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  • 1.
    Balke, Michael
    et al.
    Zoologische Staatssammlung München.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Hendrich, Lars
    Zoologische Staatssammlung München.
    A new genus and two new species of Southeast Asian Bidessini as well as new synonyms for Oceanian species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)2017Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, Vol. 647, s. 137-151Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Rompindessus jenisi Balke, Bergsten & Hendrich, gen. n. et sp. n. is described from near Rompin village in West Malaysia. The new genus is characterized by the presence of an occipital line and basal pronotal striae, the presence of a thick anterior bead on clypeus and two-segmented parameres as well as by the absence of basal elytral striae, the absence of sutural line on elytron, the absence of basal epipleural transverse carina, and the absence of longitudinal elytral carina. Moreover, male pro- and mesotarsus appear stout, and distinctly dilated laterally; the pronotum is comparably long and parallel-sided and the colour of beetle conspicuous dark orange. Leiodytes kualalipis Balke, Wang, Bergsten & Hendrich, sp. n. is described from West Malaysia (Pahang) and South Vietnam (Cat Tien). It is well characterized by its large size, elongate body and the form of the median lobe. Limbodessus fijiensis (J. Balfour-Browne, 1944), comb. n. described from Fiji is a new synonym of Limbodessus curviplicatus (Zimmermann, 1927) described from Samoa.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 2.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    A bee-fly's host, Facebook, and DNA Barcoding.2016Ingår i: Barcode Bulletin, Vol. 7, nr 2, s. 8-9Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 3.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    A review of long-branch attraction2005Ingår i: Cladistics, ISSN 1096-0031, Vol. 21, nr 2, s. 163-193Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The history of long-branch attraction, and in particular methods suggested to detect and avoid the artifact to date, is reviewed. Methods suggested to avoid LBA-artifacts include excluding long-branch taxa, excluding faster evolving third codon positions, using inference methods less sensitive to LBA such as likelihood, the Aguinaldo et al. approach, sampling more taxa to break up long branches and sampling more characters especially of another kind, and the pros and cons of these are discussed. Methods suggested to detect LBA are numerous and include methodological disconcordance, RASA, separate partition analyses, parametric simulation, random outgroup sequences, long-branch extraction, split decomposition and spectral analysis. Less than 10 years ago it was doubted if LBA occurred in real datasets. Today, examples are numerous in the literature and it is argued that the development of methods to deal with the problem is warranted. A 16 kbp dataset of placental mammals and a morphological and molecular combined dataset of gall waSPS are used to illustrate the particularly common problem of LBA of problematic ingroup taxa to outgroups. The preferred methods of separate partition analysis, methodological disconcordance, and long branch extraction are used to demonstrate detection methods. It is argued that since outgroup taxa almost always represent long branches and are as such a hazard towards misplacing long branched ingroup taxa, phylogenetic analyses should always be run with and without the outgroups included. This will detect whether only the outgroup roots the ingroup or if it simultaneously alters the ingroup topology, in which case previous studies have shown that the latter is most often the worse. Apart from that LBA to outgroups is the major and most common problem; scanning the literature also detected the ill advised comfort of high support values from thousands of characters, but very few taxa, in the age of genomics. Taxon sampling is crucial for an accurate phylogenetic estimate and trust cannot be put on whole mitochondrial or chloroplast genome studies with only a few taxa, despite their high support values. The placental mammal example demonstrates that parsimony analysis will be prone to LBA by the attraction of the tenrec to the distant marsupial outgroups. In addition, the murid rodents, creating the classic “the guinea-pig is not a rodent” hypothesis in 1996, are also shown to be attracted to the outgroup by nuclear genes, although including the morphological evidence for rodents and Glires overcomes the artifact. The gall wasp example illustrates that Bayesian analyses with a partition-specific GTR + Γ + I model give a conflicting resolution of clades, with a posterior probability of 1.0 when comparing ingroup alone versus outgroup rooted topologies, and this is due to long-branch attraction to the outgroup.

     

  • 4.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    DNA-streckkodning - så går det till2014Ingår i: Bi-lagan, nr 1, s. 14-16Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Bergsten_2014_Bi-lagan
  • 5.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Taxonomy, phylogeny, and secondary sexual character evolution of diving beetles, focusing on the genus Acilius2005Doktorsavhandling, sammanläggning (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Sexual conflict can lead to antagonistic coevolution between the sexes, but empirical examples are few. In this thesis secondary sexual characters in diving beetles are interpreted in the light of sexual conflict theory. Whether the male tarsal suction cups and female dorsal modifications are involved in a coevolutionary arms race is tested in two ways. First eight populations of a species with dimorphic females that varied in frequency of the morphs were investigated and male tarsal characteristics quantified. The frequency of female morphs is shown to be significantly correlated to the average number and size of male tarsal suction cups in the population, a prediction of the arms race hypothesis. Second, the hypothesis is tested in a phylogenetic perspective by optimizing the secondary sexual characters on a phylogeny. A full taxonomic revision of the genus Acilius is presented, including new synonyms, lectotype designations, geographic distributions based on more than five thousand examined museum specimens and the description of a new species from northeastern USA. Specimens of all species (except one possibly extinct that failed to be found in Yunnan, China 2000), were field collected between 2000 and 2003 in Sardinia, Sweden, Russia, Honshu and Hokkaido in Japan, New York, Maryland, California and Alberta. Three genes (CO1, H3 and Wingless) were sequenced from the fresh material as well as scoring a morphological character matrix all of which was used to derive a robust and complete hypothesis of the phylogenetic relationship in the group. The phylogeny was derived using Bayesian phylogenetics with Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques and received a posterior probability of 0.85. Changes in male and female characters turned out to be perfectly correlated across the phylogeny, providing one of the best empirical examples to date of an antagonistic arms race between the sexes in a group of organisms. Finally, a review of a pitfall to phylogenetic analysis known under the name long-branch attraction (LBA), is provided. The problem is well known theoretically but has been questioned to occur in real data, and LBA has been in the core center of the hard debate between parsimony and likelihood advocates since different inference methods vary in sensitivity to the phenomenon. Most important conclusions from the review are; LBA is very common in real data, and is most often introduced with the inclusion of outgroups that almost always provide long branches, pulling down long terminal ingroup branches towards the root. Therefore it is recommended to always run analyses with and without outgroups. Taxon sampling is very important to avoid the pitfall as well as including different kind of data, especially morphological data, i.e. many LBA-affected conclusions have recently been reached by analyses of few taxa with complete genomes. Long-branch extraction (incl. outgroup exclusion), methodological disconcordance (parsimony vs modelbased), separate partition analyses (morphology vs molecules, codon positions, genes, etc), parametric simulation (incl. random outgroups), and split graphs are available relevant methods for the detection of LBA that should be used in combinations, because none alone is enough to stipulate LBA.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    FULLTEXT01
  • 6. Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Bilton, David T.
    Fujisawa, Tomochika
    Elliott, Miranda
    Monaghan, Michael T.
    Balke, Michael
    Hendrich, Lars
    Geijer, Joja
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Herrmann, Jan
    Linnéuniversitetet, Fakultetsnämnden för naturvetenskap och teknik, Institutionen för naturvetenskap, NV.
    Foster, Garth N.
    Ribera, Ignacio
    Nilsson, Anders N.
    Barraclough, Timothy G.
    Vogler, Alfried P.
    The Effect of Geographical Scale of Sampling on DNA Barcoding2012Ingår i: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 851-869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight years after DNA barcoding was formally proposed on a large scale, CO1 sequences are rapidly accumulating from around the world. While studies to date have mostly targeted local or regional species assemblages, the recent launch of the global iBOL project (International Barcode of Life), highlights the need to understand the effects of geographical scale on Barcoding's goals. Sampling has been central in the debate on DNA Barcoding, but the effect of the geographical scale of sampling has not yet been thoroughly and explicitly tested with empirical data. Here, we present a CO1 data set of aquatic predaceous diving beetles of the tribe Agabini, sampled throughout Europe, and use it to investigate how the geographic scale of sampling affects 1) the estimated intraspecific variation of species, 2) the genetic distance to the most closely related heterospecific, 3) the ratio of intraspecific and interspecific variation, 4) the frequency of taxonomically recognized species found to be monophyletic, and 5) query identification performance based on 6 different species assignment methods. Intraspecific variation was significantly correlated with the geographical scale of sampling (R-square = 0.7), and more than half of the species with 10 or more sampled individuals (N = 29) showed higher intraspecific variation than 1%, sequence divergence. In contrast, the distance to the closest heterospecific showed a significant decrease with increasing geographical scale of sampling. The average genetic distance dropped from >7% for samples within 1 km, to <3.5% for samples up to >6000 km apart. Over a third of the species were not monophyletic, and the proportion increased through locally, nationally, regionally, and continentally restricted subsets of the data. The success of identifying queries decreased with increasing spatial scale of sampling; liberal methods declined from 100% to around 90%, whereas strict methods dropped to below 50% at continental scales. The proportion of query, identifications considered uncertain (more than one species <1% distance from query) escalated from zero at local, to 50% at continental scale. Finally, by resampling the most widely sampled species we show that even if samples are collected to maximize the geographical coverage, up to 70 individuals are required to sample 95%, of intraspecific variation. The results show that the geographical scale of sampling has a critical impact on the global application of DNA barcoding. Scale-effects result from the relative importance of different processes determining the composition of regional species assemblages (dispersal and ecological assembly) and global clades (demography, speciation, and extinction). The incorporation of geographical information, where available, will be required to obtain identification rates at global scales equivalent to those in regional barcoding studies. Our result hence provides an impetus for both smarter barcoding tools and sprouting national barcoding initiatives smaller geographical scales deliver higher accuracy.

