Two main ore types are found in the Sveconorwegian Orogen in southwestern Sweden (Southwest Scandinavian Domain). One of them comprises stratabound Cu mineralizations in the Dal group, located west of lake Vänern. The other comprises quartz veins with varying precious and base metal contents, distributed over 250 km between lake Mjøsa (southeastern Norway) and lake Vänern. In this thesis, both ore types are discussed, although the main emphasis is on Au-bearing quartz veins, particularly those in the Harnäs area near lake Vänern.
The Dal group is a 2000 m thick sequence of clastic sediments and intercalated mafic volcanic rocks, metamorphosed under greenschist facies conditions. It records deposition mainly in a shallow marine basin, formed during a rift stage preceding the Sveconorwegian orogeny (c. 1.15-0.9 Ga). The volcanic rocks have been subject to various degrees of sodic and/or potassic alteration. Geochemical and Sm-Nd isotopic evidence indicate a continental setting of volcanism. Cu mineralizations (chalcopyrite and bornite) occur at two stratigraphic levels. An ore-genetic model involving synsedimentary (or syndiagenetic) deposition of sulphides from metal-bearing fluids is favoured.
Among Au-bearing quartz veins in the Mjøsa-Vänern ore district, four paragenetic types have been distinguished: Cu-dominated veins with chalcopyrite and/or bornite; Pb-Cu-bearing veins with pyrite, galena and chalcopyrite; Zn-Pb-dominated veins with sphalerite, galena, pyrite and chalcopyrite; Mn-bearing vein(s) with galena, chalcopyrite and hausmannite. In addition, e.g. native gold, argyrodite, hessite, tellurobismuthite and altaite are recognized. The ore lead isotopic composition is complex and metals appear to be derived from a variety of source rocks.
The orthogneisses, which constitute the host rocks to the Harnäs veins and the Brustad Au quartz veins (Eidsvoll, near lake Mjøsa), have been investigated with respect to geochemistry, U-Pb zircon age and feldspar lead isotopic composition. The obtained intrusion age of the Brustad augen gneiss is 1674 ± 10 Ma and this rock is considered to belong to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt. The Harnäs gneiss yielded a protolith age of 1595 +24/-17 Ma and is considered to be a member of the Åmål granitoid suite. Both orthogneisses have undergone ductile deformation during the Sveconorwegian orogeny. A complete isotopic resetting of the feldspar lead through dynamic recrystallization in conjunction with this deformation, at c. 1.0 Ga, has been demonstrated.
The steeply dipping Harnäs veins are hosted in a local left-lateral shear zone, which transects the fabric in the surrounding orthogneisses. The moderate wall rock alteration was mainly sericitic. Fluid inclusions show that the ore-bearing vein system at Harnäs developed essentially in three stages: a quartz stage, a pyrite-gold stage and finally a galena stage. The early ore fluid was CO2-bearing, of low salinity and with a temperature of c. 200 oC, while in the galena stage it was purely aqueous, with a slightly higher salinity and a slightly lower temperature. Oxygen and sulphur isotope results imply a predominantly metamorphic origin for the ore fluid and suggest that the fluid constituents were derived from the regional orthogneisses. Ore lead isotopic compositions indicate metal derivation from these orthogneisses shortly after the Sveconorwegian deformation and resetting of feldspar lead. Subordinate Au-anomalous quartz veins in the Harnäs area as well as the Brustad Au quartz veins show characteristics similar to the Harnäs veins. Despite recognized variations, e.g. in mineralogy, a common origin is envisaged for most veins in the Mjøsa-Vänern ore district. They are characterized as late Proterozoic orogenic type Au deposits, with modern analogues e.g. in the western Alps.