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  • 1. Aabloo, A
    et al.
    Klintenberg, M
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of a polymer-inorganic interface.2000In: Electrochim.Acta, Vol. 45, 1425- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 2.
    Aabloo, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of Nd3+ ions in a crystalline PEO surface1998In: ELECTROCHIMICA ACTA, ISSN 0013-4686, Vol. 43, no 10-11, 1361-1364 p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Poly(ethylene oxide) based electrolytes are systems in which ionic salts are dissolved into an amorphous EO matrix. Potentials developed earlier to model crystalline and amorphous bulk PEO systems are here used for the MD simulation at 400 K of the behavi

  • 3.
    Aabloo, A
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Molecular dynamics simulations of a poly(ethylene oxide) surface1997In: POLYMER, ISSN 0032-3861, Vol. 38, no 18, A47-A51 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Potentials developed earlier for crystalline and amorphous bulk PEO systems have been used for the MD simulation of a PEO surface model. The surface comprises the outer region of a 122 Angstrom-thick sheet of PEO in which the PEO, -(CH2-CH2-O)(n)- chains

  • 4. Aabloo, A.
    et al.
    Thomas, John Oswald
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Molecular dynamics simulation of lithium ion mobility in a PEO surface.2001In: Solid State Ionics, Vol. 143, 83- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 5.
    Aarik, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Aidla, A.
    Mändar, H.
    Uustare, T.
    Schuisky, M.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Hårsta, A.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Atomic layer growth of epitaxial TiO2 thin films from TiCl4 and H2O on a-Al2O3 substrates2002In: J. Cryst. Growth, no 242, 189-198 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 6.
    Aarik, J.
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Sundqvist, J.
    Aidla, A.
    Lu, J.
    Sajavaara, T.
    Kukli, K.
    Hårsta, Anders
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. oorganisk kemi.
    Hafnium tetraiodide and oxygen as precursors for atomic layer deposition of hafnium oxide thin films2002In: Thin Solid Films, Vol. 418, 69-72 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 7. Abbasi, Alireza
    et al.
    Damian Risberg, Emiliana
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Physical, Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Mink, Janos
    Persson, Ingmar
    Sandström, Magnus
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Sidorov, Yurii V.
    Skripkin, Mikhail Yu.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Inorganic and Structural Chemistry.
    Ullström, Ann-Sofi
    Crystallographic and Vibrational Spectroscopic Studies of Octakis(dimethyl sulfoxide)lanthanoid(III) Iodides2007In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 46, no 19, 7731-7741 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The octakis(DMSO) (DMSO = dimethylsulfoxide) neodymium(III), samarium(III), gadolinium(III), dysprosium(III), erbium(III), and lutetium(III) iodides crystallize in the monoclinic space group P21/n (No. 14) with Z = 4, while the octakis(DMSO) iodides of the larger lanthanum(III), cerium(III), and praseodymium(III) ions crystallize in the orthorhombic space group Pbca (No. 61), Z = 8. In all [Ln(OS(Me2)8]I3 compounds the lanthanoid(III) ions coordinate eight DMSO oxygen atoms in a distorted square antiprism. Up to three of the DMSO ligands were found to be disordered and were described by two alternative configurations related by a twist around the metal−oxygen (Ln−O) bond. To resolve the atomic positions and achieve reliable Ln−O bond distances, complete semirigid DMSO molecules with restrained geometry and partial occupancy were refined for the alternative sites. This disorder model was also applied on previously collected data for the monoclinic octakis(DMSO)yttrium(III) iodide. At ambient temperature, the eight Ln−O bond distances are distributed over a range of about 0.1 Å. The average value increases from Ln−O 2.30, 2.34, 2.34, 2.36, 2.38, 2.40 to 2.43 Å (Ln = Lu, Er, Y, Dy, Gd, Sm, and Nd) for the monoclinic [Ln(OSMe2)8]I3 structures, and from 2.44, 2.47 to 2.49 Å (Ln = Pr, Ce, and La) for the orthorhombic structures, respectively. The average of the La−O and Nd−O bond distances remained unchanged at 100 K, 2.49 and 2.43 Å, respectively. Despite longer bond distances and larger Ln−O−S angles, the cell volumes are smaller for the orthorhombic structures (Ln = Pr, Ce, and La) than for the monoclinic structure with Ln = Nd, showing a more efficient packing arrangement. Raman and IR absorption spectra for the [Ln(OS(CH3)2)8]I3 (Ln = La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Gd, Tb, Dy, Er, Lu, and Y) compounds, also deuterated for La and Y, have been recorded and analyzed by means of normal coordinate methods. The force constants for the Ln−O and S−O stretching modes in the complexes increase with decreasing Ln−O bond distance and show increasing polarization of the bonds for the smaller and heavier lanthanoid(III) ions.

  • 8. Abbrent, S
    et al.
    Plestil, J
    Hlavata, D
    Lindgren, Jan
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Tegenfeldt, Jörgen
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Wendsjö, Å
    Crystallinity and morphology of PVdF-HFP based gel electrolytes.2001In: Polymer, Vol. 42, 1407- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9.
    Abrahamsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Chemical Physics.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science, Chemical Physics.
    Tocher, Derek
    Nag, Samik
    Datta, Dipankar
    Modulation of the lowest metal-to-ligand charge-transfer state in [Ru(bpy)(2)(N-N)](2+) systems by changing the N-N from hydrazone to azine: Photophysical Consequences2006In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 45, no 23, 9580-9586 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two Ru( II) complexes, [ Ru( bpy) L-2]( ClO4) 2 ( 1) and [ Ru( bpy)(2)L']( BF4) 2 ( 2), where bpy is 2,2'-bipyridine, L is diacetyl dihydrazone, and L' 1: 2 is the condensate of L and acetone, are synthesized. From X-ray crystal structures, both are found to contain distorted octahedral RuN62+ cores. NMR spectra show that the cations in 1 and 2 possess a C-2 axis in solution. They display the expected metal-to-ligand charge transfer ( (MLCT)-M-1) band in the 400 - 500 nm region. Complex 1 is nonemissive at room temperature in solution as well as at 80 K. In contrast, complex 2 gives rise to an appreciable emission upon excitation at 440 nm. The room-temperature emission is centered at 730 nm ( lambda(max)(em)) with a quantum yield ( em) of 0.002 and a lifetime ( tau(em)) of 42 ns in an air-equilibrated methanol - ethanol solution. At 80 K, Phi(em) = 0.007 and tau(em)= 178 ns, with a lambda(max)(em) of 690 nm, which is close to the 0 - 0 transition, indicating an (MLCT)-M-3 excited-state energy of 1.80 eV. The radiative rate constant ( 5 x 10(4) s(-1)) at room temperature and 80 K is almost temperature independent. From spectroelectrochemistry, it is found that bpy is easiest to reduce in 2 and that L is easiest in 1. The implications of this are that in 2 the lowest (MLCT)-M-3 state is localized on a bpy ligand and in 1 it is localized on L. Transient absorption results also support these assignments. As a consequence, even though 2 shows a fairly strong and long-lived emission from a Ru( II) -> bpy CT state, the Ru( II) -> L CT state in 1 shows no detectable emission even at 80 K.

  • 10.
    Abrahamsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Lundqvist, Maria
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Quantum Chemistry.
    Wolpher, Henriette
    Johansson, Olof
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Eriksson, Lars
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Rasmussen, Torben
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Biochemistry and Organic Chemistry.
    Becker, Hans-Christian
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Photochemistry and Molecular Science.
    Norrby, Per-Ola
    Åkermark, Björn
    Persson, Petter
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Quantum Chemistry.
    Steric influence on the excited-state lifetimes of ruthenium complexes with bipyridyl-alkanylene-pyridyl ligands.2008In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 47, no 9, 3540-3548 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The structural effect on the metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) excited-state lifetime has been investigated in bis-tridentate Ru(II)-polypyridyl complexes based on the terpyridine-like ligands [6-(2,2'-bipyridyl)](2-pyridyl)methane (1) and 2-[6-(2,2'-bipyridyl)]-2-(2-pyridyl)propane (2). A homoleptic ([Ru(2)(2)](2+)) and a heteroleptic complex ([Ru(ttpy)(2)](2+)) based on the new ligand 2 have been prepared and their photophysical and structural properties studied experimentally and theoretically and compared to the results for the previously reported [Ru(1)(2)](2+). The excited-state lifetime of the homoleptic Ru-II complex with the isopropylene-bridged ligand 2 was found to be 50 times shorter than that of the corresponding homoleptic Ru-II complex of ligand 1, containing a methylene bridge. A comparison of the ground-state geometries of the two homoleptic complexes shows that steric interactions involving the isopropylene bridges make the coordination to the central Ru-II ion less octahedral in [Ru(2)(2)](2+) than in [Ru(1)(2))(2+). Calculations indicate that the structural differences in these complexes influence their ligand field splittings as well as the relative stabilities of the triplet metal-to-ligand charge transfer ((MLCT)-M-3) and metal-centered ((MC)-M-3) excited states. The large difference in measured excited-state lifetimes for the two homoleptic Ru-II complexes is attributed to a strong influence of steric interactions on the ligand field strength, which in turn affects the activation barriers for thermal conversion from (MLCT)-M-3 states to short-lived (MC)-M-3 states.

