Change search
Refine search result
12 1 - 50 of 56
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf
Rows per page
  • 5
  • 10
  • 20
  • 50
  • 100
  • 250
Sort
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
  • Standard (Relevance)
  • Author A-Ö
  • Author Ö-A
  • Title A-Ö
  • Title Ö-A
  • Publication type A-Ö
  • Publication type Ö-A
  • Issued (Oldest first)
  • Issued (Newest first)
  • Created (Oldest first)
  • Created (Newest first)
  • Last updated (Oldest first)
  • Last updated (Newest first)
  • Disputation date (earliest first)
  • Disputation date (latest first)
Select
The maximal number of hits you can export is 250. When you want to export more records please use the Create feeds function.
  • 1.
    Burnham, Denis
    et al.
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Kasisopa, Benjawan
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Reid, Amanda
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Luksaneeyanawin, Sudaporn
    Chulalongkorn University, Thailand.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Attina, Virginia
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Rattanasone, Nan Xu
    Macquarie University, Australia.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Webster, Diane
    University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Universality and language-specific experience in the perception of lexical tone and pitch2015In: Applied Psycholinguistics, ISSN 0142-7164, E-ISSN 1469-1817, Vol. 36, no 6, p. 1459-1491Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Two experiments focus on Thai tone perception by native speakers of tone languages (Thai, Cantonese, and Mandarin), a pitch–accent (Swedish), and a nontonal (English) language. In Experiment 1, there was better auditory-only and auditory–visual discrimination by tone and pitch–accent language speakers than by nontone language speakers. Conversely and counterintuitively, there was better visual-only discrimination by nontone language speakers than tone and pitch–accent language speakers. Nevertheless, visual augmentation of auditory tone perception in noise was evident for all five language groups. In Experiment 2, involving discrimination in three fundamental frequency equivalent auditory contexts, tone and pitch–accent language participants showed equivalent discrimination for normal Thai speech, filtered speech, and violin sounds. In contrast, nontone language listeners had significantly better discrimination for violin sounds than filtered speech and in turn speech. Together the results show that tone perception is determined by both auditory and visual information, by acoustic and linguistic contexts, and by universal and experiential factors.

  • 2.
    Cortes, Elisabet Eir
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, ToveStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.Marklund, EllenStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.Marklund, UlrikaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.Molnar, MonikaNilsson Björkenstam, KristinaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.Schwarz, Iris-CorinnaStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.Sjons, JohanStockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    WILD 2015: Book of Abstracts2015Conference proceedings (editor) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    WILD 2015 is the second Workshop on Infant Language Development, held June 10-12 2015 in Stockholm, Sweden. WILD 2015 was organized by Stockholm Babylab and the Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University. About 150 delegates met over three conference days, convening on infant speech perception, social factors of language acquisition, bilingual language development in infancy, early language comprehension and lexical development, neurodevelopmental aspects of language acquisition, methodological issues in infant language research, modeling infant language development, early speech production, and infant-directed speech. Keynote speakers were Alejandrina Cristia, Linda Polka, Ghislaine Dehaene-Lambertz, Angela D. Friederici and Paula Fikkert.

    Organizing this conference would of course not have been possible without our funding agencies Vetenskapsrådet and Riksbankens Jubiléumsfond. We would like to thank Francisco Lacerda, Head of the Department of Linguistics, and the Departmental Board for agreeing to host WILD this year. We would also like to thank the administrative staff for their help and support in this undertaking, especially Ann Lorentz-Baarman and Linda Habermann.

    The WILD 2015 Organizing Committee: Ellen Marklund, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, Elísabet Eir Cortes, Johan Sjons, Ulrika Marklund, Tove Gerholm, Kristina Nilsson Björkenstam and Monika Molnar.

  • 3.
    Gerholm, Tove
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Salomão, Gláucia Laís
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    The Swedish MINT Project: modelling infant language acquisition from parten-child interaction2015Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The MINT-project is a longitudinal study of verbal and nonverbal interaction between 73 Swedish children and their parents, recorded in lab environment from 3 months to 3 years of age. The overall goal of the project is to deepen our understanding of how language acquisition takes place in a multimodal and interactional framework. 

  • 4.
    Gustavsson, Alice
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Beröring i interaktion mellan föräldrar och deras barn2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Beröring är, efter att länge ha varit ganska förbisett, numera ett växande forskningsområde inom förälder-barn kommunikation. Detta har skett i takt med att man har insett vikten av social interaktion för utvecklingen av alla kognitiva förmågor, och kanske särskilt för språkutvecklingen. Denna studie undersöker hur beröring ser ut i förälder-barn interaktion, och anpassar en tidigare utarbetad mall (Agrawal, 2010) för annotering av beröring i interaktion av svenska förälder-barn dyader. Inspelningar av fyra förälder-barn-par i åtta filer, två filer per barn, annoterades och analyserades. Barnen, två flickor och två pojkar, var vid första inspelningstillfället 3 månader gamla och vid andra 6 månader.

    Förälderns beröring annoterades och analyserades med perspektiv på vilka kroppsdelar som berördes mest, vilken typ av beröring som var vanligast och hur mycket hudkontakt som förekom i den totala tiden av beröringen. Resultaten visar att föräldrarna vid båda inspelningstillfällena mest höll sina barn, samt att de mest förekommande kroppsdelar att beröra var händerna och överkroppen vid 3 respektive 6 månaders ålder. Det framkom även att den totala beröringen samt beröringen med hudkontakt minskade från första inspelningstillfället. Detta konfirmerar tidigare forskningsresultat som bland annat sett att hållande av barn är vanligast vid tidig ålder, samt att beröringen i stort minskar gradvis under det första levnadsåret.

  • 5.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Assessing language acquisition from parent-child interaction: An event-related potential study on perception of intonation contours in infancy2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this paper is to present our multidisciplinary project to study parent-child interaction. The goal of the project is to identify, test, and simulate components of child and adult speechand gestures and the consequences they might have on child language acquisition. Since typical parent-child interaction is built upon both interlocutors’ intention-reading, responsiveness to joint-attention, and imitation of speech/gestures, we make video recordings along with recordings of speech data to grasp the integration of semantic and pragmatic aspects of language acquisition. The understanding of parent-child interaction benefits further frominformation on brain activation involved in speech processing. As a first step to achieve the project goals, an electroencephalography/event-related potential (EEG/ERP) study exploring children’s early perception of intonation contours involved in human interactions was performed. This paper discusses the characteristics of integration of multimodal social-emotional (speech,prosody, faces, posture) signals as part of the dynamics of communication in typically developing children. Possible application fields are social signal processing (SSP; an emerging research domain that aims to provide computers ability to understand human social signals), and improvement of diagnosis of late or atypical language development in pathologies that affect the dynamics of social interaction (such as autism spectrum disorders).

  • 6.
    Hammarlund, Isabell
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Den positiva känslan i barnriktat tal och dess påverkan på tidig ordinlärning2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Already from birth young children prefer to listen to positive speech, which is a characteristic of childdirected speech. In this study neutral and positive tone was contrasted in a word-learning paradigmwhere the eye-movement of 16-month-old Swedish speaking children (N= 12) were analysed whenthey were tested on two made-up words. The words were either presented in neutral child-directedspeech or positive child-directed speech. This was done to see if the early word-learning is facilitatedby positive tone. The looking time was then analysed by a two-way ANOVA, and there was nosignificant difference between the two emotions. The conclusion drawn was that the hypothesis, thatthe looking time of the children that presented with positive child-directed speech would be longer,could not be confirmed nor rejected due to problems with collecting data and data analysis. Prior tofuture studies it is recommended to expand the number of participants, as well as examine othervariables that may affect early word learning.