  • 7. Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Bilton, David T.
    Fujisawa, Tomochika
    Elliott, Miranda
    Monaghan, Michael T.
    Balke, Michael
    Hendrich, Lars
    Geijer, Joja
    Herrmann, Jan
    Foster, Garth N.
    Ribera, Ignacio
    Nilsson, Anders N.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Barraclough, Timothy G.
    Vogler, Alfried P.
    The Effect of Geographical Scale of Sampling on DNA Barcoding2012Ingår i: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 61, nr 5, s. 851-869Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Eight years after DNA barcoding was formally proposed on a large scale, CO1 sequences are rapidly accumulating from around the world. While studies to date have mostly targeted local or regional species assemblages, the recent launch of the global iBOL project (International Barcode of Life), highlights the need to understand the effects of geographical scale on Barcoding's goals. Sampling has been central in the debate on DNA Barcoding, but the effect of the geographical scale of sampling has not yet been thoroughly and explicitly tested with empirical data. Here, we present a CO1 data set of aquatic predaceous diving beetles of the tribe Agabini, sampled throughout Europe, and use it to investigate how the geographic scale of sampling affects 1) the estimated intraspecific variation of species, 2) the genetic distance to the most closely related heterospecific, 3) the ratio of intraspecific and interspecific variation, 4) the frequency of taxonomically recognized species found to be monophyletic, and 5) query identification performance based on 6 different species assignment methods. Intraspecific variation was significantly correlated with the geographical scale of sampling (R-square = 0.7), and more than half of the species with 10 or more sampled individuals (N = 29) showed higher intraspecific variation than 1%, sequence divergence. In contrast, the distance to the closest heterospecific showed a significant decrease with increasing geographical scale of sampling. The average genetic distance dropped from >7% for samples within 1 km, to <3.5% for samples up to >6000 km apart. Over a third of the species were not monophyletic, and the proportion increased through locally, nationally, regionally, and continentally restricted subsets of the data. The success of identifying queries decreased with increasing spatial scale of sampling; liberal methods declined from 100% to around 90%, whereas strict methods dropped to below 50% at continental scales. The proportion of query, identifications considered uncertain (more than one species <1% distance from query) escalated from zero at local, to 50% at continental scale. Finally, by resampling the most widely sampled species we show that even if samples are collected to maximize the geographical coverage, up to 70 individuals are required to sample 95%, of intraspecific variation. The results show that the geographical scale of sampling has a critical impact on the global application of DNA barcoding. Scale-effects result from the relative importance of different processes determining the composition of regional species assemblages (dispersal and ecological assembly) and global clades (demography, speciation, and extinction). The incorporation of geographical information, where available, will be required to obtain identification rates at global scales equivalent to those in regional barcoding studies. Our result hence provides an impetus for both smarter barcoding tools and sprouting national barcoding initiatives smaller geographical scales deliver higher accuracy.

  • 8.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Bergsten, J. & Bjelke U. 2018. Digital illustrerad bestämningsnyckel till Sveriges skräddare. I: Artnyckeln. ArtDatabanken, SLU, Uppsala. https://www.artnyckeln.se/type/gerridae-2000939-fullvuxna-skraddare.2018Övrigt (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 9. Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Brilmyer, Gracen
    Crampton-Platt, Alex
    Nilsson, Anders N
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Sympatry and colour variation disguised well-differentiated sister species: Suphrodytes revised with integrative taxonomy including 5 kbp of housekeeping genes (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)2012Ingår i: DNA Barcodes, ISSN 2299-1077, Vol. 1, nr 1, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The genus Suphrodytes, is currently regarded as a monobasic Palearctic genus with one colour-variable species, S. dorsalis. Here we show with >5 kbp of nuclear and mitochondrial genes and quantitative morphological characters that Suphrodytes consists of two well-defined species, albeit each with variable colour pattern. The primary barcode gene CO1, showed consistent signs of multiple copies, therefore a range of alternative housekeeping genes were screened for information. The two species were reciprocally monophyletic in genetrees from 12S, 16S, CO1, CO2, CytB, H3 and 18S. Explicit species delimitation tests based on the coalescent process model rejected the null hypothesis that the genealogies originated from a single panmictic species. The mitochondrial proteincoding genes were proportionally richest in information followed by 12S and Histone 3. Conservative nuclear 18S had a single fixed diagnostic character. The two species were significantly different in total bodylength, bodyshape, shape of the male aedeagus and parameres. We review the taxonomic literature of Suphrodytes and find S. dorsalis (Fabricius, 1787) and S. figuratus (Gyllenhal, 1826) to be the oldest available names for the respective species, and for which we designate lectotypes. Synonyms are established for both species which are broadly sympatric across the Palearctic and frequently even collected at the same locality.

  • 10.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Norrlands Entomologiska Förening .
    Gabrielsson, Folke
    Norrlands Entomologiska Förening .
    Akvatiska skinn- och skalbaggar i och kring övre Tälningsån i Hälsningland2001Rapport (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [sv]

    En redovisning av funna arter av akvatiska skinn- och skalbaggar på de 18 undersökta lokalerna i och kring övre Tälningsån i Hälsningland.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 11.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Göthberg, Anders
    Johansson, Karolina
    Pettersson, Arne
    Burkart, Werner
    Burkart, Gudrun
    Entomologmötet på Gotland 2017: temaexkursion med fokus på vattenlevande skalbaggar, skinnbaggar och trollsländor i Äskåkersvät.2017Ingår i: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 139, nr 1, s. 39-49Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The yearly Swedish entomology meeting 2017 was organized by the local entomology

    society of Gotland, on the northern part of the Baltic island Gotland near Bunge, 4-6 August.

    One thematic excursion was focused on aquatic insects, especiallly aquatic beetles,

    bugs and dragonflies. A shallow pond, Äskåkersvät, with Characeae in an open grazed

    landscape with high natural values was studied. Äskåkersvät lies just adjacent to the larger

    area around lake Bästeträsk which is the focus of a pilot study evaluating its potential as

    a future national park. The pilot study is undertaken by Gotland County Administrative

    Board, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency, Region Gotland and the Swedish

    Agency for Marine and Water Management. Here we give an annotated report of the 103

    species found: 69 species of water beetles (out of which 34 were Dytiscidae), 20 species

    of aquatic or semiaquatic bugs (out of which 10 were Corixidae), and 14 species of dragonflies.

    These include Hydrophilus piceus and H. aterrimus redlisted in Sweden (both as

    NT), and Dytiscus latissimus, globally redlisted (VU). We also noted the noble crayfish,

    Astacus astacus (redlisted as CR in Sweden) and the European medicinal leech Hirudo

    medicinalis (redlisted as NT globally). The blue emperor dragonfly (Anax imperator) was

    noted, a species first recorded from Gotland in 2002 and we present a graph on its increase

    and spreading on the island since. The number of species found in spite of a relatively

    modest collecting effort at a suboptimal time when many species may be in pupal stage out

    of water as witnessed by many teneral individuals, indicates a species rich locality with

    high natural value. The stoneworts (Characeae) vegetation certainly contributes to this, for

    instance vouched for by the occurrence of specialists as Haliplus confinis and H. obliquus

    whose larvae feed on stoneworts.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 12.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Lindberg, Gunvi
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Vårdal, hege
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Apelqvist, Niklas
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Brodin, Yngve
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Forshage, Mattias
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Arbetet med donationer av insektsamlingar vid Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet2014Ingår i: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 134, s. 153-162Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
    Abstract [en]

    We describe the work with donated insect collections at the Swedish Museum of Natural

    History (NRM) in Stockholm, Sweden. The museum receives donations yearly from

    amateur entomologists, and they are an important contribution to the enrichment of the

    collections. For the collector it is satisfying that a public institution takes on the long term

    responsibility of safeguarding the scientific value in a collection, curating and making it

    available for study. Significant donations in the last years include that of Lars Huggert

    (Hymenoptera, Coleoptera), Hans Bartsch (Diptera) and Anders N. Nilsson (aquatic Coleoptera)

    to name a few. The curatorial and digitizing workload at the Entomology collection

    are unfortunately not matched by staff funding, and as at other European museums

    volunteer work constitute vital and invaluable help. We acknowledge especially some of

    the volunteer work in the Coleoptera and Hymenoptera collections. Recently we have engaged

    with amateur entomologists by organizing taxon-specific workshops at the museum

    which has stimulated exchange and collaboration. The Hymenoptera-day was visited by 30

    participants, and the Diptera-meeting by 49. As an example of what happens with a donation

    once it reaches the museum, we describe the work with a recent Coleoptera collection

    donation by Jan Olsson, Vallentuna. A few highlights from the unidentified material,

    including the Archostematan beetle Priacma serrata (Cupedidae) and the false jewelbeetle

    Schizopus laetus (Schizopodidae), are presented as they were new to the NRM collections.

    We also bring attention to two new websites: www.naturarv.se is the webportal presenting

    digitized material in Swedish natural history collections. Both metadata on specimens and

    photos are made searchable here. We also launch a new webpage at www.nrm.se/insektsdonationer

    where we write about new donations to the Entomology collections, with Jan

    Olsson’s Coleoptera collection first out.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    Bergsten etal_2014_ET
  • 13.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Miller, Kelly B.
    Female diving beetles in antagonistic coevolutionary arms race with male suckersManuskript (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
  • 14.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Miller, Kelly B.
    Taxonomic revision of the Holarctic diving beetle genus Acilius Leach (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)2006Ingår i: Systematic Entomology, ISSN 0307-6970, E-ISSN 1365-3113, Vol. 31, nr 1, s. 145-197Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Abstract. A full taxonomic revision is presented of the Holarctic diving beetle genus Acilius Leach (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) belonging to the subfamily Dytiscinae and tribe Aciliini. Acilius confusussp.n., previously confused with Acilius fraternus (Harris), is described from north-eastern U.S.A. Acilius latiusculus LeConte and Acilius simplex LeConte are new synonyms of Acilius abbreviatus Aubé. Lectotypes are designated for the following names: A. abbreviatus, A. semisulcatus Aubé, A. fraternus, A. guerryi d'Olsoufieff, A. sinensis Peschet, A. duvergeri Gobert, A. brevis Aubé, A. fasciatus (De Geer), A. maccullochii (Kirby), A. tomentosus Motschulsky, A. sulcatus blancki Peyerimhoff, A. subimpressus Motschulsky and A. laevisulcatus Motschulsky. In total, six Palaearctic and seven Nearctic species are recognized, none of which is Holarctic in distribution. Each species is presented with a diagnosis, full description, habitat preferences, conservation assessments, distribution data and a comprehensive bibliography. Distribution data are presented with a map and a list of countries, or for Nearctic and eastern Palaearctic species, states or larger provinces. A key to all Acilius species is included and each is fully illustrated. The general biology and a taxonomic history of the genus are provided. Acilius abbreviatus and A. semisulcatus are found to hybridize in a narrow zone through middle British Columbia and south-western Alberta, geographically comparable with a previously recognized hybrid zone of several other insect species pairs. More than 5000 specimens were examined.