  • 11.
    Abrahamsson, Maria
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, För teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten gemensamma enheter, Accelerator mass spectrometry group. Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry.
    Wolpher, Henriette
    Johansson, Olof
    Larsson, Jan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry.
    Kritikos, Mikael
    Eriksson, Lars
    Norrby, Per-Ola
    Bergquist, Jonas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry, Analytical Chemistry.
    Sun, Licheng
    Åkermark, Björn
    Hammarström, Leif
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Physical Chemistry.
    A New Strategy for the Improvement of Photophysical Properties in Ruthenium(II) Polypyridyl Complexes: Synthesis and Photophysical and Electrochemical Characterization of Six Mononuclear Ruthenium(II) Bisterpyridine-Type Complexes2005In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 44, no 9, 3215-3225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 12.
    Abrikosov, Igor A.
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Alling, Björn
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Steneteg, Peter
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Media and Information Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hultberg, Lasse
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Hellman, Olle
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Yu Mosyagin, Igor
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Theoretical Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Moscow, Russia.
    Lugovskoy, Andrey V.
    Department of Theoretical Physics and Quantum Technologies, National Research, Technological University MISiS, Russia.
    Barannikova, Svetlana A.
    Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science, Siberian Branch of Russian Academy of Science, Tomsk, Russia / Department of Physics and Engineering, Tomsk State University, Tomsk, Russia.
    Finite Temperature, Magnetic, and Many-Body Effects in Ab Initio Simulations of Alloy Thermodynamics2013In: TMS2013 Supplemental Proceedings, John Wiley & Sons, 2013, 617-626 p.Chapter in book (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Ab initio electronic structure theory is known as a useful tool for prediction of materials properties. However, majority of simulations still deal with calculations in the framework of density functional theory with local or semi-local functionals carried out at zero temperature. We present new methodological solution.s, which go beyond this approach and explicitly take finite temperature, magnetic, and many-body effects into account. Considering Ti-based alloys, we discuss !imitations of the quasiharmonic approximation for the treatment of lattice vibrations, and present an accurate and easily extendable method to calculate free ,energies of strongly anharmonic solids. We underline the necessity to going beyond the state-of-the-art techniques for the determination of effective cluster interactions in systems exhibiting mctal-to-insulator transition, and describe a unified cluster expansion approach developed for this class of materials. Finally, we outline a first-principles method, disordered local moments molecular dynamics, for calculations of thermodynamic properties of magnetic alloys, like Cr1-x,.AlxN, in their high-temperature paramagnetic state. Our results unambiguously demonstrate importance of finite temperature effects in theoretical calculations ofthermodynamic properties ofmaterials.

  • 13. Acharya, Shravan S.
    et al.
    Easton, Christopher D.
    McCoy, Thomas M.
    Spiccia, Leone
    Ohlin, C. Andre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Winther-Jensen, Bjorn
    Diverse composites of metal-complexes and PEDOT facilitated by metal-free vapour phase polymerization2017In: Reactive & functional polymers, ISSN 1381-5148, E-ISSN 1873-166X, Vol. 116, 101-106 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract Oxidative polymerization for the manufacture of conducting polymers such as poly(3,4-ethylenedioxy-thiophene) has traditionally employed iron(III) salts. Demonstrated in this study is vapour phase polymerization of 3,4-ethylenedio- xythiophene using a metal-free oxidant, ammonium persulfate, leading to films with an estimated conductivity of 75 S/cm. Additionally, a route for embedding active transition metal complexes into these poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene)/-poly(styrene-4-sulfonate) (PEDOT/PSS) films via vapour assisted complexation is outlined. Here, the vapour pressure of solid ligands around their melting temperatures was exploited to ensure complexation to metal ions added into the oxidant mixture prior to polymerization of PEDOT. Four composite systems are discussed, viz. PEDOT/PSS embedded with tris(8-hydroxyquinolinato)cobalt(III), tris(2,2-bipyridine)cobalt(II), tris(1,10- phenanthroline)cobalt(II) and tris(8-hyd-roxyquinolinato)aluminium(III). Using these composites, electrochemical reduction of nitrite to ammonia with a faradaic efficiency of 61% was reported.

  • 14. Acharya, Shravan
    et al.
    Winther-Jensen, Bjorn
    Spiccia, Leone
    Ohlin, C. Andre
    Umeå University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Department of Chemistry.
    Rates of water exchange in 2,2'-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline complexes of CoII and MnII2017In: Australian journal of chemistry (Print), ISSN 0004-9425, E-ISSN 1445-0038, Vol. 70, 751-754 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

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    The catalytically and geochemically relevant rates of water exchange of four new CoII and one new MnII 2,2ʹ-bipyridine and 1,10-phenanthroline complexes have been determined using the temperature-dependent line broadening of the 17O NMR signal from the solvent water.

  • 15.
    Adolfsson, Erik
    Stockholm University.
    Phase Stability and Preparations of Oxide-Apatite Composites1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In the preparation of bioactive composites containing hydroxyapatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH), and an oxide it has been a problem to prevent the hydroxyapatite from decomposing in the sintering process. This is because H2O is evolved when hydroxyapatite is heated, implying that the occupied OH- positions in hydroxyapatite structure are partly replaced by vacancies and O2- ions. The thermal stability of hydroxyapatite was found to depend on the fraction of vacancies and O2- ions present. The decomposition of the hydroxyapatite is initiated when a critical fraction of the OH- ions has been lost, and it is not specifically related to the temperature applied or atmosphere used. The decomposition temperature of hydroxyapatite and fluoride-containing apatite, Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xFx, in the presence of alumina has been studied and found to increase with increasing x value in Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xFx. By combining this observation with thermogravimetric studies of hydroxyapatite and Ca5(PO4)3OH1-xFxsamples, it was concluded that the decomposition of hydroxyapatite in the presence of alumina can be described by the following reactions:

    Ca5(PO4)3(OH) --> Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xOx/2 + x/2 H20

    2 Ca5(PO4)3(OH)1-xOx/2+ Al2O3 --> 3 Ca3(PO4)2 + CaAl2O4 + (1-x) H2O

    With the use of a closed system for sintering the aluminañapatite composites, the loss of water can be reduced. The equilibrium in the first reaction will then be shifted to the left, and the second reaction will not occur. This implies that a higher sintering temperature can be used to densify an aluminañhydroxyapatite composite. Accordingly, composites of alumina and zirconia, respectively, with hydroxyapatite could be hot isostatically pressed (HIPed) in a closed system at 1200oC and at a pressure of 160 MPa without any detectable decomposition of the hydroxyapatite. Another way to avoid excess formation of vacancies is to replace some of the OH-ions with F-. This implies that the equilibrium in the first reaction given above is shifted to the left, thus improving the thermal stability of the apatite.

    The main result of this thesis work is a more detailed understanding of the reaction between the oxide and hydroxyapatite, which has made it possible to prepare densified oxide-hydroxyapatite composites without decomposition of the hydroxyapatite phase.

  • 16.
    Afzal, Muhammad
    et al.
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Saleemi, Mohsin
    KTH, School of Information and Communication Technology (ICT), Materials- and Nano Physics.
    Wang, Baoyuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Xia, Chen
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhang, Wei
    He, Yunjuan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Jayasuriya, Jeevan
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Zhu, Binzhu
    KTH, School of Industrial Engineering and Management (ITM), Energy Technology, Heat and Power Technology.
    Fabrication of novel electrolyte-layer free fuel cell with semi-ionic conductor (Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta- Sm0.2Ce0.8O1.9) and Schottky barrier2016In: Journal of Power Sources, ISSN 0378-7753, E-ISSN 1873-2755, Vol. 328, 136-142 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Perovskite Ba0.5Sr0.5Co0.8Fe0.2O3-delta (BSCF) is synthesized via a chemical co-precipitation technique for a low temperature solid oxide fuel cell (LTSOFC) (300-600 degrees C) and electrolyte-layer free fuel cell (EFFC) in a comprehensive study. The EFFC with a homogeneous mixture of samarium doped ceria (SDC): BSCF (60%:40% by weight) which is rather similar to the cathode (SDC: BSCF in 50%:50% by weight) used for a three layer SOFC demonstrates peak power densities up to 655 mW/cm(2), while a three layer (anode/ electrolyte/cathode) SOFC has reached only 425 mW/cm(2) at 550 degrees C. Chemical phase, crystal structure and morphology of the as-prepared sample are characterized by X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy. The electrochemical performances of 3-layer SOFC and EFFC are studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). As-prepared BSCF has exhibited a maximum conductivity above 300 S/cm at 550 degrees C. High performance of the EFFC device corresponds to a balanced combination between ionic and electronic (holes) conduction characteristic. The Schottky barrier prevents the EFFC from the electronic short circuiting problem which also enhances power output. The results provide a new way to produce highly effective cathode materials for LTSOFC and semiconductor designs for EFFC functions using a semiconducting-ionic material.

  • 17. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Four-Center Oxidation State Combinations and Near-Infrared Absorption in[Ru(pap)(Q)2]n (Q=3,5-Di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine,pap=2-Phenylazopyridine)2013In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 19, 7384-7394 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 18. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Electronic structure and catalytic aspects of [Ru(tpm)​(bqdi)​(Cl​/H2O)​]​n, tpm = tris(1-​pyrazolyl)​methane and bqdi = o-​benzoquinonediimine2013In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 42, 3721-3734 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The diamagnetic complexes [Ru(tpm)(bqdi)(Cl)]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) (tpm = tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane, bqdi =o-benzoquinonediimine) and [Ru(tpm)(bqdi)(H2O)](ClO4)2 ([2](ClO4)2) have been synthesized. Thevalence state-sensitive bond distances of coordinated bqdi [C–N: 1.311(5)/1.322(5) Å in [1]ClO4;1.316(7)/1.314(7) Å in molecule A and 1.315(6)/1.299(7) Å in molecule B of [2](ClO4)2] imply its fullyoxidised quinonediimine (bqdi0) character. DFT calculations of 1+ confirm the {RuII–bqdi0} versus the antiferromagneticallycoupled {RuIII–bqdi˙−} alternative. The 1H NMR spectra of [1]ClO4 in different solventsshow variations in chemical shift positions of the NH (bqdi) and CH (tpm) proton resonances due to theirdifferent degrees of acidity in different solvents. In CH3CN/0.1 mol dm−3 Et4NClO4, [1]ClO4 undergoesone reversible RuII ⇌ RuIII oxidation and two reductions, the reversible first electron uptake being bqdibased (bqdi0/bqdi˙−). The electrogenerated paramagnetic species {RuIII–bqdi0}(12+) and {RuII–Q˙−}(1)exhibit RuIII-type (12+: <g> = 2.211/Δg = 0.580) and radical-type (1: g = 1.988) EPR signals, respectively, asis confirmed by calculated spin densities (Ru: 0.767 in 12+, bqdi: 0.857 in 1). The aqua complex [2](ClO4)2exhibits two one-electron oxidations at pH = 7, suggesting the formation of {RuIVvO} species. The electronicspectral features of 1n (n = charge associated with the different redox states of the chloro complex:2+, 1+, 0) in CH3CN and of 22+ in H2O have been interpreted based on the TD-DFT calculations. The applicationpotential of the aqua complex 22+ as a pre-catalyst towards the epoxidation of olefins has beenexplored in the presence of the sacrificial oxidant PhI(OAc)2 in CH2Cl2 at 298 K, showing the desiredselectivity with a wide variety of alkenes. DFT calculations based on styrene as the model substratepredict that the epoxidation reaction proceeds through a concerted transition state pathway.IntroductionThe well recognized mixing of ruthenium dπ orbitals andπ orbitals of redox non-innocent quinonoid moieties introducesseveral manifestations with respect to the valence distributionat the metal–quinonoid interface, as depicted in Scheme 1.1This makes the electronic structure of such complexes sensitiveto the molecular frameworks, and in many occasions theexperimental results