  • 7. Kalashnikova, Marina
    et al.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Burnham, Denis
    OZI: Australian English Communicative Development Inventory2016In: First language, ISSN 0142-7237, E-ISSN 1740-2344, Vol. 36, no 4, p. 407-427Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    For more than 20 years, the MacArthur–Bates Communicative Development Inventory(CDI) and its adaptations for languages other than English have been used as reliable measures of infants’ and toddlers’ early receptive and productive vocabulary size. This article introduces the OZI, the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur–Bates CDI, now normed for 12- to 30-month-old children. The findings of two studies are presented: (1) a comparison study that demonstrated that toddlers (N = 64) acquiring Australian English(24- and 30-month-olds) obtain higher productive vocabulary scores on the OZI than the MacArthur–Bates CDI; and (2) an OZI norming study that included 12- to 30-month-old Australian infants and toddlers (N = 1496). These studies provide (i) evidence for the greater applicability of the OZI for infants and toddlers learning Australian English and (ii) productive vocabulary acquisition norms for Australian English for ages 12–30 months, a research and diagnostic tool highly anticipated by researchers and clinicians around Australia.

  • 8.
    Karlsson, Denise
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Samband mellan fonetiska aspekter och bedömningar av känslor i barnriktat tal2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This study examined the subjectively rated affects in infant directed speech and their correlations with acoustic parameters. Men and women rated affects in 25 second utterances of infant directed speech by mothers and fathers speaking to their infants aged 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. The mothers' utterances were in both Swedish and Australian English, while the fathers' utterances were only in Swedish. The affects that were rated were positive/negative affect, express affection, soothe/calm, encourage attention and direct behaviour. The acoustic parameters that were correlated with the ratings were mean fundamental frequency, range of fundamental frequency and means of the first and the second formant. How the utterances were rated on the positive/negative scale were compared with ratings of the same utterances but low-pass filtered (to 400 Hz), which were used in a different study. The ratings of positive/negative affect were also compared between the utterances of the two genders and the two languages. The result was that the ratings did not differ significantly between the filtered and unfiltered utterances. The correlation of rated affects and acoustic parameters indicate that most affects are rated higher when the fundamental frequency is higher, and the range of the fundamental frequency also appears to have some bearing on the ratings. The first formant did not correlate with any affects, but the second formant correlated with express affection. The ratings of the Australian English and the Swedish utterances did not differ significantly, nor did the ratings by mothers and fathers. Together the results indicate that mainly the height of the fundamental frequency and the width of the range are relevant regarding which affects are perceived.

  • 9.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerholm, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics. Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Modellering av förälder-barn interaktion (MINT): Komponenter hos audio-visuella ledtrådar och deras konsekvenser för språkinlärning2013Conference paper (Other academic)
  • 10.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gerhom, Tove
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, General Linguistics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The Stockholm Babylab Multimodal Approach: Modelling Infant Language Acquisition Longitudinally from Parent-Child Interaction2013Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Auditory communicative interaction is in general best analyzed with the help of simultaneously recorded visual information about discourse objects and the positioning of interlocutors in space. Access to visual information is even more important in parent-child interaction since this type of communica-tion is largely based on use of contextual gestures, gaze and imitation. The un-derstanding of parent-child interaction benefits further from information on brain activation involved in speech processing. This paper introduces the Stockholm Babylab approach to study multimodal language learning in typi-cally developing infants and young children. Our effort is to build a multimodal corpus that incorporates EEG (electroencephalography) data in the model. Ap-plication fields are social signal processing (SSP), improvement of diagnosis of late or atypical language development, and further development of habilitation methods for individuals with neurocognitive and language deficits.   

  • 11.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Söderlund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Development of communicative skills in 8- to 16-month-old children: A longitudinal study2008In: Proceedings of The 9th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing, Interspeech2008, Brisbane, September, 2008., 2008, p. 1972-1975Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study was to assess development of communicative skills in 8- to 16-month-old children. Information on 24 Swedish children’s speech comprehension and production, as well as their utilization of communicative gestures was collected. A version of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory, the Swedish Early Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI), was used. The number of comprehended phrases, size of receptive and productive vocabularies, as well as the subjects’ gesture score was estimated according to standardized scoring instructions. The study was performed longitudinally based on 71 completed forms. The children’s performance was validated with existing norm-data collected from a large set of randomly selected children. The results showed an overall agreement with the norm-data. The performance of the subjects was though less stable and delayed about one month was compared to the norm-data. Adequacy of SECDI for screening language delay is discussed.

  • 12.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Walberg, Heléne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bjursäter, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Klintfors, Eeva
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Söderlund, Göran
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Gustavsson, Lisa
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Development of lateralised speech perception: Brain activation in 4-month-olds and adults2008In: Papers from the first Birgit Rausing Language Program Conference in Linguistics, Lund, June 2008 / [ed] Kai-Uwe Alter, Lund: Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University , 2008, p. 45-46Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Previous fMRI and PET studies indicated left hemispheric activation for the processing of speech and phonetic features, and right hemispheric activation for the processing of emotions and melody. EEG measures are not commonly employed in lateralisation research, neither has lateralisation been extensively investigated in a developmental perspective. This study aims to fill this gap. Although ERP measures cannot precisely localize task-activated cortical regions, differences in voltage reflect scalp electricity in response to the activation of a distinct neural network (Giard et al., 1995). With EEG, we study the lateralisation of speech processing in 4- and 9-month-olds and adults in two conditions, spoken sentences and their spectrally rotated version. Rotating is a technique to render speech intelligible while preserving language-specific characteristics such as rhythm. A previous EEG study showed no lateralisation in 4-month-olds for the processing of speech versus nonspeech sounds as measured with 65 electrodes (Dehaene-Lambertz, 2000). For refined measurement, we employ 128 electrodes and use infant-directed speech stimuli for both conditions. It has been established that language comprehension tasks elicit bilateral hemispheric activation (Awad, Warren, Scott, Turkheimer, & Wise, 2007; Davis et al., 2007), showing intrahemispheric localisation differences within the left hemisphere for phonetic features and comprehension in speech processing tasks (Obleser, Zimmermann, Van Meter, & Rauschecker, 2007; Scott, Blank, Rosen, & Wise, 2000). As sentence comprehension increases with age, we predict an increase of activation in the left hemisphere when comparing 4- to 9-month-olds and 9-month-olds to adults. The melodic and emotional components of the infant-directed speech stimuli should elicit right-hemispheric activation which is predicted to decrease with age. Therefore, the measured differences between left- and right-hemispheric activation are predicted to increase with age. Left-hemispheric activation is also expected for the rotated speech condition due to the speech-likeness of the stimuli, however to a lesser degree than in the natural sentence condition (Ischebeck, Friederici, & Alter, 2007). This activation difference between the speech and rotated speech conditions should also increase with age as comprehension increases. The results are presented in regard to these hypotheses and discussed in the light of recent research.

  • 13. Lam-Cassettari, Christa
    et al.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Daddy counts: Australian and Swedish fathers? early speech input reflects infants? receptive vocabulary at 12 months 2017Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental input is known to predict language development. This study uses the LENA input duration estimates for female and male voices in two infant language environments, Australian English and Swedish, to predict receptive vocabulary size at 12 months. The Australian English learning infants were 6 months (N = 18, 8 girls), the Swedish learning infants were 8 months (N = 12, 6 girls). Their language environment was recorded on two days: one weekday in the primary care of the mother, and one weekend day when also the father spent time with the family. At 12 months, parents filled in a CDI form, the OZI for Australian English and the SECDI‐I for Swedish. In multiple regressions across languages, only male speech input duration predicted vocabulary scores significantly (β = .56;p = .01). Analysing boys and girls separately, male speech input predicts only boys’ vocabulary (β =.79 ; p= .01). Analysing languages separately for boys, the Australian English results are similar (β =.74 ; p= .02). Discussed in terms of differences in infant age, sample size, sex distribution and language, these findings can still contribute to the growing list of benefits of talker variability for early language acquisition.

