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  • 1. Abbott, Benjamin W.
    et al.
    Jones, Jeremy B.
    Schuur, Edward A. G.
    Chapin, F. Stuart, III
    Bowden, William B.
    Bret-Harte, M. Syndonia
    Epstein, Howard E.
    Flannigan, Michael D.
    Harms, Tamara K.
    Hollingsworth, Teresa N.
    Mack, Michelle C.
    McGuire, A. David
    Natali, Susan M.
    Rocha, Adrian V.
    Tank, Suzanne E.
    Turetsky, Merritt R.
    Vonk, Jorien E.
    Wickland, Kimberly P.
    Aiken, George R.
    Alexander, Heather D.
    Amon, Rainer M. W.
    Benscoter, Brian W.
    Bergeron, Yves
    Bishop, Kevin
    Blarquez, Olivier
    Bond-Lamberty, Ben
    Breen, Amy L.
    Buffam, Ishi
    Cai, Yihua
    Carcaillet, Christopher
    Carey, Sean K.
    Chen, Jing M.
    Chen, Han Y. H.
    Christensen, Torben R.
    Cooper, Lee W.
    Cornelissen, J. Hans C.
    de Groot, William J.
    DeLuca, Thomas H.
    Dorrepaal, Ellen
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Fetcher, Ned
    Finlay, Jacques C.
    Forbes, Bruce C.
    French, Nancy H. F.
    Gauthier, Sylvie
    Girardin, Martin P.
    Goetz, Scott J.
    Goldammer, Johann G.
    Gough, Laura
    Grogan, Paul
    Guo, Laodong
    Higuera, Philip E.
    Hinzman, Larry
    Hu, Feng Sheng
    Hugelius, Gustaf
    Jafarov, Elchin E.
    Jandt, Randi
    Johnstone, Jill F.
    Karlsson, Jan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kasischke, Eric S.
    Kattner, Gerhard
    Kelly, Ryan
    Keuper, Frida
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Kling, George W.
    Kortelainen, Pirkko
    Kouki, Jari
    Kuhry, Peter
    Laudon, Hjalmar
    Laurion, Isabelle
    Macdonald, Robie W.
    Mann, Paul J.
    Martikainen, Pertti J.
    McClelland, James W.
    Molau, Ulf
    Oberbauer, Steven F.
    Olefeldt, David
    Pare, David
    Parisien, Marc-Andre
    Payette, Serge
    Peng, Changhui
    Pokrovsky, Oleg S.
    Rastetter, Edward B.
    Raymond, Peter A.
    Raynolds, Martha K.
    Rein, Guillermo
    Reynolds, James F.
    Robards, Martin
    Rogers, Brendan M.
    Schaedel, Christina
    Schaefer, Kevin
    Schmidt, Inger K.
    Shvidenko, Anatoly
    Sky, Jasper
    Spencer, Robert G. M.
    Starr, Gregory
    Striegl, Robert G.
    Teisserenc, Roman
    Tranvik, Lars J.
    Virtanen, Tarmo
    Welker, Jeffrey M.
    Zimov, Sergei
    Biomass offsets little or none of permafrost carbon release from soils, streams, and wildfire: an expert assessment2016In: Environmental Research Letters, ISSN 1748-9326, E-ISSN 1748-9326, Vol. 11, no 3, article id 034014Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the permafrost region warms, its large organic carbon pool will be increasingly vulnerable to decomposition, combustion, and hydrologic export. Models predict that some portion of this release will be offset by increased production of Arctic and boreal biomass; however, the lack of robust estimates of net carbon balance increases the risk of further overshooting international emissions targets. Precise empirical or model-based assessments of the critical factors driving carbon balance are unlikely in the near future, so to address this gap, we present estimates from 98 permafrost-region experts of the response of biomass, wildfire, and hydrologic carbon flux to climate change. Results suggest that contrary to model projections, total permafrost-region biomass could decrease due to water stress and disturbance, factors that are not adequately incorporated in current models. Assessments indicate that end-of-the-century organic carbon release from Arctic rivers and collapsing coastlines could increase by 75% while carbon loss via burning could increase four-fold. Experts identified water balance, shifts in vegetation community, and permafrost degradation as the key sources of uncertainty in predicting future system response. In combination with previous findings, results suggest the permafrost region will become a carbon source to the atmosphere by 2100 regardless of warming scenario but that 65%-85% of permafrost carbon release can still be avoided if human emissions are actively reduced.

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  • 2. Abegg, Bruno
    et al.
    Morin, Samuel
    Demiroglu, O. Cenk
    Umeå University, Arctic Research Centre at Umeå University.
    François, H.
    Rothleitner, M.
    Strasser, U.
    Overloaded!: Critical revision and a new conceptual approach for snow indicators in ski tourism2020In: International journal of biometeorology, ISSN 0020-7128, E-ISSN 1432-1254Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Indicators are widely used in climate variability and climate change assessments to simplify the tracking of complex processes and phenomena in the state of the environment. Apart from the climatic criteria, the snow indicators in ski tourism have been increasingly extended with elements that relate to the technical, operational, and commercial aspects of ski tourism. These non-natural influencing factors have gained in importance in comparison with the natural environmental conditions but are more difficult to comprehend in time and space, resulting in limited explanatory power of the related indicators when applied for larger/longer scale assessments. We review the existing indicator approaches to derive quantitative measures for the snow conditions in ski areas, to formulate the criteria that the indicators should fulfill, and to provide a list of indicators with their technical specifications which can be used in snow condition assessments for ski tourism. For the use of these indicators, a three-step procedure consisting of definition, application, and interpretation is suggested. We also provide recommendations for the design of indicator-based assessments of climate change effects on ski tourism. Thereby, we highlight the importance of extensive stakeholder involvement to allow for real-world relevance of the achieved results.

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  • 3.
    Acaralp, Damla
    Södertörn University, Teacher Education.
    Hållbar utveckling i undervisningen: En kvalitativ studie om lärare och lärarstudenters syn på hållbar utveckling i undervisningen2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The issue for this study is how teachers and teacher students understand the concept of sustainable development and work and want to work with sustainable development in their education. The aim is to provide knowledge that can lead to a better implementation of sustainable development in education. The study has a phenomenological perspective and is based on the concept of sustainable development and theories of education for sustainable development. The study consists of interviews with four teachers who act as primary teachers and four teacher students who study on the last semester of their education. The study shows that all respondents think that sustainable development is a concept that is difficult to interpret and that they have a distorted interpretation of the concept. All are focusing on environmental protection and overlook economic and social development. That is particularly apparent in their examples of how sustainable development should be implemented in teaching. The study also shows that the teacher students have a more complete picture of the concept of sustainable development and, unlike the teachers, explicitly states that sustainable development should permeate the entire teaching.

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  • 4.
    Acosta Navarro, Juan Camilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Anthropogenic influence on climate through changes in aerosol emissions from air pollution and land use change2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Particulate matter suspended in air (i.e. aerosol particles) exerts a substantial influence on the climate of our planet and is responsible for causing severe public health problems in many regions across the globe. Human activities have altered the natural and anthropogenic emissions of aerosol particles through direct emissions or indirectly by modifying natural sources. The climate effects of the latter have been largely overlooked. Humans have dramatically altered the land surface of the planet causing changes in natural aerosol emissions from vegetated areas. Regulation on anthropogenic and natural aerosol emissions have the potential to affect the climate on regional to global scales. Furthermore, the regional climate effects of aerosol particles could potentially be very different than the ones caused by other climate forcers (e.g. well mixed greenhouse gases). The main objective of this work was to investigate the climatic effects of land use and air pollution via aerosol changes.

    Using numerical model simulations it was found that land use changes in the past millennium have likely caused a positive radiative forcing via aerosol climate interactions. The forcing is an order of magnitude smaller and has an opposite sign than the radiative forcing caused by direct aerosol emissions changes from other human activities. The results also indicate that future reductions of fossil fuel aerosols via air quality regulations may lead to an additional warming of the planet by mid-21st century and could also cause an important Arctic amplification of the warming. In addition, the mean position of the intertropical convergence zone and the Asian monsoon appear to be sensitive to aerosol emission reductions from air quality regulations. For these reasons, climate mitigation policies should take into consideration aerosol air pollution, which has not received sufficient attention in the past.