  • 15.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Nilsson, Anders N.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Ronquist, Fredrik
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet.
    Bayesian Tests of Topology Hypotheses with an Example from Diving Beetles2013Ingår i: Systematic Biology, ISSN 1063-5157, E-ISSN 1076-836X, Vol. 62, nr 5, s. 660-673Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We review Bayesian approaches to model testing in general and to the assessment of topological hypotheses in particular. We show that the standard way of setting up Bayes factor tests of the monophyly of a group, or the placement of a sample sequence in a known reference tree, can be misleading. The reason for this is related to the well-known dependency of Bayes factors on model-specific priors. Specifically, when testing tree hypotheses it is important that each hypothesis is associated with an appropriate tree space in the prior. This can be achieved by using appropriately constrained searches or by filtering trees in the posterior sample, but in a more elaborate way than typically implemented. If it is difficult to find the appropriate tree sets to be contrasted, then the posterior model odds may be more informative than the Bayes factor. We illustrate the recommended techniques using an empirical test case addressing the issue of whether two genera of diving beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae), Suphrodytes and Hydroporus, should be synonymized. Our refined Bayes factor tests, in contrast to standard analyses, show that there is strong support for Suphrodytes nesting inside Hydroporus, and the genera are therefore synonymized.

    Ladda ner fulltext (pdf)
    fulltext
  • 16.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Nilsson, Lars G R
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi. Stockholm University.
    Åkerjordfly, Agrotis exclamationis, identifierad som värdart för svävflugan Villa hottentotta med hjälp av DNA streckkodning (Diptera: Bombyliidae).2015Ingår i: Entomologisk Tidskrift, ISSN 0013-886X, Vol. 136, nr 4, s. 121-130Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    In this study we identify Agrotis exclamationis (Linnaeus, 1758) as a host species for the bee y Villa hottentotta (Linnaeus, 1758) in Sweden. Host use and speci city for bee y species are generally very poorly known, why the hatching of a bee y of the genus Villa from an unknown Noctuid pupa caught our attention. The parasitized Noctuid pupa was found in a garden in Staffanstorp, Skåne (Sweden), in May 2015 and kept in a jar to hatch. The bee y hatched in June leaving two empty exuviae in the jar. DNA was extracted sepa- rately from both excuviae to identify the y and the host using DNA Barcoding. A 600+ bp long sequence of the gene Cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 was sequenced for both samples and queried against the reference library BOLD (www.boldsystems.org). The Noctuid host pupa was unambiguously identi ed as the common Noctuid species Agrotis exclamationis. The sequence was identical to the most common haplotype over much of Europe. The bee y pupa was identi ed as Villa hottentotta, the most common Villa species in Sweden. This added a new Noctuid species to the list of known hosts for V. hottentotta which also includes several other Noctuid genera as well as a Geometrid moth. Belonging to the sand chamber group of bee ies where the female scatter the eggs on the ground while hovering, the active host-seeking rst instar planidium larvae bene ts from having a wide host range to potentially encounter in the substrate zone. 

  • 17.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskaplig fakultet, Ekologi och geovetenskap.
    Töyrä, Anne
    Nilsson, Anders N.
    Intraspecific variation and intersexual correlation in secondary sexual characters of three diving-beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)2001Ingår i: Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, Vol. 73, nr 2, s. 221-232Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 18. Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Weingartner, Elisabeth
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Hajek, Jiri
    Species delimitation of the Hyphydrus ovatus complex in western Palaearctic with an update of species distributions (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)2017Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, nr 678, s. 73-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The species status of Hyphydrus anatolicus Guignot, 1957 and H. sanctus Sharp, 1882, previously often confused with the widespread H. ovatus (Linnaeus, 1760), are tested with molecular and morphological characters. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) was sequenced for 32 specimens of all three species. Gene-trees were inferred with parsimony, time-free bayesian and strict clock bayesian analyses. The GMYC model was used to estimate species limits. All three species were reciprocally monophyletic with CO1 and highly supported. The GMYC species delimitation analysis unequivocally delimited the three species with no other than the three species solution included in the confidence interval. A likelihood ratio test rejected the one-species null model. Important morphological characters distinguishing the species are provided and illustrated. New distributional data are given for the following species: Hyphydrus anatolicus from Slovakia and Ukraine, and H. aubei Ganglbauer, 1891, and H. sanctus from Turkey.

  • 19.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Weingartner, Elisabeth
    Stockholm University.
    Hajek, Jiri
    Species delimitation of the Hyphydrus ovatus complex in western Palaearctic with an update of species distributions (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)2017Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, Vol. 678, s. 73-96Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The species status of Hyphydrus anatolicus Guignot, 1957 and H. sanctus Sharp, 1882, previously often confused with the widespread H. ovatus (Linnaeus, 1760), are tested with molecular and morphological characters. Cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (CO1) was sequenced for 32 specimens of all three species. Gene-trees were inferred with parsimony, time-free bayesian and strict clock bayesian analyses. The GMYC model was used to estimate species limits. All three species were reciprocally monophyletic with CO1 and highly supported. The GMYC species delimitation analysis unequivocally delimited the three species with no other than the three species solution included in the confidence interval. A likelihood ratio test rejected the one-species null model. Important morphological characters distinguishing the species are provided and illustrated. New distributional data are given for the following species: Hyphydrus anatolicus from Slovakia and Ukraine, and H. aubei Ganglbauer, 1891, and H. sanctus from Turkey.

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  • 20.
    Birgegård, Gunnar
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Medicinska och farmaceutiska vetenskapsområdet, Medicinska fakulteten, Institutionen för medicinska vetenskaper.
    Sandler, Stellan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Nilsson, Olle
    Den nya läkarutbildningen i Uppsala: Fallbaserad, integrerad och med tidig patientkontakt2008Ingår i: Läkartidningen, ISSN 0023-7205, E-ISSN 1652-7518, Vol. 105, nr 51-52, s. 3724-8Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 21. Bistrom, Olof
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders N.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Taxonomic revision of Afrotropical Laccophilus Leach, 1815 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)2015Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, nr 542, s. 1-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The African species of the genus Laccophilus Leach, 1815, are revised, on the basis of study of adult specimens. In all, 105 species are now recognized. A phenetic character-analysis was undertaken, which resulted in a split of the genus into 17 species groups. Diagnoses and a description of each species are given together with keys for identification of species groups and species. We also provide habitus photos, illustration of male genitalia and distribution maps for all species. New species are described as follows: L. grossus sp. n. (Angola, Namibia), L. rocchii sp. n. (Tanzania, Namibia, Botswana, Mozambique), L. ferrugo sp. n. (Mozambique), L. furthi sp. n. (Madagascar), L. isamberti sp. n. (Madagascar), L. inobservatus sp. n. (Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Sudan, Chad, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaire and Asia: Yemen), L. cryptos sp. n. (Zaire, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa), L. enigmaticus sp. n. (Nigeria, Sudan), L. bellus sp. n. (Benin, Nigeria), L. guentheri sp. n. (Guinea, Ghana), L. guineensis sp. n. (Guinea), L. decorosus sp. n. (Uganda), L. empheres sp. n. (Kenya), L. inconstans sp. n. (Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon), L. brancuccii sp. n. (Central African Republic), L. incomptus sp. n. (Cameroon), L. australis sp. n. (Tanzania, South Africa), L. minimus sp. n. (Namibia), L. eboris sp. n. (Ivory Coast), L. insularum sp. n. (Madagascar), L. occidentalis sp. n. (Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Zaire) and L. transversovittatus sp. n. (Madagascar). L. restrictus Sharp, 1882, is restored as good species; not junior synonym of L. pictipennis Sharp, 1882. New synonyms are established as follows: L. continentalis Gschwendtner, 1935 = L. perplexus Omer- Cooper, 1970, syn. n., L. taeniolatus Regimbart, 1889 = L. congener Omer-Cooper, 1957, syn. n., L. adspersus Boheman, 1848 = L. vitshumbii Guignot, 1959, syn. n. = L. adspersus nigeriensis Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n. = L. adspersus sudanensis Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n., L. modestus Regimbart, 1895 = L. espanyoli Hernando, 1990, syn. n., L. flaveolus Regimbart, 1906 = L. pampinatus Guignot, 1941, syn. n., L. trilineola Regimbart, 1889 = L. simulator Omer-Cooper, 1958, syn. n., L. mediocris Guignot, 1952 = L. meii Rocchi, 2000, syn. n., L. epinephes Guignot, 1955 = L. castaneus Guignot, 1956, syn. n., L. saegeri Guignot, 1958 = L. comoensis Pederzani & Reintjes, 2002, syn. n., L. restrictus Sharp, 1882 = L. evanescens Regimbart, 1895, syn. n., L. incrassatus Gschwendtner, 1933 = L. virgatus Guignot, 1953, syn. n., L. cyclopis Sharp, 1882 = L. shephardi Omer-Cooper, 1965, syn. n., L. burgeoni Gschwendtner, 1930 = L. wittei Guignot, 1952, syn. n., L. secundus Regimbart, 1895 = L. torquatus Guignot, 1956, syn. n., L. desintegratus Regimbart, 1895 = L. sanguinosus Regimbart, 1895, syn. n. and L. flavopictus Regimbart, 1889 = L. bergeri Guignot, 1953, syn. n. = L. segmentatus Omer-Cooper, 1957, syn. n. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: L. productus Regimbart, 1906, L. ruficollis Zimmermann, 1919, L. sordidus Sharp, 1882, L. alluaudi Regimbart, 1899, L. pictipennis Sharp, 1882, L. wehnckei Sharp, 1882, L. continentalis Gschwendtner, 1935, L. simplicistriatus Gschwendtner, 1932, L. complicatus Sharp, 1882, L. rivulosus Klug, 1833, L. ampliatus Regimbart, 1895, L. pilitarsis Regimbart, 1906, L. adspersus Boheman, 1848, L. livens Regimbart, 1895, L. modestus Regimbart, 1895, L. nodieri Regimbart, 1895, L. flaveolus Regimbart, 1906, L. pallescens Regimbart, 1903, L. restrictus Sharp, 1882, L. vermiculosus Gerstaecker, 1867, L. mocquerysi Regimbart, 1895, L. bizonatus Regimbart, 1895, L. tschoffeni Regimbart, 1895, L. persimilis Regimbart, 1895, L. poecilus Klug, 1834, L. lateralis Sharp, 1882, L. lateralis var. polygrammus Regimbart, 1903, L. cyclopis Sharp, 1882, L. shephardi Omer-Cooper, 1965, L. conjunctus Guignot, 1950, L. grammicus Sharp, 1882, L. flavoscriptus Regimbart, 1895, L. flavosignatus Regimbart, 1895, L. brevicollis Sharp, 1882, L. secundus Regimbart, L. desintegratus Regimbart, 1895, L. gutticollis Regimbart, 1895, L. luctuosus Sharp, 1882 and L. inornatus Zimmermann, 1926. Laccophilus remex Guignot, 1952, comprises a species complex with uncertain taxonomic delimitation; the complex includes L. concisus Guignot, 1953, L. turneri Omer-Cooper, 1957 and L. praeteritus Omer-Cooper, 1957, as tentative synonyms of L. remex Guignot, 1952.

