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  • 9101.
    von Saurau, Victoria
    Kristianstad University, Faculty of Health Science.
    Häst, en hälsofrämjande resurs: En kvalitativ intervjustudie om hur deltagarna i ”Hälsa med hästkraft” upplever sin hälsa2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The background of the study is based on the desire of a healthy population. Even those groups in society who have some form of disability. To promote good health, animals have for a long time been proven to have a good impact on human health, especially horses. In a public health interest to preventing and promoting health, is it of great interest to investigate how the horse effect human health. The purpose of this essay has been to study how participants with forms of disability in the daily activity "Health with Horsepower" experience how horses contribute to their health. Used method in the investigated purpose has been a qualitative method and implemented with six participants in two focus group interviews. The result emerged how the horse promoted and contributed to the health experiences of the human, both psychologically and physically, as well as in social and personal development. The result concludes that the horse can be used and called a health promotion resource, and further use of horses and research in the area can allow more people the opportunity to live a healthy life.

     

  • 9102.
    von Vogelsang, Ann-Christin
    et al.
    Red Cross University College of Nursing. Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences, and Society, Karolinska Insitutet, Stockholm.
    Burström, Kristina
    Wengström, Yvonne
    Svensson, Mikael
    Forsberg, Christina
    Health-Related Quality of Life 10 Years After Intracranial Aneurysm Rupture: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using EQ-5D2013In: Neurosurgery, ISSN 0148-396X, E-ISSN 1524-4040, Vol. 72, no 3, p. 397-405Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Experiencing an aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) could affect health-related quality of life (HRQoL) several years after the onset. Long-term studies are scarce, and there is a lack of knowledge of whether HRQoL is affected > 5 years after the onset and, if so, in what dimensions. In the general population, HRQoL decreases with age and with the occurrence of a disease and differs between sexes. Factors that may influence HRQoL after aneurysmal SAH include neurological outcome, perceived recovery, aneurysm treatment, and family support.

    OBJECTIVE: To measure HRQoL and to explore factors affecting HRQoL 10 years after aneurysmal SAH.

    METHODS: A consecutive sample of all patients admitted for intracranial aneurysm rupture at a neurosurgical clinic in Stockholm (n = 217, 79.5% of eligible) were followed up from 2007 to 2008, approximately 10 years after aneurysm rupture. HRQoL was measured with EQ-5D, and the results were compared with a general population sample from the Stockholm Public Health Survey 2006 matched by age and sex.

    RESULTS: Compared with the general population, the aneurysm sample reported significantly more problems in 4 of 5 EQ-5D dimensions—mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression—and had significantly lower EQ-5Dindex and EQ visual analog scale values. Within the aneurysm sample, HRQoL was most affected in respondents with worse Glasgow Outcome Scale values at hospital discharge, respondents with comorbidities, and respondents with low perceived recovery.

    CONCLUSION: Aneurysmal SAH affects HRQoL to a large extent, even 10 years after the onset, indicating a need for long-term follow-up and support after the onset

  • 9103. Vos, T
    et al.
    Abajobir, AA
    Abate, KH
    Abbafati, c
    Abbas, KM
    Abd-Allah, F
    Abdulkader, RS
    Abdulle, AM
    Abebo, TA
    Abera, SF
    Aboyans, V
    Abu-Raddad, LJ
    Ackerman, IN,
    Adamu, AA
    Adetokunboh, O
    Afarideh, M
    Afshin, A
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Karolinska institute; Dalarna University.
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Clinical Chemistry.
    Zhang, X
    Zhou, M
    Zipkin, B
    Zodpey, S,
    Zuhlke, LJ,
    Murray, CJL
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 328 diseases and injuries for 195 countries, 1990-2016: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016.2017In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 390, no 10100, p. 1211-1259, article id S0140-6736(17)32154-2Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: As mortality rates decline, life expectancy increases, and populations age, non-fatal outcomes of diseases and injuries are becoming a larger component of the global burden of disease. The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2016 (GBD 2016) provides a comprehensive assessment of prevalence, incidence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 328 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2016.