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  • 5.
    Acosta Navarro, Juan Camilo
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Environmental Science and Analytical Chemistry.
    Historical anthropogenic radiative forcing of changes in biogenic secondary organic aerosol2015Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Human activities have lead to changes in the energy balance of the Earth and the global climate. Changes in atmospheric aerosols are the second largest contributor to climate change after greenhouse gases since 1750 A.D. Land-use practices and other environmental drivers have caused changes in the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) well before 1750 A.D, possibly causing climate effects through aerosol-radiation and aerosol-cloud interactions. Two numerical emission models LPJ-GUESS and MEGAN were used to quantify the changes in aerosol forming BVOC emissions in the past millennium. A chemical transport model of the atmosphere (GEOS-Chem-TOMAS) was driven with those BVOC emissions to quantify the effects on radiation caused by millennial changes in SOA.

    The specific objectives of this licentiate thesis are: 1) to understand what drove the changes in aerosol-forming BVOC emissions (i.e. isoprene, monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes) and to quantify these changes; 2) to calculate for the first time the combined historical aerosol direct and aerosol-cloud albedo effects on radiation from changing BVOC emissions through SOA formation; 3) to investigate how important the biological climate feedback associated to BVOC emissions and SOA formation is from a global climate perspective.

    We find that global isoprene emissions decreased after 1800 A.D. by about 12% - 15%. This decrease was dominated by losses of natural vegetation, whereas monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions increased by about 2% - 10%, driven mostly by rising surface air temperatures. From 1000 A.D. to 1800 A.D, isoprene, monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions decline by 3% - 8% driven by both, natural vegetation losses, and the moderate global cooling between the medieval climate anomaly and the little ice age. The millennial reduction in BVOC emissions lead to a 0.5% to 2% reduction in climatically relevant aerosol particles (> 80 nm) and cause a direct radiative forcing between +0.02 W/m² and +0.07 W/m², and an indirect radiative forcing between -0.02 W/m² and +0.02 W/m². The suggested biological climate feedback seems to be too small to have observable consequences on the global climate in the recent past.

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  • 6. Adrian, Rita
    et al.
    O`Reilly, Catherine M.
    Zagarese, Horacio
    Baines, Stephen B.
    Hessen, Dag O.
    Keller, Wendel
    Livingstone, David M.
    Sommaruga, Ruben
    Straile, Dietmar
    Van Donk, Ellen
    Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Evolution, Limnology.
    Winder, Monika
    Lakes as sentinels of climate change2009In: Limnology and Oceanography, ISSN 0024-3590, E-ISSN 1939-5590, Vol. 54, no 6(2), p. 2283-2297Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    While there is a general sense that lakes can act as sentinels of climate change, their efficacy has not been thoroughly analyzed. We identified the key response variables within a lake that act as indicators of the effects of climate change on both the lake and the catchment. These variables reflect a wide range of physical, chemical, and biological responses to climate. However, the efficacy of the different indicators is affected by regional response to climate change, characteristics of the catchment, and lake mixing regimes. Thus, particular indicators or combinations of indicators are more effective for different lake types and geographic regions. The extraction of climate signals can be further complicated by the influence of other environmental changes, such as eutrophication or acidification, and the equivalent reverse phenomena, in addition to other land-use influences. In many cases, however, confounding factors can be addressed through analytical tools such as detrending or filtering. Lakes are effective sentinels for climate change because they are sensitive to climate, respond rapidly to change, and integrate information about changes in the catchment.

  • 7.
    Ahlberg, Per Erik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Evolutionary Organism Biology.
    Sky konspiratörernas dimma - I: Uppsala Nya Tidning (UNT), 27 dec2008Other (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 8.
    Ahlvin, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Alexandersson Ros, Sofia
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Markytesänkning,växthusavgång och utlakning från dikad torvjord2020Independent thesis Advanced level (professional degree), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Greenhouse gas emissions and land subsidence on four cultivated peat soils (Martebo, Örke, Kälkestad, Lidhult) have been investigated by measuring emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) in field and lab. Greenhouse emitted gas (mg/h) from undisturbed soil cores was measured in lab. Measurements were performed at four different drainage depths. Soil cores were also kept incubated at constant drainage depth and emitted gas was measured with two-week intervals at three measurement occasions. Field measurements of CO2 emissions (mg/h/m2) were also performed. In addition to gas emissions, irrigation of soil cores has been carried out to investigate the risk of leaching of copper (Cu), phosphorus (P), nitrogen (N) and dissolved organic matter (DOC) during rewetting, and whether turbidity can be used as a measurement of DOC.

    Land surveying with GPS was done on three of the peat soils. This was to investigate how land subsidence can be related to CO2 emissions. On one of the sites different land surveying methods were used to assess their suitability for tracking land subsidence in peat soils. 30 year land surveying data from the sites have also been compiled and analyzed.

    The peat soils are part of a long-term experiment that was laid out in 1986. On each site one field was fertilized with copper and one was kept untreated as comparision. The purpose of the copper fertilizer was to reduce the activity of microorganisms. By doing so the degradation of soil organic matter could be reduced, thereby reducing the land subsidence.

    The results show that the ground surface at all four sites has subsided, but no difference is observed for copper-fertilized fields compared to untreated. Neither could an effect on CO2 emissions from copper fertilization be noted. The greatest land subsidence was observed for Martebo and the least for Kälkestad. By using data from the most recent time period the greatest subsidence was instead observed for Örke. This is consistent with Örke having the greatest CO2 emissions. CO2 emissions alone could not explain land subsidence.

    The results also show that emitted N2O was higher for nutrient-rich soils with the peak directly after saturation. CH4 was at its lowest initially, but then increased and emitted CH4 was greatest for the soils where easily biodegradable organic matter was available. Turbidity alone could not explain the DOC content in leachate from the irrigated soil cores.

    Conclusions drawn were that copper fertilization had no effect on land subsidence and CO2 emissions in this case. Copper did however still leach from the soils 30 years after addition. Emissions of CO2, N2O and CH4 varies greatly between the different soils. To be able to obtain reliable levels of greenhouse gas emissions from peat soils in climate models, more research is needed on how different peat soils react to water and nutrient content.

    It is important to have long time series when measuring land subsidence. Using the same measurement equipment will give better results. GPS for land surveying of peatland can be recommended if the results can be related to a fix point.