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  • 22. Biström, Olof
    et al.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    A new species of Peschetius GUIGNOT described from Sri Lanka (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)2015Ingår i: Koleopterologische Rundschau, Vol. 85, s. 57-60Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Peschetius taprobanicus sp.n. (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae) is described on the basis of six specimens

    collected from Sri Lanka. Distinguishing characters are given for the new species.

  • 23. Biström, Olof
    et al.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Two new species of the megadiverse lentic diving-beetle genus Hydrovatus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae) described from NE Thailand.2016Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, nr 632, s. 57-66Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Here we describe two new Hydrovatus species (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Hydroporinae: Hydrovatini) from the province of Khon Kaen, Isan region in NE Thailand. Hydrovatus is the third most species rich genus of diving beetles (Dytiscidae). It occurs on all continents except Antarctica and now numbers 210 currently recognized species. Both new species, Hydrovatus diversipunctatussp. n. and Hydrovatus globosussp. n., were collected at lights and are only known from the type locality "Khon Kaen" (a city and province). Diagnoses based on morphology for the separation from closely related species are given together with illustrations of male genitalia and habitus photos. We provide a determination key to Old World species of the pustulatus species group and to Oriental species of the oblongipennis species group.

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  • 24. Biström, Olof
    et al.
    Nilsson, Anders N
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Taxonomic revision of Afrotropical Laccophilus Leach, 1815 (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae).2015Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, nr 542, s. 1-379Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The African species of the genus Laccophilus Leach, 1815, are revised, on the basis of study of adult specimens. In all, 105 species are now recognized. A phenetic character-analysis was undertaken, which resulted in a split of the genus into 17 species groups. Diagnoses and a description of each species are given together with keys for identification of species groups and species. We also provide habitus photos, illustration of male genitalia and distribution maps for all species. New species are described as follows: Laccophilus grossus sp. n. (Angola, Namibia), Laccophilus rocchii sp. n. (Tanzania, Namibia, Botswana, Mozambique), Laccophilus ferrugo sp. n. (Mozambique), Laccophilus furthi sp. n. (Madagascar), Laccophilus isamberti sp. n. (Madagascar), Laccophilus inobservatus sp. n. (Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Niger, Sudan, Chad, Ethiopia, Burkina Faso, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon, Zaire and Asia: Yemen), Laccophilus cryptos sp. n. (Zaire, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Namibia, Botswana, South Africa), Laccophilus enigmaticus sp. n. (Nigeria, Sudan), Laccophilus bellus sp. n. (Benin, Nigeria), Laccophilus guentheri sp. n. (Guinea, Ghana), Laccophilus guineensis sp. n. (Guinea), Laccophilus decorosus sp. n. (Uganda), Laccophilus empheres sp. n. (Kenya), Laccophilus inconstans sp. n. (Guinea, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Nigeria, Cameroon), Laccophilus brancuccii sp. n. (Central African Republic), Laccophilus incomptus sp. n. (Cameroon), Laccophilus australis sp. n. (Tanzania, South Africa), Laccophilus minimus sp. n. (Namibia), Laccophilus eboris sp. n. (Ivory Coast), Laccophilus insularum sp. n. (Madagascar), Laccophilus occidentalis sp. n. (Gambia, Senegal, Mali, Guinea, Sierra Leone, Ivory Coast, Ghana, Benin, Nigeria, Central African Republic, Zaire) and Laccophilus transversovittatus sp. n. (Madagascar). Laccophilus restrictus Sharp, 1882, is restored as good species; not junior synonym of Laccophilus pictipennis Sharp, 1882. New synonyms are established as follows: Laccophilus continentalis Gschwendtner, 1935 = Laccophilus perplexus Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n., Laccophilus taeniolatus Régimbart, 1889 = Laccophilus congener Omer-Cooper, 1957, syn. n., Laccophilus adspersus Boheman, 1848 = Laccophilus vitshumbii Guignot, 1959, syn. n. = Laccophilus adspersus nigeriensis Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n. = Laccophilus adspersus sudanensis Omer-Cooper, 1970, syn. n., Laccophilus modestus Régimbart, 1895 = Laccophilus espanyoli Hernando, 1990, syn. n., Laccophilus flaveolus Régimbart, 1906 = Laccophilus pampinatus Guignot, 1941, syn. n., Laccophilus trilineola Régimbart, 1889 = Laccophilus simulator Omer-Cooper, 1958, syn. n., Laccophilus mediocris Guignot, 1952 = Laccophilus meii Rocchi, 2000, syn. n., Laccophilus epinephes Guignot, 1955 = Laccophilus castaneus Guignot, 1956, syn. n., Laccophilus saegeri Guignot, 1958 = Laccophilus comoensis Pederzani & Reintjes, 2002, syn. n., Laccophilus restrictus Sharp, 1882 = Laccophilus evanescens Régimbart, 1895, syn. n., Laccophilus incrassatus Gschwendtner, 1933 = Laccophilus virgatus Guignot, 1953, syn. n., Laccophilus cyclopis Sharp, 1882 = Laccophilus shephardi Omer-Cooper, 1965, syn. n., Laccophilus burgeoni Gschwendtner, 1930 = Laccophilus wittei Guignot, 1952, syn. n., Laccophilus secundus Régimbart, 1895 = Laccophilus torquatus Guignot, 1956, syn. n., Laccophilus desintegratus Régimbart, 1895 = Laccophilus sanguinosus Régimbart, 1895, syn. n. and Laccophilus flavopictus Régimbart, 1889 = Laccophilus bergeri Guignot, 1953, syn. n. = Laccophilus segmentatus Omer-Cooper, 1957, syn. n. Lectotypes are designated for the following taxa: Laccophilus productus Régimbart, 1906, Laccophilus ruficollis Zimmermann, 1919, Laccophilus sordidus Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus alluaudi Régimbart, 1899, Laccophilus pictipennis Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus wehnckei Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus continentalis Gschwendtner, 1935, Laccophilus simplicistriatus Gschwendtner, 1932, Laccophilus complicatus Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus rivulosus Klug, 1833, Laccophilus ampliatus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus pilitarsis Régimbart, 1906, Laccophilus adspersus Boheman, 1848, Laccophilus livens Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus modestus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus nodieri Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus flaveolus Régimbart, 1906, Laccophilus pallescens Régimbart, 1903, Laccophilus restrictus Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus vermiculosus Gerstaecker, 1867, Laccophilus mocquerysi Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus bizonatus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus tschoffeni Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus persimilis Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus poecilus Klug, 1834, Laccophilus lateralis Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus lateralis var. polygrammus Régimbart, 1903, Laccophilus cyclopis Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus shephardi Omer-Cooper, 1965, Laccophilus conjunctus Guignot, 1950, Laccophilus grammicus Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus flavoscriptus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus flavosignatus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus brevicollis Sharp, 1882, Laccophilus secundus Régimbart, Laccophilus desintegratus Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus gutticollis Régimbart, 1895, Laccophilus luctuosus Sharp, 1882 and Laccophilus inornatus Zimmermann, 1926. Laccophilus remex Guignot, 1952, comprises a species complex with uncertain taxonomic delimitation; the complex includes Laccophilus concisus Guignot, 1953, Laccophilus turneri Omer-Cooper, 1957 and Laccophilus praeteritus Omer-Cooper, 1957, as tentative synonyms of Laccophilus remex Guignot, 1952.

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  • 25. Bjelke, Ulf
    et al.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Vattenytans mästare2018Ingår i: Yrfän, Vol. 2018, nr 3, s. 9-13Artikel i tidskrift (Övrig (populärvetenskap, debatt, mm))
  • 26.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Andersson, Johan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Johansson, Frank
    Effects of management, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016Ingår i: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, s. 103-112-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
  • 27.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Uppsala, Sweden..
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Effects of management intensity, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016Ingår i: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, s. 103-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ponds are important elements of green areas in cities that help counteract the negative consequences of urbanization, by providing important habitats for biodiversity in cities and being essential nodes in the overall landscape-scale habitat network. However, there is relatively little knowledge about the impacts of pond management intensity, function and environmental variables on urban pond biodiversity. In this study we addressed this gap by investigating which factors were correlated with the level of biodiversity in urban ponds, indicated by species richness of aquatic insects, in Stockholm, Sweden. Our study did not confirm any direct link between the perceived intensity of management or function of ponds and overall biodiversity. However, it seems that management can influence particular groups of species indirectly, since we found that Trichoptera richness (Caddisflies) was highest at intermediate management intensity. We suggest that this is caused by management of vegetation, as the amount of floating and emergent vegetation was significantly correlated with both the overall species richness and the richness of Trichoptera (Caddisflies). This relationship was non-linear, since ponds with an intermediate coverage of vegetation had the highest richness. Interestingly, the amount of vegetation in the pond was significantly affected by pond function and pond management. The overall species richness and richness of Trichoptera were also positively correlated with pond size. Since we found that the pattern of relations between species richness and environmental variables differed between the insect groups we suggest that it will be difficult to provide overall design and management recommendations for ponds in urban green areas. Therefore, it is recommended that to provide high aquatic diversity of species in urban areas one should aim at promoting high diversity of different types of ponds with differing management and environmental factors that shape them.

