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  • 1. Abbak, Ramazan A.
    et al.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Geoinformatics.
    Ellmann, Artu
    Ustun, Aydin
    A precise gravimetric geoid model in a mountainous area with scarce gravity data: a case study in central Turkey2012In: Studia Geophysica et Geodaetica, ISSN 0039-3169, E-ISSN 1573-1626, Vol. 56, no 4, 909-927 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In mountainous regions with scarce gravity data, gravimetric geoid determination is a difficult task that needs special attention to obtain reliable results satisfying the demands, e.g., of engineering applications. The present study investigates a procedure for combining a suitable global geopotential model and available terrestrial data in order to obtain a precise regional geoid model for Konya Closed Basin (KCB). The KCB is located in the central part of Turkey, where a very limited amount of terrestrial gravity data is available. Various data sources, such as the Turkish digital elevation model with 3 '' x 3 '' resolution, a recently published satellite-only global geopotential model from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment satellite (GRACE) and the ground gravity observations, are combined in the least-squares sense by the modified Stokes' formula. The new gravimetric geoid model is compared with Global Positioning System (GPS)/levelling at the control points, resulting in the Root Mean Square Error (RMS) differences of +/- 6.4 cm and 1.7 ppm in the absolute and relative senses, respectively. This regional geoid model appears to he more accurate than the Earth Gravitational Model 2008, which is the best global model over the target area, with the RMS differences of +/- 8.6 cm and 1.8 ppm in the absolute and relative senses, respectively. These results show that the accuracy of a regional gravimetric model can be augmented by the combination of a global geopotential model and local terrestrial data in mountainous areas even though the quality and resolution of the primary terrestrial data are not satisfactory to the geoid modelling procedure.

  • 2.
    Abdollahzadeh, Makan
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geoinformatik och Geodesi.
    Najafi-Alamdari, Mehdi
    Geodesy, KNToosi Uni. Tech..
    Application of Molodensky's Method for Precise Determination of Geoid in Iran2011In: Journal of Geodetic Science, ISSN 2081-9919, Vol. 1, no 3, 259-270 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determination of the geoid with a high accuracy is a challenging task among geodesists. Its precise determination is usually carried out by combining a global geopotential model with terrestrial gravity anomalies measured in the region of interest along with some topographic information. In this paper, Molodensky's approach is used for precise determination of height anomaly. To do this, optimum combination of global geopotential models with the validated terrestrial surface gravity anomalies and some deterministic modification schemes are investigated. Special attention is paid on the strict modelling of the geoidal height and height anomaly difference. The accuracy of the determined geoid is tested on the 513 points of Iranian height network the geoidal height of which are determined by the GPS observations.

  • 3.
    Abrehdary, M.
    et al.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Sjöberg, L. E.
    Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. Royal Inst Technol KTH, Div Geodesy & Satellite Positioning, S-10044 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Modelling Moho depth in ocean areas based on satellite altimetry using Vening Meinesz-Moritz' method2016In: Acta Geodaetica et Geophysica, ISSN ISSN 2213-5812, EISSN 2213-5820, Vol. 51, no 2, 137-149 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An experiment for estimating Moho depth is carried out based on satellite altimetry and topographic information using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric isostatic hypothesis. In order to investigate the possibility and quality of satellite altimetry in Moho determination, the DNSC08GRA global marine gravity field model and the DTM2006 global topography model are used to obtain a global Moho depth model over the oceans with a resolution of 1 degrees x 1 degrees. The numerical results show that the estimated Bouguer gravity disturbance varies from 86 to 767 mGal, with a global average of 747 mGal, and the estimated Moho depth varies from 3 to 39 km with a global average of 19 km. Comparing the Bouguer gravity disturbance estimated from satellite altimetry and that derived by the gravimetric satellite-only model GOGRA04S shows that the two models agree to 13 mGal in root mean square (RMS). Similarly, the estimated Moho depths from satellite altimetry and GOGRA04S agree to 0.69 km in RMS. It is also concluded that possible mean dynamic topography in the marine gravity model does not significantly affect the Moho determination.

  • 4.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Combined Moho parameters determination using CRUST1.0 and Vening Meinesz-Moritz model2015In: Journal of Earth Science, ISSN 1674-487X, E-ISSN 1867-111X, Vol. 26, no 4, 607-616 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    According to Vening Meinesz-Moritz (VMM) global inverse isostatic problem, either the Moho density contrast (crust-mantle density contrast) or the Moho geometry can be estimated by solving a non-linear Fredholm integral equation of the first kind. Here solutions to the two Moho parameters are presented by combining the global geopotential model (GOCO-03S), topography (DTM2006) and a seismic crust model, the latter being the recent digital global crustal model (CRUST1.0) with a resolution of 1A(0)x1A(0). The numerical results show that the estimated Moho density contrast varies from 21 to 637 kg/m(3), with a global average of 321 kg/m(3), and the estimated Moho depth varies from 6 to 86 km with a global average of 24 km. Comparing the Moho density contrasts estimated using our leastsquares method and those derived by the CRUST1.0, CRUST2.0, and PREM models shows that our estimate agrees fairly well with CRUST1.0 model and rather poor with other models. The estimated Moho depths by our least-squares method and the CRUST1.0 model agree to 4.8 km in RMS and with the GEMMA1.0 based model to 6.3 km.

  • 5.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    KTH, School of Architecture and the Built Environment (ABE), Urban Planning and Environment, Geodesy and Satellite Positioning.
    The spherical terrain correction and its effect on the gravimetric-isostatic Moho determination2016In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 204, no 1, 262-273 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Moho depth is estimated based on the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and DTM2006 topographic data using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric-isostatic hypothesis. In this context, we compute the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances in a set of 1 degrees x 1 degrees blocks. The spherical terrain correction, a residual correction to each Bouguer shell, is computed using rock heights and ice sheet thicknesses from the DTM2006 and Earth2014 models. The study illustrates that the defined simple Bouguer gravity disturbance corrected for the density variations of the oceans, ice sheets and sediment basins and also the non-isostatic effects needs a significant terrain correction to become the refined Bouguer gravity disturbance, and that the isostatic gravity disturbance is significantly better defined by the latter disturbance plus a compensation attraction. Our study shows that despite the fact that the lateral variation of the crustal depth is rather smooth, the terrain affects the result most significantly in many areas. The global numerical results show that the estimated Moho depths by the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances and the seismic CRUST1.0 model agree to 5.6 and 2.7 km in RMS, respectively. Also, the mean value differences are 1.7 and 0.2 km, respectively. Two regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between the Moho depths estimated based on the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and that using CRUST1.0 model yield fits of 4.9 and 3.2 km in South America and yield 3.2 and 3.4 km in Fennoscandia, respectively.

  • 6.
    Abrehdary, Majid
    et al.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Lars E.
    Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Industrial Development, IT and Land Management, Land management, GIS. Division of Geodesy and Satellite Positioning, Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm, Sweden.
    The spherical terrain correction and its effect on the gravimetric-isostatic Moho determination2016In: International Journal of Geophysics, ISSN 1687-885X, E-ISSN 1687-8868, Vol. 204, no 1, 262-273 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, the Moho depth is estimated based on the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and DTM2006 topographic data using the Vening Meinesz-Moritz gravimetric-isostatic hypothesis. In this context, we compute the refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances in a set of 1° × 1° blocks. The spherical terrain correction, a residual correction to each Bouguer shell, is computed using rock heights and ice sheet thicknesses from the DTM2006 and Earth2014 models. The study illustrates that the defined simple Bouguer gravity disturbance corrected for the density variations of the oceans, ice sheets and sediment basins and also the non-isostatic effects needs a significant terrain correction to become the refined Bouguer gravity disturbance, and that the isostatic gravity disturbance is significantly better defined by the latter disturbance plus a compensation attraction. Our study shows that despite the fact that the lateral variation of the crustal depth is rather smooth, the terrain affects the result most significantly in many areas. The global numerical results show that the estimated Moho depths by the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbances and the seismic CRUST1.0 model agree to 5.6 and 2.7 km in RMS, respectively. Also, the mean value differences are 1.7 and 0.2 km, respectively. Two regional numerical studies show that the RMS differences between the Moho depths estimated based on the simple and refined spherical Bouguer gravity disturbance and that using CRUST1.0 model yield fits of 4.9 and 3.2 km in South America and yield 3.2 and 3.4 km in Fennoscandia, respectively.