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  • 9. Ahmadalipour, Ali
    et al.
    Moradkhani, Hamid
    Rana, Arun
    SMHI.
    Accounting for downscaling and model uncertainty in fine-resolution seasonal climate projections over the Columbia River Basin2018In: Climate Dynamics, ISSN 0930-7575, E-ISSN 1432-0894, Vol. 50, no 1-2, p. 717-733Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 10.
    Ahmed, Engy
    et al.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, SE-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Parducci, Laura
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics, Plant Ecology and Evolution.
    Unneberg, Per
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Molecular Evolution.
    Ågren, Rasmus
    Chalmers Univ Technol, Dept Chem & Biol Engn, Sci Life Lab, SE-41296 Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Schenk, Frederik
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Rattray, Jayne E.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Univ Calgary, Biol Sci, 2500 Univ Dr NW, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Han, Lu
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Biology, Department of Ecology and Genetics. Jilin Univ, Coll Life Sci, Ancient DNA Lab, Changchun, Jilin, Peoples R China..
    Muschitiello, Francesco
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Columbia Univ, Lamont Doherty Earth Observ, 61 Route 9NW, Palisades, NY USA..
    Pedersen, Mikkel W.
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Zool, Downing St, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, England..
    Smittenberg, Rienk H.
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Yamoah, Kweku Afrifa
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Slotte, Tanja
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Ecol Environm & Plant Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Sci Life Lab, Tomtebodavagen 23A, SE-17165 Solna, Sweden..
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm Univ, Dept Geol Sci, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden.;Stockholm Univ, Bolin Ctr Climate Res, SE-10691 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Archaeal community changes in Lateglacial lake sediments: Evidence from ancient DNA2018In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 181, p. 19-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Lateglacial/early Holocene sediments from the ancient lake at Hasseldala Port, southern Sweden provide an important archive for the environmental and climatic shifts at the end of the last ice age and the transition into the present Interglacial. The existing multi-proxy data set highlights the complex interplay of physical and ecological changes in response to climatic shifts and lake status changes. Yet, it remains unclear how microorganisms, such as Archaea, which do not leave microscopic features in the sedimentary record, were affected by these climatic shifts. Here we present the metagenomic data set of Hasseldala Port with a special focus on the abundance and biodiversity of Archaea. This allows reconstructing for the first time the temporal succession of major Archaea groups between 13.9 and 10.8 ka BP by using ancient environmental DNA metagenomics and fossil archaeal cell membrane lipids. We then evaluate to which extent these findings reflect physical changes of the lake system, due to changes in lake-water summer temperature and seasonal lake-ice cover. We show that variations in archaeal composition and diversity were related to a variety of factors (e.g., changes in lake water temperature, duration of lake ice cover, rapid sediment infilling), which influenced bottom water conditions and the sediment-water interface. Methanogenic Archaea dominated during the Allerod and Younger Dryas pollen zones, when the ancient lake was likely stratified and anoxic for large parts of the year. The increase in archaeal diversity at the Younger Dryas/Holocene transition is explained by sediment infilling and formation of a mire/peatbog. (C) 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 11.
    Ahmed, Moinuddin
    et al.
    Fed Urdu Univ Arts Sci & Technol, Dept Bot, Karachi 75300, Pakistan.
    Krusic, Paul J.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology.
    Charpentier Ljungqvist, Fredrik
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of History.
    Zorita, Eduardo
    PAGES 2k Consortium,
    Continental-scale temperature variability during the past two millennia2013In: Nature Geoscience, ISSN 1752-0894, E-ISSN 1752-0908, Vol. 6, no 5, p. 339-346Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Past global climate changes had strong regional expression. To elucidate their spatio-temporal pattern, we reconstructed past temperatures for seven continental-scale regions during the past one to two millennia. The most coherent feature in nearly all of the regional temperature reconstructions is a long-term cooling trend, which ended late in the nineteenth century. At multi-decadal to centennial scales, temperature variability shows distinctly different regional patterns, with more similarity within each hemisphere than between them. There were no globally synchronous multi-decadal warm or cold intervals that define a worldwide Medieval Warm Period or Little Ice Age, but all reconstructions show generally cold conditions between ad 1580 and 1880, punctuated in some regions by warm decades during the eighteenth century. The transition to these colder conditions occurred earlier in the Arctic, Europe and Asia than in North America or the Southern Hemisphere regions. Recent warming reversed the long-term cooling; during the period ad 1971–2000, the area-weighted average reconstructed temperature was higher than any other time in nearly 1,400 years.

  • 12. Akinsanola, A. A.
    et al.
    Ajayi, V. O.
    Adejare, A. T.
    Adeyeri, O. E.
    Gbode, I. E.
    Ogunjobi, K. O.
    Nikulin, Grigory
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Abolude, A. T.
    Evaluation of rainfall simulations over West Africa in dynamically downscaled CMIP5 global circulation models2018In: Journal of Theoretical and Applied Climatology, ISSN 0177-798X, E-ISSN 1434-4483, Vol. 132, no 1-2, p. 437-450Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 13. Akperov, Mirseid
    et al.
    Rinke, Annette
    Mokhov, Igor I.
    Matthes, Heidrun
    Semenov, Vladimir A.
    Adakudlu, Muralidhar
    Cassano, John
    Christensen, Jens H.
    Dembitskaya, Mariya A.
    Dethloff, Klaus
    Fettweis, Xavier
    Glisan, Justin
    Gutjahr, Oliver
    Heinemann, Guenther
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Koldunov, Nikolay V.
    Laprise, Rene
    Mottram, Ruth
    Nikiema, Oumarou
    Scinocca, John F.
    Sein, Dmitry
    Sobolowski, Stefan
    Winger, Katja
    Zhang, Wenxin
    Cyclone Activity in the Arctic From an Ensemble of Regional Climate Models (Arctic CORDEX)2018In: Journal of Geophysical Research - Atmospheres, ISSN 2169-897X, E-ISSN 2169-8996, Vol. 123, no 5, p. 2537-2554Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 14. Akperov, Mirseid
    et al.
    Rinke, Annette
    Mokhov, Igor I.
    Semenov, Vladimir A.
    Parfenova, Mariya R.
    Matthes, Heidrun
    Adakudlu, Muralidhar
    Boberg, Fredrik
    Christensen, Jens H.
    Dembitskaya, Mariya A.
    Dethloff, Klaus
    Fettweis, Xavier
    Gutjahr, Oliver
    Heinemann, Gunther
    Koenigk, Torben
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Koldunov, Nikolay, V
    Laprise, Rene
    Mottram, Ruth
    Nikiema, Oumarou
    Sein, Dmitry
    Sobolowski, Stefan
    Winger, Katja
    Zhang, Wenxin
    Future projections of cyclone activity in the Arctic for the 21st century from regional climate models (Arctic-CORDEX)2019In: Global and Planetary Change, ISSN 0921-8181, E-ISSN 1872-6364, Vol. 182, article id UNSP 103005Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 15.
    Alatalo, Juha M.
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K.
    Statens väg- och transportforskningsinstitut, Miljö, MILJÖ.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity.

  • 16.
    Alatalo, Juha M
    et al.
    Qatar University.
    Jägerbrand, Annika K
    Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute, Society, environment and transport, Environment.
    Molau, Ulf
    Göteborgs Universitet.
    Impacts of different climate change regimes and extreme climatic events on an alpine meadow community2016In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 6, article id 21720Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate variability is expected to increase in future but there exist very few experimental studies that apply different warming regimes on plant communities over several years. We studied an alpine meadow community under three warming regimes over three years. Treatments consisted of (a) a constant level of warming with open-top chambers (ca. 1.9 °C above ambient), (b) yearly stepwise increases in warming (increases of ca. 1.0, 1.9 and 3.5 °C), and (c) pulse warming, a single first-year pulse event of warming (increase of ca. 3.5 °C). Pulse warming and stepwise warming was hypothesised to cause distinct first-year and third-year effects, respectively. We found support for both hypotheses; however, the responses varied among measurement levels (whole community, canopy, bottom layer, and plant functional groups), treatments, and time. Our study revealed complex responses of the alpine plant community to the different experimentally imposed climate warming regimes. Plant cover, height and biomass frequently responded distinctly to the constant level of warming, the stepwise increase in warming and the extreme pulse-warming event. Notably, we found that stepwise warming had an accumulating effect on biomass, the responses to the different warming regimes varied among functional groups, and the short-term perturbations had negative effect on species richness and diversity.

  • 17.
    Albihn, Ann
    et al.
    National Veterinary Institute, Uppsala, Sweden.
    Gustafsson, Hans
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    O’Hara Ruiz, Marilyn
    University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
    38. Preparing for Climate Change2012In: Ecology and Animal Health / [ed] Leif Norrgren and Jeffrey Levengood, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2012, 1, p. 311-328Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    ehsa 2-38
  • 18.
    Aldama Campino, Aitor
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Meteorology .
    Atmospheric and oceanic circulation from a thermodynamic perspective2019Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The climate system is continuously transporting and exchanging heat, freshwater, carbon and other tracers in different spatio-temporal scales. Therefore, analysing the system from a thermodynamic or biogeochemical framework is highly convenient. In this thesis the interaction between the ocean and the atmospheric circulation is analysed using thermodynamical and biogeochemical coordinates. Due to the dimensionality of the climate system stream functions are used to reduce this complexity and facilitate the understanding of the different processes that take place. The first half of this thesis, focuses on the interaction between the atmospheric and the ocean circulation from a thermodynamic perspective. We introduce the hydrothermohaline stream function which combines the atmospheric circulation in humidity-potential temperature (hydrothermal) space and the ocean circulation in salinity-temperature coordinates (thermohaline). A scale factor of 7.1 is proposed to link humidity and salinity coordinates. Future scenarios are showing an increase of humidity in the atmosphere due to the increase of temperatures which results in a widening of the hydrothermal stream function along the humidity coordinate. In a similar way, the ocean circulation in the thermohaline space expands along the salinity coordinate. The link between salinity and humidity changes is strongest at net evaporation regions where the gain of water vapour in the atmosphere results in a salinification in the ocean. In addition, the ocean circulation in latitude-carbon space is investigated. By doing so, we are able to distinguish the roles of different water masses and circulation pathways for ocean carbon. We find that the surface waters in the subtropical gyres are the main drivers of the meridional carbon transport in the ocean. By separating the carbon in its different constituents we show that the carbon transported by the majority of the water masses is a result of the solubility pump. The contribution of the biological pump is predominant in the deep Pacific Ocean. The effects of the Mediterranean Overflow Waters on the North Atlantic are discussed in the final part of the thesis.