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  • 28. Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Andersson, Johan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Effects of management intensity, function and vegetation on the biodiversity in urban ponds2016Ingår i: Urban Forestry & Urban Greening, ISSN 1618-8667, E-ISSN 1610-8167, Vol. 20, s. 103-112Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Ponds are important elements of green areas in cities that help counteract the negative consequences of urbanization, by providing important habitats for biodiversity in cities and being essential nodes in the overall landscape-scale habitat network. However, there is relatively little knowledge about the impacts of pond management intensity, function and environmental variables on urban pond biodiversity. In this study we addressed this gap by investigating which factors were correlated with the level of biodiversity in urban ponds, indicated by species richness of aquatic insects, in Stockholm, Sweden. Our study did not confirm any direct link between the perceived intensity of management or function of ponds and overall biodiversity. However, it seems that management can influence particular groups of species indirectly, since we found that Trichoptera richness (Caddisflies) was highest at intermediate management intensity. We suggest that this is caused by management of vegetation, as the amount of floating and emergent vegetation was significantly correlated with both the overall species richness and the richness of Trichoptera (Caddisflies). This relationship was non-linear, since ponds with an intermediate coverage of vegetation had the highest richness. Interestingly, the amount of vegetation in the pond was significantly affected by pond function and pond management. The overall species richness and richness of Trichoptera were also positively correlated with pond size. Since we found that the pattern of relations between species richness and environmental variables differed between the insect groups we suggest that it will be difficult to provide overall design and management recommendations for ponds in urban green areas. Therefore, it is recommended that to provide high aquatic diversity of species in urban areas one should aim at promoting high diversity of different types of ponds with differing management and environmental factors that shape them.

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  • 29. Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Andersson, Johan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Thomsson, Michaela
    Östh, John
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds? A study in the city of Stockholm2017Ingår i: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, s. 1-12Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for decisions on where and how to establish and manage ponds in cities to deliver maximum biodiversity benefits. Our study investigates if the pattern of urban-pond biodiversity can be related to different socio-economic factors, such as level of wealth, education or percentage of buildings of different types. Because of lack of previous studies investigating that, our study is of exploratory character and many different variables are used.We found that the biodiversity of aquatic insects was significantly negatively associated with urbanisation variables such as amount of buildings and number of residents living around ponds. This relationship did not differ depending on the spatial scale of our investigation. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship with variables representing socio-economic status, such as education level and wealth of people. This latter result suggests that the socio-economic status of residents does not lead to any particular effect in terms of the management and function of ponds that would affect biodiversity. However, there is a need for a finer-scale investigation of the different potential mechanism in which residents in areas with differing socio-economic status could indirectly influence ponds.

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  • 30.
    Blicharska, Malgorzata
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Geovetenskapliga sektionen, Institutionen för geovetenskaper, Naturresurser och hållbar utveckling. Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden..
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Species Informat Ctr, Box 7007, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Hilding-Rydevik, Tuija
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, S-75007 Uppsala, Sweden..
    Thomsson, Michaela
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Östh, John
    Uppsala universitet, Humanistisk-samhällsvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Samhällsvetenskapliga fakulteten, Kulturgeografiska institutionen.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Is there a relationship between socio-economic factors and biodiversity in urban ponds?: A study in the city of Stockholm2017Ingår i: Urban Ecosystems, ISSN 1083-8155, E-ISSN 1573-1642, Vol. 20, nr 6, s. 1209-1220Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Urban small water bodies, such as ponds, are essential elements of human socio-economic landscapes. Ponds also provide important habitats for species that would otherwise not survive in the urban environment. Knowledge on the biodiversity of urban ponds and the relationship between their ecological value and factors linked to urbanization and socio-economic status is crucial for decisions on where and how to establish and manage ponds in cities to deliver maximum biodiversity benefits. Our study investigates if the pattern of urban-pond biodiversity can be related to different socio-economic factors, such as level of wealth, education or percentage of buildings of different types. Because of lack of previous studies investigating that, our study is of exploratory character and many different variables are used. We found that the biodiversity of aquatic insects was significantly negatively associated with urbanisation variables such as amount of buildings and number of residents living around ponds. This relationship did not differ depending on the spatial scale of our investigation. In contrast, we did not find a significant relationship with variables representing socio-economic status, such as education level and wealth of people. This latter result suggests that the socio-economic status of residents does not lead to any particular effect in terms of the management and function of ponds that would affect biodiversity. However, there is a need for a finer-scale investigation of the different potential mechanism in which residents in areas with differing socio-economic status could indirectly influence ponds.

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  • 31.
    Brodin, Tomas
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Johansson, Frank
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Predator related oviposition site selection of aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) and effects on offspring life-history2006Ingår i: Freshwater Biology, ISSN 0046-5070, E-ISSN 1365-2427, Vol. 51, nr 7, s. 1277-1285Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    1. Theory predicts that natural selection should favour females that are able to correctly assess the risk of predation and then use that information to avoid high-risk oviposition sites to reduce the risk of offspring predation. Despite the potential significance of such behaviour on individual fitness, population dynamics and community structure, relatively few studies of oviposition behaviour connected to the risk of predation have been carried out.

    2. However, some recent studies suggest that oviposition site selection in response to risk of predation may be a common phenomenon, at least among amphibians and mosquitoes. A vast majority of previous studies have, however, neglected to investigate how the offspring are affected, in terms of fitness related parameters, by the maternal oviposition site choice.

    3. In an outdoor artificial pond experiment we tested the oviposition site selection of female aquatic beetles (Hydroporus spp.) in relation to the presence or absence of a predatory fish (Perca fluviatilis). In addition, we monitored how the oviposition site selection affected the behaviour, growth and food resource of the progeny.

    4. We show that free-flying females of the aquatic beetles Hydroporus incognitus and H. nigrita prefer to oviposit in waters without fish compared with waters with fish. Larval activity of Hydroporus spp. was unaffected by fish presence. Our results indicate that beetle larvae from females that do lay eggs in waters with fish show increased growth compared with larvae in waters without fish. We explain this difference in growth by a higher per-capita food supply in the presence of a fish predator. This finding may have important implications for our understanding of how the variance of oviposition site selection in a population is sustained.

  • 32.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Naimi, Babak
    University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
    Svensson, Erik I.
    Lund University, Sweden.
    Phylogeny, distribution and speciation in the endemic diving beetle genus Pachynectes on MadagascarManuskript (preprint) (Övrigt vetenskapligt)
    Abstract [en]

    Madagascar is well known for high levels of endemism in both the flora and fauna. More specifically most of Madagascars' endemic species have extremely restricted regional distributions, which is a characteristic of this large island’s biodiversity. Biologists are still struggling to understand the speciation processes that have produced this pattern of diversity. Several general hypotheses have been developed trying to explain the origin and microendemism of Malagasy species. Two main hypotheses focus on watersheds and climate gradients. Here, we use a phylogeny in combination with data on spatial distribution of the endemic diving beetle genus Pachynectes (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae: Bidessini) to critically evaluate the watershed versus the climatic gradient hypotheses of this river dwelling insect radiation. Based on field sampling from expeditions between 2006 and 2014, we first show that the species diversity in this genus is at least three times higher than previously believed. We reconstructed a molecular phylogeny based on five gene fragments and recovered three main clades: a western clade, an eastern clade and a "keeled" clade diagnosable based on an elytral keel. The western and keeled clades both occur mainly in the drier western parts of the country, while species in the eastern clade are typical of rivers in the eastern humid rainforest. Notably, sister species were always allopatrically distributed along either latitudinal or longitudinal-altitudinal gradients. Based on species distribution modelling (SDM) and our phylogenetic data, we conclude that the microendemic patterns of Pachynectes species are unlikely to be explained by the watershed hypothesis. In contrast, the four main bioclimatic regions are more likely to have been causally involved in the past speciation processes and might explain the current distribution pattern in this insect genus.  

  • 33.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Miller, Kelly B.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    The utility of CAD in recovering Gondwanan vicariance events and the evolutionary history of Aciliini (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)2014Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 14, s. 5-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Aciliini presently includes 69 species of medium-sized water beetles distributed on all continents except Antarctica. The pattern of distribution with several genera confined to different continents of the Southern Hemisphere raises the yet untested hypothesis of a Gondwana vicariance origin. The monophyly of Aciliini has been questioned with regard to Eretini, and there are competing hypotheses about the intergeneric relationship in the tribe. This study is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis focused on the tribe Aciliini and it is based on eight gene fragments. The aims of the present study are: 1) to test the monophyly of Aciliini and clarify the position of the tribe Eretini and to resolve the relationship among genera within Aciliini, 2) to calibrate the divergence times within Aciliini and test different biogeographical scenarios, and 3) to evaluate the utility of the gene CAD for phylogenetic analysis in Dytiscidae. Results: Our analyses confirm monophyly of Aciliini with Eretini as its sister group. Each of six genera which have multiple species are also supported as monophyletic. The origin of the tribe is firmly based in the Southern Hemisphere with the arrangement of Neotropical and Afrotropical taxa as the most basal clades suggesting a Gondwana vicariance origin. However, the uncertainty as to whether a fossil can be used as a stem-or crowngroup calibration point for Acilius influenced the result: as crowngroup calibration, the 95% HPD interval for the basal nodes included the geological age estimate for the Gondwana break-up, but as a stem group calibration the basal nodes were too young. Our study suggests CAD to be the most informative marker between 15 and 50 Ma. Notably, the 2000 bp CAD fragment analyzed alone fully resolved the tree with high support. Conclusions: 1) Molecular data confirmed Aciliini as a monophyletic group. 2) Bayesian optimizations of the biogeographical history are consistent with an influence of Gondwana break-up history, but were dependent on the calibration method. 3) The evaluation using a method of phylogenetic signal per base pair indicated Wnt and CAD as the most informative of our sampled genes.