  • 7.
    Abtahi, Sayyed Mohammad
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Airborne Gravity Gradient, Magnetic and VLF datasets: Case studies of modelling, inversion and interpretation2016Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Northern Sweden is one of the largest hosts for mineral resources in Europe and always has been an interesting area for researchers from various disciplines of Earth sciences. This dissertation is a comprehensive summary of three case study papers on airborne VLF, gravity gradient and magnetic data in the area.

    In the first paper, tensor VLF data is extracted from an old data set which contains only the total and the vertical magnetic components. The anomalous part of the horizontal magnetic field components is computed by a Hilbert transform of the vertical magnetic field. The normal part of the horizontal magnetic field component is computed as a function of total, vertical and anomalous part of horizontal magnetic fields. The electric field is also calculated for TE mode and impedance tensor and apparent resistivity are computed. In addition tippers are calculated for two transmitters and inverted by a 3D inversion algorithm. Comparison of the estimated model and geology map of bedrock shows that lower resistivity zones are correlated with mineralizations.

    The second paper deals with the internal consistency of airborne gravity gradient data. The six components of the data are estimated from a common potential function. It is shown that the data is adequately consistent but at shorter land clearances the difference between the estimated data and the original data is larger. The technique is also used for computing the Bouguer anomaly from terrain corrected FTG data. Finally the data is inverted in 3D, which shows that the estimated density model in shallow depth is dominated by short wave length features.

    Inversion of TMI data is the topic of the third paper where a new type of reference model for 3D inversion of magnetic data is proposed by vertically extending the estimated magnetization of a 2D terrain magnetization model. The final estimated 3D result is compared with the magnetization model where no reference model is used. The comparison shows that using the reference model helps the high magnetization zones in the estimated model at shallow depths to be better correlated with measured high remanent magnetization from rock samples. The high magnetization zones are also correlated with gabbros and volcanic metasediments.

  • 8.
    Abtahi, Sayyed Mohammad
    et al.
    Uppsala University.
    Pedersen, Laust
    Kamm, Jochen
    Kalscheuer, Thomas
    A new reference model for 3D inversion of airborne magnetic data in hilly terrain – a case study from northern SwedenArticle in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Abtahi, Sayyed Mohammad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics. Isfahan Univ Technol, Dept Min Engn, Esfahan, Iran.
    Pedersen, Laust
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Kamm, Jochen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Kalscheuer, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Consistency investigation, vertical gravity estimation and inversion of airborne gravity gradient data – A case study from northern Sweden2016In: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 81, no 3, B65-B76 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For airborne gravity gradient data, it is a challenge to distinguish between high-frequency intrinsic and dynamically produced noise caused by the aircraft and small-scale effects from shallow density variations. To facilitate consistent interpretation, techniques that include all of the measured gravity gradient components are particularly promising. We represented the measurements by a common potential function accounting for lateral and height variations. Thus, it was possible to evaluate the internal consistency between the measured components and to identify components with bias or particularly strong noise. As an extra benefit for data sets that contain terrain-corrected and nonterrain-corrected gravity gradient measurements at flight altitude, we estimated terrain-corrected anomalies on the topographic relief using downward continuation and retrieved nonterrain-corrected gravity gradient data suitable for inversion using upward continuation. For a field data set from northern Sweden, the largest differences (up to 50 eotvos) between the measured and estimated components of the gravity gradient data were found in areas of high topographical relief. But the average residual standard deviations of the individual components were between 3.6 and 7.4 eotvos, indicating that the components were consistent in an average sense. We have determined the successful conversion of terrain-corrected airborne gravity gradient data to Bouguer gravity data on the topographic relief using ground-based vertical gravity data as a reference. A 3D inverse model computed from the nonterrain-corrected data clearly showed the depth extent of the geologic structures observed at the surface, but it only produced a weak representation of the shallow structure. In contrast, a 2D surface density model in which only lateral variations of density in the topographic relief was allowed exhibited more realistic density distributions in fair correlation with geology.

  • 10.
    Abtahi, Sayyed Mohammad
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics. Isfahan Univ Technol, Dept Min Engn, Esfahan, Iran.
    Pedersen, Laust
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Kamm, Jochen
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics. Univ Munster, Dept Geophys, Munster, Germany.
    Kalscheuer, Thomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Extracting geoelectrical maps from vintage very-low-frequency airborne data, tipper inversion, and interpretation: A case study from northern Sweden2016In: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, E-ISSN 1942-2156, Vol. 81, no 5, B135-B147 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In 1985, the mining company Luossavaara-Kiirunavaara Aktiebolag collected airborne very-low-frequency (VLF) data in northern Sweden. The operators stored only the vertical component and the total magnetic field, which at that time were believed to be sufficient for qualitative interpretation. Therefore, the data could not be directly used for quantitative tensor VLF processing and inversion. To avoid the costs of resurveying, we have developed a novel technique to estimate the tippers from the measured VLF data by computing anomalous and normal parts of the horizontal components of the magnetic field from two transmitters separately. Retrieval of the normal horizontal components was possible because one component of the horizontal magnetic field was used as the phase reference during the measurements. Additionally, we have determined how the approximate apparent resistivity suitable for data visualization can be computed from the components of the magnetic field assuming an average normal resistivity of the subsurface. Maps of apparent resistivity combined with topography show a clear correlation between high topography and high resistivity, whereas conductive zones are found in valleys in between. More importantly, the 3D model inverted from the calculated tippers shows excellent agreement with a map of the surface geology. Based on this comparison, some less resistive zones can be related to fluids in fractures and others can be related to mineralized contact zones. We suggest to focus further exploration on conductive zones surrounding areas with basaltic composition.

  • 11.
    Acton, Gary
    et al.
    University of California, Davis.
    et al., incl. Jan Backman,
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geology and Geochemistry.
    Magnetostratigraphic and Cyclostratigraphic Records from Eocene-Miocene Sediments Cored in the Paleoequatorial Pacific: Initial Results from IODP Expedition 3202009Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Sediments from the paleoequatorial Pacific record the paleomagnetic field with high-fidelity and contain cyclic variations in chemical and physical properties that can be astronomically tuned, as has been shown from past Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) and Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) cruises, e.g., Legs 85, 138, 198, and 199. In an effort to fill gaps from past coring and to construct complete stratigraphic sections spanning the Cenozoic, Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expeditions 320 and 321 cored sediments along a Pacific Equatorial Age Transect (PEAT) earlier this year. A total of 23 holes at 8 Sites (Sites U1331 through U1338) were cored, recovering 6,141 m of sediment (Preliminary Reports are available at http://iodp.tamu.edu/publications/PR.html). Initial paleomagnetic results from Expedition 320 include measurements at 56,222 intervals along ~2000 split-core sections, as well as detailed progressive alternating field (AF) and thermal demagnetization of over 400 discrete samples (7 cm3 cubes). The cleaned paleomagnetic data were characterized by shallow inclinations, consistent with the sites being near the paleoequator, and by 180° alternations in declination downhole, reflecting magnetic polarity zones. The resulting magnetostratigraphies, which are used to develop initial age models for the drill sites, yield 803 dates ranging from 51.743 Ma (the base of Chron 23n.2n at Site 1331) to the present (Chron C1n; 0 to 0.783 Ma at Site U1335). In addition, 83 short polarity intervals were observed that might correspond to cryptochrons or geomagnetic excursions. We will discuss initial efforts to further resolve the PEAT magnetostratigraphies and to integrate them with bio-, chemo-, and cyclo- stratigraphies from the equatorial Pacific and elsewhere in order to improve and extend astronomical calibration of the geologic timescale.