  • 19. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Synthesis, Spectral Characterization, Structures, and Oxidation StateDistributions in [(corrolato)FeIII(NO)]n (n = 0, +1, −1) Complexes2014In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 53, 1417-1429 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two novel trans-A2B-corroles and three[(corrolato){FeNO}6] complexes have been prepared andcharacterized by various spectroscopic techniques. In thenative state, all these [(corrolato){FeNO}6] species arediamagnetic and display “normal” chemical shifts in the 1HNMR spectra. For two of the structurally characterized[(corrolato){FeNO}6] derivatives, the Fe−N−O bond anglesare 175.0(4)° and 171.70(3)° (DFT: 179.94°), respectively,and are designated as linear nitrosyls. The Fe−N (NO) bonddistances are 1.656(4) Å and 1.650(3) Å (DFT: 1.597 Å),which point toward a significant FeIII → NO back bonding.The NO bond lengths are 1.159(5) Å and 1.162(3) Å (DFT:1.162 Å) and depict their elongated character. These structural data are typical for low-spin Fe(III). Electrochemicalmeasurements show the presence of a one-electron oxidation and a one-electron reduction process for all the complexes. Theone-electron oxidized species of a representative [(corrolato){FeNO}6] complex exhibits ligand to ligand charge transfer(LLCT) transitions (cor(π) → cor(π*)) at 399 and 637 nm, and the one-electron reduced species shows metal to ligand chargetransfer (MLCT) transition (Fe(dπ) → cor(π*)) in the UV region at 330 nm. The shift of the νNO stretching frequency of arepresentative [(corrolato){FeNO}6] complex on one-electron oxidation occurs from 1782 cm−1 to 1820 cm−1, whichcorresponds to 38 cm−1, and on one-electron reduction occurs from 1782 cm−1 to 1605 cm−1, which corresponds to 177 cm−1.The X-band electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrum of one-electron oxidation at 295 K in CH2Cl2/0.1 M Bu4NPF6displays an isotropic signal centered at g = 2.005 with a peak-to-peak separation of about 15 G. The in situ generated oneelectronreduced species in CH2Cl2/0.1 M Bu4NPF6 at 295 K shows an isotropic signal centered at g = 2.029. The 99%contribution of corrole to the HOMO of native species indicates that oxidation occurs from the corrole moiety. The results of theelectrochemical and spectroelectrochemical measurements and density functional theory calculations clearly display a preferenceof the {FeNO}6 unit to get reduced during the reduction step and the corrolato unit to get oxidized during the anodic process.Comparisons are presented with the structural, electrochemical, and spectroelectrochemical data of related compounds reportedin the literature, with a particular focus on the interpretation of the EPR spectrum of the one-electron oxidized form.

  • 20. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Sensitivity of the Valence Structure in Diruthenium Complexes As aFunction of Terminal and Bridging Ligands2014In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 53, 6082-6093 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The compounds [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L2−)RuIII(acac)2] (rac, 1, and meso, 1′) and[(bpy)2RuII(μ-H2L•−)RuII(bpy)2](ClO4)3 (meso, [2](ClO4)3) have been structurally, magnetically,spectroelectrochemically, and computationally characterized (acac− = acetylacetonate, bpy= 2,2′-bipyridine, and H4L = 1,4-diamino-9,10-anthraquinone). The N,O;N′,O′-coordinated μ-H2Ln− forms two β-ketiminato-type chelate rings, and 1 or 1′ are connected via NH···Ohydrogen bridges in the crystals. 1 exhibits a complex magnetic behavior, while [2](ClO4)3 is aradical species with mixed ligand/metal-based spin. The combination of redox noninnocentbridge (H2L0 → → → →H2L4−) and {(acac)2RuII} → →{(acac)2RuIV} or {(bpy)2RuII} →{(bpy)2RuIII} in 1/1′ or 2 generates alternatives regarding the oxidation state formulations for the accessible redox states (1n and2n), which have been assessed by UV−vis−NIR, EPR, and DFT/TD-DFT calculations. The experimental and theoretical studiessuggest variable mixing of the frontier orbitals of the metals and the bridge, leading to the following most appropriate oxidationstate combinations: [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L•−)RuIII(acac)2]+ (1+) → [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L2−)RuIII(acac)2] (1) → [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L•3−)RuIII(acac)2]−/[(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L2−)RuII(acac)2]− (1−) → [(acac)2RuIII(μ-H2L4−)RuIII(acac)2]2−/[(acac)2RuII(μ-H2L2−)RuII(acac)2]2− (12−) and [(bpy)2RuIII(μ-H2L•−)RuII(bpy)2]4+ (24+) → [(bpy)2RuII(μ-H2L•−)RuII(bpy)2]3+/[(bpy)2RuII(μ-H2L2−)RuIII(bpy)2]3+ (23+) → [(bpy)2RuII(μ-H2L2−)RuII(bpy)2]2+ (22+). The favoring of RuIII by σ-donatingacac− and of RuII by the π-accepting bpy coligands shifts the conceivable valence alternatives accordingly. Similarly, theintroduction of the NH donor function in H2Ln as compared to O causes a cathodic shift of redox potentials with correspondingconsequences for the valence structure.

  • 21. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Electronic structures and selective fluoride sensingfeatures of Os(bpy)2(HL2−) and [{Os(bpy)2}2(μ-HL2−)]2+(H3L: 5-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid)2014In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 43, 13932-13947 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The article deals with the newly designed mononuclear and asymmetric dinuclear osmium(II) complexesOsII(bpy)2(HL2−) (1) and [(bpy)2OsII(μ-HL2−)OsII(bpy)2](Cl)2 ([2](Cl)2)/[(bpy)2OsII(μ-HL2−)OsII(bpy)2](ClO4)2([2](ClO4)2), respectively, (H3L = 5-(1H-benzo[d]imidazol-2-yl)-1H-imidazole-4-carboxylic acid and bpy = 2,2’-bipyridine). The identity of 1 has been established by its single crystal X-ray structure. The ligand (HL2−)-basedprimary oxidation process (E°298, 0.23 V versus SCE) along with the partial metal contribution (∼20%) in 1 hasbeen revealed by the ligand-dominated HOMO of 1 (HL2−: 88%, Os: 8%), as well as by the Mulliken spindensity distribution of 1+ (HL2−: 0.878, Os: 0.220). Accordingly, 1+ exhibits a free radical type EPR at 77 K witha partial metal-based anisotropic feature (g1 = 2.127, g2 = 2.096, g3 = 2.046; <g> = 2.089; Δg = 0.08).1H-NMR of the dinuclear 22+ in CDCl3 suggests an intimate mixture of two diastereomeric forms in a 1 : 1ratio. The DFT-supported predominantly Os(II)/Os(III)-based couples of asymmetric 22+ at 0.24 V and 0.50 Vversus SCE result in a comproportionation constant (Kc) value of 8.2 × 104. The class I mixed valent state of23+ (S = 1/2) has, however, been corroborated by the Mulliken spin density distribution of Os1: 0.887, Os2:0.005, HL2−: 0.117, as well as by the absence of a low-energy IVCT (intervalence charge transfer) band in thenear-IR region (up to 2000 nm). The appreciable spin accumulation on the bridge in 23+ or 24+ (S = 1, Os1:0.915, Os2: 0.811 and HL2−: 0.275) implies a mixed electronic structural form of [(bpy)2OsIII(μ-HL2−)-OsII(bpy)2]3+(major)/[(bpy)2OsII(μ-HL•−)OsII(bpy)2]3+(minor) or [(bpy)2OsIII(μ-HL2−)OsIII(bpy)2]4+(major)/[(bpy)2-OsIII(μ-HL•−)OsII(bpy)2]4+ (minor), respectively. The mixed valent {OsIII(μ-HL2−)OsII} state in 23+, however, fails toshow EPR at 77 K due to the rapid spin relaxation process. The DFT-supported bpy-based two reductions forboth 1+ and 22+ appear in the potential range of −1.5 V to −1.8 V versus SCE. The electronic transitions in 1nand 2n are assigned by the TD-DFT calculations. Furthermore, the potential anion sensing features of 1 and22+ via the involvement of the available N–H proton in the framework of coordinated HL2− have been evaluatedby different experimental investigations, in conjunction with the DFT calculations, using a wide variety ofanions such as F−, Cl−, Br−, I−, OAc−, SCN−, HSO4− and H2PO4−. This, however, establishes that both 1 and 22+are equally efficient in recognising the F− ion selectively, with log K values of 6.83 and 5.89, respectively.