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    Atmospheric and oceanic circulation from a thermodynamic perspective
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    Omslagsframsida
  • 19.
    Alexandersson, Hans
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Moberg, A
    Homogenization of Swedish temperature data .1. Homogeneity test for linear trends1997In: International Journal of Climatology, ISSN 0899-8418, E-ISSN 1097-0088, Vol. 17, no 1, p. 25-34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new test for the detection of linear trends of arbitrary length in normally distributed time series is developed. With this test it is possible to detect and estimate gradual changes of the mean value in a candidate series compared with a homogeneous reference series. The test is intended for studies of artificial relative trends in climatological time series, e.g. an increasing urban heat island effect. The basic structure of the new test is similar to that of a widely used test for abrupt changes, the standard normal homogeneity test. The test for abrupt changes is found to remain unaltered after an important generalization.

  • 20.
    Alexandersson, Hans
    et al.
    SMHI.
    Tuomenvirta, H
    Schmith, T
    Iden, K
    Trends of storms in NW Europe derived from an updated pressure data set2000In: Climate Research (CR), ISSN 0936-577X, E-ISSN 1616-1572, Vol. 14, no 1, p. 71-73Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Within the WASA project (von Storch et al. 1998; Bull Am Meterol Soc 79(5):741-760) an extensive data set containing station pressure values was used to calculate geostrophic winds (Alexandersson et al. 1998; Global Atmos Ocean Syst 6:97-120). Geostrophic winds were analysed in terms of percentiles to give a measure of long-term variations in synoptic-scale storminess. In this paper an update to 1998 is presented. In the Scandinavia, Finland and Baltic Sea area the most recent years, especially the cold and calm year 1996, seem to have brought an end to the stormy period centred on 1990. In the more westerly British Isles, North Sea and Norwegian Sea area, storminess is still at high levels compared with the less intense period between 1930 and 1980. The long-term increasing trend in NW Europe storminess that started in the 1960s seems to have been broken.

  • 21. Alfieri, Lorenzo
    et al.
    Bisselink, Berny
    Dottori, Francesco
    Naumann, Gustavo
    de Roo, Ad
    Salamon, Peter
    Wyser, Klaus
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Feyen, Luc
    Global projections of river flood risk in a warmer world2017In: Earth's Future, ISSN 1384-5160, E-ISSN 2328-4277, Vol. 5, no 2, p. 171-182Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 22.
    Almssad, Asaad
    et al.
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Department of Engineering and Chemical Sciences.
    Almusaed, Amjad
    Albasrah University, Albasrah, Iraq.
    Environmental reply to vernacular habitat conformation from a vast areas of Scandinavia2015In: Renewable & sustainable energy reviews, ISSN 1364-0321, E-ISSN 1879-0690, Vol. 48, p. 825-834Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There are many original ideas and useful system inputs embedded in the building of human settlements in Scandinavian regions, where the landscape and habitat are strongly interconnected. A cold climate and strong winds are the most prominent risks that affect habitats. The Longhouse is the foremost traditional habitat in the Scandinavian region, dating back to the Iron Age, 2000 BC. This study examines the influence of climate on the conformation of habitats. Climate had a solid impact on the conceptions of habitat form and internal space. Wind and extreme temperatures had firming consequences on the housing arrangements, layouts, orientations, and building materials used in the construction process. Habitats from this region were located in an optimal arrangement, and the south orientation was used effectively. This investigation will provide an evaluative interpretation and analysis of the real facts of vernacular habitats in the context of energy efficiency and ecological concepts, considering human settlement patterns, architectural creation and building material uses. (C) 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  • 23.
    Al-Saqaf, Walid
    et al.
    Södertörn University, Huddinge, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Berglez, Peter
    Jönköping University, School of Education and Communication, HLK, Media and Communication Studies.
    How Do Social Media Users Link Different Types of Extreme Events to Climate Change?: A Study of Twitter During 2008–20172019In: Journal of Extreme Events, ISSN 2345-7376, Vol. 6, no 2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study examines how three types of extreme events (heat waves, droughts, floods) are mentioned together with climate change on social media. English-language Twitter use during 2008–2017 is analyzed, based on 1,127,996 tweets (including retweets). Frequencies and spikes of activity are compared and theoretically interpreted as reflecting complex relations between the extreme event factor (the occurrence of an extreme event); the media ecology factor (climate-change oriented statements/actions in the overall media landscape) and the digital action factor (activities on Twitter). Flooding was found to be by far the most tweeted of the three in connection to climate change, followed by droughts and heat waves. It also led when comparing spikes of activity. The dominance of floods is highly prevalent from 2014 onwards, triggered by flooding events (extreme event factor), the climate science controversy in US politics (media ecology factor) and the viral power of celebrities’ tweets (digital action factor).

  • 24. Althuizen, Inge H. J.
    et al.
    Lee, Hanna
    Sarneel, Judith M
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences. Ecology and Biodiversity Group and Plant Ecophysiology Group, Utrecht University, Padualaan 8, 3584, CH, Utrecht, The Netherlands.
    Vandvik, Vigdis
    Long-Term climate regime modulates the impact of short-term climate variability on decomposition in alpine grassland soils2018In: Ecosystems (New York. Print), ISSN 1432-9840, E-ISSN 1435-0629, Vol. 21, no 8, p. 1580-1592Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Decomposition of plant litter is an important process in the terrestrial carbon cycle and makes up approximately 70% of the global carbon flux from soils to the atmosphere. Climate change is expected to have significant direct and indirect effects on the litter decomposition processes at various timescales. Using the TeaBag Index, we investigated the impact on decomposition of short-term direct effects of temperature and precipitation by comparing temporal variability over years, versus long-term climate impacts that incorporate indirect effects mediated through environmental changes by comparing sites along climatic gradients. We measured the initial decomposition rate (k) and the stabilization factor (S; amount of labile litter stabilizing) across a climate grid combining three levels of summer temperature (6.5-10.5 degrees C) with four levels of annual precipitation (600-2700 mm) in three summers with varying temperature and precipitation. Several (a)biotic factors were measured to characterize environmental differences between sites. Increased temperatures enhanced k, whereas increased precipitation decreased k across years and climatic regimes. In contrast, S showed diverse responses to annual changes in temperature and precipitation between climate regimes. Stabilization of labile litter fractions increased with temperature only in boreal and sub-alpine sites, while it decreased with increasing precipitation only in sub-alpine and alpine sites. Environmental factors such as soil pH, soil C/N, litter C/N, and plant diversity that are associated with long-term climate variation modulate the response of k and S. This highlights the importance of long-term climate in shaping the environmental conditions that influences the response of decomposition processes to climate change.