  • 12.
    Adamaki, Angeliki K.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Roberts, Roland G.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Precursory Activity Before Larger Events in Greece Revealed by Aggregated Seismicity Data2017In: Pure and Applied Geophysics, ISSN 0033-4553, E-ISSN 1420-9136, Vol. 174, no 3, 1331-1343 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate the seismicity rate behaviour in and around Greece during 2009, seeking significant changes in rate preceding larger events. For individual larger events it is difficult to clearly distinguish precursory rate changes from other, possibly unrelated, variations in seismicity. However, when we aggregate seismicity data occurring within a radius of 10 km and in a 50-day window prior to earthquakes with, e. g. magnitude C3.5, the resulting aggregated time series show a clearly increasing trend starting 2-3 weeks prior to the "mainshock'' time. We apply statistical tests to investigate if the observed behaviour may be simply consistent with random (poissonian) variations, or, as some earlier studies suggest, with clustering in the sense that high activity rates at some time may imply increased rates later, and thus (randomly) greater probability of larger coming events than for periods of lower seismicity. In this case, rate increases have little useful predictive power. Using data from the entire catalogue, the aggregated rate changes before larger events are clearly and strongly statistically significant and cannot be explained by such clustering. To test this we choose events at random from the catalogue as potential "mainshocks''. The events preceding the randomly chosen earthquakes show less pronounced rate increases compared to the observed rate changes prior to larger events. Similar behaviour is observed in data sub-sets. However, statistical confidence decreases for geographical subsets containing few "mainshocks'' as it does when data are weighted such that "mainshocks'' with many preceding events are strongly downweighted relative to those with fewer. The analyses suggest that genuine changes in aggregated rate do occur prior to larger events and that this behaviour is not due to a small number of mainshocks with many preceding events dominating the analysis. It does not automatically follow that it will be possible to routinely observe precursory changes prior to individual larger events, but there is a possibility that this may be feasible, e. g. with better data from more sensitive networks.

  • 13.
    Adamaki, Angeliki
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Roberts, Roland
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    EVIDENCE OF PRECURSORY PATTERNS IN AGGREGATED TIME SERIES2016In: Bulletin of the Geological Society of Greece, vol. L, 2016, Proceedings of the 14th Intern. Congress, Thessaloniki, May 2016, 2016, Vol. 50Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We investigate temporal changes in seismic activity observed in the West Corinth Gulfand North-West Peloponnese during 2008 to 2010. Two major earthquake sequencestook place in the area at that time (in 2008 and 2010). Our aim is to analyse Greekseismicity to attempt to confirm the existence or non-existence of seismic precursorsprior to the strongest earthquakes. Perhaps because the area is geologically andtectonically complex, we found that it was not possible to fit the data well using aconsistent Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. Nor could weunambiguously identify foreshocks to individual mainshocks. Therefore we soughtpatterns in aggregated foreshock catalogues. We set a magnitude threshold (M3.5)above which all the earthquakes detected in the study area are considered as“mainshocks”, and we combined all data preceding these into a single foreshockcatalogue. This reveals an increase in seismicity rate not robustly observable forindividual cases. The observed effect is significantly greater than that consistent withstochastic models, including ETAS, thus indicating genuine foreshock activity withpotential useful precursory power, if sufficient data is available, i.e. if the magnitudeof completeness is sufficiently low.

  • 14. Adamczyk, A.
    et al.
    Malinowski, M.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    High-resolution near-surface velocity model building using full-waveform inversion-a case study from southwest Sweden2014In: Geophysical Journal International, ISSN 0956-540X, E-ISSN 1365-246X, Vol. 197, no 3, 1693-1704 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full-waveform inversion (FWI) is an iterative optimization technique that provides high-resolution models of subsurface properties. Frequency-domain, acoustic FWI was applied to seismic data acquired over a known quick-clay landslide scar in southwest Sweden. We inverted data from three 2-D seismic profiles, 261-572 m long, two of them shot with small charges of dynamite and one with a sledgehammer. To our best knowledge this is the first published application of FWI to sledgehammer data. Both sources provided data suitable for waveform inversion, the sledgehammer data containing even wider frequency spectrum. Inversion was performed for frequency groups between 27.5 and 43.1 Hz for the explosive data and 27.5-51.0 Hz for the sledgehammer. The lowest inverted frequency was limited by the resonance frequency of the standard 28-Hz geophones used in the survey. High-velocity granitic bedrock in the area is undulated and very shallow (15-100 m below the surface), and exhibits a large P-wave velocity contrast to the overlying normally consolidated sediments. In order to mitigate the non-linearity of the inverse problem we designed a multiscale layer-stripping inversion strategy. Obtained P-wave velocity models allowed to delineate the top of the bedrock and revealed distinct layers within the overlying sediments of clays and coarse-grained materials. Models were verified in an extensive set of validating procedures and used for pre-stack depth migration, which confirmed their robustness.

  • 15.
    Adamczyk, Anna
    et al.
    Institute of Geophysics - Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Malinowski, Michal
    Institute of Geophysics - Polish Academy of Sciences.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Delineating shallow quick-clay structures using acoustic full-waveform inversion – case studyfrom southwest Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Full waveform inversion (FWI) was applied to imageshallow structures of marine-clay sediments and to provideinsight on the mechanism of a quick-clay landslide. Thedata was acquired in a high-resolution seismic surveyconducted over a known landslide scar near the Göta riverin southwest Sweden. Inversion proved to be challengingbecause of contrasted P-wave velocity structure – thevelocities ranged from 500 m/s in weathered top layer to6000 m/s in the shallow granitic bedrock (up to 30 m belowthe surface). FWI applied to 3 profiles provided highresolution2D P-wave velocity models revealing theintercalating layers of clays and coarse-grain material andthe shape of the bedrock. The multiscale approach was usedto mitigate the strong nonlinearity of the inverse problem.The models were used in pre-stack depth migration andproved significant improvement in reflector flattening andfocusing over the starting first-arrival traveltimetomography models.

  • 16.
    Afsar, Fatima
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF 2D/3D SEISMIC DATA OVER DHURNAL OIL FIELD, NORTHERN PAKISTAN2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The study area, Dhurnal oil field, is located 74 km southwest of Islamabad in the Potwar basin of Pakistan. Discovered in March 1984, the field was developed with four producing wells and three water injection wells. Three main limestone reservoirs of Eocene and Paleocene ages are present in this field. These limestone reservoirs are tectonically fractured and all the production is derived from these fractures. The overlying claystone formation of Miocene age provides vertical and lateral seal to the Paleocene and Permian carbonates. The field started production in May 1984, reaching a maximum rate of 19370 BOPD in November 1989. Currently Dhurnal‐1 (D-1) and Dhurnal‐6 (D-6) wells are producing 135 BOPD and 0.65 MMCF/D gas. The field has depleted after producing over 50 million Bbls of oil and 130 BCF of gas from naturally fractured low energy shelf carbonates of the Eocene, Paleocene and Permian reservoirs. Preliminary geological and geophysical data evaluation of Dhurnal field revealed the presence of an up-dip anticlinal structure between D-1 and D-6 wells, seen on new 2003 reprocessed data. However, this structural impression is not observed on old 1987 processed data. The aim of this research is to compare and evaluate old and new reprocessed data in order to identify possible factors affecting the structural configuration. For this purpose, a detailed interpretation of old and new reprocessed data is carried out and results clearly demonstrate that structural compartmentalization exists in Dhurnal field (based on 2003 data). Therefore, to further analyse the available data sets, processing sequences pertaining to both vintages have been examined. After great effort and detailed investigation, it is concluded that the major parameter giving rise to this data discrepancy is the velocity analysis done with different gridding intervals. The detailed and dense velocity analysis carried out on the data in 2003 was able to image the subtle anticlinal feature, which was missed on the 1987 processed seismic data due to sparse gridding. In addition to this, about 105 sq.km 3D seismic data recently (2009) acquired by Ocean Pakistan Limited (OPL) is also interpreted in this project to gain greater confidence on the results. The 3D geophysical interpretation confirmed the findings and aided in accurately mapping the remaining hydrocarbon potential of Dhurnal field.