  • 22. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Sensitivity of a Strained C−C Single Bond to Charge Transfer: RedoxActivity in Mononuclear and Dinuclear Ruthenium Complexes ofBis(arylimino)acenaphthene (BIAN) Ligands2014In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 53, 7389-7403 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new compounds [Ru(acac)2(BIAN)], BIAN = bis(arylimino)-acenaphthene (aryl = Ph (1a), 4-MeC6H4 (2a), 4-OMeC6H4 (3a), 4-ClC6H4 (4a), 4-NO2C6H4 (5a)), were synthesized and structurally, electrochemically, spectroscopically,and computationally characterized. The α-diimine sections of the compoundsexhibit intrachelate ring bond lengths 1.304 Å < d(CN) < 1.334 and 1.425 Å < d(CC)< 1.449 Å, which indicate considerable metal-to-ligand charge transfer in the groundstate, approaching a RuIII(BIAN•−) oxidation state formulation. The particularstructural sensitivity of the strained peri-connecting C−C bond in the BIAN ligandstoward metal-to-ligand charge transfer is discussed. Oxidation of [Ru(acac)2(BIAN)]produces electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and UV−vis−NIR (NIR = near infrared) spectroelectrochemically detectableRuIII species, while the reduction yields predominantly BIAN-based spin, in agreement with density functional theory (DFT)spin-density calculations. Variation of the substituents from CH3 to NO2 has little effect on the spin distribution but affects theabsorption spectra. The dinuclear compounds {(μ-tppz)[Ru(Cl)(BIAN)]2}(ClO4)2, tppz = 2,3,5,6-tetrakis(2-pyridyl)pyrazine;aryl (BIAN) = Ph ([1b](ClO4)2), 4-MeC6H4 ([2b](ClO4)2), 4-OMeC6H4 ([3b](ClO4)2), 4-ClC6H4 ([4b](ClO4)2), were alsoobtained and investigated. The structure determination of [2b](ClO4)2 and [3b](ClO4)2 reveals trans configuration of thechloride ligands and unreduced BIAN ligands. The DFT and spectroelectrochemical results (UV−vis−NIR, EPR) indicateoxidation to a weakly coupled RuIIIRuII mixed-valent species but reduction to a tppz-centered radical state. The effect of the πelectron-accepting BIAN ancillary ligands is to diminish the metal−metal interaction due to competition with the acceptor bridgetppz.

  • 23. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Bidirectional non-​innocence of the β-​diketonato ligand 9-​oxidophenalenone (L-​) in [Ru([9]​aneS3)​(L)​(dmso)​]​n, [9]​aneS3 = 1,​4,​7-​trithiacyclononane2014In: Dalton Transactions, ISSN 1477-9226, E-ISSN 1477-9234, Vol. 43, 3939-3948 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new compound [RuII([9]aneS3)(L)(dmso)]ClO4 ([1]ClO4) ([9]aneS3 = 1,4,7-trithiacyclononane, HL =9-hydroxyphenalenone, dmso = dimethylsulfoxide) has been structurally characterised to reveal almostequal C–O bond distances of coordinated L−, suggesting a delocalised bonding situation of the β-diketonatoligand. The dmso ligand is coordinated via the sulfur atom in the native (1+) and reduced states(1 and 1−) as has been revealed by X-ray crystallography and by DFT calculations. Cyclic voltammetry of1+ exhibits two close-lying one-electron oxidation waves at 0.77 V and 0.94 V, and two similarly closeone-electron reduction processes at −1.43 V and −1.56 V versus SCE in CH2Cl2. The electronic structuresof 1n in the accessible redox states have been analysed via experiments (EPR and UV-vis-NIR spectroelectrochemistry)and by DFT/TD-DFT calculations, revealing the potential for bidirectional non-innocent behaviourof coordinated L•/−/•2−. Specifically, the studies establish significant involvement of L basedfrontier orbitals in both the oxidation and reduction processes: [([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuIII–L•]3+ (13+) ⇌ [([9]-aneS3)(dmso)RuIII–L−]2+/[([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuII–L•]2+ (12+) ⇌ [([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuII–L−]+ (1+) ⇌ [([9]aneS3)-(dmso)RuII–L•2−] (1) ⇌ [([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuII–L3−]−/[([9]aneS3)(dmso)RuI–L•2−]− (1−).

  • 24. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Probing valence and spin situations in selective ruthenium–iminoquinonoidframeworks. An experimental and DFT analysis2011In: Inorganica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0020-1693, E-ISSN 1873-3255, Vol. 374, 216-225 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The ruthenium–iminoquinone complexes, [Ru(tpm)(Cl)(Q)]+ [tpm = tris(1-pyrazolyl)methane, Q = 3,5-di-tert-butyl-N-aryl-1,2-benzoquinonemonoimine, where aryl = C6H5, [1]+; m-(OCH3)2C6H3, [2]+;m-(Cl)2C6H3, [3]+] have been synthesized. The sensitive bond distances of ‘‘Q’’ in [1](ClO4) and[2](ClO4), C–O: 1.294(8), 1.281(2) Å; C–N: 1.352(8), 1.335(2) Å; and C–C(meta): 1.366(10)/1.367(9) Å,1.364(2)/1.353(2) Å, respectively, and other analytical as well as theoretical (DFT) events suggest thevalence configuration of [RuIII(tpm)(Cl)(QSq)]+ for [1]+–[3]+. The paramagnetic [1]+–[3]+ show sharp1H NMR spectra with strikingly small J of 1.8–3.0 Hz. The DFT calculations on [1]+ predict that the triplet(S = 1) state exists above (1004 cm1) the singlet (S = 0) ground state. [1]+ exhibits l = 2.2 BM at 300 Kwhich diminishes to 0.3 BM near 2 K due to the steady decrease in the ratio of triplet to singlet populationwith the lowering of temperature. [1]+–[3]+ exhibit one oxidation and two successive reductions each inCH3CN. Experimental and DFT analyses collectively establish the valence configurations at thenon-innocent {Ru–Q} interface along the redox chain as [(tpm)(Cl)RuIII(QQo)]2+ ([1]2+–[3]2+)?[(tpm)(Cl)RuIII(QSq)]+ ([1]+–[3]+)?[(tpm)(Cl)RuII(QSq)]M[(tpm)(Cl)RuIII(QCat)] (1–3)?[(tpm)(Cl)-RuII(QCat)] ([1]–[3]). The spectral features of [1]n–[3]n (n = +2, +1, 0) have been addressed based onthe TD-DFT calculations on [1]n.

  • 25. Agarwala, Hemlata
    Correspondence of RuIIIRuII and RuIVRuIII Mixed Valent States in a SmallDinuclear Complex2012In: Chemistry - A European Journal, ISSN 0947-6539, E-ISSN 1521-3765, Vol. 18, 5667-5675 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The dirutheniumACHTUNGTRENUNG(III) compound[(m-oxa){RuACHTUNGTRENUNG(acac)2}2] [1, oxa2=oxamidato(2), acac=2,4-pentanedionato]exhibits an S=1 ground statewith antiferromagnetic spin-spin coupling(J=40 cm1). The molecularstructure in the crystal of 1·2C7H8 revealedan intramolecular metal–metaldistance of 5.433 and a notableasymmetry within the bridging ligand.Cyclic voltammetry and spectroelectrochemistry(EPR, UV/Vis/NIR) of thetwo-step reduction and of the two-stepoxidation (irreversible second step)produced monocation and monoanionintermediates (Kc=105.9) with broadNIR absorption bands (e ca.2000m1cm1) and maxima at 1800 (1)and 1500 nm (1+). TD-DFT calculationssupport a RuIIIRuII formulationfor 1 with a doublet ground state. The1+ ion (RuIVRuIII) was calculated withan S=3/2 ground state and the doubletstate higher in energy (DE=694.6 cm1). The Mulliken spin densitycalculations showed little participationof the ligand bridge in the spin accommodationfor all paramagnetic species[(m-oxa){RuACHTUNGTRENUNG(acac)2}2]n, n=+1, 0, 1,and, accordingly, the NIR absorptionswere identified as metal-to-metal (intervalence)charge transfers. Whereasonly one such NIR band was observedfor the RuIIIRuII (4d5/4d6) system 1,the RuIVRuIII (4d4/4d5) form 1+ exhibitedextended absorbance over the UV/Vis/NIR range.

  • 26.
    Aguilar-Mamani, Wilson
    Luleå University of Technology, Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Chemical Engineering.
    Crystallization of NBA-ZSM-5 from kaolin2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    ZSM-5 is an aluminosilicate zeolite with high Si/Al ratio with suitable properties for catalysis, ion exchange, adsorption and membrane applications. The main goal of this thesis was to study the growth of ZSM-5 zeolite crystals from inexpensive natural sources of silica and alumina, as well as n-butylamine (NBA) as a low-cost structure directing agent.

    The first objective of this work was to develop pathways to synthesize ZSM-5 crystals from kaolin clay or diatomaceous earth, two inexpensive natural sources of silica and alumina (Paper I). In the case of kaolin, a heat treatment was used in order to form amorphous metakaolinite. Subsequently, dealumination of the raw materials by acid leaching made it possible to reach appropriate Si/Al ratios and to reduce the amount of impurities. Finally, leached metakaolinite or diatomaceous earth was reacted with sodium hydroxide and NBA. After synthesis optimization, both sources of aluminosilicates were found to behave differently during the course of synthesis and to lead to slightly different reaction products. The final products exhibited Si/Al ratios in the range 10-20. The use of leached diatomaceous earth allowed to reach higher yield of ZSM-5 crystals within comparable synthesis times. However, low amounts of mordenite were inevitably formed as a by-product, which was related to the high calcium content of diatomaceous earth. Therefore, the rest of the thesis focused on the kaolin system.

    In order to study the growth mechanism of ZSM-5 from leached metakaolinite, a proper methodology to gain local compositional data by energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) on aluminosilicates was developed (Paper II). Zeolite A was used as a model system that could be ion-exchanged with various elements. In order to evaluate the reliability of the measurements, inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS) and EDS were compared. The EDS method developed in this work resulted in molar ratios very close to theoretical values and was therefore found more reliable than ICP-SFMS. Therefore, the method developed for zeolite A was applied in the rest of the thesis work to study the formation and growth of ZSM-5 crystals.