  • 34.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi. Stockholm University.
    Miller, Kelly
    University of New Mexico.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    The utility of CAD in recovering Gondwanan vicariance events and the evolutionary history of Aciliini (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae).2014Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 14, nr 5, s. 1-18Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Aciliini presently includes 69 species of medium-sized water beetles distributed on all continents except Antarctica. The pattern of distribution with several genera confined to different continents of the Southern Hemisphere raises the yet untested hypothesis of a Gondwana vicariance origin. The monophyly of Aciliini has been questioned with regard to Eretini, and there are competing hypotheses about the intergeneric relationship in the tribe. This study is the first comprehensive phylogenetic analysis focused on the tribe Aciliini and it is based on eight gene fragments. The aims of the present study are: 1) to test the monophyly of Aciliini and clarify the position of the tribe Eretini and to resolve the relationship among genera within Aciliini, 2) to calibrate the divergence times within Aciliini and test different biogeographical scenarios, and 3) to evaluate the utility of the gene CAD for phylogenetic analysis in Dytiscidae.

    Results

    Our analyses confirm monophyly of Aciliini with Eretini as its sister group. Each of six genera which have multiple species are also supported as monophyletic. The origin of the tribe is firmly based in the Southern Hemisphere with the arrangement of Neotropical and Afrotropical taxa as the most basal clades suggesting a Gondwana vicariance origin. However, the uncertainty as to whether a fossil can be used as a stem-or crowngroup calibration point for Acilius influenced the result: as crowngroup calibration, the 95% HPD interval for the basal nodes included the geological age estimate for the Gondwana break-up, but as a stem group calibration the basal nodes were too young. Our study suggests CAD to be the most informative marker between 15 and 50 Ma. Notably, the 2000 bp CAD fragment analyzed alone fully resolved the tree with high support.

    Conclusions

    1) Molecular data confirmed Aciliini as a monophyletic group. 2) Bayesian optimizations of the biogeographical history are consistent with an influence of Gondwana break-up history, but were dependent on the calibration method. 3) The evaluation using a method of phylogenetic signal per base pair indicated Wnt and CAD as the most informative of our sampled genes.

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  • 35.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra
    Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala
    Bergsten, Johannes
    In or Out-of-Madagascar?-Colonization Patterns for Large-Bodied Diving Beetles (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae)2015Ingår i: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 10, nr 3, artikel-id e0120777Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    High species diversity and endemism within Madagascar is mainly the result of species radiations following colonization from nearby continents or islands. Most of the endemic taxa are thought to be descendants of a single or small number of colonizers that arrived from Africa sometime during the Cenozoic and gave rise to highly diverse groups. This pattern is largely based on vertebrates and a small number of invertebrate groups. Knowledge of the evolutionary history of aquatic beetles on Madagascar is lacking, even though this species-rich group is often a dominant part of invertebrate freshwater communities in both standing and running water. Here we focus on large bodied diving beetles of the tribes Hydaticini and Cybistrini. Our aims with this study were to answer the following questions 1) How many colonization events does the present Malagasy fauna originate from? 2) Did any colonization event lead to a species radiation? 3) Where did the colonizers come from-Africa or Asia- and has there been any out-of-Madagascar event? 4) When did these events occur and were they concentrated to any particular time interval? Our results suggest that neither in Hydaticini nor in Cybistrini was there a single case of two or more endemic species forming a monophyletic group. The biogeographical analysis indicated different colonization histories for the two tribes. Cybistrini required at least eight separate colonization events, including the non-endemic species, all comparatively recent except the only lotic (running water) living Cybister operosus with an inferred colonization at 29 Ma. In Hydaticini the Madagascan endemics were spread out across the tree, often occupying basal positions in different species groups. The biogeographical analyses therefore postulated the very bold hypothesis of a Madagascan origin at a very deep basal node within Hydaticus and multiple out-of-Madagascar dispersal events. This hypothesis needs to be tested with equally intense taxon sampling of mainland Africa as for Madagascar.

  • 36.
    Désamorè, Aurélie
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Laenen, Benjamin
    Miller, Kelly
    University of New Mexico.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Early burst in body size evolution is uncoupled from species diversification in diving beetles (Dytiscidae)2018Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 979-993Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in morphology are often thought to be linked to changes in species diversification,

    which is expected to leave a signal of early burst (EB) in phenotypic traits.

    However, such signal is rarely recovered in empirical phylogenies, even for groups

    with well-known adaptive radiation. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic approach

    in Dytiscidae, which harbours ~4,300 species with as much as 50-fold variation in

    body size among them, we ask whether pattern of species diversification correlates

    with morphological evolution. Additionally, we test whether the large variation in

    body size is linked to habitat preference and whether the latter influences species

    turnover. We found, in sharp contrast to most animal groups, that Dytiscidae body

    size evolution follows an early-burst model with subsequent high phylogenetic conservatism.

    However, we found no evidence for associated shifts in species diversification,

    which point to an uncoupled evolution of morphology and species

    diversification. We recovered the ancestral habitat of Dytiscidae as lentic (standing

    water), with many transitions to lotic habitat (running water) that are concomitant

    to a decrease in body size. Finally, we found no evidence for difference in net diversification

    rates between habitats nor difference in turnover in lentic and lotic species.

    This result, together with recent findings in dragonflies, contrasts with some

    theoretical expectations of the habitat stability hypothesis. Thus, a thorough

    reassessment of the impact of dispersal, gene flow and range size on the speciation

    process is needed to fully encompass the evolutionary consequences of the lentic–

    lotic divide for freshwater fauna.

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  • 37. Désamoré, Aurélie
    et al.
    Laenen, Benjamin
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Miller, Kelly B.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Early burst in body size evolution is uncoupled from species diversification in diving beetles (Dytiscidae)2018Ingår i: Molecular Ecology, ISSN 0962-1083, E-ISSN 1365-294X, Vol. 27, nr 4, s. 979-993Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Changes in morphology are often thought to be linked to changes in species diversification, which is expected to leave a signal of early burst (EB) in phenotypic traits. However, such signal is rarely recovered in empirical phylogenies, even for groups with well-known adaptive radiation. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic approach in Dytiscidae, which harbours similar to 4,300 species with as much as 50-fold variation in body size among them, we ask whether pattern of species diversification correlates with morphological evolution. Additionally, we test whether the large variation in body size is linked to habitat preference and whether the latter influences species turnover. We found, in sharp contrast to most animal groups, that Dytiscidae body size evolution follows an early-burst model with subsequent high phylogenetic conservatism. However, we found no evidence for associated shifts in species diversification, which point to an uncoupled evolution of morphology and species diversification. We recovered the ancestral habitat of Dytiscidae as lentic (standing water), with many transitions to lotic habitat (running water) that are concomitant to a decrease in body size. Finally, we found no evidence for difference in net diversification rates between habitats nor difference in turnover in lentic and lotic species. This result, together with recent findings in dragonflies, contrasts with some theoretical expectations of the habitat stability hypothesis. Thus, a thorough reassessment of the impact of dispersal, gene flow and range size on the speciation process is needed to fully encompass the evolutionary consequences of the lentic-lotic divide for freshwater fauna.

  • 38. Fossen, Erlend I
    et al.
    Ekrem, Torbjørn
    Nilsson, Anders N
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae).2016Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, nr 564Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of Hydrobius arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes and Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus being sympatric. Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the Hydrobius fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate Hydrobius fuscipes var. fuscipes from Hydrobius fuscipes var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for Hydrobius arcticus and Hydrobius fuscipes var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular evidence strongly suggest that Hydrobius arcticus and the three morphological variants of Hydrobius fuscipes are separate species and Hydrobius rottenbergii Gerhardt, 1872, stat. n. and Hydrobius subrotundus Stephens, 1829, stat. n. are elevated to valid species. An identification key to northern European species of Hydrobius is provided.

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  • 39. Fossen, Erlend I.
    et al.
    Ekrem, Torbjørn
    Nilsson, Anders N
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Species delimitation in northern European water scavenger beetles of the genus Hydrobius (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae)2016Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, nr 564, s. 71-120Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The chiefly Holarctic Hydrobius species complex (Coleoptera, Hydrophilidae) currently consists of H. arcticus Kuwert, 1890, and three morphological variants of H. fuscipes (Linnaeus, 1758): var. fuscipes, var. rottenbergii and var. subrotundus in northern Europe. Here molecular and morphological data are used to test the species boundaries in this species complex. Three gene segments (COI, H3 and ITS2) were sequenced and analyzed with Bayesian methods to infer phylogenetic relationships. The Generalized Mixed Yule Coalescent (GMYC) model and two versions of the Bayesian species delimitation method BPP, with or without an a priori defined guide tree (v2.2 & v3.0), were used to evaluate species limits. External and male genital characters of primarily Fennoscandian specimens were measured and statistically analyzed to test for significant differences in quantitative morphological characters. The four morphotypes formed separate genetic clusters on gene trees and were delimited as separate species by GMYC and by both versions of BPP, despite specimens of H. f. var. fuscipes and H. f. var. subrotundus being sympatric. H. arcticus and H. f. var. rottenbergii could only be separated genetically with ITS2, and were delimited statistically with GMYC on ITS2 and with BPP on the combined data. In addition, six or seven potentially cryptic species of the H. fuscipes complex from regions outside northern Europe were delimited genetically. Although some overlap was found, the mean values of six male genital characters were significantly different between the morphotypes (p < 0.001). Morphological characters previously presumed to be diagnostic were less reliable to separate H. f. var. fuscipes from H. f. var. subrotundus, but characters in the literature for H. arcticus and H. f. var. rottenbergii were diagnostic. Overall, morphological and molecular evidence strongly suggest that H. arcticus and the three morphological variants of H. fuscipes are separate species and Hydrobius rottenbergii Gerhardt, 1872, stat. n. and Hydrobius subrotundus Stephens, 1829, stat. n. are elevated to valid species. An identification key to northern European species of Hydrobius is provided.