  • 17. Agapitov, Oleksiy
    et al.
    Krasnoselskikh, Vladimir
    Khotyaintsev, Yuri V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Swedish Institute of Space Physics, Uppsala Division.
    Rolland, Guy
    A statistical study of the propagation characteristics of whistler waves observed by Cluster2011In: Geophysical Research Letters, ISSN 0094-8276, Vol. 38, L20103- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    VLF waves play a crucial role in the dynamics of radiation belts, and are responsible for the loss and the acceleration of energetic electrons. Modeling wave-particle interactions requires the best possible knowledge for how wave energy and wave-normal directions are distributed in L-shells and for the magnetic latitudes of different magnetic activity conditions. In this work, we performed a statistical study for VLF emissions using a whistler frequency range for nine years (2001-2009) of Cluster measurements. We utilized data from the STAFF-SA experiment, which spans the frequency range from 8.8 Hz to 3.56 kHz. We show that the wave energy distribution has two maxima around L similar to 4.5 = 6 and L similar to 2, and that wave-normals are directed approximately along the magnetic field in the vicinity of the geomagnetic equator. The distribution changes with magnetic latitude, and so that at latitudes of similar to 30 degrees, wave-normals become nearly perpendicular to the magnetic field. The observed angular distribution is significantly different from Gaussian and the width of the distribution increases with latitude. Since the resonance condition for wave-particle interactions depends on the wave normal orientation, our results indicate that, due to the observed change in the wave-normal direction with latitude, the most efficient particle diffusion due to wave-particle interaction should occur in a limited region surrounding the geomagnetic equator.

  • 18.
    Agustsson, Kristjan
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Kristjansdottir, Sigridur
    Flovenz, Olafur G
    Gudmundsson, Olafur
    Induced Seismic Activity during Drilling of Injection Wells at the Hellisheiði Power Plant, SW Iceland.2015In: Induced Seismic Activity during Drilling of Injection Wells at the Hellisheiði Power Plant, SW Iceland., 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Application of the Seismic Reflection Method in Mineral Exploration and Crustal Imaging: Contributions to Hardrock Seismic Imaging2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The seismic reflection method has been used extensively in mineral exploration and for imaging crustal structures within hardrock environments. In this research the seismic reflection method has been used and studied to address problems associated with hardrock settings. Papers I and II, address delineating and imaging a sulfide ore body and its surrounding rocks and structures in Garpenberg, central Sweden, at an active mine. 3D ray-tracing and finite-difference modeling were performed and the results suggest that although the detection of the ore body by the seismic reflection method is possible in the area, the presence of backfilled stopes in the mine makes seismic imaging of it difficult. In paper III the deeper structures of the Pärvie fault system in northern Sweden were revealed down to about 8 km through 2D seismic reflection profiling. The resulting images were interpreted using microearthquake data as a constraint. Based on the interpretation, some locations were suggested for future scientific deep drilling into the fault system. In paper IV, the seismic signature of complex geological structures of the Cue-Weld Range area in Western Australia was studied using a portion of a deep 2D seismic reflection profile. The pronounced reflections on the seismic images were correlated to their corresponding rock units on an available surface geological map of the study area. 3D constant velocity ray-tracing was performed to constrain the interpretation. Furthermore, the proposed structural model was tested using a 2D acoustic finite-difference seismic modeling method. Based on this study, a new 3D structural model was proposed for the subsurface of the area. These studies have investigated the capability of the seismic reflection method for imaging crustal structures within challenging hardrock and complex geological settings and show some its potential, but also its limitations.

  • 20.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Hedin, Peter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    3D Seismic Interpretation and Forward Modeling: an approach to providing reliable results from 2D seismic data2013In: Proceedings of the 12th Biennial Meeting: Mineral Deposit Research for a High-Tech World / [ed] Johnson, E., 2013, Vol. 1-4, 50-53 p.Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Accurate 3D interpretations is challenging when only 2D seismic reflection data are available. This can be compensated for by using additional data. Here we present two case studies where 2D seismic reflection data have been used in combination with geological/geophysical data to create and verify 3D interpretations of specific structures targeted for scientific deep drilling and mining. In the first case, a surface geological map and high resolution 2D seismic reflection data were used to create a 3D lithological model of the subsurface structures in an area around a scientific deep drilling site. This model was also compared to results from constrained 3D inverse modeling of gravity data. In the second case, seismic forward ray-trace modeling was used to delineate a massive sulfide ore body by using high resolution 2D seismic reflection data. By comparison of the generated synthetic data with the real data, it was found that the top of the ore body was detected.

  • 21.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    The effect of the backfilled stopes on seismic imaging of a sulfide deposit in Garpenberg, central Sweden2015Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 22.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Seismic Forward Modeling of a Poly-metallic Massive sulfide Deposit at Garpenberg, Central Sweden2013In: 75th EAGE Conference & Exhibition incorporating SPE EUROPEC 2013, 2013Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 23.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Ask, Maria
    Lund, Björn
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Revealing the deeper structure of the end-glacial Parvie fault system in northern Sweden by seismic reflection profiling2015In: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 6, no 2, 621-632 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new seismic reflection survey for imaging deeper levels of the end-glacial Parvie fault system in northern Sweden was acquired in June 2014. The Parvie fault system hosts the largest fault scarp so far documented in northern Scandinavia, both in terms of its length and calculated magnitude of the earthquake that generated it. Present-day microearthquakes occur along the length of the fault scarp on the eastern side of the scarp, in general agreement with an east-dipping main fault. In the central section of the fault system, where there is a number of subsidiary faults east of the main Parvie scarp, it has been unclear how the earthquakes relate to the structures mapped at the surface. A seismic profile across the Parvie fault system acquired in 2007, with a mechanical hammer as a source, showed a good correlation between the surface mapped faults and moderate to steeply dipping reflections. The most pronounced reflectors could be mapped to about 3 km depth. In the new seismic survey, for deeper penetration an explosive source with a maximum charge size of 8.34 kg in 20 m deep shot holes was used. Reflectors can now be traced to deeper levels with the main 65A degrees east-dipping fault interpreted as a weakly reflective structure. As in the previous profile, there is a strongly reflective 60A degrees west-dipping structure present to the east of the main fault that can now be mapped to about 8 km depth. Extrapolations of the main and subsidiary faults converge at a depth of about 11.5 km, where current earthquake activity is concentrated, suggesting their intersection has created favorable conditions for seismic stress release. Based on the present and previous seismic reflection data, we propose potential locations for future boreholes for scientific drilling into the fault system. These boreholes will provide a better understanding of the reflective nature of the fault structures and stress fields along the faults at depth.