  • 14.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Fundamental frequency as basis for speech segmentation modeling2011Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The present study investigates the relevance of fundamental frequency in speech segmentation models intended to simulate infants. Speech from three different conditions (infant-directed speech to 3- and 12-month-olds, and adult-directed speech) was segmented based on fundamental frequency information, using a variant of the dpn-gram segmenting technique (highlighting similar segments as lexical candidates). The spectral distance between segments that were found based on fundamental frequency similarity was calculated, and compared to the spectral distance between segments that were found using transcription as basis for segmentation, as well as to the spectral distance between randomly paired segments from the same speech materials. The results show the greatest within-condition difference in speech directed to 3-month-olds, in which segmenting based on fundamental frequency similarity generated segment pairs with smaller spectral distance than did transcription-based segmentation or random segment pairs. Speech directed to 12-month-olds resulted in a somewhat smaller difference when using fundamental frequency data compared to when using transcriptions. For adult-directed speech, no difference was found in spectral distance between pairs generated by the different bases for segmentation. Neither segmenting speech by highlighting similar segments as lexical candidates, nor using fundamental frequency as basis for segmentation is optimal for a speech segmentation model intended to simulate 12-month-olds or adults. These groups are more likely to segment speech based on their already present or growing linguistic experience than on acoustic similarity only. However, for a model simulating a 3-month-old infant, the present segmentation procedure and its basis for segmentation are more plausible. When modeling speech segmentation in an infant-like manner it is important to take into account both that the cognitive abilities of infants develop rapidly during the first year of life, and that some aspects of their linguistic environment vary during this period.

  • 15.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Infants' ability to form verb-action associations2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Four- to eight-month-old infants (n=56) were examined on their ability to acquire verb meaning. In a visual preference procedure they were tested on their ability to form verb-action associations by detecting the correlation between auditory speech stimuli and actions presented in short movie clips on a screen. If associations were formed, they were expected to significantly modify their looking behavior after exposure, looking closer to the target than during baseline. Instead of measuring total looking time as response, distance to target was the chosen measure. Eight-month-olds as well as a reference group of adults acquired the verb-action associations. Thus, eight months is the youngest age at which verb meaning acquisition could be demonstrated so far.

  • 16.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Perceptual reorganization of vowels: Separating the linguistic and acoustic parts of the mismatch response2017Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants go from perceiving speech sounds primarily based on their acoustic characteristics, to perceiving speech sounds as belonging to speech sound categories relevant in their native language(s). The transition is apparent in that very young infants typically discriminate both native and non-native speech sound contrasts, whereas older infants show better discrimination for native contrasts and worse or no discrimi­na­tion for non-native contrasts. The rate of this perceptual reorganization depends, among other things, on the salience of the relevant speech sounds within the speech signal. As such, the perceptual reorganization of vowels and lexical tone typically precedes the perceptual reorganization of consonants.

    Perceptual reorganizatoin of speech sounds is often demonstrated by measuring in­fants’ discrimination of specific speech sound contrasts across development. One way of measuring discriminatory ability is to use the mismatch response (MMR). This is a brain response that can be measured using external electroencephalography re­cord­ings. Pre­senting an oddball (deviant) stimulus among a series of standard stimuli elicits a response that, in adults, correlates well with behavioral discrimination. When the two stimuli are speech sounds contrastive in the listeners’ language, the response arguably reflects both acoustic and linguistic processing. In infants, the response is less studied, but has nevertheless already proven useful for studies on the perceptual reorganization of speech sounds.

    The present thesis documents a series of studies with the end game of investigating how amount of speech exposure influences the perceptual reorganization, and whe­ther the learning mechanisms involved in speech sound cate­gory learning is specific to speech or domain-general. In order to be able to compare MMR results across diffe­rent age groups in infancy, a non-speech control condition needed to be devised however, to account for changes in the MMR across development that are attributable to general brain matura­tion rather than language development specifically.

    Findings of studies incorporated in the thesis show that spectrally rotated speech can be used to approximate the acoustic part of the MMR in adults. Subtracting the acoustic part of the MMR from the full MMR thus estimates the part of the MMR that is linked to linguistic, rather than acoustic, processing. The strength of this linguistic part of the MMR in four- and eight-month-old infants is directly related to the daily amount of speech that the infants are exposed to. No evidence of distributional learning of non-speech auditory categories was demonstrated in adults, but the results together with previous research generated hypo­theses for future study.

    In conclusion, the research performed within the scope of this thesis highlight the need of a non-speech control condition for use in developmental speech perception studies using the MMR, demonstrates the viability of one such non-speech control condition, and points toward relevant future research within the topic of speech sound category development.

  • 17.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Using rotated speech to approximate the acoustic mismatch negativity response to speech2018In: Brain and Language, ISSN 0093-934X, E-ISSN 1090-2155, Vol. 176, p. 26-35Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The mismatch negativity (MMN) response is influenced by the magnitude of the acoustic difference between standard and deviant, and the response is typically larger to linguistically relevant changes than to linguistically irrelevant changes. Linguistically relevant changes between standard and deviant typically co-occur with differences between the two acoustic signals. It is therefore not straightforward to determine the contribution of each of those two factors to the MMN response. This study investigated whether spectrally rotated speech can be used to determine the impact of the acoustic difference on the MMN response to a combined linguistic and acoustic change between standard and deviant. Changes between rotated vowels elicited an MMN of comparable amplitude to the one elicited by a within-category vowel change, whereas the between-category vowel change resulted in an MMN amplitude of greater magnitude. A change between rotated vowels resulted in an MMN ampltude more similar to that of a within-vowel change than a complex tone change did. This suggests that the MMN amplitude reflecting the acoustic difference between two speech sounds can be well approximated by the MMN amplitude elicited in response to their rotated counterparts, in turn making it possible to estimate the part of the response specific to the linguistic difference.

  • 18.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    MMR categorization effect at 8 months is related toreceptive vocabulary size at 12 to 14 months2017In: Many Paths to Language (MPaL), 2017, p. 91-92Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 19.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Amount of speech exposure predicts vowel perception in four- to eight-month-olds2019In: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience, ISSN 1878-9293, E-ISSN 1878-9307, Vol. 36, article id 100622Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants shift their focus in speech perception from acoustic to linguistic information. This perceptual reorganization is related to exposure, and a direct relation has previously been demonstrated between amount of daily language exposure and mismatch response (MMR) amplitude to a native consonant contrast at around one year of age. The present study investigates the same relation between amount of speech exposure and MMR amplitude to a native vowel contrast at four to eight months of age. Importantly, the present study uses spectrally rotated speech in an effort to take general neural maturation into account. The amplitude of the part of the MMR that is tied specifically to speech processing correlates with amount of daily speech exposure, as estimated using the LENA system.

  • 20.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Amount of speech exposure predicts vowel perception in four-to-eight-month-oldsManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants shift their focus in speech perception from acoustic to linguistic information. This perceptual reorganization is related to exposure, and a direct relation has been demonstrated previously between amount of daily language exposure and mismatch response (MMR) amplitude to a native consonant contrast at around one year of age. The present study investigates the same relation between amount of speech exposure and MMR amplitude to a native vowel contrast at four to eight months of age. Importantly, the present study uses spectrally rotated speech in an effort to take general neural maturation into account. The amplitude of the part of the MMR that is tied specifically to speech processing correlates with amount of daily speech exposure, as estimated using the LENA system.