    METHODS: We estimated prevalence and incidence for 328 diseases and injuries and 2982 sequelae, their non-fatal consequences. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death rates for each condition. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies if incidence or prevalence needed to be derived from other data. YLDs were estimated as the product of prevalence and a disability weight for all mutually exclusive sequelae, corrected for comorbidity and aggregated to cause level. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. GBD 2016 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting (GATHER).

    FINDINGS: Globally, low back pain, migraine, age-related and other hearing loss, iron-deficiency anaemia, and major depressive disorder were the five leading causes of YLDs in 2016, contributing 57·6 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 40·8-75·9 million [7·2%, 6·0-8·3]), 45·1 million (29·0-62·8 million [5·6%, 4·0-7·2]), 36·3 million (25·3-50·9 million [4·5%, 3·8-5·3]), 34·7 million (23·0-49·6 million [4·3%, 3·5-5·2]), and 34·1 million (23·5-46·0 million [4·2%, 3·2-5·3]) of total YLDs, respectively. Age-standardised rates of YLDs for all causes combined decreased between 1990 and 2016 by 2·7% (95% UI 2·3-3·1). Despite mostly stagnant age-standardised rates, the absolute number of YLDs from non-communicable diseases has been growing rapidly across all SDI quintiles, partly because of population growth, but also the ageing of populations. The largest absolute increases in total numbers of YLDs globally were between the ages of 40 and 69 years. Age-standardised YLD rates for all conditions combined were 10·4% (95% UI 9·0-11·8) higher in women than in men. Iron-deficiency anaemia, migraine, Alzheimer's disease and other dementias, major depressive disorder, anxiety, and all musculoskeletal disorders apart from gout were the main conditions contributing to higher YLD rates in women. Men had higher age-standardised rates of substance use disorders, diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, cancers, and all injuries apart from sexual violence. Globally, we noted much less geographical variation in disability than has been documented for premature mortality. In 2016, there was a less than two times difference in age-standardised YLD rates for all causes between the location with the lowest rate (China, 9201 YLDs per 100 000, 95% UI 6862-11943) and highest rate (Yemen, 14 774 YLDs per 100 000, 11 018-19 228).

    INTERPRETATION: The decrease in death rates since 1990 for most causes has not been matched by a similar decline in age-standardised YLD rates. For many large causes, YLD rates have either been stagnant or have increased for some causes, such as diabetes. As populations are ageing, and the prevalence of disabling disease generally increases steeply with age, health systems will face increasing demand for services that are generally costlier than the interventions that have led to declines in mortality in childhood or for the major causes of mortality in adults. Up-to-date information about the trends of disease and how this varies between countries is essential to plan for an adequate health-system response.

    FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, and the National Institute on Aging and the National Institute of Mental Health of the National Institutes of Health.