  • 24.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Gessner, Klaus
    New Insights from Seismic Imaging Over the Youanmi Terrane, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia2014In: Energy Procedia, Vol. 59, 113-119 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 25.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Munck, Mie
    Boliden Mines.
    High-resolution 2D seismic imaging and forward modeling of a polymetallic sulfide deposit at Garpenberg, central Sweden2013In: Geophysics, ISSN 0016-8033, Vol. 78, no 6, B339-B350 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We acquired a high-resolution 2D seismic profile to test the capability of the seismic method in imaging a sulfide ore body at Garpenberg, central Sweden. Delineation of the geologic structures, which surround and host the ore body, is another goal of the survey. Due to the 3D geology of the structures, a cross-dip correction performed to image out-of-the-plane reflections, resulting in a clear high amplitude anomaly at a time and location to that to be expected from near the top of the ore body. Furthermore, DMO processing and migration are applied to the data, providing images of four main reflection groups. The reflections have been interpreted as corresponding to geologic rock units in the area that partly interfere with the potential ore body signal. To further investigate the seismic response of the ore body, forward modeling by ray-tracing is applied using the ore body geometry as mapped by drilling. We use two ray-tracing approaches: standard 3D ray-tracing and an exploding reflector approach. Seven representative samples from the mine area are used to determine P-wave velocities. The measurements show a considerable contrast between the ore body and host rock. By comparing the modeled and observed data, we find that the high amplitude signal in the real seismic section most likely emanates from near the top of one concentrated ore which lies inside the larger mapped ore body that has been modeled as a resource. The base of the ore body is only observed on the synthetic data whereas a signal penetration analysis suggests that the seismic signal penetrated efficiently along the entire survey line. Presence of disseminated ore and lower fold toward the northern end of the profile could be combined reasons that make imaging the base of the ore body difficult.

  • 26.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Koyi, Hemin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Gessner, Klaus
    Geol Survey Western Australia, 100 Plain St, East Perth, WA 6004, Australia.
    Seismic signatures of complex geological structures in the Cue-Weld range area, Murchison domain, Yilgarn Craton, Western Australia2016In: Tectonophysics, Vol. 689, 56-66 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Murchison domain forms the northwest part of the Youanmi Terrane, a tectonic unit within the Neoarchean Yilgarn Craton in Western Australia. In the Cue-Weld Range area the Murchison domain has experienced a complex magmatic and deformation history that resulted in a transposed array of greenstone belts that host significant iron, gold, and base metal deposits. In this study, we interpret the upper 2 s (about 6 km) of a deep crustal seismic profile TOGA-YU1, near the town of Cue, and correlate rock units and structures in outcrop with corresponding reflections. We performed 3D constant velocity ray-tracing and calculate the corresponding travel times for the reflectionsfor time domain pre-stack and post-stack seismic data. This allows us to link shallow reflections with mafic volcanic rocks of the Glen Group and basaltic rocks of the Polelle Group in outcrop. Based on our interpretation and published geological maps and data, we propose a model in which the local stratigraphy represents a refolded thrust system. To test our hypothesis, we applied 2D acoustic finite difference forward modeling. The corresponding synthetic data were processed in the same way as the acquired data. Comparisons between the acquired and the synthetic data show that the model is consistent with observations. We propose a new model for the subsurface of the Cue-Weld Range area and argue that some of the lithologies in the area are repeated structurally at different levels. Our approach highlights the benefit of imaging and modeling of deep seismic transects to resolve local structural complexity in Archean granite-greenstone terrains.

  • 27.
    Ahmadi, Omid
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    3D Seismic Waveform Modeling of an Ore Body within a Stochastic Heterogeneous Medium2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Shallow mineral deposits of giant sizes are rapidly mined out and thus to sustain mining and help the economic growth, there is a tendency to explore deeper deposits. Most economic size mineral deposits are hosted within a complex and heterogeneous medium affected by various stages of deformation and metamorphism. Therefore, to understand their seismic responses, 3D heterogeneous modeling of various scale lengths should be considered. Here we present an algorithm that allows to build a model with various degrees of heterogeneity and structural anisotropy for the medium and use that to study a 6 Mt massive sulfide deposit at about 1 km depth. The seismic response was simulated using a 3D acoustic finite-difference method. Wavefield records through the model show imaging of the ore body in the presence of a high-degree of structural anisotropy/heterogeneity is difficult, but the associated amplitude anomaly appeared as diffraction can be detected within the 3D recorded wavefields and likely possible to be imaged using high-fold seismic data. The recorded wavefield however suggests some asymmetric pattern for the diffraction due to the high-degree of structural anisotropy introduced and hence care must be taken when processing and locating these deposits within highly preferentially-oriented heterogeneous medium.  

  • 28.
    Ahmadi, Pouya
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Elastic Anisotropy of Deformation Zones in both Seismic and Ultrasonic Frequencies: An Example from the Bergslagen Region, Eastern Sweden2013Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 80 credits / 120 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of elastic anisotropy, which is usually caused by rock fabrics and mineral orientation, has an important role in exploration seismology and better understanding of crustal seismic reflections. If not properly taken care of during processing steps, it may lead to wrong interpretation or distorted seismic image. In this thesis, a state-of-the-art under the development Laser Doppler Interferometer (LDI) device is used to measure phase velocities on the surface of rock samples from a major deformation zone (Österbybruk Deformation Zone) in the Bergslagen region of eastern Sweden. Then, a general inversion code is deployed to invert measured phase velocities to obtain full elastic stiffness tensors of two samples from the major deformation zone in the study area. At the end, results are used to correct for the anisotropy effects using three dimensionless Tsvankin's parameters and a non-hyperbolic moveout equation. The resulting stacked section shows partial reflection improvement of the deformation zone compared with the isotropic processing section. This suggests that rock anisotropy may also contribute to the generation of reflections from the deformation zones in the study area but requires further investigations.

  • 29.
    Ahmadi, Pouya
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Elastic Anisotropy of Deformation Zones: From Lab Measurements to Real Seismic Data, an Example from Eastern Sweden2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of elastic anisotropy, which is usually caused by rock fabrics and mineral orientation, has animportant role in exploration seismics and better understanding of crustal seismic reflections. If notproperly taken care of during processing steps, it may lead to wrong interpretation or distorted seismicimage. In this paper, a state-of-the-art under development Laser Doppler Interferometer (LDI) device isused to measure anisotropy of rock samples from a major deformation zone in the Bergslagen region ineastern Sweden. Results are then used to correct for the anisotropy effects using a non-hyperbolic moveoutequation. The resulting stacked section shows partial improvement of the deformation zone compared withthe isotropic processing section. This suggests that rock anisotropy may also contribute to generation ofreflections from the deformation zones in the study area but requires further investigations.

  • 30.
    Ahmadi, Pouya
    et al.
    Curtin University, Australia.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Laser Doppler Interferometry (LDI) to obtain full stiffness tensor: A case study on a deformation zone in Sweden2015Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Estimation of elastic anisotropy, which is usually caused by rock fabrics and mineral orientations, has an important role in exploration seismology and a better understanding of crustal seismic reflections. If not properly taken care of during data processing steps, it leads to wrong interpretation and/or distorted seismic image. In this work, a state-of-the-art under the development Laser Doppler Interferometer (LDI) device is used to measure phase velocities on the surface of rock samples from a major poly-phase crustal scale deformation zone (Österbybruk Deformation Zone) in the Bergslagen region of eastern Sweden. Then, a general inversion code is deployed to invert the measured phase velocities to obtain full elastic stiffness tensors of two samples from the deformation zone. At the end, results are used to correct for the anisotropy effects using three dimensionless Tsvankin's parameters and a non-hyperbolic moveout equation. The resulting stacked section shows partial reflection improvement of the deformation zone compared with the traditional isotropic processing approach. This illustrates that rock anisotropy contributes to the generation of the reflections from the deformation zones in the study area although they do not show significant density contrast with their surrounding rocks.