  • 25. Amador, Jorge A.
    et al.
    Ambrizzi, Tercio
    Arritt, Raymond W.
    Castro, Christopher L.
    Cavazos, Tereza
    Cerezo-Mota, Ruth
    Fuentes Franco, Ramon
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Giorgi, Filippo
    Guiliani, Graziano
    Lee, Huikyo
    Mendez-Perez, Matias
    Rivera, Erick R.
    Putting into action the REGCM4.6 regional climate model for the study of climate change, variability and modeling over Central America and Mexico2018In: Atmósfera, ISSN 0187-6236, Vol. 31, no 2, p. 185-188Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 26.
    Amin, Hadi
    et al.
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    Sjöberg, Lars
    Division of Geodesy and satellite positioning, KTH.
    Bagherbandi, Mohammad
    University of Gävle, Faculty of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Department of Computer and Geospatial Sciences, Geospatial Sciences.
    A global vertical datum defined by the conventional geoid potential and the Earth ellipsoid parameters2019In: Journal of Geodesy, ISSN 0949-7714, E-ISSN 1432-1394, Vol. 93, no 10, p. 1943-1961Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The geoid, according to the classical Gauss–Listing definition, is, among infinite equipotential surfaces of the Earth’s gravity field, the equipotential surface that in a least squares sense best fits the undisturbed mean sea level. This equipotential surface, except for its zero-degree harmonic, can be characterized using the Earth’s global gravity models (GGM). Although, nowadays, satellite altimetry technique provides the absolute geoid height over oceans that can be used to calibrate the unknown zero-degree harmonic of the gravimetric geoid models, this technique cannot be utilized to estimate the geometric parameters of the mean Earth ellipsoid (MEE). The main objective of this study is to perform a joint estimation of W0, which defines the zero datum of vertical coordinates, and the MEE parameters relying on a new approach and on the newest gravity field, mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. As our approach utilizes both satellite altimetry observations and a GGM model, we consider different aspects of the input data to evaluate the sensitivity of our estimations to the input data. Unlike previous studies, our results show that it is not sufficient to use only the satellite-component of a quasi-stationary GGM to estimate W0. In addition, our results confirm a high sensitivity of the applied approach to the altimetry-based geoid heights, i.e., mean sea surface and mean dynamic topography models. Moreover, as W0 should be considered a quasi-stationary parameter, we quantify the effect of time-dependent Earth’s gravity field changes as well as the time-dependent sea level changes on the estimation of W0. Our computations resulted in the geoid potential W0 = 62636848.102 ± 0.004 m2 s−2 and the semi-major and minor axes of the MEE, a = 6378137.678 ± 0.0003 m and b = 6356752.964 ± 0.0005 m, which are 0.678 and 0.650 m larger than those axes of GRS80 reference ellipsoid, respectively. Moreover, a new estimation for the geocentric gravitational constant was obtained as GM = (398600460.55 ± 0.03) × 106 m3 s−2.

  • 27. Ampel, Linda
    et al.
    Bigler, Christian
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Risberg, Jan
    Lotter, André F
    Veres, Daniel
    Modest summer temperature variability during DO cycles in western Europe2010In: Quaternary Science Reviews, ISSN 0277-3791, E-ISSN 1873-457X, Vol. 29, no 11/12, p. 1322-1327Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abrupt climatic shifts between cold stadials and warm interstadials, termed Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles, occurred frequently during the Last Glacial. Their imprint is registered in paleorecords worldwide, but little is known about the actual temperature change both annually and seasonally in different regions. A recent hypothesis based on modelling studies, suggests that DO cycles were characterised by distinct changes in seasonality in the Northern Hemisphere. The largest temperature change between stadial and interstadial phases would have occurred during the winter and spring seasons, whereas the summer seasons would have experienced a rather muted temperature shift. Here we present a temporally high-resolved reconstruction of summer temperatures for eastern France during a sequence of DO cycles between 36 and 18 thousand years before present. The reconstruction is based on fossil diatom assemblages from the paleolake Les Echets and indicates summer temperature changes of ca 0.5–2 °C between stadials and interstadials. This study is the first to reconstruct temperatures with a sufficient time resolution to investigate DO climate variability in continental Europe. It is therefore also the first proxy record that can test and support the hypothesis that temperature changes during DO cycles were modest during the summer season.

  • 28.
    Ampel, Linda
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Wohlfarth, Barbara
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Geological Sciences.
    Risberg, Jan
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical Geography and Quaternary Geology (INK).
    Veres, Daniel
    Leng, Melanie
    Kaislahti Tillman, Päivi
    Diatom assemblage dynamics during abrupt climate change: The response oflacustrine diatoms to Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles during the last glacialperiod2010In: Journal of Paleolimnology, ISSN 0921-2728, E-ISSN 1573-0417, Vol. 44, no 2, p. 397-404Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The sedimentary record from the paleolake at Les Echets in eastern France allowed a reconstruction of the lacustrine response to several abrupt climate shifts during the last glacial period referred to as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles. The high-resolution diatom stratigraphy has revealed distinct species turnover events and large fluctuations in stable oxygen isotope values in diatom frustules, as a response to DO climate variability. More or less identical species compositions became re-established during each DO stadial and interstadial phases, respectively. However, the relative abundance of the most dominant species within these assemblages varies and might indicate differences in climatic conditions. Interstadial phases are characterized by identical species successions. Transitions from stadial to interstadial conditions show a distinct Fragilaria-Cyclotella succession, which resembles the diatom regime shifts that have been recognized in some lakes in the Northern Hemisphere since the mid-nineteenth century.

  • 29. Anderson, C J
    et al.
    Arritt, R W
    Takle, E S
    Pan, Z T
    Gutowski, W J
    Otieno, F O
    da Silva, R
    Caya, D
    Christensen, J H
    Luthi, D
    Gaertner, M A
    Gallardo, C
    Giorgi, F
    Hong, S Y
    Jones, Colin
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Juang, H M H
    Katzfey, J J
    Lapenta, W M
    Laprise, R
    Larson, J W
    Liston, G E
    McGregor, J L
    Pielke, R A
    Roads, J O
    Taylor, J A
    Hydrological processes in regional climate model simulations of the central United States flood of June-July 19932003In: Journal of Hydrometeorology, ISSN 1525-755X, E-ISSN 1525-7541, Vol. 4, no 3, p. 584-598Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Thirteen regional climate model(RCM) simulations of June - July 1993 were compared with each other and observations. Water vapor conservation and precipitation characteristics in each RCM were examined for a 108 x 10degrees subregion of the upper Mississippi River basin, containing the region of maximum 60-day accumulated precipitation in all RCMs and station reports. All RCMs produced positive precipitation minus evapotranspiration ( P - E > 0), though most RCMs produced P - E below the observed range. RCM recycling ratios were within the range estimated from observations. No evidence of common errors of E was found. In contrast, common dry bias of P was found in the simulations. Daily cycles of terms in the water vapor conservation equation were qualitatively similar in most RCMs. Nocturnal maximums of P and C ( convergence) occurred in 9 of 13 RCMs, consistent with observations. Three of the four driest simulations failed to couple P and C overnight, producing afternoon maximum P. Further, dry simulations tended to produce a larger fraction of their 60-day accumulated precipitation from low 3-h totals. In station reports, accumulation from high ( low) 3-h totals had a nocturnal ( early morning) maximum. This time lag occurred, in part, because many mesoscale convective systems had reached peak intensity overnight and had declined in intensity by early morning. None of the RCMs contained such a time lag. It is recommended that short-period experiments be performed to examine the ability of RCMs to simulate mesoscale convective systems prior to generating long-period simulations for hydroclimatology.

  • 30.
    Anderson, Kevin
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Univ Manchester, Sch Engn, Tyndall Ctr Climate Change Res, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs, England.
    Wrong tool for the job: Debating the bedrock of climate-change mitigation scenarios2019In: Nature, ISSN 0028-0836, E-ISSN 1476-4687, Vol. 573, no 7774, p. 348-348Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 31.
    Anderson, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Centrum för miljö och utvecklingsstudier (Cemus).
    Broderick, John
    University of Manchester, Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research.
    Stoddard, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Centrum för miljö och utvecklingsstudier (Cemus).
    A factor of two: how the mitigation plans of ‘climate progressive nations’ fall far short of Paris-compliant pathways2020In: Climate Policy, ISSN 1469-3062, E-ISSN 1752-7457Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Anderson, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies.
    Schrage, Jesse
    Stoddard, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development.
    Tuckey, Aaron
    Wetterstedt, Martin
    A Guide for a Fair Implementation of the Paris Agreement within Swedish Municipalities and Regional Governments: Part II of the Carbon Budget Reports Submitted to Swedish Local Governing Bodies in the 2018 Project "Koldioxidbudgetar 2020-2040"2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since 2015, Uppsala University has hosted the Zennström Visiting Professorship in Climate Change Leadership, part of a 10-year series of visiting professorships (2015-2025) funded by Zennström Philanthropies. The ambition of the initiative is to tackle some of the largest challenges climate change poses to humanity, by developing new solutions and enabling transformational change at the intersection of science, politics and innovation. Kevin Anderson, Professor of Energy and Climate Change at the University of Manchester and Deputy Director at the Tyndall Centre for Climate Change Research was the second holder of this professorship, taking up the positionin August 2016. He has pioneered research on carbon budgets and pathways to acceptable mitigation levels with a focus on Sweden and the UK (see Anderson et al., 2017 and Kuriakose et al., 2018). In 2017, Järfälla municipality contacted the Climate Change Leadership (CCL) Node at Uppsala University seeking a carbon budget for their municipality which was published later that year (Anderson et al., 2017). When this report was completed, more municipalities contacted CCL to request similar carbon budget calculations. The great interest resulted in the project, “Koldioxidbudgetar 2020-2040” (Carbon budgets 2020-2040) starting in2018 in collaboration with Ramboll. This ongoing project is characterised by a high level of collaboration and knowledge sharing between municipalities (kommuner), regional governments (län) and the Climate Change Leadership Node in order to produce reports that meet the needs and expectations of participating governing bodies. This report is part II of the project. Part I consists of individual carbon budget reports submitted to participating Swedish municipalities and regional governments.