    The second part of this work focused on the kaolin system in order to understand the nucleation and growth processes of the ZSM-5 crystals. This system was heterogeneous, due to the formation of a gel upon heating of the synthesis mixture. First, the internal structure of the gel was investigated (Paper III). Second, a kinetic study was performed and compared with microstructural observations (Paper IV). Finally, the mechanisms leading to Al-zoning and dendritical growth of the zeolite crystals were investigated (Paper V). The characterization of the intermediate phases during the different stages of the hydrothermal synthesis were analyzed by different analytical techniques, such as inductively coupled plasma-sector field mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS), dynamic light scattering (DLS), extreme high resolution-scanning electron microscopy (XHR-SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), high resolution-transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and nitrogen gas adsorption.

    These investigations led to several important conclusions: 1) The walls of the gel were shown for the first time to be inhomogeneous and to possess a biphasic internal structure consisting of a mesoporous skeleton of aluminosilicate nanoparticles embedded in a silicate-rich soluble matrix of soft matter. 2) The kinetic study and microstructural evidences indicated that the early crystals were fully embedded inside the gel phase and that crystal growth was retarded, as the formation of the gel occurred simultaneously with the early growth of the crystals. Hence, nucleation and growth appeared to be solution mediated.  3) Finally, the Al zoning of the crystals was related to the biphasic internal structure of the gel, since the silicate-rich matrix was preferentially consumed first. 4) The dendrites present at the surface of the crystals during most of the growth process were shown to be caused by the presence of a web of nanoparticles, most likely originating from the mesoporous skeleton inside the gel.

    In the future, these findings are expected to lead to optimized synthesis pathways of catalysts with homogeneous properties and to contribute to the development of poor regions in Bolivia.

  • 27.
    Ahlquist, Mårten
    et al.
    Lund University.
    Gustafsson, Mikaela
    Karlsson, Magnus
    Thaning, Mikkel
    Axelsson, Oskar
    Wendt, Ola F.
    Rhodium(I) hydrogenation in water: Kinetic studies and the detection of an intermediate using C-13{H-1} PHIPNMR spectroscopy2007In: Inorganica Chimica Acta, ISSN 0020-1693, E-ISSN 1873-3255, Vol. 360, no 5, 1621-1627 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mechanism for hydrogenation of dimethylmaleate in water using cationic rhodium complexes with water-soluble bi-dentate phosphines has been investigated using kinetics and a novel method for the indirect detection of intermediates in catalytic hydrogenation reactions, whereby a late intermediate was detected. A mechanism is proposed involving fast, irreversible substrate binding followed by a rate-determining reaction with dihydrogen.

  • 28.
    Ahlén, Niklas
    Stockholm University.
    Carbothermal synthesis of transition metal carbide and carbonitride whiskers via a Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth mechanism1999Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    A route for the synthesis of TiC, TiCyN1-y, TaxTi1-xC and TaxTi1-xCyN1-y whiskers via a carbothermal Vapour-Liquid-Solid (VLS) growth mechanism, yielding 70-90 vol.% whiskers, has been established. The whiskers were uniform in diameter (0.3-0.6mm), and had a length of about 10-30mm. The starting materials consisted of TiO2 and/or Ta2O5, C, a catalyst metal (Ni or Fe) and NaCl. Carbon was added to reduce the oxides, and NaCl to provide chlorine in the formation of TiClx(g) and TaOxCly(g) species. The overall chemical reaction is a straightforward carbothermal reduction process. The optimum synthesis temperature was found to be 1250°C for TiCyN1-y, TaxTi1-xC and TaxTi1-xCyN1-y whisker, and 1400°C for TiC. The growth direction of the whiskers was found to be <100> for TaC and TaxTi1-xC and either <100> or <111> for TiC. Nitridation of TiC whiskers yielded TiCyN1-y whiskers with morphology and chemical composition different from those obtained by the carbothermal VLS growth mechanism. From oxidation studies it was found that TiC had the lowest oxidation resistance (onset temperature Ton=390°C) and that TaC had the highest (Ton=550°C). The oxidation onset temperature was found to increase with increasing x-value for both TaxTi1-xC and TaxTi1-xCyN1-y whiskers. Microscopy studies (SEM and TEM) showed that whiskers with a native diameter exceeding 0.3 mm split into two halves along their length when oxidised. It was found that the TiO2 particle size of oxidised TaxTi1-xC whiskers are markedly smaller than that obtained from oxidation of TiC whiskers, whereas the Ta2O5 particle size was the same as that observed for oxidised TaC whiskers.