  • 31.
    Ahokangas, E.
    et al.
    University of Turku.
    Maries, Georgiana
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Mäkinen, J.
    University of Turku.
    Pasanen, A.
    Geological Survey of Finland (GTK).
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Seismic Imaging of Esker Sediments within the Satakunta Sandstone Depression in Köyliö, SW Finland2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Satakunta sandstone depression infilled by the Pori-Koski interlobate esker sediments hosts a major high-quality groundwater reservoir in Köyliö, SW Finland. These up to 100 m thick sediments were delineated for the first time down to bedrock level by high-resolution reflection seismic method using a newly developed landstreamer consisting of 80-3C MEMs (micro electro mechanical) broadband sensors together with 50 wireless recorders connected to 10 Hz geophones to obtain greater depth penetrations. The 5-day survey resulted in about 5 km long seismic data (2-4 m receiver and shot spacing) and two profiles. Indications of crystalline basement are lacking in the tomography sections, implying that the (fractured) Rapakivi granite area extends further southeast than expected. The sandstone contact position was also ca. 500 m further to the east than expected. The sandstone depression and infilling esker sediments and the bedrock level were shown with good accuracy in both tomographic model and the reflection section. The hydraulically conductive esker core does not follow the sandstone contact and is underlain by older sediments. This case study illustrates the capability of high-resolution seismic surveys with the parameters used in this study for hydrogeological investigations and in particular in thick glacial sediments.

  • 32. Aikio, A. T.
    et al.
    Mursula, K.
    Buchert, S.
    Forme, F.
    Amm, O.
    Marklund, Göran T.
    KTH, Superseded Departments, Alfvén Laboratory.
    Dunlop, M.
    Fontaine, D.
    Vaivads, A.
    Fazakerley, A.
    Temporal evolution of two auroral arcs as measured by the Cluster satellite and coordinated ground-based instruments2004In: Annales Geophysicae, ISSN 0992-7689, E-ISSN 1432-0576, Vol. 22, no 12, 4089-4101 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The four Cluster s/c passed over Northern Scandinavia on 6 February 2001 from south-east to north-west at a radial distance of about 4.4 R-E in the post-midnight sector. When mapped along geomagnetic field lines, the separation of the spacecraft in the ionosphere was confined to within 110 km in latitude and 50 km in longitude. This constellation allowed us to study the temporal evolution of plasma with a time scale of a few minutes. Ground-based instrumentation used involved two all-sky cameras, magnetometers and the EISCAT radar. The main findings were as follows. Two auroral arcs were located close to the equatorward and poleward edge of a large-scale density cavity, respectively. These arcs showed a different kind of a temporal evolution. (1) As a response to a pseudo-breakup onset, both the up- and downward field-aligned current (FAC) sheets associated with the equatorward arc widened and the total amount of FAC doubled in a time scale of 1-2 min. (2) In the poleward arc, a density cavity formed in the ionosphere in the return (downward) current region. As a result of ionospheric feedback, a strongly enhanced ionospheric southward electric field developed in the region of decreased Pedersen conductance. Furthermore, the acceleration potential of ionospheric electrons, carrying the return current, increased from 200 to 1000 eV in 70 s, and the return current region widened in order to supply a constant amount of return current to the arc current circuit. Evidence of local acceleration of the electron population by dispersive Alfven waves was obtained in the upward FAC region of the poleward arc. However, the downward accelerated suprathermal electrons must be further energised below Cluster in order to be able to produce the observed visible aurora. Both of the auroral arcs were associated with broad-band ULF/ELF (BBELF) waves, but they were highly localised in space and time. The most intense BBELF waves were confined typically to the return current regions adjacent to the visual arc, but in one case also to a weak upward FAC region. BBELF waves could appear/disappear between s/c crossings of the same arc separated by about 1 min.

  • 33.
    Alakangas, Lena
    et al.
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Rasmussen, Torklid Maack
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Geosciences and Environmental Engineering.
    Project: Development, Evaluation and Optimization of Measures to Reduce the Impact on the Environment from Mining Activities in Northern Regions2016Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Min-North is a transnational project financed by the Interreg Nord program and coordinated by LTU. The project is a cooperation between Geological survey of Finland, GTK, Oulo University (Finland), The Arctic University of Norway, UiT and several (>17) small and large enterprises and mining companies in the northern region with expertise within geology, waste management, geophysics and geochemistry. The overall goal is to reduce the environmental impacts of mining in the northern regions by developing, evaluating, optimizing environmental techniques. In Sweden, geophysical and geochemical techniques will be integrated to develop a 4D model for tracing pollution transport in the mine waste, mine areas and in(to) the surroundings.

  • 34.
    Alasdair, Skelton
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Fredrik, Arghe
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Pitcairn, Iain
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Spatial coupling between spilitization and carbonation ofbasaltic sills in SW Scottish Highlands: evidence of amineralogical control of metamorphic fluid flow2011In: Geofluids, ISSN 1468-8115, E-ISSN 1468-8123, Vol. 11, no 3, 245-259 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    In a geochemical and petrological analysis of overprinting episodes of fluid–rock interaction in a well-studied metabasaltic sill in the SW Scottish Highlands, we show that syn-deformational access of metamorphic fluids and consequent fluid–rock interaction is at least in part controlled by preexisting mineralogical variations. Lithological and structural channelling of metamorphic fluids along the axis of the Ardrishaig Anticline, SW Scottish Highlands, caused carbonation of metabasaltic sills hosted by metasedimentary rocks of the Argyll Group in the Dalradian Supergroup. Analysis of chemical and mineralogical variability across a metabasaltic sill at Port Cill Maluaig shows that carbonation at greenschist to epidote–amphibolites facies conditions caused by infiltration of H2O-CO2 fluids was controlled by mineralogical variations, which were present before carbonation occurred. This variability probably reflects chemical and mineralogical changes imparted on the sill during premetamorphic spilitization. Calculation of precarbonation mineral modes reveals heterogeneous spatial distributions of epidote, amphibole, chlorite and epidote. This reflects both premetamorphic spilitization and prograde greenschist facies metamorphism prior to fluid flow. Spilitization caused albitization of primary plagioclase and spatially heterogeneous growth of epidote ± calcic amphibole ± chlorite ± quartz ± calcite. Greenschist facies metamorphism caused breakdown of primary pyroxene and continued, but spatially more homogeneous, growth of amphibole + chlorite ± quartz. These processes formed diffuse epidote-rich patches or semi-continuous layers. These might represent precursors of epidote segregations, which are better developed elsewhere in the SW Scottish Highlands. Chemical and field analyses of epidote reveal the evidence of local volume fluctuations associated with these concentrations of epidote. Transient permeability enhancement associated with these changes may have permitted higher fluid fluxes and therefore more extensive carbonation. This deflected metamorphic fluid such that its flow direction became more layer parallel, limiting propagation of the reaction front into the sill interior.

  • 35. Alcalde, J.
    et al.
    Marti, D.
    Calahorrano, A.
    Marzan, I.
    Ayarza, P.
    Carbonell, R.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Pérez-Estaún, A.
    Active seismic characterization experiments of the Hontomin research facility for geological storage of CO2, Spain2013In: International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control, ISSN 1750-5836, Vol. 19, no 0, 785-795 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An active source seismic experiment was carried out as part of the subsurface characterization study of the first Spanish Underground Research Facility for Geological Storage of CO2 in Hontomín (Burgos, Spain). The characterization experiment included a 36 km2 3D seismic reflection survey and two three-component seismic profiles. The target reservoir is a saline aquifer located at 1450 m depth within Lower Jurassic carbonates (Lias). The main seal is formed by interlayered marlstones and marly limestones of Early to Middle Jurassic age (Dogger and Lias). The seismic images obtained allow defining the 3D underground architecture of the reservoir site. The structure consists of an asymmetric dome crosscut by a relatively complex fault system. The detailed characterization of the fracture system is currently under study to unravel the geometric distribution of the faults and their extent within the different formations that form the structure. The constrained model has guided the design of the injection and monitoring boreholes and provided the data for the baseline study. The resultant high resolution seismic model will be used as a reference in future monitoring stages.