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  • 33.
    Anderson, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Centrum för miljö och utvecklingsstudier (Cemus).
    Schrage, Jesse
    Stoddard, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences. Centrum för miljö och utvecklingsstudier (Cemus).
    Tuckey, Aaron
    Wetterstedt, Martin
    Koldioxidbudget 2020-2040: Del 12018Report (Other academic)
  • 34.
    Anderson, Kevin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies.
    Stoddard, Isak
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, Centre for Environment and Development Studies. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Natural Resources and Sustainable Development. Centrum för miljö och utvecklingsstudier (Cemus).
    Schrage, Jesse
    Carbon budget and pathways to a fossil-free future in Järfälla Municipality2017Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In 2015, the global community committed to hold global average temperature increase to “well below 2°C above preindustrial levels and pursuing efforts to limit the temperature increase to 1.5°C.”. While nations showed clear commitment to the Paris Agreement’s temperature goals, what would those pledges entail for cities desiring to make a fair contribution to addressing climate change? This report is the result of research that the Centre for Sustainable Development (CEMUS) at Uppsala University and SLU conducted on behalf of Järfälla Municipality. The report describes the calculation of a carbon budget for Sweden, followed by a calculation of Järfälla Municipality's carbon budget. The report concludes with a chapter describing emissions reductions pathways (and possible corresponding measures) for Järfälla Municipality if they are to make their fair contribution to the Paris Agreement and pave the way for the transition to a fossil-free future.

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  • 35.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University.
    Meier, H. E. Markus
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Ripszam, Matyas
    Umeå University.
    Rowe, Owen
    Umeå University.
    Wikner, Johan
    Umeå university.
    Haglund, Peter
    Umeå University.
    Eilola, Kari
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Legrand, Catherine
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Figueroa, Daniela
    Umeå University.
    Paczkowska, Joanna
    Umeå University.
    Lindehoff, Elin
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Health and Life Sciences, Department of Biology and Environmental Science.
    Tysklind, Mats
    Umeå University.
    Elmgren, Ragnar
    Department of Ecology.
    Projected future climate change and Baltic Sea ecosystem management2015In: Ambio, ISSN 0044-7447, E-ISSN 1654-7209, Vol. 44, no Supplement 3, p. S345-S356Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Climate change is likely to have large effects on the Baltic Sea ecosystem. Simulations indicate 2-4 degrees C warming and 50-80 % decrease in ice cover by 2100. Precipitation may increase similar to 30 % in the north, causing increased land runoff of allochthonous organic matter (AOM) and organic pollutants and decreased salinity. Coupled physical-biogeochemical models indicate that, in the south, bottom-water anoxia may spread, reducing cod recruitment and increasing sediment phosphorus release, thus promoting cyanobacterial blooms. In the north, heterotrophic bacteria will be favored by AOM, while phytoplankton production may be reduced. Extra trophic levels in the food web may increase energy losses and consequently reduce fish production. Future management of the Baltic Sea must consider the effects of climate change on the ecosystem dynamics and functions, as well as the effects of anthropogenic nutrient and pollutant load. Monitoring should have a holistic approach, encompassing both autotrophic (phytoplankton) and heterotrophic (e.g., bacterial) processes.

  • 36.
    Andersson, Agneta
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Ecology and Environmental Sciences.
    Meier, Markus
    SMHI och Stockholms universitet.
    Hur påverkas Östersjön?2010In: Sverige i nytt klimat: våtvarm utmaning / [ed] Birgitta Johansson, Stockholm: Forskningsrådet Formas, 2010, p. 117-132Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 37.
    Andersson, Amanda
    et al.
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Sidibé, Linnéa
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Natural Science.
    Stigande havsnivåers påverkan på kulturmiljöer och naturtyper: En studie längs Skånes kust och i Vellinge kommun2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Stora klimatförändringar sker just nu globalt, en konsekvens av dessa förändringar är stigande havsnivåer längs kusterna. En förhöjd havsnivå kan utgöra ett hot mot lågt liggande miljöer och andra värden i anslutning till kusten. I Sverige har ingen tidigare studie gjorts på hur kulturmiljöer och naturtyper påverkas av klimatförändringar så som stigande havsnivåer. Syftet med denna studie är att undersöka i vilken utsträckning kulturmiljöer och naturtyper längs Skånes kust kommer att påverkas av stigande havsnivåer på 1 m, 2 m och 3 m. Resultatet av den extensiva studien längs Skånes kust visar att det är flest kulturmiljöer som påverkas vid en förändrad havsnivå på 1 m i Vellinge och Lomma kommun, då 41 st respektive 15 st lämningar kommer att påverkas. De naturtyper som påverkas i störst omfattning längs Skånes kust är glasörtstränder, salta strandängar och strandängar vid Östersjön. Detaljstudien i Vellinge kommun visar att Riksantikvarieämbetets värderingsplattform är svår att applicera på kulturmiljöer utan lämpar sig bättre att applicera på enskilda objekt eftersom plattformens värderingsmall är för abstrakt för att identifiera och täcka in alla värden som en kulturmiljö omfattar. Länsstyrelsen i Västra Götalands åtgärdsförslag går att tillämpa olika bra beroende på kulturmiljön och vilka objekt den utgör. Även här är det lättare att tillämpa åtgärdsförslagen beroende på enskilda objekt, snarare än en hel kulturmiljö. Åtgärdsförslagen är svåra att applicera på naturtyper eftersom de flesta åtgärderna skulle skapa en barriär för växt- och djurlivet.

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  • 38.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Bohman, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Van Well, Lisa
    School of Architecture and the Built Environment, KTH - Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Tema Environmental Change. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Management & Organisation/Centre for International Business Studies, University of Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Persson, Gunn
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Farelius, Johanna
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, Norrköping, Sweden.
    Underlag till kontrollstation 2015 för anpassning till ett förändrat klimat2015Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    As the climate changes, actors on all levels and in all sectors will be affected. Thus it is imperative that authorities, municipalities, businesses and individual property owners all take action.

    Flooding, heat waves, landslides and erosion are only a few examples of the challenges that that society faces and needs to prepare for. Sweden must adapt to the impacts of a changing climate, as well as the indirect effects of climate change impacts in other parts of the world.

    The costs of adaptation can be high, but the European Commission, among others, has deemed that it still pays to adapt in relation to the costs incurred if no action is taken.

    Climate adaptation initiatives in Sweden have advanced significantly in recent years. Notable examples include governmental missions for a national elevation database, landslide risk mapping in the Göta Älv River Valley, the Swedish drinking water investigation, the County Administrative Boards’ regional climate change action plans, and the establishment of the National Knowledge Centre for Climate Adaptation.

    The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute’s mission to survey, analyse and follow-up on climate adaptation work in Sweden has shown that there is still a considerable need for further measures. This report provides proposals for a road map for climate adaptation in Sweden and concludes that climate adaptation is best conducted in a long-term manner, that roles and responsibilities should be made more transparent, and that better coordination among the many actors involved in climate adaptation is necessary.