  • 21.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Mismatch negativity at Fz in response to within-category changes of the vowel /i/2014In: NeuroReport, ISSN 0959-4965, E-ISSN 1473-558X, Vol. 25, no 10, p. 756-759Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The amplitude of the mismatch negativity response for acoustic within-category deviations in speech stimuli was investigated by presenting participants with different exemplars of the vowel /i/ in an odd-ball paradigm. The deviants differed from the standard either in terms of fundamental frequency, the first formant, or the second formant. Changes in fundamental frequency are generally more salient than changes in the first formant, which in turn are more salient than changes in the second formant. The mismatch negativity response was expected to reflect this with greater amplitude for more salient deviations. The fundamental frequency deviants did indeed result in greater amplitude than both first formant deviants and second formant deviants, but no difference was found between the first formant deviants and the second formant deviants. It is concluded that greater difference between standard and within-category deviants across different acoustic dimensions results in greater mismatch negativity amplitude, suggesting that the processing of linguistically irrelevant changes in speech sounds may be processed similar to nonspeech sound changes.

  • 22.
    Marklund, Ellen
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Vowel categorization correlates with speech exposure in 8-month-olds2017Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    During the first year of life, infants ability to discriminate non-native speech contrasts attenuates, whereas their ability to discriminate native contrasts improves. This transition reflects the development of speech sound categorization, and is hypothesized to be modulated by exposure to spoken language. The ERP mismatch response has been used to quantify discrimination ability in infants, and its amplitude has been shown to be sensitive to amount of speech exposure on group level (Rivera-Gaxiola et al., 2011). In the present ERP-study, the difference in mismatch response amplitudes for spoken vowels and for spectrally rotated vowels, quantifies categorization in 8-month-old infants (N=15, 7 girls). This categorization measure was tested for correlation with infants? daily exposure to male speech, female speech, and the sum of male and female speech, as measured by all-day home recordings and analyzed using LENA software. A positive correlation was found between the categorization measure and total amount of daily speech exposure (r = .526, p = .044). The present study is the first to report a relation between speech exposure and speech sound categorization in infants on subject level, and the first to compensate for the acoustic part of the mismatch response in this context.

  • 23.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Turn-taking and early phonology: Contingency in parent-child interaction and assessment of early speech production2018Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis focuses on contingency in parent-child interaction, investigating it in the light of the linguistic capacity of the child and the status of the caregiver. Further, the thesis covers the development of two tools to assess the developmental maturity level of expressive phonology. A functional emergentist perspective on language acquisition is taken, which includes a phonetic perspective on phonological development. Both infant language development and factors that influence parent responsiveness are explored. 

    The thesis contains four studies. In the first study, durations of parents’ utterances and pauses in interaction with their 18-month-old infants were related to the infant’s vocabulary size. Recordings of interactions of fifteen children and their parents were made at home in daily life situations. The children were divided into three groups according to their vocabulary size: large, typical or small. The main finding is that parents in the large vocabulary size group responded faster to their children compared to the parents in the typical size vocabulary group, who in turn responded faster than the parents in the small vocabulary size group. 

    In study two, duration in vocal turn-taking between 6-month old infants and their caregivers was investigated, in terms of the status of the caregiver and the sex of the infant. Caregivers’ pauses were measured in 10-minute caregiver-infant interactions recorded at home. It was found that primary caregivers responded faster to their infants compared to secondary caregivers, and that in turn, infants responded faster to the primary caregiver than to the secondary caregiver. 

    Study three introduces the Word Complexity Measure for Swedish (WCM-SE), a tool for calculating phonological complexity in words or utterances. Calculations are based on ten parameters describing speech structures that are considered phonetically complex to produce. In the development of  the WCM-SE, both language-specific and language-general descriptions of speech development were considered, as well as universal acoustic and aerodynamic principles. 

    Study four documents the selection of Swedish words for the word lists in the test Profiles of Early Expressive Phonological Skills for Swedish (PEEPS-SE). The selection was based on criteria of age of acquisition and word complexity, as measured by the WCM-SE. 

    The findings presented in this thesis contribute to our knowledge of early interaction and parents’ potential impact on the child’s early language and communication development. Further, the tools developed for the assessment of Swedish are valuable contributions both to the research field of early phonology and to clinical work in Sweden. 

  • 24.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Relationship between parent-rated productive vocabulary size and phonological complexity in Swedish infants2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Swedish Communicative Development Inventory (SECDI) is an important tool to assess infants’ productive vocabulary as reported by parents. The instructions SECDI gives to parents and their intuitive judgements naturally favour a strong semantic perspective. This study investigates the relationship between the reported productive vocabulary size and the phonological complexity of infant utterances. Productive vocabulary size was assessed in 17- to 18-month-olds (N=330) and in 20- to 21-month-olds (N=85). It is hypothesised that words with low phonological complexity are more frequently reported by parents and that phonological complexity will increase with infant age. Productive vocabulary size was measured from parental reports submitted via an online version of SECDI. To evaluate phonological complexity, only the part with single words was used – apart from 16 items consisting of lexicalised phrases, family names or multiple alternative utterances that were excluded. Phonological complexity was computed as the sum of the number of syllables (1 to 4), consonant clusters (0 to 4), and fricatives (0 to 3) occurring in each of the remaining 694 words. It ranged from 1 to 9 (low 1-3; high 7-9). Parents reported significantly more words with low phonological complexity. There is a significant interaction between the complexity level of the reported words and infant age. Words with more syllables, consonant clusters or fricatives were less frequent in the parental reports. This shows that data acquired with SECDI is not necessarily limited to a semantic perspective but can even provide information about phonological complexity.

  • 25.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Pause and utterance duration in child-directed speech in relation to child vocabulary size2015In: Journal of Child Language, ISSN 0305-0009, E-ISSN 1469-7602, Vol. 42, no 5, p. 1158-1171Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study compares parental pause and utterance duration in conversations with Swedish speaking children at age 1;6 who have either a large, typical, or small expressive vocabulary, as measured by the Swedish version of the McArthur-Bates CDI. The adjustments that parents do when they speak to children are similar across all three vocabulary groups; they use longer utterances than when speaking to adults, and respond faster to children than they do to other adults. However, overall pause duration varies with the vocabulary size of the children, and as a result durational aspects of the language environment to which the children are exposed differ between groups. Parents of children in the large vocabulary size group respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the typical vocabulary size group, who in turn respond faster to child utterances than do parents of children in the small vocabulary size group.

  • 26.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Relationship between parental communicative adjustments and vocabulary production in Swedish infants2011Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Parental linguistic input and interaction style are essential to infant language development. The current study investigates the relationship between Swedish children’s productive vocabulary size and parental communicative adjustments at 18 months (N = 60) and 24 months (N = 61). Vocabulary size is reported with the Swedish adaptation of the MacArthur CDI Words and Sentences (SECDI) while parental communicative adjustments are measured by parental inclination to wait for infants’ vocal communicative initiative and parental inclination to adjust utterance duration to match the duration of infant vocalization. Pauses between utterances and utterance duration of parents and children are tagged in audio recordings of daily-life situations involving parent and child at the family home, such as mealtime, playtime, or reading time. Infants with large productive vocabularies are expected to have parents who are more inclined to wait for communicative initiatives on the part of the infant and to adjust utterance duration to match infant vocalizations. On the other hand, infants with small productive vocabularies are expected to have parents who are less inclined to give room to communicative initiatives and to match input duration to infant production. Small vocabularies are defined by the lowest quartile (0-25%), while large vocabularies are represented by the highest quartile (75-100%) of SECDI scores. Parental communicative adjustments show differential effects on productive vocabulary size at the two ages 18 and 24 months. This indicates a relationship between parental communicative input, as measured in the aspects of turn-taking pauses and duration adjustment, and child vocabulary development.

  • 27.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. Danderyds Hospital, Sweden.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Introducing WCM-SE: The word complexity measure phonetically justified and adapted to Swedish2018In: Clinical Linguistics & Phonetics, ISSN 0269-9206, E-ISSN 1464-5076, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 1042-1053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This paper presents the Word Complexity Measure for Swedish (WCM-SE), an adaptation of the original WCM developed for English by Stoel-Gammon. These measures are used to calculate the phonological complexity of words or vocalizations, based on a number of phonological complexity parameters. Each production receives a complexity score based on how many of the parameters are present in the production.Using phonological complexity scores to measure expressive phonology is suitable for assessing very young children, children with early phonology and children with phonological deficits. It is useful forboth relational and independent analyses and enables comparisons between children and across development.The original WCM uses eight phonological complexity parameters in three domains: word patterns, syllable structures and sound classes. The parameters selected are phonological characteristics that are acquired late in development among English-speaking children.In the WCM-SE, complexity parameters in the domain sound classes were modified or added according to Swedish or universal patterns of phonology development. The parameters' complexity is accounted for in terms of language-general phonetic characteristics.