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  • 40. Gustafson, Grey T.
    et al.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala
    Miller, Kelly
    University of New Mexico.
    The morphology and behavior of the endemic Malagasy whirligig beetle Heterogyrus milloti Legros, 1953 (Coleoptera: Gyrinidae: Heterogyrinae)2017Ingår i: The Coleopterists bulletin, ISSN 0010-065X, E-ISSN 1938-4394, Vol. 71, nr 2, s. 315-328Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Malagasy endemic whirligig beetle Heterogyrus milloti Legros, 1953 is redescribed. Jumping behavior of H. milloti is reported here for the first time with video recordings provided. Results of a behavioral experiment conducted in the field demonstrate H. milloti jumps in a targeted manner in a downstream direction. The unique habitat of H. milloti is described in detail with both image and video of the habitat included. Morphology of H. milloti is discussed in detail, revealing symplesiomorphies with Spanglerogyrus Folkerts, 1979, characters forming transitional series between Spanglerogyrus and the Gyrininae, and features unique to H. milloti. The potential adaptive significance of these peculiar morphological features in association with the habitat of H. milloti is discussed. Finally, an argument for the necessity of conservation of this species is made, and common names in English, French, Malagasy, and Swedish for H. milloti are proposed to aid conservation efforts.

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  • 41. Gustafson, Grey T.
    et al.
    Prokin, Alexander A.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi. Stockholm University.
    Miller, Kelly
    University of New Mexico.
    Tip-dated phylogeny of whirligig beetles reveals ancient lineage surviving on Madagascar2017Ingår i: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 7, s. 1-9, artikel-id 8619Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The temporal origin of Madagascar’s extraordinary endemic diversity is debated. A preference for Cenozoic dispersal origins has replaced the classical view of Mesozoic vicariance in the wake of molecular dating. However, evidence of ancient origins is mounting from arthropod groups. Using phylogenetic ‘tip-dating’ analysis with fossils, we show that a whirligig beetle species, Heterogyrus milloti, inhabiting forest streams in southeastern Madagascar is the last survivor of a once dominant and widespread Mesozoic group. With a Late Triassic to Early Jurassic origin (226–187 Ma) it is the hitherto oldest dated endemic lineage of animal or plant on Madagascar. Island biotas’ sensitivity to extinction is well known, but islands can also provide refuge from continental extinction. Heterogyrus milloti is an irreplaceable link to the freshwater biota of the Mesozoic and serves as a reminder of what may be lost without critical conservation e orts on Madagascar. 

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  • 42.
    Hamback, Peter A.
    et al.
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Weingartner, Elisabet
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Ericson, Lars
    Umeå universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och geovetenskap.
    Fors, Lisa
    Department of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University.
    Cassel-Lundhagen, Anna
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala.
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Ecology, Uppsala.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Department of Entomology, Swedish Museum of Natural History, Stockholm.
    Bayesian species delimitation reveals generalist and specialist parasitic wasps on Galerucella beetles (Chrysomelidae): sorting by herbivore or plant host2013Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 13, s. 92-Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background:

    To understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of species interactions in food webs necessitates that interactions are properly identified. Genetic analyses suggest that many supposedly generalist parasitoid species should rather be defined as multiple species with a more narrow diet, reducing the probability that such species may mediate indirect interactions such as apparent competition among hosts. Recent studies showed that the parasitoid Asecodes lucens mediate apparent competition between two hosts, Galerucella tenella and G. calmariensis, affecting both interaction strengths and evolutionary feedbacks. The same parasitoid was also recorded from other species in the genus Galerucella, suggesting that similar indirect effects may also occur for other species pairs.

    Methods:

    To explore the possibility of such interactions, we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers to resolve the phylogeny of both host and parasitoid and to test the number of parasitoid species involved. We thus collected 139 Galerucella larvae from 8 host plant species and sequenced 31 adult beetle and 108 parasitoid individuals.

    Results:

    The analysis of the Galerucella data, that also included sequences from previous studies, verified the five species previously documented as reciprocally monophyletic, but the Bayesian species delimitation for A. lucens suggested 3-4 cryptic taxa with a more specialised host use than previously suggested. The gene data analyzed under the multispecies coalescent model allowed us to reconstruct the species tree phylogeny for both host and parasitoid and we found a fully congruent coevolutionary pattern suggesting that parasitoid speciation followed upon host speciation.

    Conclusion:

    Using multilocus sequence data in a Bayesian species delimitation analysis we propose that hymenopteran parasitoids of the genus Asecodes that infest Galerucella larvae constitute at least three species with narrow diet breath. The evolution of parasitoid Asecodes and host Galerucella show a fully congruent coevolutionary pattern. This finding strengthens the hypothesis that the parasitoid in host search uses cues of the host rather than more general cues of both host and plant.

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  • 43.
    Hambäck, Peter A.
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Weingartner, Elisabet
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Ericson, Lars
    Fors, Lisa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Institutionen för ekologi, miljö och botanik.
    Cassel-Lundhagen, Anna
    Stenberg, Johan A.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Bayesian species delimitation reveals generalist and specialist parasitic wasps on Galerucella beetles (Chrysomelidae): sorting by herbivore or plant host2013Ingår i: BMC Evolutionary Biology, ISSN 1471-2148, E-ISSN 1471-2148, Vol. 13, artikel-id 92Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: To understand the ecological and evolutionary consequences of species interactions in food webs necessitates that interactions are properly identified. Genetic analyses suggest that many supposedly generalist parasitoid species should rather be defined as multiple species with a more narrow diet, reducing the probability that such species may mediate indirect interactions such as apparent competition among hosts. Recent studies showed that the parasitoid Asecodes lucens mediate apparent competition between two hosts, Galerucella tenella and G. calmariensis, affecting both interaction strengths and evolutionary feedbacks. The same parasitoid was also recorded from other species in the genus Galerucella, suggesting that similar indirect effects may also occur for other species pairs. Methods: To explore the possibility of such interactions, we sequenced mitochondrial and nuclear genetic markers to resolve the phylogeny of both host and parasitoid and to test the number of parasitoid species involved. We thus collected 139 Galerucella larvae from 8 host plant species and sequenced 31 adult beetle and 108 parasitoid individuals. Results: The analysis of the Galerucella data, that also included sequences from previous studies, verified the five species previously documented as reciprocally monophyletic, but the Bayesian species delimitation for A. lucens suggested 3-4 cryptic taxa with a more specialised host use than previously suggested. The gene data analyzed under the multispecies coalescent model allowed us to reconstruct the species tree phylogeny for both host and parasitoid and we found a fully congruent coevolutionary pattern suggesting that parasitoid speciation followed upon host speciation. Conclusion: Using multilocus sequence data in a Bayesian species delimitation analysis we propose that hymenopteran parasitoids of the genus Asecodes that infest Galerucella larvae constitute at least three species with narrow diet breath. The evolution of parasitoid Asecodes and host Galerucella show a fully congruent coevolutionary pattern. This finding strengthens the hypothesis that the parasitoid in host search uses cues of the host rather than more general cues of both host and plant.

  • 44. Heino, Jani
    et al.
    Bini, Luis M
    Andersson, Johan
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Biodiversity Centre.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala University.
    Unravelling the correlates of species richness and ecological uniqueness in a metacommunity of urban pond insects2016Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 73, s. 422-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    City ponds have the potential to harbour a rich biodiversity of aquatic insects despite being located in an urban landscape. However, our current knowledge on the correlates of pond biodiversity is limited and even less is known about the factors that influence the ecological uniqueness of urban ponds. The multiple environmental gradients, at different spatial scales, that may affect biodiversity and ecological uniqueness of urban ponds can thus be seen both as an opportunity and as a challenge for a study. In this study, we aimed to fill this gap by focusing on aquatic insect assemblages in 51 ponds in the Swedish city of Stockholm, using a metacommunity perspective. We found that species richness was primarily determined by the density of aquatic insects, water depth and proportion of buildings around the pond. The uniqueness of ponds was estimated as local contributions to beta diversity (LCBD), and it was primarily related to the proportion of arable land and industry around the ponds. With regard to the metacommunity we found two interesting patterns. First, there was a negative relationship between richness and LCBD. Second, biodiversity was spatially independent, suggesting that spatially-patterned dispersal did not structure species richness or LCBD. These last two patterns are important when considering conservation efforts of biodiversity in city ponds. We hence suggest that the conservation of insect biodiversity in urban pond should consider the surroundings of the ponds, and that high-richness ponds are not necessarily those that require most attention because they are not ecologically the most unique.

  • 45.
    Heino, Jani
    et al.
    Nat Environm Ctr, Finnish Environm Inst, Biodivers, Paavo Havaksen Tie 3, FI-90570 Oulu, Finland.
    Bini, Luis Mauricio
    Univ Fed Goias, Dept Ecol, BR-74001970 Goiania, Go, Brazil.
    Andersson, Johan
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Swedish Museum Nat Hist, Dept Zool, Box 50007, SE-10405 Stockholm, Sweden.
    Bjelke, Ulf
    Swedish Univ Agr Sci, Swedish Biodivers Ctr, Box 7016, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden.
    Johansson, Frank
    Uppsala universitet, Teknisk-naturvetenskapliga vetenskapsområdet, Biologiska sektionen, Institutionen för ekologi och genetik, Zooekologi.
    Unravelling the correlates of species richness and ecological uniqueness in a metacommunity of urban pond insects2017Ingår i: Ecological Indicators, ISSN 1470-160X, E-ISSN 1872-7034, Vol. 73, s. 422-431Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    City ponds have the potential to harbour a rich biodiversity of aquatic insects despite being located in an urban landscape. However, our current knowledge on the correlates of pond biodiversity is limited and even less is known about the factors that influence the ecological uniqueness of urban ponds. The multiple environmental gradients, at different spatial scales, that may affect biodiversity and ecological uniqueness of urban ponds can thus be seen both as an opportunity and as a challenge for a study. In this study, we aimed to fill this gap by focusing on aquatic insect assemblages in 51 ponds in the Swedish city of Stockholm, using a metacommunity perspective. We found that species richness was primarily determined by the density of aquatic insects, water depth and proportion of buildings around the pond. The uniqueness of ponds was estimated as local contributions to beta diversity (LCBD), and it was primarily related to the proportion of arable land and industry around the ponds. With regard to the metacommunity we found two interesting patterns. First, there was a negative relationship between richness and LCBD. Second, biodiversity was spatially independent, suggesting that spatially-patterned dispersal did not structure species richness or LCBD. These last two patterns are important when considering conservation efforts of biodiversity in city ponds. We hence suggest that the conservation of insect biodiversity in urban pond should consider the surroundings of the ponds, and that high-richness ponds are not necessarily those that require most attention because they are not ecologically the most unique.