  • 29.
    Ahvenniemi, Esko
    et al.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Akbashev, Andrew R.
    Stanford University, CA 94305 USA.
    Ali, Saima
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Bechelany, Mikhael
    University of Montpellier, France.
    Berdova, Maria
    University of Twente, Netherlands.
    Boyadjiev, Stefan
    Bulgarian Academic Science, Bulgaria.
    Cameron, David C.
    Masaryk University, Czech Republic.
    Chen, Rong
    Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Peoples R China.
    Chubarov, Mikhail
    University of Grenoble Alpes, France.
    Cremers, Veronique
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Devi, Anjana
    Ruhr University of Bochum, Germany.
    Drozd, Viktor
    St Petersburg State University, Russia.
    Elnikova, Liliya
    Institute Theoret and Expt Phys, Russia.
    Gottardi, Gloria
    Fdn Bruno Kessler, Italy.
    Grigoras, Kestutis
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Hausmann, Dennis M.
    Lam Research Corp, OR 97062 USA.
    Seong Hwang, Cheol
    Seoul National University, South Korea; Seoul National University, South Korea.
    Jen, Shih-Hui
    Globalfoundries, NY 12203 USA.
    Kallio, Tanja
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Kanervo, Jaana
    Aalto University, Finland; Abo Akad University, Finland.
    Khmelnitskiy, Ivan
    St Petersburg Electrotech University of LETI, Russia.
    Han Kim, Do
    MIT, MA 02139 USA.
    Klibanov, Lev
    Techinsights, Canada.
    Koshtyal, Yury
    Ioffe Institute, Russia.
    Krause, A. Outi I.
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Kuhs, Jakob
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Kaerkkaenen, Irina
    Sentech Instruments GmbH, Germany.
    Kaariainen, Marja-Leena
    NovaldMedical Ltd Oy, Finland.
    Kaariainen, Tommi
    NovaldMedical Ltd Oy, Finland; University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lamagna, Luca
    STMicroelectronics, Italy.
    Lapicki, Adam A.
    Seagate Technology Ireland, North Ireland.
    Leskela, Markku
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Lipsanen, Harri
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Lyytinen, Jussi
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Malkov, Anatoly
    Technical University, Russia.
    Malygin, Anatoly
    Technical University, Russia.
    Mennad, Abdelkader
    CDER, Algeria.
    Militzer, Christian
    Technical University of Chemnitz, Germany.
    Molarius, Jyrki
    Summa Semicond Oy, Finland.
    Norek, Malgorzata
    Mil University of Technology, Poland.
    Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla
    ASELSAN Inc, Turkey.
    Panov, Mikhail
    St Petersburg Electrotech University of LETI, Russia.
    Pedersen, Henrik
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Chemistry. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Piallat, Fabien
    KOBUS, France.
    Popov, Georgi
    University of Helsinki, Finland.
    Puurunen, Riikka L.
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Rampelberg, Geert
    University of Ghent, Belgium.
    Ras, Robin H. A.
    Not Found:[Ahvenniemi, Esko] Aalto Univ, Dept Chem, POB 16100, FI-00076 Espoo, Finland; [Akbashev, Andrew R.] Stanford Univ, Dept Mat Sci and Engn, Stanford, CA 94305 USA; [Ali, Saima; Krause, A. Outi I.; Lyytinen, Jussi] Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Technol, Dept Mat Sci and Engn, POB 16200, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; [Bechelany, Mikhael] Univ Montpellier, ENSCM, CNRS, IEM,UMR 5635, Pl Eugene Bataillon, F-34095 Montpellier 5, France; [Berdova, Maria] Univ Twente, Ind Focus Grp XUV Opt, NL-7522 ND Enschede, Netherlands; [Boyadjiev, Stefan] Bulgarian Acad Sci, Inst Solid State Phys, 72 Tzarigradsko Chaussee Blvd, Sofia 1784, Bulgaria; [Cameron, David C.] Masaryk Univ, CEPLANT, Kotlarska 267-2, CS-61137 Brno, Czech Republic; [Chen, Rong] Huazhong Univ Sci and Technol, Sch Mech Sci and Engn, Sch Opt and Elect Informat, 1037 Luoyu Rd, Wuhan 430074, Hubei, Peoples R China; [Chubarov, Mikhail] Univ Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, SIMAP, F-38000 Grenoble, France; [Cremers, Veronique; Kuhs, Jakob; Rampelberg, Geert] Univ Ghent, CoCooN, Dept Solid State Sci, Krijgslaan 281-S1, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium; [Devi, Anjana] Ruhr Univ Bochum, Inorgan Mat Chem, D-44801 Bochum, Germany; [Drozd, Viktor] St Petersburg State Univ, Inst Chem, Univ Skaya Emb 7-9, St Petersburg 199034, Russia; [Elnikova, Liliya] Inst Theoret and Expt Phys, Bolshaya Cheremushkinskaya 25, Moscow 117218, Russia; [Gottardi, Gloria] Fdn Bruno Kessler, Ctr Mat and Microsyst, I-38123 Trento, Italy; [Grigoras, Kestutis; Puurunen, Riikka L.; Ylivaara, Oili M. E.] VTT Tech Res Ctr Finland, POB 1000,Tietotie 3, FI-02044 Espoo, Vtt, Finland; [Hausmann, Dennis M.] Lam Res Corp, Tualatin, OR 97062 USA; [Hwang, Cheol Seong] Seoul Natl Univ, Dept Mat Sci and Engn, Coll Engn, Seoul 08826, South Korea; [Hwang, Cheol Seong] Seoul Natl Univ, Interuniv Semicond Res Ctr, Coll Engn, Seoul 08826, South Korea; [Jen, Shih-Hui] Globalfoundries, Albany, NY 12203 USA; [Kallio, Tanja; Kanervo, Jaana] Aalto Univ, Sch Chem Engn, Dept Chem, POB 16100, FI-00076 Aalto, Finland; [Kanervo, Jaana] Abo Akad Univ, FI-20500 Turku, Finland; [Khmelnitskiy, Ivan] St Petersburg Electrotech Univ LETI, Res and Educ Ctr Nanotechnol, Ul Prof Popova 5, St Petersburg 197376, Russia; [Kim, Do Han] MIT, Dept Chem Engn, 77 Massachusetts Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139 USA; [Klibanov, Lev] Techinsights, 3000 Solandt Rd, Ottawa, ON K2K2X2, Canada; [Koshtyal, Yury] Ioffe Inst, Lab Lithium Ion Technol, 26 Politekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russia; [Kaerkkaenen, Irina] Sentech Instruments GmbH, Schwarzschildstr 2, D-12489 Berlin, Germany; [Kaariainen, Marja-Leena; Kaariainen, Tommi] NovaldMed Ltd Oy, Telkantie 5, FI-82500 Kitee, Finland; [Kaariainen, Tommi] Univ Helsinki, Inorgan Chem Lab, POB 55,AI Virtasen Aukio 1, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland; [Lamagna, Luca] STMicroelectronics, Via C Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza, MB, Italy; [Lapicki, Adam A.] Seagate Technol Ireland, 1 Disc Dr, Derry BT48 7BD, North Ireland; [Leskela, Markku; Popov, Georgi] Univ Helsinki, Dept Chem, POB 55, FI-00014 Helsinki, Finland; [Lipsanen, Harri; Savin, Hele] Aalto Univ, Dept Micro and Nanosci, Tietotie 3, Espoo 02150, Finland; [Malkov, Anatoly; Malygin, Anatoly] Tech Univ, St Petersburg State Inst Technol, Dept Chem Nanotechnol and Mat Elect, 26 Moskovsky Prosp, St Petersburg 190013, Russia; [Mennad, Abdelkader] CDER, UDES, RN 11 BP 386 Bou Ismail, Tipasa 42415, Algeria; [Militzer, Christian] Tech Univ Chemnitz, Inst Chem, Phys Chem, Str Nationen 62, D-09111 Chemnitz, Germany; [Molarius, Jyrki] Summa Semicond Oy, PL 11, Espoo 02131, Finland; [Norek, Malgorzata] Mil Univ Technol, Fac Adv Technol and Chem, Dept Adv Mat and Technol, Str Kaliskiego 2, PL-00908 Warsaw, Poland; [Ozgit-Akgun, Cagla] ASELSAN Inc, Microelect Guidance and Electroopt Business Sect, TR-06750 Ankara, Turkey; [Panov, Mikhail] St Petersburg Electrotech Univ LETI, Ctr Microtechnol and Diagnost, Ul Prof Popova 5, St Petersburg 197376, Russia; [Pedersen, Henrik] Linkoping Univ, Dept Phys Chem and Biol, SE-58183 Linkoping, Sweden; [Piallat, Fabien] KOBUS, F-38330 Montbonnot St Martin, France; [Rauwel, Erwan] Tallinn Univ Technol, Tartu Coll, Puiestee 78, EE-51008 Tartu, Estonia; [Roozeboom, Fred] Eindhoven Univ Technol, Dept Appl Phys, Grp Plasma and Mat Proc, POB 513, NL-5600 MB Eindhoven, Netherlands; [Roozeboom, Fred] TNO, High Tech Campus 21, NL-5656 AE Eindhoven, Netherlands; [Sajavaara, Timo] Univ Jyvaskyla, Dept Phys, POB 35, Jyvaskyla 40014, Finland; [Salami, Hossein] Univ Maryland, Dept Chem and Biomol Engn, College Pk, MD 20742 USA; [Schneider, Nathanaelle] IRDEP CNRS, 6 Quai Watier, F-78401 Chatou, France; [Schneider, Nathanaelle] IPVF, 8 Rue Renaissance, F-92160 Antony, France; [Seidel, Thomas E.] Seitek50, POB 350238, Palm Coast, FL 32135 USA; [Sundqvist, Jonas] Fraunhofer Inst Ceram Technol and Syst IKTS, Syst Integrat and Technol Transfer, Winterbergstr 28, D-01277 Dresden, Germany; [Suyatin, Dmitry B.] Lund Univ, Div Solid State Phys, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden; [Suyatin, Dmitry B.] Lund Univ, NanoLund, Box 118, SE-22100 Lund, Sweden; [Torndahl, Tobias] Uppsala Univ, Solid State Elect, POB 534, SE-75121 Uppsala, Sweden; [van Ommen, J. Ruud] Delft Univ Technol, Dept Chem Engn, Van der Maasweg 9, NL-2629 HZ Delft, Netherlands; [Wiemer, Claudia] CNR, IMM, Lab MDM, Via C Olivetti 2, I-20864 Agrate Brianza, MB, Italy; [Yurkevich, Oksana] Immanuel Kant Balt Fed Univ, Res and Educ Ctr Funct Nanomat, A Nevskogo 14, Kaliningrad 236041, Russia.
    Rauwel, Erwan
    Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia.
    Roozeboom, Fred
    Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands; TNO, Netherlands.
    Sajavaara, Timo
    University of Jyvaskyla, Finland.
    Salami, Hossein
    University of Maryland, MD 20742 USA.
    Savin, Hele
    Aalto University, Finland.
    Schneider, Nathanaelle
    IRDEP CNRS, France; IPVF, France.
    Seidel, Thomas E.
    Seitek50, FL 32135 USA.
    Sundqvist, Jonas
    Fraunhofer Institute Ceram Technology and Syst IKTS, Germany.
    Suyatin, Dmitry B.
    Lund University, Sweden; Lund University, Sweden.
    Torndahl, Tobias
    Uppsala University, Sweden.
    van Ommen, J. Ruud
    Delft University of Technology, Netherlands.
    Wiemer, Claudia
    CNR, Italy.
    Ylivaara, Oili M. E.
    VTT Technical Research Centre Finland, Finland.
    Yurkevich, Oksana
    Immanuel Kant Balt Federal University, Russia.
    Recommended reading list of early publications on atomic layer deposition-Outcome of the "Virtual Project on the History of ALD"2017In: Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology. A. Vacuum, Surfaces, and Films, ISSN 0734-2101, E-ISSN 1520-8559, Vol. 35, no 1, 010801Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD), a gas-phase thin film deposition technique based on repeated, self-terminating gas-solid reactions, has become the method of choice in semiconductor manufacturing and many other technological areas for depositing thin conformal inorganic material layers for various applications. ALD has been discovered and developed independently, at least twice, under different names: atomic layer epitaxy (ALE) and molecular layering. ALE, dating back to 1974 in Finland, has been commonly known as the origin of ALD, while work done since the 1960s in the Soviet Union under the name "molecular layering" (and sometimes other names) has remained much less known. The virtual project on the history of ALD (VPHA) is a volunteer-based effort with open participation, set up to make the early days of ALD more transparent. In VPHA, started in July 2013, the target is to list, read and comment on all early ALD academic and patent literature up to 1986. VPHA has resulted in two essays and several presentations at international conferences. This paper, based on a poster presentation at the 16th International Conference on Atomic Layer Deposition in Dublin, Ireland, 2016, presents a recommended reading list of early ALD publications, created collectively by the VPHA participants through voting. The list contains 22 publications from Finland, Japan, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, and United States. Up to now, a balanced overview regarding the early history of ALD has been missing; the current list is an attempt to remedy this deficiency. (C) 2016 Author(s).

  • 30.
    Ail, Ujwala
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jafari, Mohammad Javad
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Wang, Hui
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Ederth, Thomas
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Molecular Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Berggren, Magnus
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Crispin, Xavier
    Linköping University, Department of Science and Technology, Physics and Electronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Thermoelectric Properties of Polymeric Mixed Conductors2016In: Advanced Functional Materials, ISSN 1616-301X, E-ISSN 1616-3028, Vol. 26, no 34, 6288-6296 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The thermoelectric (TE) phenomena are intensively explored by the scientific community due to the rather inefficient way energy resources are used with a large fraction of energy wasted in the form of heat. Among various materials, mixed ion-electron conductors (MIEC) are recently being explored as potential thermoelectrics, primarily due to their low thermal conductivity. The combination of electronic and ionic charge carriers in those inorganic or organic materials leads to complex evolution of the thermovoltage (Voc) with time, temperature, and/or humidity. One of the most promising organic thermoelectric materials, poly(3,4-ethyelenedioxythiophene)-polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT-PSS), is an MIEC. A previous study reveals that at high humidity, PEDOT-PSS undergoes an ionic Seebeck effect due to mobile protons. Yet, this phenomenon is not well understood. In this work, the time dependence of the Voc is studied and its behavior from the contribution of both charge carriers (holes and protons) is explained. The presence of a complex reorganization of the charge carriers promoting an internal electrochemical reaction within the polymer film is identified. Interestingly, it is demonstrated that the time dependence behavior of Voc is a way to distinguish between three classes of polymeric materials: electronic conductor, ionic conductor, and mixed ionic–electronic conductor

  • 31.
    Akhtar, Farid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Colloidal Processing and Thermal Treatment of Binderless Hierarchically Porous Zeolite 13X Monoliths for CO2 Capture2011In: Journal of The American Ceramic Society, ISSN 0002-7820, E-ISSN 1551-2916, Vol. 94, no 1, 199-205 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Adsorbents with high surface area are potential candidates forefficient postcombustion CO2 capture. Binderless zeolite 13Xmonoliths with a hierarchical porosity and high CO2 uptakehave been produced by slip casting followed by pressurelessthermal treatment. The zeolite powder displayed an isoelectricpoint at pH 4.7 and electrostatically stabilized suspensions couldbe prepared at alkaline pH. The volume fraction-dependentsteady shear viscosity could be fitted to a modified Krieger–Dougherty model with a maximum volume fraction of 0.66. Thenarrow temperature range where monoliths could be producedwithout significant loss of the microporous surface area wasidentified and related to the phase behavior of the 13X material.Slip casting of concentrated suspensions followed by thermaltreatment of the powder bodies at a temperature of 8001Cwithout holding time resulted into strong hierarchically porouszeolite 13X monolith that displayed a CO2 uptake larger than29 wt%.