  • 28.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Contingent turn-taking between parents and 6-month-olds: Primary caregivers respond faster than secondary caregiversManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study, temporal contingency in parent- infant turn-taking was investigated. Six-month-old infants (n = 14; 7 girls) were recorded when interacting with their primary and secondary caregivers in separate ten-minute sessions. Infant vocalizations and adjacent caregiver utterances were identified in the recordings and duration was calculated for caregiver-infant and infant-caregiver switching pauses. Primary caregivers respond significantly faster to infant vocalizations than do secondary caregivers. Further, infants respond faster to primary caregiver than to secondary caregiver, but the difference failed to reach significance. No effects were found for infant sex. Switching pause duration in interaction between infants and their primary caregiver is shorter than between infants and their secondary caregiver.

  • 29.
    Mårback, Sebastian
    et al.
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Sjöberg, Gustav
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Eklund, Robert
    Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institute/Stockholm Brain Institute, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Uhm... What’s going on? An EEG study on perception of filled pauses in spontaneous Swedish speech2009In: Proceedings of FONETIK 2009, Stockholm University, 10–12 June 2009, 2009, p. 92-95Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Filled pauses have been shown to play a significant role in comprehension and long-term storage of speech. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies suggest that filled pauses can help mitigate semantic and/or syntactic incongruity in spoken language. The purpose of the present study was to explore how filled pauses affect the processing of spontaneous speech in the listener. Brain activation of eight subjects was measured by electroencephalography (EEG), while they listened to recordings of Wizard-of-Oz travel booking dialogues. The results show a P300 component in the Primary Motor Cortex, but not in the Broca or Wernicke areas. A possible interpretation could be that the listener is preparing to engage in speech. However, a larger sample is currently being collected.

  • 30.
    Mårback, Sebastian
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sjöberg, Gustav
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Eklund, Robert
    Karolinska Institute.
    Uhm... What's going on? An EEG study on perception of filled pauses in spontaneous Swedish speech2009In: Proceedings of the 22nd Swedish Phonetics Conference / [ed] Department of Linguistics, Phonetics group, 2009, p. 92-95Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Filled pauses have been shown to play a significant role in comprehension and long-term storage of speech. Behavioral and neurophysiological studies suggest that filled pauses can help mitigate semantic and/or syntactic incongruity in spoken language. The purpose of the present study was to explore how filled pauses affect the processing of spontaneous speech in the listener. Brain activation of eight subjects was measured by electroencephalography (EEG), while they listened to recordings of Wizard-of-Oz travel booking dialogues.

    The results show a P300 component in the Primary Motor Cortex, but not in the Broca or Wernicke areas. A possible interpretation could be that the listener is preparing to engage in speech. However, a larger sample is currently being collected.

  • 31.
    Nilsson Björkenstam, Kristina
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Wirén, Mats
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Computational Linguistics.
    Variation sets in child-directed speech2015In: / [ed] Ellen Marklund, Iris-Corinna Schwarz, 2015Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 32.
    Norstedt, fd. Walberg, Heléne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lateralization in speech perception? A first analysis of brain activation in 4-month-old children and adults2008Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Hemispheric lateralization in speech perception in infants and adults was studied by means of brain activation patterns via EEGmeasurement. Overall activation and ERPs in response to IDS-stimuli in Swedish, Portuguese and rotated Swedish were tested in 9 4-monthold infants and 13 adults with EEG head-nets. Left-hemispheric activation was expected in adults at least for intelligible speech stimuli, whereas non-specific activation in both hemispheres was expected in infants. The results showed a right-hemispheric lateralization tendency in adults. The infants showed no lateralization pattern. Further research on 9-month-old infants is the next step to understand lateralization development in infants.

  • 33.
    Olsson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Spädbarns anticipatoriska ögonrörelser som svar på ljud: Inlärning i ett eye-tracker-baserat hörseltest2014Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) är en metod för att bedöma små barns hörtrösklar. Ett hörseltest med eye-tracking som bygger på VRA är under utveckling, och syftet med denna studie är att vidareutveckla inlärningsfasen i ett sådant hörseltest. Barn i åldern 6,5 till 7,5 månader fick lyssna på ljudstimuli från högtalare på vänster och höger sida om sig och samtidigt se visuella stimuli på motsvarande sida av en bildskärm. Barnens inlärning av det audio-visuella sambandet testades sedan genom att mäta deras ögonrörelser till platsen för visuella stimuli under tiden då ljudet presenterades. Resultaten kan inte tydligt visa att barnen lärt sig associationen, varför testets utformning bör utvecklas vidare för att tillgodose det behov som finns av ett fullt automatiskt och objektivt hörseltest för att utreda spädbarns hörtrösklar.

  • 34.
    Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Markelius, Marie
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Productional abilities can affect the perception of mispronounced words: An eye-tracking study with Swedish two-year-old children2014Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 35.
    Renner, Lena
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Sundberg, Ulla
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Combining EEG signals and Eye-tracking data to investigate the relationship between phonological and lexical acquisition2012Conference paper (Refereed)
  • 36.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Measuring vocabulary development in Australian toddlers with the Australian English vocabulary inventory OZI2006In: Karitane STEPS Conference 2006: Little steps - big progress: Toddlers, 15 months - 5 years, 2006, p. 15-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory CDI (Fenson et al, 1993), an American English parental vocabulary checklist, was adapted to Australian English, resulting in the Australian English vocabulary inventory OZI, validated for 16- to 30-month-old children. High correlations between OZI and CDI were observed in a first study (r=.99 for 24-month-olds, r=.97 for 30-month-olds), however the OZI assessed the vocabulary of Australian toddlers more appropriately, as the scores were significantly higher than on the CDI. A frequency count for the first 500 words as well as preliminary vocabulary norms for age groups from several hundred children are presented from the ongoing second study.

  • 37.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics. fonetik.
    Speech perception, phonological sensitivity, and articulation in early vocabulary development2007Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception, articulation, and word learning are three major tiers of language development in young children, integrating perceptual and productive language abilities. Infant speech perception precedes speech production and is the basis for native language learning. In speech production, children refine their articulation skills beginning with their first vocalic utterances until they reach adult performance level. The third tier describes children’s vocabulary development from their first words to their established receptive and productive lexicon after the vocabulary spurt. Speech perception, articulation, and word learning interact at the level of lexical representations.

    By investigating the relationship between the attention to phonological detail in speech and word learning, the degree of phonological detail in the lexical representations can be inferred. This relationship can be described by two models: the vocabulary-driven and phonology-driven model. The vocabulary-driven model proposes that the structure of the lexicon influences attention to phonological detail in speech perception, and this model is consistent with the Lexical Restructuring Model. On the other hand the phonology-driven model proposes that vocabulary increases as a result of increased attention to phonological detail in speech.

    To infer the phonological specifications of lexical representations of words in 2½- to 3-year-olds, the variables vocabulary, phonological sensitivity, language-specific speech perception and articulation accuracy were tested in a longitudinal study with 60 participants. For these variables, new measures were developed, adapted, and tested. It was found that phonological sensitivity at 30 months predicted vocabulary at 33 months, but not the opposite. This supports the prediction of the phonology-driven model. However, in an augmented version of the vocabulary-driven model that included all variables, articulation at 30 months was found to predict phonological sensitivity at 33 months. These results are discussed in the light of the Lexical Restructuring Model, and the interaction of speech perception, articulation skills, and lexical representations, and suggestions for future research are offered.