  • 9104.
    Vos, Theo
    et al.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Allen, Christine
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Arora, Megha
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Barber, Ryan M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bhutta, Zulfiqar A.
    Ctr Excellence Women & Child Hlth, Karachi, Pakistan.;Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Brown, Alexandria
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Carter, Austin
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Casey, Daniel C.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Charlson, Fiona J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Chen, Alan Z.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Coggeshall, Megan
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Cornaby, Leslie
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Dandona, Lalit
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Dicker, Daniel J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Dilegge, Tina
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Erskine, Holly E.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Ferrari, Alize J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Fitzmaurice, Christina
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fleming, Tom
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Forouzanfar, Mohammad H.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fullman, Nancy
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gething, Peter W.
    Dept Zool, Oxford, England..
    Goldberg, Ellen M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Graetz, Nicholas
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Haagsma, Juanita A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Johnson, Catherine O.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kassebaum, Nicholas J.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kawashima, Toana
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kemmer, Laura
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Khalil, Ibrahim A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kinfu, Yohannes
    Kyu, Hmwe H.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Leung, Janni
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Liang, Xiaofeng
    Chinese Ctr Dis Control & Prevent, Beijing, Peoples R China..
    Lim, Stephen S.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Lopez, Alan D.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Melbourne Sch Populat & Global Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lozano, Rafael
    Marczak, Laurie
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mensah, George A.
    NHLBI, Ctr Translat Res & Implementat Sci, NIH, Bldg 10, Bethesda, MD 20892 USA..
    Mokdad, Ali H.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Naghavi, Mohsen
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Nguyen, Grant
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Nsoesie, Elaine
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Olsen, Helen
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Pigott, David M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Pinho, Christine
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Rankin, Zane
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Reinig, Nikolas
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Salomon, Joshua A.
    Dept Global Hlth & Populat, Boston, MA USA..
    Sandar, Logan
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Smith, Alison
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Stanaway, Jeffrey
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Steiner, Caitlyn
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Teeple, Stephanie
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Thomas, Bernadette A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Troeger, Christopher
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wagner, Joseph A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wang, Haidong
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wanga, Valentine
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Whiteford, Harvey A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Queensland Ctr Mental Hlth Res, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Zoeckler, Leo
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Abajobir, Amanuel Alemu
    Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Abate, Kalkidan Hassen
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Abbafati, Cristiana
    Univ Rome, Rome, Italy..
    Abbas, Kaja M.
    Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA USA..
    Abd-Allah, Foad
    Cairo Univ, Dept Neurol, Cairo, Egypt..
    Abraham, Biju
    NMSM Govt Coll Kalpetta, Kalpetta, Kerala, India..
    Abubakar, Ibrahim
    UCL, Inst Global Hlth, London, England..
    Abu-Raddad, Laith J.
    Weill Cornell Med Coll Qatar, Infect Dis Epidemiol Grp, Doha, Qatar..
    Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M. E.
    Birzeit Univ, Inst Community & Publ Hlth, Ramallah, Israel..
    Ackerman, Ilana N.
    Monash Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Adebiyi, Akindele Olupelumi
    Coll Med, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Univ Coll Hosp, Ibadan, Nigeria..
    Ademi, Zanfina
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland..
    Adou, Arsene Kouablan
    Assoc Ivoirienne Bien Etre Familial, Abidjan, Cote Ivoire..
    Afanvi, Kossivi Agbelenko
    Direct Dist Sanit Haho, Notse, Togo.;Univ Lome, Faculte Sci Sante, Lome, Togo..
    Agardh, Emilie Elisabet