  • 32.
    Akhtar, Farid
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    Rehman, Yaser
    Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, University of Engineering and Technology Lahore, Pakistan.
    Bergström, Lennart
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK), Materials Chemistry.
    A study of the sintering of diatomaceous earth to produce porous ceramic monolithswith bimodal porosity and high strength2010In: Powder Technology, ISSN 0032-5910, E-ISSN 1873-328X, Vol. 201, 253-257 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Diatomite powder, a naturally occurring porous raw material, was used to fabricate ceramic materials withbimodal porosity and high strength. The effect of the sintering temperature on the density and porosity ofdry pressed diatomite green bodies was evaluated using mercury porosimetry and water immersionmeasurements. It was found that the intrinsic porosity of the diatomite particles with a pore size around0.2 μm was lost at sintering temperatures above 1200 °C. Maintaining the sintering temperature at around1000 °C resulted in highly porous materials that also displayed a high compressive strength. Microstructuralstudies by scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray analysis suggested that the porecollapse was facilitated by the presence of low melting impurities like Na2O and K2O.

  • 33. Alami, J.
    et al.
    Eklund, P.
    Emmerlich, J.
    Wilhelmsson, Ola
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Jansson, Ulf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Högberg, H.
    Hultman, L.
    Helmersson, U.
    High-power impulse magnetron sputtering of Ti–Si–C thin films from a Ti3SiC2 compound target2006In: Thin Solids Films, ISSN 0040-6090, Vol. 515, no 4, 1731-1736 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We have deposited Ti–Si–C thin films using high-power impulse magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) from a Ti3SiC2 compound target. The as-deposited films were composite materials with TiC as the main crystalline constituent. X-ray diffraction and photoelectron spectroscopy indicated that they also contained amorphous SiC, and for films deposited on inclined substrates, crystalline Ti5Si3Cx. The film morphology was dense and flat, while films deposited with direct-current magnetron sputtering under comparable conditions were rough and porous. We show that, due to the high degree of ionization of the sputtered species obtained in HIPIMS, the film composition, in particular the C content, depends on substrate inclination angle and Ar process pressure.

  • 34.
    Alberius-Henning, Peter
    Stockholm University.
    Modulating the anion ordering in apatites1999Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Hydroxyapatite constitutes the main inorganic part of the skeleton, and since the beginning of the seventies, synthetic apatite has been used in implants. The physical properties of this crystalline material are directly dependent on its atomic arrangement. If a better understanding of apatite chemistry is sought, important for e.g. the development of new implant materials, it is absolutely crucial to know the detailed structural chemistry of the apatites. It is in this context that this thesis fits.

    X-ray and electron diffraction techniques in combination with high resolution transmission electron microscopy have been used for the characterisation of the new compounds and the combination of these techniques has been particularly useful.

    Common for the studies presented is that they focus on the anion ordering along the hexagonal axis within the apatite framework, this being responsible for the new structures discovered:

    1. The crystal structure of completely dehydrated hydroxyapatite, oxyapatite, has been elucidated from HREM images.
    2. Partially dehydrated hydroxyapatite is shown to be triclinic.
    3. The sulfo- and seleno analogues of oxyapatite have been prepared and their structures refined from X-ray diffraction data.
    4. A new commensurate modulation along c is found for iodo-oxyapatite.
    5. A new incommensurate modulation along c is found for cadmium-bromoapatite.

    As a consequence of the structural chemical investigations performed, the hypothesis arose that it might be possible to manipulate the hydroxide ion ordering in hydroxyapatite achieving a piezoelectric apatite. This hypothesis has recently been confirmed. This new apatite may find important applications in the development of new, biocompatible, implant materials.

  • 35.
    Alexiadis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Dudukovic, M. P.
    Ramachandran, P.
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wanngard, J.
    Bokkers, A.
    Liquid-gas flow patterns in a narrow electrochemical channel2011In: Chemical Engineering Science, ISSN 0009-2509, E-ISSN 1873-4405, Vol. 66, no 10, 2252-2260 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The flow in a narrow (3 mm wide) vertical gap of an electrochemical cell with gas evolution at one electrode is modeled by means of the two-phase Euler-Euler model. The results indicate that at certain conditions an unsteady type of flow with vortices and recirculation regions can occur. Such flow pattern has been observed experimentally, but not reported in previous modeling studies. Further analysis establishes that the presence of a sufficient amount of small (similar to 10 mu m) bubbles is the main factor causing this type of flow at high current densities.

  • 36.
    Alexiadis, Alessio
    et al.
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Dudukovic, M P
    Ramachandran, P
    Cornell, Ann
    KTH, School of Chemical Science and Engineering (CHE), Chemical Engineering and Technology, Applied Electrochemistry.
    Wanngard, J
    Bokkers, A
    On the electrode boundary conditions in the simulation of two phase flow in electrochemical cells2011In: International journal of hydrogen energy, ISSN 0360-3199, Vol. 36, no 14, 8557-8559 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 37. Alfredsson, M
    et al.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Hartree-Fock and DFT calculations of quadrupole coupling constants in water clusters and ice1999In: CHEMICAL PHYSICS, ISSN 0301-0104, Vol. 242, no 2, 161-175 p.Article in journal (Other scientific)
    Abstract [en]

    Periodic ab initio calculations of the O-17 and H-2 quadrupole coupling constants (QCC) and their shifts have been performed for ice VIII and ice IX. Cluster calculations were done for smaller water clusters and chains. The ice Vm crystal structure was op

  • 38.
    Alfredsson, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    OH frequency calculations for the hydroxylated MgO(001) surface2002In: Molecular Simulation, Vol. 28, 663- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 39.
    Alfredsson, M
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    Dovesi, R
    Periodic ab initio calculations of the spontaneous polarisation in ferroelectric NaNO2(s).2002In: Phys. Chem. Chem.Phys., 4204- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 40. Alfredsson, Maria
    et al.
    Ojamae, Lars
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Structural Chemistry. strukturkemi.
    A comparison of Hartree-Fock, MP2, and DFT results for the HCN dimer and crystal1996In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY, Vol. 60, no 3, 767-777 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of hydrogen-bond related quantities-geometries, interaction energies, dipole moments, dipole moment derivatives, and harmonic vibrational frequencies-were calculated at the Hartree-Fock, MP2, and different DFT levels for the HCN dimer and the pe

  • 41. Alfredsson, Maria
    et al.
    Ojamae, Lars
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala universitet, Strukturkemi.
    A comparison of Hartree-Fock, MP2, and DFT results for the HCN dimer and crystal1996In: INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF QUANTUM CHEMISTRY, Vol. 60, no 3, 767-777 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A number of hydrogen-bond related quantities-geometries, interaction energies, dipole moments, dipole moment derivatives, and harmonic vibrational frequencies-were calculated at the Hartree-Fock, MP2, and different DFT levels for the HCN dimer and the pe

  • 42.
    Ali Kamyabi, Mohammad
    et al.
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering. Zanjan University, Iran.
    Hajari, Nasim
    Zanjan University, Iran.
    Turner, Anthony
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Tiwari, Ashutosh
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Biosensors and Bioelectronics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Correction: A high-performance glucose biosensor using covalently immobilised glucose oxidase on a poly(2,6-diaminopyridine)/carbon nanotube electrode (vol 116, pg 801, 2013)2016In: Talanta: The International Journal of Pure and Applied Analytical Chemistry, ISSN 0039-9140, E-ISSN 1873-3573, Vol. 153, 414-415 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A highly-sensitive glucose biosensor amenable to ultraminiaturisation was fabricated by immobilization of glucose oxidase (wGOX), onto a poly(2,6-diaminopyridine)/multi-walled carbon nanotube/glassy carbon electrode (poly(2,6-DP)/MWCNT/GCE). Cyclic voltammetry was used for both the electrochemical synthesis of poly-(2,6-DP) on the surface of a MWCNT-modified GC electrode, and characterization of the polymers deposited on the GC electrode. The synergistic effect of the high active surface area of both the conducting-polymer, i.e., poly-(2,6-DP) and MWCNT gave rise to a remarkable improvement in the electrocatalytic properties of the biosensor. The transfer coefficient (alpha), heterogeneous electron transfer rate constant and Michaelis-Menten constant were calculated to be 0.6, 4 s-1 and 0.22 mM at pH 7.4, respectively. The GOx/poly(2,6-DP)/MWCNT/GC bioelectrode exhibited two linear responses to glucose in the concentration ranging from 0.42 mu M to 8.0 mM with a correlation coefficient of 0.95, sensitivity of 52.0 mu AmM-1 cm-2, repeatability of 1.6% and long-term stability, which could make it a promising bioelectrode for precise detection of glucose in the biological samples. (C) 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  • 43.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Faculty of Technology, Department of Built Environment and Energy Technology.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University.
    Novel transparent Mg-Si-O-N thin films with high hardness and refractive index2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131, 1-4 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for glass materials with better mechanical and optical properties for display and electronic applications. This paper describes the deposition of novel thin films of Mg-Si-O-N onto float glass substrates. Amorphous thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system with high nitrogen and magnesium contents were deposited by reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering from Mg and Si targets in Ar/N2/O2 gas mixtures. The thin films studied span an unprecedented range of compositions up to 45 at% Mg and 80 at% N out of cations and anions respectively. Thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system were found to be homogeneous and transparent in the visible region. Mechanical properties like hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er) show high values, up to 21 GPa and 166 GPa respectively. The refractive index (1.87-2.00) increases with increasing magnesium and nitrogen contents.