    The most important conclusions for continued work are:

    • Laws and regulations need to be adapted; roles and responsibilities as well as strategies and goals should be made clearer.
    • Priority and funding should be given to research and development measures that fill an identified knowledge-gap, including long-term monitoring.
    • Knowledge and decision support as well as prognoses and warning systems should be more accessible.
    • There is a need to outline how the costs of adaptation should be distributed among actors and how resources for prioritised measures can be guaranteed.

    This mission has compiled knowledge of the current and future risks and consequences for society of a changing climate, such as effects on vital societal functions and human health. The mission has also surveyed the work that has been done since the publication of the final report of the Swedish Commission on Climate and Vulnerability in 2007. From this background material our goal has been to describe the gaps and challenges and provide suggestions for how adaptation can be approached in various sectors of society. The EU Strategy on Adaptation to Climate Change has been an important point of departure. The work has been performed in cooperation with national and regional authorities, municipalities, researchers, sectoral organisations and representatives of the private sector.

    This report is comprised of a main report and 18 annexes. Chapter 3 of the main report is a synthesis of all of the proposals made throughout the document and as such can be seen as a road map to ensure that Sweden adapts to a changing climate.

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    Underlag till kontrollstation 2015 för anpassning till ett förändrat klimat
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  • 39.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies.
    Hellström, Sara-Sofia
    SMHI.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI.
    Losjö, Katarina
    SMHI.
    Rummukainen, Marku
    SMHI.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Modeling report: Climate change impacts on water resources in the Pungwe drainage basin2006Report (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
  • 40.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences. Statens Meteorologiska och Hydrologiska Institut.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Alberth, Johan
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    The Vulnerability Assessment Concept: A Tool for Prioritization of the Most Relevant Issues for Macro-regional Cooperation2013Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report aims at identifying potential issues for collaboration related to climate adaptation through application of a tool for assessing macro-regional risks. The tool is intended to assist decision-makers and other stakeholders in the Baltic Sea Region (BSR) in discussions on how climate adaptation related cooperation would benefit most from macro-regional cooperation. It is based on four criteria: 1) confidence, 2) speed (determined by Baltadapt climate modellers), 3) importance of impacts and 4) macro-regional coverage (based on a questionnaires answered by 3-8 stakeholders from each of the nine riparian BSR states). Based on equal weighting of these factors, impacts related to biodiversity/eutrophication of the Baltic Sea, as well and impacts related to agriculture were given the highest rankings, which demonstrates the importance to include these sectors and their interrelationship as an important focus in macro-regional cooperation on climate adaptation in the BSR. Impacts  related to biodiversity and agriculture have in common that they are caused by climate change that will occur or already has occurred with a high degree of certainty (e.g., linked to air and water temperatures and rising sea levels), as well as having a very large macro-regional spatial coverage, and being perceived as of high societal and/or environmental concern.

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    The Vulnerability Assessment Concept: A Tool for Prioritization of the Most Relevant Issues for Macro-regional Cooperation
  • 41.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Samuelsson, Patrick
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Kjellström, Erik
    SMHI, Research Department, Climate research - Rossby Centre.
    Assessment of climate change impact on water resources in the Pungwe river basin2011In: Tellus. Series A, Dynamic meteorology and oceanography, ISSN 0280-6495, E-ISSN 1600-0870, Vol. 63, no 1, p. 138-157Article in journal (Refereed)
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  • 42.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Wilk, Julie
    SMHI, Research Department, Hydrology.
    Graham, Phil
    SMHI, Professional Services.
    Warburton, Michele
    School of Bioresources Engineering & Environmental HydrologyUniversity of KwaZulu-NatalPrivate Bag X01, Scottsville, 3209 South Africa.
    Local Assessment of Vulnerability to Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa - Recommendations for Adaptation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report originates from a project entitled Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Local Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Water Resources (PAMO), financed by the Swedish Development Agency and Research Links cooperation (NRF and the Swedish Research Council). The project is based on interactions between stakeholders in the Mhlwazini/Bergville area of the Thukela River basin, climate and water researchers from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) during a series of workshops held in 2007-2009. Between the workshops, the researcher’s compiled locally relevant climate change related information, based on requests from the workshop participants, as a basis for this adaptation plan. The aim is to provide a local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources and adaptation strategies. The assessment identifies existing climate-water related problems, current adaptation strategies and recommendations for future action based on likelihoods for change and the severity if such changes will occur.Denna rapport har sitt ursprung i projektet Deltagande modellering för bedömning av lokal inverkan av klimatvariabilitet och förändringar på vattenresurser (PAMO), finansierat av Sida och Research Links (NFR i Sydafrika, samt VR i Sverige). Projektet baseras på interaktion mellan vattenintressenter i Mhlwazini/Bergville området av Thukelas avrinningsområde och klimat och vattenforskare från University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) och SMHI under en serie av workshops under 2007-2009. Mellan workshops har forskarna tagit fram klimatförändringsrelaterad information med lokal relevans, baserat på önskemål från deltagarna i workshops. Denna information har sedan använts som ett underlag till framtagandet av en anpassningsplan. Syftet är att tillhandahålla en lokal bedömning av sårbarhet relaterad till påverkan på vattenresurser av klimatförändringar, samt en lokalt föreslagen anpassningsstrategi. Existerande klimatrelaterade problem och nuvarande anpassningsstrategier har identifierats och rekommendationer för framtida aktioner, baserade på sannolikhet för förändringar och kännbarheten av konsekvenserna om dessa förändringar inträffar.

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  • 43.
    Andersson, Lotta
    et al.
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Wilk, Julie
    Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Centre for Climate Science and Policy Research . Linköping University, The Tema Institute, Department of Water and Environmental Studies. Linköping University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences.
    Graham, Phil
    n/a.
    Warburton, Michele
    n/a.
    Local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa: Recommendations for Adaptation2009Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This report originates from a project entitled Participatory Modelling for Assessment of Local Impacts of Climate Variability and Change on Water Resources (PAMO), financed by the Swedish Development Agency and Research Links cooperation (NRF and the Swedish Research Council).

    The project is based on interactions between stakeholders in the Mhlwazini/Bergville area of the Thukela River basin, climate and water researchers from the University of KwaZulu-Natal (Pietermaritzburg Campus) and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI) during a series of workshops held in 2007-2009. Between the workshops, the researcher’s compiled locally relevant climate change related information, based on requests from the workshop participants, as a basis for this adaptation plan.

    The aim is to provide a local assessment of vulnerability to climate change impacts on water resources and adaptation strategies. The assessment identifies existing climate-water related problems, current adaptation strategies and recommendations for future action based on likelihoods for change and the severity if such changes will occur.

    Download full text (pdf)
    Local Assessment of Vulnerability to Climate Change Impacts on Water Resources in the Upper Thukela River Basin, South Africa – Recommendations for Adaptation
  • 44.
    Andersson, Magnus
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Tol, Richard S.J.
    Max Planck Institute for Meteorology in Hamburg.
    Graham, L. Phil
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Bergström, Sten
    Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute.
    Rydén, Lars
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences, Uppsala Centre for Sustainable Development, CSD Uppsala, The Baltic University Programme.
    Azar, Christian
    University of Gothenburg.
    10. Impacts on the Global Atmosphere: Climate Change and Ozone Depletion2003In: Environmental Science: Understanding, protecting and managing the environment in the Baltic Sea Region / [ed] Lars Rydén, Pawel Migula and Magnus Andersson, Uppsala: Baltic University Press , 2003, 1, p. 294-323Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
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    ES 10
  • 45.
    Andersson-Skold, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Falemo, Stefan
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Suer, Pascal
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Landslide risk and climate change - economic assessment of consequenses in the Göta river valley2011In: / [ed] Anagnostopoulos, A., Pachakis, M., Tsatsanifos, C., Amsterdam, 2011, p. 1313-1318Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to climate change scenarios, Swedish summers will be drier, but in large parts of Sweden there will also be increased annual precipitation, more intensive precipitation and periods with increased water flows. In many areas the risk for landslides is expected to increase. In response to this the SGI, on commission of the Environmental ministry, has started a risk analysis for the Göta river valley. The results of the analysis will be used in the surveillance of the safety along the Göta river valley. The valley is one of the most frequent landslide valleys in Sweden. The area has a long history of anthropogenic activities such as settlements, shipping, industry, contaminated soil and infrastructure including large roads and railroads. A number of landslides occur every year. The landslide risk analysis of Göta river valley is performed by traditional technical risk analysis, i.e. a function of hazard probability and consequences of the hazard. Elements at risk in the valley include for example, human life, transport and other infrastructure, properties and industrial activities, contaminated land, agriculture and forestry, and intangibles such as biodiversity. Exposure, vulnerability and the monetary value related to the landslide are used to describe the consequence of the landslide. This paper shows the process and structure of this consequence analysis for natural hazards. The consequence analysis methodology can be applied generic both nationally and internationally and for several types of natural hazards such as landslides and flooding.