  • 36. Alcalde, J.
    et al.
    Martí, D.
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Malehmir, Alireza
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Sopher, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Saura, E.
    Marzán, I.
    Ayarza, P.
    Calahorrano, A.
    Pérez-Estaún, A.
    Carbonell, R.
    3-D reflection seismic imaging of the Hontomin structure in the Basque-Cantabrian Basin (Spain)2013In: Solid Earth, ISSN 1869-9510, E-ISSN 1869-9529, Vol. 4, no 2, 481-496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Basque-Cantabrian Basin of the northern Iberia Peninsula constitutes a unique example of a major deformation system, featuring a dome structure developed by extensional tectonics followed by compressional reactivation. The occurrence of natural resources in the area and the possibility of establishing a geological storage site for carbon dioxide motivated the acquisition of a 3-D seismic reflection survey in 2010, centered on the Jurassic Hontomin dome. The objectives of this survey were to obtain a geological model of the overall structure and to establish a baseline model for a possible geological CO2 storage site. The 36 km(2) survey included approximately 5000 mixed (Vibroseis and explosives) source points recorded with a 25 m inline source and receiver spacing. The target reservoir is a saline aquifer, at approximately 1450 m depth, encased and sealed by carbonate formations. Acquisition and processing parameters were influenced by the rough topography and relatively complex geology. A strong near-surface velocity inversion is evident in the data, affecting the quality of the data. The resulting 3-D image provides constraints on the key features of the geologic model. The Hontom n structure is interpreted to consist of an approximately 10(7) m(2) large elongated dome with two major (W-E and NW-SE) striking faults bounding it. Preliminary capacity estimates indicate that about 1.2 Gt of CO2 can be stored in the target reservoir.

  • 37. Alcalde, Juan
    et al.
    Marzan, Ignacio
    Saura, Eduard
    Marti, David
    Ayarza, Puy
    Juhlin, Christopher
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Perez-Estaun, Andres
    Carbonell, Ramon
    3D geological characterization of the Hontomin CO2 storage site, Spain: Multidisciplinary approach from seismic, well-log and regional data2014In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 627, 6-25 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The first Spanish Technological Development plant for CO2 storage is currently under development in Hontomin (Spain), in a fractured carbonate reservoir. The subsurface 3D geological structures of the Hontomin site were interpreted using well-log and 3D seismic reflection data. A shallow low velocity zone affects the wave propagation and decreases the coherency of the underlying seismic reflections, deteriorating the quality of the seismic data, and thus preventing a straightforward seismic interpretation. In order to provide a fully constrained model, a geologically supervised interpretation was carried out. In particular, a conceptual geological model was derived from an exhaustive well-logging analysis. This conceptual model was then improved throughout a detailed seismic facies analysis on selected seismic sections crossing the seismic wells and in consistency with the regional geology, leading to the interpretation of the entire 3D seismic volume. This procedure allowed characterizing nine main geological levels and four main fault sets. Thus, the stratigraphic sequence of the area and the geometries of the subsurface structures were defined. The resulting depth-converted 3D geological model allowed us to estimate a maximum CO2 storage capacity of 5.85 Mt. This work provides a 3D geological model of the Hontomin subsurface, which is a challenging case study of CO2 storage in a complex fractured carbonate reservoir. 

  • 38.
    Aleklett, Kjell
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics. Kärnfysik.
    Campbell, Colin
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Physics, Department of Nuclear and Particle Physics. Department of Physics and Astronomy, Nuclear Physics. Kärnfysik.
    The Peak and Decline of World Oil and Gas Production2003In: Minerals & Energy, ISSN 1404-1049, Vol. 18, 5-20 p.Article in journal (Other (popular scientific, debate etc.))
  • 39. Alfsen, K. H.
    et al.
    Bonifazi, C.
    Pedersen, A.
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    Electric field and plasma observations near the magnetopause and bow shock during a rapid compression.1984In: Achievements of the International Magnetospheric Study (IMS), 99-104 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A fast compressional motion of the magnetopause resulting from the interaction of an interplanetary shock and the Earth's magnetosphere is discussed. The ISEE-1 and 2 satellites were in the frontside magnetosphere before the shock. A magnetosonic wave front, the magnetopause, and the bow shock passed them in a very short time. By a combination of electric and magnetic field data it is possible to determine the magnetosonic and the magnetopause velocity. -from STAR, 23(14), 1985

  • 40. ALFSEN, KH
    et al.
    BONIFAZI, C
    PEDERSEN, A
    Lindqvist, Per-Arne
    KTH, School of Electrical Engineering (EES), Space and Plasma Physics.
    INTERACTION BETWEEN AN INTERPLANETARY SHOCK AND THE EARTHS MAGNETOSPHERE ON AUGUST 27, 1978 - ISEE-1 ELECTRIC-FIELD AND ISEE-2 PLASMA OBSERVATIONS1984In: JOURNAL OF GEOPHYSICAL RESEARCH-SPACE PHYSICS, Vol. 89, no NA10, 8863-8871 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 41.
    Alling, Vanja
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Porcelli, D.
    Mörth, Carl-Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences. Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Anderson, L. G.
    Sanchez-Garcia, L.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Gustafsson, Örjan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM).
    Andersson, P. S.
    Humborg, Christoph
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Applied Environmental Science (ITM). Stockholm University, Stockholm Resilience Centre, Baltic Nest Institute.
    Degradation of terrestrial organic carbon, primary production and out-gassing of CO2 in the Laptev and East Siberian Seas as inferred from delta C-13 values of DIC2012In: Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta, ISSN 0016-7037, E-ISSN 0016-1258, Vol. 95, 143-159 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The cycling of carbon on the Arctic shelves, including outgassing of CO2 to the atmosphere, is not clearly understood. Degradation of terrestrial organic carbon (OCter) has recently been shown to be pronounced over the East Siberian Arctic Shelf (ESAS), i.e. the Laptev and East Siberian Seas, producing dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC). To further explore the processes affecting DIC, an extensive suite of shelf water samples were collected during the summer of 2008, and assessed for the stable carbon isotopic composition of DIC (delta C-13(DIC)). The delta C-13(DIC) values varied between -7.2 parts per thousand to +1.6 parts per thousand and strongly deviated from the compositions expected from only mixing between river water and seawater. Model calculations suggest that the major processes causing these deviations from conservative mixing were addition of (DIC) by degradation of OCter, removal of DIC during primary production, and outgassing of CO2. All waters below the halocline in the ESAS had delta C-13(DIC) values that appear to reflect mixing of river water and seawater combined with additions of on average 70 +/- 20 mu M of DIC, originating from degradation of OCter in the coastal water column. This is of the same magnitude as the recently reported deficits of DOCter and POCter for the same waters. The surface waters in the East Siberian Sea had higher delta C-13(DIC) values and lower DIC concentrations than expected from conservative mixing, consistent with additions of DIC from degradation of OCter and outgassing of CO2. The outgassing of CO2 was equal to loss of 123 +/- 50 mu M DIC. Depleted delta C-13(POC) values of -29 parts per thousand to -32 parts per thousand in the mid to outer shelf regions are consistent with POC from phytoplankton production. The low delta C-13(POC) values are likely due to low delta C-13(DIC) of precursor DIC, which is due to degradation of OCter, rather than reflecting terrestrial input compositions. Overall, the delta C-13(DIC) values confirm recent suggestions of substantial degradation of OCter over the ESAS, and further show that a large part of the CO2 produced from degradation has been outgassed to the atmosphere.