  • 38.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Botros, Noor
    Lord, Alekzandra
    Marcusson, Amelie
    Tidelius, Henrik
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    The LENATM system applied to Swedish: Reliability of the Adult Word Count estimate2017In: Proceedings of Interspeech 2017 / [ed] Francisco Lacerda, David House, Mattias Heldner, Joakim Gustafson, Sofia Strömbergsson, Marcin Włodarczak, The International Speech Communication Association (ISCA), 2017, p. 2088-2092Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The Language Environment Analysis system LENATM is used to capture day-long recordings of children’s natural audio environment. The system performs automated segmentation of the recordings and provides estimates for various measures. One of those measures is Adult Word Count (AWC), an approximation of the number of words spoken by adults in close proximity to the child. The LENA system was developed for and trained on American English, but it has also been evaluated on its performance when applied to Spanish, Mandarin and French. The present study is the first evaluation of the LENA system applied to Swedish, and focuses on the AWC estimate. Twelve five-minute segments were selected at random from each of four day-long recordings of 30-month-old children. Each of these 48 segments was transcribed by two transcribers,and both number of words and number of vowels were calculated (inter-transcriber reliability for words: r = .95,vowels: r = .93). Both counts correlated with the LENA system’s AWC estimate for the same segments (words: r = .67, vowels: r = .66). The reliability of the AWC as estimated by the LENA system when applied to Swedish is therefore comparableto its reliability for Spanish, Mandarin and French.

  • 39.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Bowey, Judith A.
    Burnham, Denis
    MARCS Auditory Laboratories, University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Phoneme sensitivity predicts vocabulary size in 2 1/2- to 3-year-olds2006In: 11th Australasian International Conference on Speech Science and Technology: Auckland, New Zealand, 2006, p. 28-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sixty Australian English speaking toddlers were tested in a longitudinal study at 30, 33, and 36 months on vocabulary size, phoneme sensitivity, language-specific speech perception, and articulation accuracy. Vocabulary size was measured with the Australian English adaptation of the MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory and the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test III. Phoneme Sensitivity (PS) comprised scores from mispronunciation detection, rhyme detection, and nonword repetition tasks. Language Specific Speech Perception (LSSP) was calculated by subtracting the score for nonnative speech perception from the native score, indicating the degree of specialisation in the native language. Articulation accuracy (AA) was measured with an adaptation of the Queensland Articulation Test. Results showed (i) linear improvements in all new measures, appropriately depicting the developmental trend; (ii) significant correlations between AA and vocabulary size; (iii) predictability of vocabulary size by PS and vice versa at 30, 33, and 36 months. The results provide further evidence for the important role phoneme-sensitive speech perception plays in the process of lexical acquisition.

  • 40.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Burnham, Denis
    MARCS Auditory Laboratories, University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    New measures to chart toddlers' speech perception and language development: A test of the lexical restructuring hypothesis2006In: 9th International Conference on Spoken Language Processing: Interspeech 2006 Pittsburgh, PA, 2006, p. 89-Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Language acquisition factors at work in toddlers between 2 1/2 and 3 years of age were investigated in the first longitudinal study of this kind. New age-appropriate tasks were devised to measure the development of vocabulary size; articulation accuracy, sensitivity to the phonemic features of, in this case, Australian English; and the degree of specialisation towards the native tongue, as measured by language-specific speech perception; LSSP, with 45 Australian English learning toddlers (18 male, 27 female) at 30, 33, and 36 months of age. Results indicated that (i) that nearly all measures improved linearly over age; (ii) that there were significant correlations between articulation ability and vocabulary size; and (iii) that, in confirmation of the lexical restructuring hypothesis, vocabulary size is significantly predicted by the broad range of native language abilities under the rubric of phoneme sensitivity, but not under the more specific measure of LSSP.

  • 41.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    MARCS Auditory Laboratories, University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Burnham, Denis
    MARCS Auditory Laboratories, University of Western Sydney, Australia.
    Bowey, Judith A.
    An expressive vocabulary inventory adaptation to Australian English2003In: 14th Australian Language and Speech Conference, Brisbane, 2003, p. 43-Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory CDI (Fenson et al., 1993) is widely used to assess early expressive vocabulary development. Its toddler form, Words and Sentences, is validated as a parental vocabulary checklist for 16- to 30-month-old children. The CDI was developed for American English, but has been adapted to assess British (Hamilton, Plunkett, & Schafer, 2000) and New Zealand English vocabularies (Reese & Read, 2000). In this study, the CDI is adapted to Australian English, and various limitations, such as length and imbalance of gender-based items are overcome. This inventory omits grammatical aspects of the original CDI in order to shorten the checklist (see WORDS short form), Corkum & Dunham, 1996) and replaces inappropriate words with Australian English equivalents. This Australian adaptation of the CDI, and its correlations with the original CDI based on approximately 100 children (24 and 30 months) will be presented.

  • 42.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Clausnitzer, Ann-Christin
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Phonetic correlates of perceived affect in mothers’ and fathers’ speech to Swedish 12-month-olds2018In: Abstract Book: Day 1, Sunday, July 1st, 2018, p. 262-263Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Infants prefer to listen to infant-directed speech (IDS) over adult-directed speech (ADS). IDS contains a greater amount of affect than ADS (Singh, Morgan & Best, 2002). Affect in infant-directed speech has been said to foster social bonds, maintain attention and teach language. In order to identify phonetic correlates of affect, prosodic features such as fundamental frequency, pitch range, pitch contour, vowel duration and rhythm have been tried (Katz, Cohn & Moore, 1996; Trainor, Austin & Desjardins, 2000). However, affect ratings are typically carried out on low-pass filtered speech in order to obscure semantic cues to affect. It is possible that more than semantic meaning is distorted by the filtering process. In the present study, acoustic-phonetic correlates to affect were studied in un-filtered short speech segments. One-syllable speech segments were rated on a scale ranging from highly negative via neutral to highly positive affect. Formant (F1, F2, F3), pitch (mean, maximum, minimum, range, contour), and vowel duration measures were obtained from the speech samples, and relations between acoustic measures and rated affect were analyzed. The speech samples were the syllables /mo/, /na/, and /li/ produced by Swedish mothers (n = 29) and fathers (n = 21) when talking to their 12-month-old children. Recordings of IDS took place during free play in a laboratory setting, and the syllables were the names of soft toys that the parents were asked to use when interacting with their child. Parents and children participated in a longitudinal interaction study, and this was their fourth visit at the laboratory, so they were familiar with task, setting and toys. ADS exemplars of the syllables were also selected from a sub-sample of the mothers (n = 14), recorded at their first visit to the laboratory. Participants in the perceptual rating experiment (n = 35; 21 female; mean age = 28.6 years; age range = 19-45 years) were presented with one syllable at a time and asked to rate the affect conveyed on a scale from -4 (high negative affect) to +4 (high positive affect), with 0 as midpoint (neutral affect). The experiment was self-paced, and participants could listen to each syllable as many times as they liked. Each experiment session lasted between 30 and 50 minutes. A mixed-effects model was designed with AffectRating as dependent variable, Rater as random effects variable, and RaterGender, RaterHasChildren, F1, F2, F3, MeanPitch, PitchRange as well as VowelDuration as fixed effects variables. Minimum pitch, maximum pitch and pitch contour were excluded from the analysis since they were correlated with pitch range. Significant results were found for F1, F3, MeanPitch, PitchRange and VowelDuration. Higher F1 and/or F3 resulted in more negative perceived affect whereas higher mean pitch, greater pitch range, and/or longer vowel duration resulted in more positive perceived affect. The relation between perceived affect and formant values could be related to differences in perceived affect for different vowels, rather than variations in the formant values per se. It would be interesting to look at variation within separate vowel categories. The relation between positive affect and prosodic exaggerations suggests that some acoustic characteristics of IDS could be a result of parents conveying positive affect to their children.