  • 46.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute .
    Nyberg, Lars
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Centre for Climate and Safety.
    Johansson, Magnus
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Persson, Erik
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Social and Life Sciences, Department of Health and Environmental Sciences.
    Effekter av samhällets säkerhetsåtgärder (ESS) - en kartering av arbetet idag med fokus på översvämningar, ras och skred2012Report (Other academic)
  • 47.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Falemo, Stefan
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Suer, Pascal
    Statens geotekniska institut.
    Grahn, Tonje
    Karlstads universitet.
    Landslide risk and climate change: economic assessment of consequenses in the Göta river valley2011Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    According to climate change scenarios, Swedish summers will be drier, but in large parts of Sweden there will also be increased annual precipitation, more intensive precipitation and periods with increased water flows. In many areas the risk for landslides is expected to increase. In response to this the SGI, on commission of the Environmental ministry, has started a risk analysis for the Göta river valley. The results of the analysis will be used in the surveillance of the safety along the Göta river valley. The valley is one of the most frequent landslide valleys in Sweden.

    The area has a long history of anthropogenic activities such as settlements, shipping, industry, contaminated soil and infrastructure including large roads and railroads. A number of landslides occur every year. The landslide risk analysis of Göta river valley is performed by traditional technical risk analysis, i.e. a function of hazard probability and consequences of the hazard. Elements at risk in the valley include for example, human life, transport and other infrastructure, properties and industrial activities, contaminated land, agriculture and forestry, and intangibles such as biodiversity. Exposure, vulnerability and the monetary value related to the landslide are used to describe the consequence of the landslide.

    This paper shows the process and structure of this consequence analysis for natural hazards. The consequence analysis methodology can be applied generic both nationally and internationally and for several types of natural hazards such as landslides and flooding.

  • 48.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Fallsvik, Jan
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Hultén, Carina
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköpings universitet, Centrum för klimatpolitisk forskning.
    Hjerpe, Mattias
    Linköpings universitet.
    Glaas, Erik
    Linköpings universitet.
    Climate change in Sweden: geotechnical and contaminated land consequences2008In: WSEAS International Conference on Environmental and Geological Science,2008, 2008, p. 52-57Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

         

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  • 49.
    Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne
    et al.
    University of Gothenburg; COWI AB, Gothenburg.
    Thorsson, Sofia
    University of Gothenburg.
    Rayner, David
    University of Gothenburg.
    Lindberg, Fredrik
    University of Gothenburg.
    Janhäll, Sara
    The Swedish National Road and Transport Research Institute (VTI), Gothenburg.
    Jonsson, Anna
    Linköping University.
    Moback, Ulf
    City of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Bergman, Ramona
    Swedish Geotechnical Institute (SGI), Gothenburg.
    Granberg, Mikael
    Karlstad University, Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences (starting 2013), Department of Political, Historical, Religious and Cultural Studies (from 2013). Karlstad University, Faculty of Health, Science and Technology (starting 2013), Centre for Climate and Safety (from 2013).
    An integrated method for assessing climate-related risks and adaptation alternatives in urban areas2015In: Climate Risk Management, E-ISSN 2212-0963, Vol. 7, p. 31-50Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The urban environment is a complex structure with interlinked social, ecological and technical structures. Global warming is expected to have a broad variety of impacts, which will add to the complexity. Climate changes will force adaptation, to reduce climate-related risks. Adaptation measures can address one aspect at the time, or aim for a holistic approach to avoid maladaptation. This paper presents a systematic, integrated approach for assessing alternatives for reducing the risks of heat waves, flooding and air pollution in urban settings, with the aim of reducing the risk of maladaptation. The study includes strategies covering different spatial scales, and both the current climate situation and the climate predicted under climate change scenarios. The adaptation strategies investigated included increasing vegetation; selecting density, height and colour of buildings; and retreat or resist (defend) against sea-level rise. Their effectiveness was assessed with regard to not only flooding, heat stress and air quality but also with regard to resource use, emissions to air (incl. GHG), soil and water, and people’s perceptions and vulnerability. The effectiveness of the strategies were ranked on a common scale (from -3 to 3) in an integrated assessment. Integrated assessments are recommended, as they help identify the most sustainable solutions, but to reduce the risk of maladaptation they require experts from a variety of disciplines. The most generally applicable recommendation, derived from the integrated assessment here, taking into account both expertise from different municipal departments, literature surveys, life cycle assessments and publics perceptions, is to increase the urban greenery, as it contributes to several positive aspects such as heat stress mitigation, air quality improvement, effective storm-water and flood-risk management, and it has several positive social impacts. The most favourable alternative was compact, mid-rise, light coloured building design with large parks/green areas and trees near buildings. © 2015 The Authors.

  • 50.
    Andin, Caroline
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Earth Sciences, Department of Earth Sciences.
    Synoptic Variability of Extreme Snowfall in the St. Elias Mountains, Yukon, Canada2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Glaciers of southwestern Yukon (Canada) and southeastern Alaska (USA) are presently experiencing high rates of annual mass loss. These high melt rates have mainly been investigated with respect to regional temperature trends, but comparatively little is known about how climate variations regulate snow accumulation on these glaciers. This study examines the synoptic weather patterns and air flow trajectories associated with extreme snowfall events in the central St. Elias Mountains (Yukon). The analyses are based on data retrieved from an automated weather station (AWS) between 2003 and 2012, which provide the longest continuous records of surface meteorological data ever obtained from this remote region.

    The AWS data reveal that 47 extreme snowfall events (> 27 cm per 12 hours) occurred during this period, of which 79 % took place during the cold season months. Air flow trajectories associated with these events indicate that a vast majority had their origin in the North Pacific south of 50°N. Less frequent were air masses with a source in the Aleutian Arc/Bering Sea region and the Gulf of Alaska, and in a few rare cases precipitating air was traced to continental source regions in Western Canada and Alaska. Composite maps of sea-level pressure and upper-level winds associated with extreme snowfall events revealed a frequent synoptic pattern with a low-pressure area centered over the Kenai Peninsula (Alaska), which drives strong southerly winds over the Gulf of Alaska towards the St. Elias Mountains. This pattern is consistent with AWS data wind recordings during snow storms. The most typical synoptic configurations of the North Pacific low-pressure area during extreme snowfall events are either elongated, split, or single-centered, and these situations represent possible seasonal analogues for the different states of the Aleutian Low in the subarctic North Pacific. However, neither the geographical position or intensity of negative sea-level pressure anomalies, nor surface pressure gradients associated with extreme snowfall events are good predictors of the actual snowfall SWE amounts recorded in the central St. Elias Mountains. Estimated snowfall and total precipitation gradients with altitude were confirmed to be much steeper (by up to ~30 %) on the continental side (Yukon), than on the coastal side (Alaska) of the St. Elias Mountains, reflecting the strong orographic division between the continental and coastal marine climatic regimes. Finally, patterns of 500-mb geopotential height anomalies associated with extreme snowfall events at Divide were compared with those associated with unusually high accumulation years in an ice core from the nearby Eclipse Icefield. Results confirm previous findings that associate high snow accumulation winters in this region with the presence of a strong dipole pressure structure between western North America and the Aleutian Low region, a structure which resembles the positive phase of the Pacific North American atmospheric circulation pattern. 

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