  • 46.
    Hjalmarsson, Anna
    et al.
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Monaghan, Michael
    Dispersal is linked to habitat use in 59 species of water beetles (Coleoptera: Adephaga) on Madagascar2014Ingår i: Ecography, ISSN 0906-7590, E-ISSN 1600-0587, Vol. 37, s. 001-008Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    Lentic habitats (standing water, such as ponds and lakes) differ from lotic habitats (running water; streams and rivers) in their spatiotemporal persistence, with lentic habitats being more ephemeral in evolutionary time. This habitat instability is thought to select for dispersal, and several phylogenetic and macroecological studies have suggested that high rates of dispersal are more characteristic of lentic than lotic species. We tested this hypothesis using a comparative population genetic and phylogeographic approach based on mitochondrial DNA for 59 aquatic beetle species, sampled across Madagascar. Species were classified as lotic (n = 25), lentic (n = 25), or lotolentic (associated with both running and standing water; n = 9). Hierarchical population genetic structure (AMOVA), nucleotide diversity (π), and geographic structure were compared among habitat types. Lotic species had significantly greater population structure (ФST = 0.55, hierarchical AMOVA) than lentic (ФST = 0.13) and lotolentic (ФST = 0.19) species using phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) to correct for phylogeny. Body size was independent of habitat preference, and did not explain any of the intraspecific variation. A greater proportion of lotic species were endemic to Madagascar and lotic species had more pronounced geographic structure in their haplotype networks. The results indicate that dispersal is consistently lower among lotic species, independent of phylogenetic relatedness. This has macroevolutionary and biogeographical consequences for the freshwater fauna of this tropical biodiversity hotspot where remaining natural habitats are becoming increasingly isolated from one another.

  • 47. Hjalmarsson, Anna Emilia
    et al.
    Bukontaite, Rasa
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Ranarilalatiana, Tolotra
    Randriamihaja, Jacquelin Herisahala
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Taxonomic revision of Madagascan Rhantus (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Colymbetinae) with an emphasis on Manjakatompo as a conservation priority2013Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, nr 350, s. 21-45Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    We review the diving-beetle genus Rhantus Dejean of Madagascar (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae, Colymbetinae) based on museum collection holdings and recently collected expedition material. Both morphology and DNA is used to test species boundaries, in particular whether newly collected material from the Tsaratanana mountains in the north represent a new species or are conspecific with Rhantus manjakatompo Pederzani and Rocchi 2009, described based on a single male specimen from the central Ankaratra mountains. DNA of the holotype of R. manjakatompo was successfully extracted in a non-destructive way and sequenced. The general mixed Yule coalescent model applied to an ultrametric tree constructed from mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) sequence data delimited three species. Morphological characters supported the same species unambiguously. We therefore recognise three species of Rhantus to occur in Madagascar: R. latus (Fairmaire, 1869), R. bouvieri Regimbart, 1900 and R. manjakatompo Pederzani and Rocchi, 2009. All three species are endemic to Madagascar and restricted to the highlands of the island. Rhantus stenonychus Regimbart, 1895, syn. n., is considered a junior synonym of R. latus. We designate lectotypes for R. bouvieri and R. goudoti Sharp, 1882, the latter a junior synonym of R. latus. We provide descriptions, a determination key, SEM-images of fine pronotal and elytral structures, distribution maps, habitus photos, and illustrations of male genitalia and pro-and mesotarsal claws. We discuss the role of the Manjakatompo forest as a refugium for Madagascan Rhantus diversity and other endemics of the montane central high plateau.

  • 48. Holmgren, Sandra
    et al.
    Angus, Robert
    Jia, Fenglong
    Chen, Zhen-Ning
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Resolving the taxonomic conundrum in Graphoderus of the east Palearctic with a key to all species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae).2016Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, nr 574, s. 113-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Holarctic diving beetle genus Graphoderus (Dytiscinae, Aciliini) contains relatively few and well-known species but these may still be difficult to identify based on external characters. A taxonomic problem in the eastern Palearctic was discovered that relates to the Palearctic Graphoderus zonatus (Hoppe, 1795) and the Nearctic Graphoderus perplexus Sharp, 1882. Based on qualitative and quantitative characters, especially on male genitalia which have been poorly studied in the past, it is shown that eastern Palearctic specimens identified by previous authors as either of the two species in fact belongs to a third species. The synonymized name Graphoderus elatus Sharp, 1882, is reinstated as a valid species (stat. n.) and a lectotype is designated from the mixed syntype series. The male genitalia of all known Graphoderus species have been examined and an illustrated identification key to the genus is provided. The three species in the complex of focus, Graphoderus elatus, Graphoderus zonatus and Graphoderus perplexus are found to have allopatric distributions; Graphoderus perplexus in the Nearctic region, Graphoderus zonatus in the west Palearctic region and eastwards to the Yenisei-Angara river and Graphoderus elatus east of the Yenisei-Angara river. All previous records of either Graphoderus zonatus or Graphoderus perplexus in the east Palearctic, east of the Yenisei-Angara river turned out to be misidentified Graphoderus elatus. This conclusion also brings with it that dimorphic females, thought only to be present in the single subspecies Graphoderus zonatus verrucifer (CR Sahlberg, 1824), proved to be present also in a second species, Graphoderus elatus. The dimorphic female forms is either with dorsally smooth elytra and pronotum or conspicuously granulated elytra and wrinkly pronotum. As has been shown in Graphoderus zonatus verrucifer there is a correlation between the occurrence of granulate female forms in a population and an increase in the number of adhesive discs on pro- and mesotarsus in males within Graphoderus elatus.

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  • 49.
    Holmgren, Sandra
    et al.
    Stockholms universitet, Naturvetenskapliga fakulteten, Zoologiska institutionen. Swedish Museum of Natural History, Sweden.
    Angus, Robert
    Jia, Fenglong
    Chen, Zhen-ning
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Resolving the taxonomic conundrum in Graphoderus of the east Palearctic with a key to all species (Coleoptera, Dytiscidae)2016Ingår i: ZooKeys, ISSN 1313-2989, E-ISSN 1313-2970, nr 574, s. 113-142Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    The Holarctic diving beetle genus Graphoderus (Dytiscinae, Aciliini) contains relatively few and well-known species but these may still be difficult to identify based on external characters. A taxonomic problem in the eastern Palearctic was discovered that relates to the Palearctic G. zonatus (Hoppe, 1795) and the Nearctic G. perplexus Sharp, 1882. Based on qualitative and quantitative characters, especially on male genitalia which have been poorly studied in the past, it is shown that eastern Palearctic specimens identified by previous authors as either of the two species in fact belongs to a third species. The synonymized name G. elatus Sharp, 1882, is reinstated as a valid species (stat. n.) and a lectotype is designated from the mixed syntype series. The male genitalia of all known Graphoderus species have been examined and an illustrated identification key to the genus is provided. The three species in the complex of focus, G. elatus, G. zonatus and G. perplexus are found to have allopatric distributions; G. perplexus in the Nearctic region, G. zonatus in the west Palearctic region and eastwards to the Yenisei-Angara river and G. elatus east of the Yenisei-Angara river. All previous records of either G. zonatus or G. perplexus in the east Palearctic, east of the Yenisei-Angara river turned out to be misidentified G. elatus. This conclusion also brings with it that dimorphic females, thought only to be present in the single subspecies G. zonatus verrucifer (CR Sahlberg, 1824), proved to be present also in a second species, G. elatus. The dimorphic female forms is either with dorsally smooth elytra and pronotum or conspicuously granulated elytra and wrinkly pronotum. As has been shown in G. z. verrucifer there is a correlation between the occurrence of granulate female forms in a population and an increase in the number of adhesive discs on pro- and mesotarsus in males within G. elatus.

  • 50. Houshuai, Wang
    et al.
    Wahlberg, Niklas
    Holloway, Jeremy D
    Bergsten, Johannes
    Naturhistoriska riksmuseet, Enheten för zoologi.
    Fan, Xiaoling
    Janzen, Daniel H
    Hallwachs, Winnie
    Wen, Lijun
    Wang, Min
    Nylin, Sören
    Stockholm University.
    Molecular phylogeny of Lymantriinae (Lepidoptera, Noctuoidea, Erebidae) inferred from eight gene regions2015Ingår i: Cladistics, ISSN 0748-3007, E-ISSN 1096-0031, Vol. 31, nr 6, s. 579-592Artikel i tidskrift (Refereegranskat)
    Abstract [en]

    To understand the evolutionary history of Lymantriinae and test the present higher-level classification, we performed the first broad-scale molecular phylogenetic analysis of the subfamily, based on 154 exemplars representing all recognized tribes and drawn from all major biogeographical regions. We used two mitochondrial genes (cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and 16S ribosomal RNA) and six nuclear genes (elongation factor-1α, carbamoylphosphate synthase domain protein, ribosomal protein S5, cytosolic malate dehydrogenase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase and wingless). Data matrices (in total 5424 bp) were analysed by parsimony and model-based evolutionary methods (maximum likelihood and Bayesian inference). Based on the results of the analyses, we present a new phylogenetic classification for Lymantriinae composed of seven well-supported tribes, two of which are proposed here as new: Arctornithini, Leucomini, Lymantriini, Orgyiini, Nygmiini, Daplasini trib. nov. and Locharnini trib. nov. We discuss the internal structure of each of these tribes and address some of the more complex problems with the genus-level classification, particularly within Orgyiini and Nygmiini.

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