  • 43.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Forsén, Malin
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Johansson, Linnea
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Lång, Catarina
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Narel, Anna
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Valdés, Tanya
    Institutionen för klinisk vetenskap, intervention och teknik.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Language-specific speech perception as mismatch negativity in 10-month-olds' ERP data2009In: Proceedings FONETIK 2009 - The XXIIth Swedish Phonetics Conference / [ed] Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics , 2009, p. 130-135Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Discrimination of native and nonnative speech contrasts, the heart of the concept of language-specific speech perception, is sensitive to developmental change in speech perception during infancy. Using the mismatch negativity paradigm, seven Swedish language environment 10-month-olds were tested on their perception of six different consonantal and tonal Thai speech contrasts, native and nonnative tothe infants. Infant brain activation in response to the speech contrasts was measured with event-related potentials (ERPs). They show mismatch negativity at 300 ms, significant for contrast change in the native condition, but not for contrast change in the nonnative condition. Differences in native and nonnative speech discrimination are clearly reflected in the ERPs and confirm earlier findings obtained by behavioural techniques. ERP measurement thus suitably complements infant speech discrimination research.

  • 44.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Lacerda, Francisco
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Walberg, Heléne
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Cerebral activation patterns of speech perception in 4-month-olds and adults2009In: BrainTalk: Discourse with and in the Brain / [ed] Kai Alter, Merle Horne, Magnus Lindgren, Mikael Roll, Janne von Koss Torkildsen, Lund, Sweden: Centre for Languages and Literature, Lund University , 2009, p. 231-246Chapter in book (Other (popular science, discussion, etc.))
    Abstract [en]

    Speech perception in infancy is language-general, but language-specific in adulthood. Is this reflected in event-related brain potentials (ERPs)? ERPs from 128 electrodes were recorded for three speech perception conditions in 4-month-old Swedish infants (N=9) and adults (N=13).The stimuli were simple sentences in infant-directed speech (IDS) in Swedish, familiar in semantic content and prosodic characteristics; in spectrally rotated Swedish with incomprehensible semantic content, but familiar prosodic characteristics; and in Portuguese, unfamiliar in both aspects.As predicted, infants show bilateral activation across conditions, but also present two left-hemispheric advantages as potential first signs of native language specialisation. In adults, left-hemispheric activation shows condition-sensitive ERP patterns: processing rotated Swedish is similar to Swedish, but different to Portuguese. The right-hemispheric dominance in adults is explained by the strong prosodic and weak semantic characteristics of the IDS stimuli. Infants' language-general and adults' language-specific speech perception is reflected in the ERPs, although 4-month-olds show first signs of specialisation.

  • 45.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Lam-Cassettari, Christa
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Positive affect in Swedish and Australian mothers’ speech to their 3- to 12-month-old infants2018Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Affect is an important feature of infant-directed speech (IDS). IDS towards infants during the first year of life varies in degree of affect. In Australian English (AuE), positive affect in mothers’ IDS increases over age from birth to twelve months, with a dip at nine months (Kitamura & Burnham, 2003).

    This study investigates whether affect in Swedish (Swe) mothers’ IDS towards their infants develops in a similar pattern compared to the Australian English data. It also introduces a cross-linguistic perspective of affect perception in IDS as Swedish native speakers rate both the Swe and AuE IDS samples.

    The adult raters (N=16; 8 female, mean age 36.4 years; SD = 10.1) assessed affect polarity and affect degree in low-pass filtered IDS samples on a scale from -4 to +4 (highly negative to highly positive). The 25 s long samples were cut from interactions between mothers and their infants at three, six, nine and twelve months and low-pass filtered. The Australian material was sampled from the same dataset as used in Kitamura and Burnham (2003); the Swedish material was recorded at Stockholm Babylab (Gerholm et al., 2015).

    Separate repeated measures ANOVAs were conducted on the mean affect ratings of AuE and Swe IDS, with infant age as within-subject factor, followed up with polynomial contrasts. For AuE IDS, a significant main effect was found for age (F(45,3)=10.356; p<.001), with a linear (F(15,1)=20.542; p<.001) and a cubic trend (F(15,1)=7.780; p=.014). For Swe IDS, a significant main effect was found for age (F(45,3)=4.186; p=.011), with a linear (F(15,1)=10.993; p=.005) and a quadratic trend (F(15,1)=6.124; p=.026). In both languages, positive affect decreases over age.

    While cross-linguistic affect perception of AuE IDS is still similar to the original, Kitamura and Burnham’s data show a more pronounced cubic trend and a general increase of affect in IDS over the first year. In this study, affect development in AuE IDS shows a steep increase from three to six months, followed by a decrease from six to nine months and a slight recovery from nine to twelve months. Affect in Swe IDS follows a different developmental trajectory, as it decreases from three to nine months to recover with an increase from nine to twelve months. This is a first indication for language-specific differences in IDS affect over the first year. Future ratings of the same material with AuE native speakers will show if the difference in the AuE results is an effect of rater language.

  • 46.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Dybäck, Matilda
    Wallgren, Johanna
    Uhlén, Inger
    Pupil dilation indicates auditory signal detection - towards an objective hearing test based on eye-tracking2016Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: The long-term objective of this project is to develop an objective hearing threshold test that can be used in early infancy, using pupildilation as an indicator of hearing. The study purposes are 1) to identify relevant time-windows for analysis of pupillary responses to various auditory stimuli in adults, and 2) to evaluate a trial-minus-baseline approach to deal with unrelated pupillary responses in adults. Method: Participants’ pupil size is recorded using a Tobii T120 Eye-tracker. In the first test, participants fixate on a blank screen while sound stimuli are presented. From this data, typical pupillary responses and the relevant analysis time-window is determined and used in future tests. In the second test, participants watch movie clips while sound stimuli are presented. Visually identical sound and no-sound trials will be compared in order to isolate the pupillary changes tied to hearing sound from those related to changes in brightness in the visual stimuli. Results and conclusion: Data is currently being collected. Results from the pilot study indicate that the pupillary response related to sound detection occurs at around 900 ms after stimulus onset, and that a trial-minus-baseline approach is a viable option to eliminate unrelated pupillary responses.

  • 47.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwitteck, Annika
    Mismatch negativity as tool in language acquisition research: Discrimination on auditory-phonetic and/or semantic levels?2013Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Phoneme discrimination is one of the first steps on the infants’ path to identify word boundaries and to build a lexicon. Within the first year of life, infants turn their early global discrimination skills into language-specific tools, paving the way to fast word acquisition. This development has been demonstrated in countless behavioural discrimination studies, but also with electrophysiological measures such as event-related potentials (ERPs). The typical ERP-component that responds to a deviant in a series of standard stimuli, thereby indicating discrimination between standard and deviant, is called mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is generally an early ERP-component at around 150 to 200 ms after stimulus onset, representing automatic processing on a pre-attentive level. It can be elicited in a passive listening paradigm while watching a silenced movie and is therefore especially suitable for infant studies. However, higher cognitive processing such as semantic discrimination can also be indicated by MMN with a latency of 400 to 450 ms after stimulus onset. This study tests whether auditory-phonetic and semantic processing levels are reflected in the MMN when comparing a simple syllable discrimination task to a word discrimination task, after the standard and deviant syllable stimuli have been supplied with semantic content. The syllables [be]-[de] are expected to be discriminated in the first experimental block (50 trials), indicated by a typical MMN in the participants’ ERPs. In a second block (50 naming trials), these syllables become names for two different jackalope soft toys while the participant eye movements are recorded. In the third block (50 trials), the MMN paradigm is run again, but this time with the expectation that higher level processing is indicated in the MMN response. This could be either reflected by a significantly more pronounced MMN curve or by a greater latency of the MMN response. We report pilot results of adult participants (N=7), run to evaluate the experimental paradigm before testing toddlers. 