  • 44.
    Ali, Sharafat
    et al.
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Paul, Biplab
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Magnusson, Roger
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Applied Optics . Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Greczynski, Grzegorz
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Broitman, Esteban
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Jonson, Bo
    Linnaeus University, Sweden.
    Eklund, Per
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Birch, Jens
    Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry and Biology, Thin Film Physics. Linköping University, Faculty of Science & Engineering.
    Novel transparent Mg-Si-O-N thin films with high hardness and refractive index2016In: Vacuum, ISSN 0042-207X, E-ISSN 1879-2715, Vol. 131Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    There is an increasing demand for glass materials with better mechanical and optical properties for display and electronic applications. This paper describes the deposition of novel thin films of Mg-circle divide-Si-O-N onto float glass substrates. Amorphous thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system with high nitrogen and magnesium contents were deposited by reactive RF magnetron co-sputtering from Mg and Si targets in Ar/N-2/O-2 gas mixtures. The thin films studied span an unprecedented range of compositions up to 45 at% Mg and 80 at% N out of cations and anions respectively. Thin films in the Mg-Si-O-N system were found to be homogeneous and transparent in the visible region. Mechanical properties like hardness (H) and reduced elastic modulus (Er) show high values, up to 21 GPa and 166 GPa respectively. The refractive index (1.87-2.00) increases with increasing magnesium and nitrogen contents. (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

    The full text will be freely available from 2018-05-24 15:07
  • 45.
    Ali, Sk Imran
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Kremer, Reinhard K.
    Johnsson, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Science, Department of Materials and Environmental Chemistry (MMK).
    Hydrothermal Synthesis and Magnetic Characterization of the Quaternary Oxide CoMo2Sb2O102016In: Inorganic Chemistry, ISSN 0020-1669, E-ISSN 1520-510X, Vol. 55, no 21, 11490-11496 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The new quaternary layered oxide CoMo2Sb2O10 was synthesized by hydrothermal synthesis techniques, and its structure was determined from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data. CoMo2Sb2O10 crystallizes in the monoclinic space group C2/c with one Sb3+, Mo6+, and Co2+ atom site per unit cell, respectively. The crystal structure contains building units consisting of [Co2O8](n), [Mo2O8](n), and [SbO2](n) chains. These are connected through corner sharing to form charge neutral [CoMo2Sb2O10](n) layers. Thermal decomposition of CoMo2Sb2O10 starts at 550 degrees C. The magnetic susceptibility follows a Curie Weiss law above 50 K with a Curie constant of C = 3.46 emu K mol(-1) corresponding to an effective moment of mu(eff) = 5.26 mu(B) per cobalt atom and a Curie-Weiss temperature theta = -13.2 K. Short-range anti-ferromagnetic ordering dominates below 5 K. Magnetic susceptibility and heat capacity data can be successfully modeled by the predictions from an Ising linear chain with an intrachain spin exchange of ca. -7.8 K.

  • 46.
    Alm, Oscar
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Landström, Lars
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Boman, Mats
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. oorganisk kemi.
    Granqvist, Claes-Göran
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Heszler, Peter
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences. Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry. Technology, Department of Engineering Sciences, Solid State Physics. Fasta tillståndets fysik.
    Tungsten oxide nanoparticles synthesised by laser assisted homogeneous gas-phase nucleation2005In: Applied Surface Science, Vol. 247, no 1-4, 262-267 p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Tungsten oxide nanoparticles were generated by excimer (ArF) laser assisted chemical vapor deposition from WF6/H2/O2/Ar gas mixtures. The deposited particles were characterized by X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The deposition rate as a function of the partial pressures of the reactants and of the laser fluence was measured by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The mean diameter of the deposited tungsten oxide particles varied with the experimental parameters and was typically 23 nm. Particles with a higher degree of crystallinity were observed at a laser fluence exceeding 130 mJ/cm2, and X-ray amorphous particles were obtained below 110 mJ/cm2. The amorphous tungsten oxide had a stoichiometry ranging from WO2.7 to WO3. Deposits were formed only when hydrogen was present in the gas mixture.

  • 47.
    Alvi, Muhammad Rouf
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Physical Organic Chemistry.
    Jahn, Burkhard O.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Tibbelin, Julius
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC.
    Baumgartner, Judith
    Institut für Anorganische Chemie, Technische Universität Graz, Stremayrgasse 9, A-8010 Graz, Austria.
    Gómez, Cesar Pay
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - Ångström, Structural Chemistry.
    Ottosson, Henrik
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Chemistry - BMC, Physical Organic Chemistry.
    Highly Efficient and Convenient Acid Catalyzed Hypersilyl Protection of Alcohols and Thiols by Tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl-N,N-dimethylmethaneamide2012Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Tris(trimethylsilyl)silyl-N,N-dimethylmethaneamide, herein named hypersilylamide, is a convenient and efficient source of the hypersilyl group in the first widely applicable acid catalyzed protocol for silyl group protection of primary, secondary, tertiary alkyl as well as aryl alcohols and thiols in high yields. The sole by-product is N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF) and a range of solvents can be used, including DMF. A high selectivity in the protection of diols can be achieved, also for diols with very small differences in the steric demands at the two hydroxyl groups. Moreover, in the protection of equivalent alcohol and thiol sites the protection of the alcohol is faster, allowing for selective protection in high yields. Quantum chemical calculations at the M062X hybrid meta density functional theory level give insights on the mechanism for the catalytic process. Finally, the hypersilyl group is easily removed from all protected alcohols and thiols examined herein by irradiation at 254 nm.

  • 48.
    Amft, Martin
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Edvinsson, Tomas
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry.
    Skorodumova, Natalia V.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Materials Theory.
    Thermally Excited Vibrations in Copper, Silver, and Gold Trimers and Enhanced Binding of CO2010In: Journal of the American Chemical Society, ISSN 0002-7863, E-ISSN 1520-5126Article in journal (Other academic)
  • 49.
    Amira, Sami
    Uppsala University, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Classical and Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulations of Polyvalent Metal Ions in Water2005Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aqueous solvation of metal ions is one of the long-standing and complex problems in chemistry, with implications for and applications in a broad range of biochemical and electrochemical systems, where water is the all-pervasive medium.

    This thesis describes computer simulations of Al3+(aq), Fe2+(aq), Fe3+(aq) and Cu2+(aq). Various aspects of the solvation of these polyvalent metal ions in water are addressed, at different levels of theory, using Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics, classical molecular dynamics and quantum-mechanical cluster calculations. Polyvalent metal ions are particularly interesting because of their large influence on the solvent structure, dynamics and thermodynamics, as well as on the properties of the individual solvent molecules. Polyvalent metal ions in aqueous solution also constitute a challenging subject for computer simulations since a sophisticated interaction model is needed to incorporate the large many-body effects.

    All the ion-water coordination figures in this thesis are octahedral, except in the Cu2+(aq) solution, where the ion is penta-coordinated with four equatorial neighbours in a plane and one axial neighbour located ~0.45 Å further out from the ion. The equatorial ion-water bonds have covalent character, while the axial water molecule is only electrostatically bound. For all the ions, the OD stretching frequencies of the first-shell water molecules are much more downshifted than in liquid water. In the case of Cu2+(aq), however, only the OD frequencies of the equatorial water molecules are downshifted with respect to bulk water whereas the OD frequencies of the axial water molecule are slightly upshifted.

    Various limitations of the Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics simulations have been explored and compared, such as finite system-size effects and shortcomings in the electronic structure calculations. The Car-Parrinello simulations are found to give reasonable descriptions of the polyvalent metal ions in aqueous solution.

  • 50.
    Amira, Sami
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Spångberg, Daniel
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    Hermansson, Kersti
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Science and Technology, Chemistry, Department of Materials Chemistry.
    OD vibrations and hydration structure in an Al3+(aq) solution from a Car-Parrinello Molecular Dynamics Simulation2006In: Journal of Chemical Physics, ISSN 0021-9606, E-ISSN 1089-7690, Vol. 124, no 10, 104501- p.Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The optimized geometry, energetics, and vibrational properties of Al(D2O) clusters, with n=1,2,4, and 6, have been studied using plane waves, different local basis sets, different methodologies [density-functional theory, MP2, CCSD(T)], and different functionals (BLYP, PBE). Moreover, Car-Parrinello molecular-dynamics (MD) simulations using the BLYP functional, plane waves, and the Vanderbilt ultrasoft pseudopotentials have been performed for an aqueous Al3+ solution with 1 ion and 32 D2O molecules in a periodic box at room temperature, studied for 10 ps. The cluster calculations were performed to pinpoint possible shortcomings of the electronic structure description used in the Car-Parinello MD (CPMD) simulation. For the clusters, the hydration structure and interaction energies calculated with the `BLYP/plane-wave' approach agree well with high-level ab initio methods but the exchange-correlation functional introduces errors in the OD stretching frequencies (both in the absolute values and in the ion-induced shifts). For the aqueous solution, the CPMD simulation yields structural properties in good agreement with experimental data. The CPMD-simulated OD stretching vibrational band for the first-shell water molecules around Al3+ is strongly downshifted by the influence of the ion and is compared with experimental data from the literature. To make such a comparison meaningful, the influences of a number of systematic effects have been addressed, such as the exchange-correlation functional, the fictitious electron mass, anharmonicity effects, and the small box size in the simulation. Each of these factors (except the last one) is found to affect the OD frequency by 100 cm–1 or more. The final "corrected" frequencies agree with experiment within ~30 cm–1 for bulk water but are too little downshifted for the first-shell Al3+(aq) water molecules (by ~200 cm–1).

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