  • 42.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Biedermann, Andrea
    Klonowska, Iwona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Misra, Santanu
    Petrofabric development during experimental partial melting and recrystallization of a mica-schist analogue2015In: Geochemistry Geophysics Geosystems, ISSN 1525-2027, E-ISSN 1525-2027, Vol. 16, no 10, 3472-3483 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 43.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Henry, Bernard
    Jackson, Mike
    Werner, Tomasz
    Lagroix, France
    Methods and applications of magnetic anisotropy: A special issue in recognition of the career of Graham J. Borradaile2014In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 629, 1-5 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 44.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Hirt, Ann
    Herwegh, Marco
    Ebert, Andreas
    Walter, Jens
    Leiss, Bernd
    Burlini, Luigi
    Seismic anisotropy in the Morcles nappe shear zone: Implications for seismic imaging of crustal scale shear zones2013In: Tectonophysics, ISSN 0040-1951, E-ISSN 1879-3266, Vol. 603, 162-178 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Microstructures and textures of calcite mylonites from the Morcles nappe large-scale shearzone in southwestern Switzerland develop principally as a function of 1) extrinsic physical parameters including temperature, stress, strain, strain rate and 2) intrinsic parameters, such as mineral composition. We collected rock samples at a single location from this shear zone, on which laboratory ultrasonic velocities, texture and microstructures were investigated and quantified. The samples had different concentration of secondary mineral phases (<5 up to 40 vol.%). Measured seismic P waveanisotropy ranges from 6.5% for polyphase mylonites (similar to 40 vol.%) to 18.4% in mylonites with <5 vol.% secondary phases. Texture strength of calcite is the main factor governing the seismic P wave anisotropy. Measured S wave splitting is generally highest in the foliation plane, but its origin is more difficult to explain solely by calcite texture. Additional texture measurements were made on calcite mylonites with low concentration of secondary phases (<= 10 vol.%) along the metamorphic gradient of the shear zone (15 km distance). A systematic increase in texture strength is observed moving from the frontal part of the shear zone (anchimetamorphism: 280 degrees C) to the higher temperature, basal part (greenschist facies: 350-400 degrees C). Calculated P wave velocities become increasingly anisotropic towards the high-strain part of the nappe, from an average of 5.8%in the frontal part to 13.2% in the root of the basal part. Secondary phases raise an additional complexity, and may act either to increase or decrease seismic anisotropy of shear zone mylonites. Inlight of our findings we reinterpret the origin of some seismically reflective layers in the Grone-Zweisimmen line in southwestern Switzerland (PNR20 Swiss National Research Program). We hypothesize that reflections originate in part from the lateral variation in textural and microstructural arrangement of calcite mylonites in shear zones. 

  • 45.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Mainprice, David
    Seismic properties and anisotropy of the continental crust: Predictions based on mineral texture and rock microstructure2017In: Reviews of geophysics, ISSN 8755-1209, E-ISSN 1944-9208Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 46.
    Almqvist, Bjarne
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Misra, Santanu
    Klonowska, Iwona
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Mainprice, David
    Majka, Jaroslaw
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Mineralogy Petrology and Tectonics.
    Ultrasonic velocity drops and anisotropy reduction in mica-schist analogues due to melting with implications for seismic imaging of continental crust2015In: Earth and Planetary Science Letters, ISSN 0012-821X, E-ISSN 1385-013X, Vol. 425, 24-33 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 47. Amanda Collaboration, -
    et al.
    Pohl, Arvid
    University of Kalmar, School of Pure and Applied Natural Sciences.
    Optical Properties of Deep Glacial Ice at the South Pole2006In: Journal of Geophysical Research, ISSN 0148-0227, Vol. 111, no D13, D13203- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have remotely mapped optical scattering and absorption in glacial ice at the South Pole for wavelengths between 313 and 560 nm and depths between 1100 and 2350 m. We used pulsed and continuous light sources embedded with the AMANDA neutrino telescope, an array of more than six hundred photomultiplier tubes buried deep in the ice. At depths greater than 1300 m, both the scattering coefficient and absorptivity follow vertical variations in concentration of dust impurities, which are seen in ice cores from other Antarctic sites and which track climatological changes. The scattering coefficient varies by a factor of seven, and absorptivity (for wavelengths less than ∼450 nm) varies by a factor of three in the depth range between 1300 and 2300 m, where four dust peaks due to stadials in the late Pleistocene have been identified. In our absorption data, we also identify a broad peak due to the Last Glacial Maximum around 1300 m. In the scattering data, this peak is partially masked by scattering on residual air bubbles, whose contribution dominates the scattering coefficient in shallower ice but vanishes at ∼1350 m where all bubbles have converted to nonscattering air hydrates. The wavelength dependence of scattering by dust is described by a power law with exponent −0.90 ± 0.03, independent of depth. The wavelength dependence of absorptivity in the studied wavelength range is described by the sum of two components: a power law due to absorption by dust, with exponent −1.08 ± 0.01 and a normalization proportional to dust concentration that varies with depth; and a rising exponential due to intrinsic ice absorption which dominates at wavelengths greater than ∼500 nm.

  • 48.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Berggrund och Kvicklera mäts med vibrationer2011In: HUSBYGGAREN, Vol. 6, 24-25 p.Article in journal (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 49.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    3D Structure and Emplacement of the Alnö Alkaline and Carbonatite Complex, Sweden: Integrated Geophysical and Physical Property Investigations2015Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Carbonatites are carbonate-rich magmatic rocks that are rare and of great relevance for our understanding of crustal and mantle processes. Although found on all continents and in settings ranging from Archaean to present-day, their deeper plumbing system is still poorly understood. Therefore, the main goal of this thesis is to broaden the existing knowledge of carbonatite systems, often limited to surface geological observations, by providing depth constraints using a number of geophysical methods and petrophysical measurements. The Alnö alkaline and carbonatite complex in central Sweden was chosen for this purpose. Data from three reflection seismic lines, ground gravity and magnetic measurements are presented. These data are complemented by a series of petrophysical measurements, including ultrasonic velocities, density, magnetic bulk susceptibility, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS), and magnetic remanence, to aid in the interpretation of the geophysical data. The reflection seismic data indicate a solidified saucer-shaped fossil magma chamber at about 3 km depth. Caldera-style volcanism, constrained by surface geological observations, provides a plausible scenario to explain the emplacement of the complex, suggesting that carbonatite magmas have been stored, transported and erupted in a similar manner to known emplacement mechanisms for silicic calderas, although these are compositionally different. The AMS data from most of the carbonatite sheets in Alnö show a strong degree of anisotropy and oblate-shaped susceptibility ellipsoids. A set of syn- and post-emplacement processes that may control the AMS signature is evaluated based on the dataset. Overprinting of the primary flow patterns by processes related to sheet closure at the terminal stage of magma transport may explain the AMS observations. A complementary study using 3D inversion of ground gravity and aeromagnetic data was then carried out to better delineate the 3D internal architecture of the complex. Resulting models indicate a depth extent of the complex to about 3-4 km, consistent with the interpretation of the reflection seismic data. The modelling results of a ring-shaped magnetic anomaly observed in the Klingefjärden bay adjacent to Alnö Island further suggest that the complex may extend laterally about 3 km towards the north.

  • 50.
    Andersson, Magnus
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Geophysics.
    Magma transport in sheet intrusionsArticle in journal (Refereed)
1234567 1 - 50 of 924
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