  • 48.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Schwitteck, Annika
    Mismatch negativity reflects phonemic as well as lexical discrimination: Does this also hold for toddlers?2014Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Phoneme discrimination is an important factor in language acquisition. Within the first year of life, infants turn their early global discrimination skills into language-specific tools, facilitating lexical growth. However, word learning impedes phoneme discrimination between 14 and 17 months of age (e.g., Stager & Werker, 1997; Yoshida, Fennell, Swingley, & Werker, 2009).

    Phoneme discrimination can also be demonstrated by studying event-related potentials (ERPs) (e.g., Rivera-Gaxiola, Silva-Pereyra, & Kuhl, 2005). The typical ERP-component that responds to a deviant in a series of standard stimuli, thereby indicating discrimination between standard and deviant, is called mismatch negativity (MMN). MMN is an early ERP-component at around 150 to 250 ms after stimulus onset, representing automatic processing on a pre-attentive level (Näätänen, Paavilainen, Rinne, & Alho, 2007). It can be elicited in a passive listening paradigm and is therefore especially suitable for infant studies. However, even higher-level cognition such as the processing of lexical information can be reflected in the MMN (Shtyrov, Hauk, & Pulvermüller, 2004). In 5-year-old children, lexical processing as part of the MMN was indicated at a latency of 400 to 450 ms after stimulus onset (Korpilahti, Krause, Holopainen, & Lang, 2001).

    In the present study, a simple auditory syllable discrimination task is converted into a word discrimination task by supplying semantic content to standard and deviant syllables. The first experimental block contained 50 discrimination trials with four to seven repetitions of the standard syllable with an interstimulus interval of 500 ms. The stimuli consisted of one exemplar per syllable [be] and [de] (400 ms duration each), recorded in infant-directed speech by a female speaker. In a second block (50 naming trials) these syllables gained a semantic dimension by associative pairing with two different jackalope soft toys. Four different pictures per soft toy were presented together with the naming syllable in randomised order. The third experimental block equalled the first. As designed for toddlers, the study was kept to a suitable duration of about 10 min.

    It was predicted that the first block elicits a typical MMN, indicating discrimination on a phonemic level, but in the third block, a greater latency in the MMN was expected, indicating discrimination on a lexical level. Adult pilot data (N=6), collected to evaluate the extremely short MMN-paradigm and provide a reference group, revealed a strong frontocentral MMN candidate for discrimination on a phonemic level in the first experimental block with deviant negativity between 180 and 250 ms, as well as on a lexical level in the third block, indicated by a deviant negativity with a latency of 360 ms. This shows also that just 50 trials can elicit a MMN, setting the stage to test toddlers. The results of 20-month-olds are predicted to conform to the adult pilot data, possibly with a greater latency both in the phonemic and the lexical MMN. MMN may therefore offer an alternative method to investigate the development of phoneme discrimination in word learning contexts between the ages of 14 and 20 months. 

  • 49.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ulrika
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Contingency differences in parent-infant turn-taking between primary and secondary caregivers in relation to turn-taking experience2017In: Many Paths to Language (MPaL), 2017, p. 59-60Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Contingent turn-taking between parents and infants is positively correlated with child language outcome (Tamis-LeMonda, Bornstein & Baumwell, 2001; Marklund, Marklund, Lacerda & Schwarz, 2015). Many studies focus exclusively on mothers (e.g., Sung, Fausto-Sterling, Garcia Coll & Seifer, 2013). However, infants in Western countries acquire language with input both from mothers and fathers in varying degree, depending on how the family chooses to organize their parental leave. Sweden is an ideal country to study both mothers and fathers as caregivers for infants.

    Parental contingency is often reported as response frequency within a time window after infant vocalizations (e.g., Johnson, Caskey, Rand, Tucker & Vohr, 2014). In this study, turn-taking contingency is measured by the duration of parent-child and child-parent switching pauses around infant vocalization with potential communicative intent. Fourteen (7 girls) infants and their primary and secondary caregivers were recorded in the family home when the infant was six months (M = 5 months 29 days, range: 5 months 3 days – 6 months 16 days). The audio recordings were collected two different days and lasted approximately ten minutes each. One of the days was a typical weekday on which the primary caregiver – in all cases the mother – was at home with the infant. The other day was a typical weekend day on which also the secondary caregiver – in all cases the father – was at home and spent time with the infant. On each of these days, a daylong LENA recording was also made to estimate the amount of exposure to female and male speech input on a typical day. Using Wavesurfer 1.8.5 (Sjölander & Beskow, 2010), on- and offset of all infant vocalizations were tagged as well as on- and offset for the surrounding switching pauses. If parent utterance and infant vocalization overlapped, switching pause duration received a negative value.

    Two repeated measures ANOVAs were used to determine the effects of caregiver type (primary/secondary) and infant sex (girl/boy) on pause duration in infant-parent and parent-infant switching pauses. A main effect was found for caregiver type in infant-parent switching pauses (F(12,1) = 5.214; p = .041), as primary caregivers responded on average about 500 ms faster to infant vocalizations than secondary caregivers, with no effect of or interaction with infant sex. In parent-infant switching pauses, the main effect for caregiver type was almost significant (F(12,1) = 4.574; p = .054), with no effect of or interaction with infant sex. It is therefore fair to say that turn-taking between primary caregivers and 6-month-olds is more contingent than turn-taking between secondary caregivers and 6-month-olds.

    Four linear regressions were then used to predict parent-infant and infant-parent switching pause duration from the average duration of female speech exposure and the average duration of male speech exposure across the two days, with the assumption that female speech duration equals speech input from the primary caregiver and male speech duration the secondary caregiver. None of the regression analyses turned out to be significant. However, it is likely that the greater contingency between primary caregivers and the infant is a function of greater turn-taking experience, that is, conversational turns rather than mere exposure to speech. Therefore, we will look next at the number of conversational turns for each caregiver separately and investigate whether they predict parental response contingency.

    The present study shows that vocal turn-taking is more contingent between infants and primary caregivers than with secondary caregivers. Primary caregivers respond significantly faster to infant vocalizations than secondary caregivers and in turn, infants have a tendency to respond faster to primary caregivers. It is likely that this relationship is mediated by turn-taking experience, although this could not be shown with regression analyses using LENA estimates of total duration of speech exposure to primary and secondary caregiver.

     

     

  • 50.
    Schwarz, Iris-Corinna
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Nazem, Atena
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Olsson, Sofia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Marklund, Ellen
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Humanities, Department of Linguistics, Phonetics.
    Uhlén, Inger
    Karolinska Institutet, Sweden.
    Towards a contingent anticipatory infant hearing test using eye-tracking2014In: Proceedings from FONETIK 2014: Stockholm, June 9-11, 2014 / [ed] Mattias Heldner, Stockholm: Department of Linguistics, Stockholm University , 2014, p. 35-40Conference paper (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Early identification of infant hearing impairment is imperative to prevent developmental language difficulties. The current diagnostic method is Visual Reinforcement Audiometry (VRA) in which infant response to sound isobserved to establish hearing thresholds. Together with the Karolinska Institute, we are developing an observer-independent contingent anticipatory infant hearing test using eye-tracking to increase reliability and significance levels of the current clinical practice. The present pilot study addresses in particular the first phase of the test in which the eye response is conditioned to occur at sound detection. The aim is to establish how well 6.5-month-olds associate the presence of sound to a certain location via a visual reward.

12 1 - 50 of 56
CiteExportLink to result list
Permanent link
Cite
Citation style
  • apa
  • ieee
  • modern-language-association-8th-edition
  • vancouver
  • Other style
More styles
Language
  • de-DE
  • en-GB
  • en-US
  • fi-FI
  • nn-NO
  • nn-NB
  • sv-SE
  • Other locale
More languages
Output format
  • html
  • text
  • asciidoc
  • rtf