010Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Metals have been used by humans for thousands of years, and this has resulted in increased concentrations in the biosphere. The environment around point-sources, such as mines and smelters, are of particular concern, as metals may accumulate to high concentrations, and potentially reach levels toxic to the local flora and fauna. This thesis focuses on the effects on pied flycatcher populations of two such point-sources, a lead mine and enrichment plant, and a sulfide ore smelter. Mining activities at the lead mine ceased in 2001 and pied flycatcher populations were assessed before and after the closure. At the sulfide ore smelter, pied flycatchers were studied during the 1980s. Since then, the metal emissions to air from the smelter (e.g. arsenic, cadmium, copper, mercury, lead and zinc) have been greatly reduced (by 93 – 99%).

    Pied flycatchers from these two contaminated environments differed in their responses to reduced atmospheric deposition. At the mine site, nestling responses reflected the reduced atmospheric deposition and less lead accumulated in their tissues. However, lead levels were still high enough to cause negative effects on blood status (δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase [ALAD], hemoglobin [Hb], hematocrit [ht], and mean cell hemoglobin concentration) and reproduction (reduced clutch size, increased mortality and reduced breeding success), as was observed when the mine was in operation. Along the pollution gradient away from the smelter, nestling concentrations reflected the metal load in the soil pool, accumulating over time, rather than the atmospheric deposition. This resulted in only a minor response to decreased metal deposition (slightly reduced liver lead concentrations at 3.5 – 90 km from the smelter). This suggests that in environments with highly polluted soils, decreased inputs of atmospheric metal deposition have only minor impacts, and recovery from contamination should not be expected within decades.

    The high metal concentrations in the vicinity of the smelter contributed to poorer blood status (ALAD, Hb and ht), induced oxidative damage and defenses, and decreased reproduction (increased mortality and reduced breeding success). There were only minor improvements in blood and reproductive variables at 3.5 km from the smelter.

  • 49.
    Berglund, Åsa M. M.
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Rainio, Miia J.
    Kanerva, Mirella
    Nikinmaa, Mikko
    Eeva, Tapio
    Antioxidant status in relation to age, condition, reproductive performance and pollution in three passerine species2014In: Journal of Avian Biology, ISSN 0908-8857, E-ISSN 1600-048X, Vol. 45, no 3, p. 235-246Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Oxidative stress has been suggested as a mediator in life-history trade-off. By spending more resources on for example reproduction an organism might sacrifice its antioxidant defence. So far, most conclusions on trade-offs between life-history traits and oxidative stress have been drawn from laboratory studies using a few model species and there is a need for studies conducted in natural settings. We investigated associations between markers for antioxidant status (antioxidant enzyme activities and antioxidant levels), body condition, age and reproduction in three species of wild-living passerines. The impact from an anthropogenic stressor (metal pollution) was also assessed. The three bird species showed interspecific variation in their SOD and CAT activities, indicating different pathways to eliminate radicals. The age of females affected both antioxidant status and the breeding performance, indicating the importance of age as a factor in life-history studies. Old birds had lower levels of antioxidants/antioxidant enzyme activities and they produced larger broods/more successful broods, though the latter might be confounded by surviving females having increased fitness. Metal exposure had a negative impact on breeding, and improved breeding outcome was also associated with increased antioxidant defence, but metal exposure was not directly related to the oxidative status of birds, emphasizing that additional stressors might independently affect the same traits. Our results highlight that caution has to be taken when generalizing and extrapolating results to even closely related species. The results support the idea that there is a cost of reproduction, in terms of increased resources spent on antioxidant defence, though this should be confirmed with experimental studies.

  • 50.
    Bergqvist, Lisette
    Karlstad University.
    Användningen och tolkningen av läroplanen Lgr11 i biologiundervisningen: En undersökning om hur pedagoger omsätter läroplanen i praktiken med fokus på biologiundervisningen för skolåren 4-62017Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how teatchers interpret th curuclium Lgr11and how they translate it into biolodgy teaching. In the study ten teachers where interviewed whit diffrent long term experience in teaching. The intervjuewes where based on diffrent parts of the curiclium which are central content, and knowledge requirments linked to the subject of biology. Qestions where asked about how teachers used the curiclium in theri work and how they interpreted the different formulations. The result showed that educators use the curiclium in their work, but to a different extent. Educators rely either on tradition or on different teaching materials in their planning of teaching, thus giving the curiclium a subordinate role. Many educators expressed difficulties in understanding and interpreting curiclium regulations. it was also found that educators feel unsure wheter they interpreted the curiclium as the national agency for educators aim to. 

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