    Inst Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Agarwal, Arnav
    Univ Toronto, Toronto, ON, Canada.;McMaster Univ, Hamilton, ON, Canada..
    Kiadaliri, Aliasghar Ahmad
    Lund Univ, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Orthoped, Clin Epidemiol Unit, Lund, Sweden.;Kerman Univ Med Sci, Inst Futures Studies Hlth, Hlth Serv Management Res Ctr, Kerman, Iran..
    Ahmadieh, Hamid
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Labbafinejad Med Ctr, Dept Ophthalmol, Tehran, Iran..
    Ajala, Oluremi N.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.;Univ Pittsburgh, Med Ctr, Mckeesport, PA USA..
    Akinyemi, Rufus Olusola
    Univ Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria.;Newcastle Univ, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Akseer, Nadia
    Hosp Sick Children, Ctr Global Child Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Lana Sch Publ Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Al-Aly, Ziyad
    Washington Univ, St Louis, MO USA..
    Alam, Khurshid
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia.;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Alam, Noore K. M.
    Queensland Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Aldhahri, Saleh Fahed
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;King Fahad Med City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Alegretti, Miguel Angel
    Univ Republica, Fac Med, Dept Prevent & Social Med, Montevideo, Uruguay..
    Alemu, Zewdie Aderaw
    Debre Markos Univ, Debre Markos, Ethiopia..
    Alexander, Lily T.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Alhabib, Samia
    King Abdullah Bin Abdulaziz Univ Hosp, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Ali, Raghib
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Alkerwi, Ala'a
    Luxembourg Inst Hlth LIH, Strassen, Luxembourg..
    Alla, Francois
    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France..
    Allebeck, Peter
    Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Al-Raddadi, Rajaa
    Minist Hlth, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia..
    Alsharif, Ubai
    Charite, Berlin, Germany..
    Altirkawi, Khalid A.
    King Saud Univ, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Alvis-Guzman, Nelson
    Univ Cartagena, Cartagena Indias, Colombia..
    Amare, Azmeraw T.
    Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Bahir Dar Univ, Coll Med & Hlth Sci, Bahir Dar, Ethiopia..
    Amberbir, Alemayehu
    Dignitas Int, Zomba, Malawi..
    Amini, Heresh
    Kurdistan Univ Med Sci, Environm Hlth Res Ctr, Sanandaj, Iran.;Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland..
    Ammar, Walid
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Amrock, Stephen Marc
    Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Portland, OR 97201 USA..
    Andersen, Hjalte H.
    Aalborg Univ, Ctr Sensory Motor Interact, Dept Hlth Sci & Technol, Fac Med, Aalborg, Denmark..
    Anderson, Gregory M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Anderson, Benjamin
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Antonio, Carl Abelardo T.
    Univ Philippines Manila, Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Policy & Adm, Manila, Philippines..
    Aregay, Atsede Fantahun
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Ärnlöv, Johan
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Dalarna Univ, Falun, Sweden..
    Artaman, Al
    Asayesh, Hamid
    Qom Univ Med Sci, Dept Emergency Med, Sch Paramed, Qom, Iran..
    Assadi, Reza
    Mashhad Univ Med Sci, Mashhad, Iran..
    Atique, Suleman
    Taipei Med Univ, Grad Inst Biomed Informat, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Avokpaho, Euripide Frinel G. Arthur
    Inst Rech Clin Benin, Cotonou, Benin.;Lab Etud & Rech Act Sante LERAS Afrique, Parakou, Benin..
    Awasthi, Ashish
    Sanjay Gandhi Postgrad Inst Med Sci, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Quintanilla, Beatriz Paulina Ayala
    La Trobe Univ, Judith Lumley Ctr Mother Infant & Family Hlth Res, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Peruvian Natl Inst Hlth, Lima, Peru..
    Azzopardi, Peter
    Dept Paediat, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;South Australian Hlth & Med Res Inst, Wardliparingga Aboriginal Res Unit, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Bacha, Umar
    Univ Management & Technol, Sch Hlth Sci, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Badawi, Alaa
    Fac Med, Dept Nutr Sci, Toronto, ON, Canada.;Publ Hlth Agcy Canada, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Balakrishnan, Kalpana
    Sri Ramachandra Univ, Dept Environm Hlth Engn, Madras, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Banerjee, Amitava
    UCL, Farr Inst Hlth Informat Res, London, England..
    Barac, Aleksandra
    Univ Belgrade, Fac Med, Belgrade, Serbia..
    Barker-Collo, Suzanne L.
    Univ Auckland, Sch Psychol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Barnighausen, Till
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.;Africa Hlth Res Inst, Mtubatuba, South Africa.;Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany..
    Barregard, Lars
    Univ Gothenburg, Dept Occupat & Environm Hlth, Gothenburg, Sweden..
    Barrero, Lope H.
    Pontificia Univ Javeriana, Sch Engn, Dept Ind Engn, Bogota, Colombia..
    Basu, Arindam
    Univ Canterbury, Sch Hlth Sci, Christchurch, New Zealand..
    Bazargan-Hejazi, Shahrzad
    Charles R Drew Univ Med & Sci, Coll Med, 1621 E 120th St, Los Angeles, CA 90059 USA.;Univ Calif Los Angeles, David Geffen Sch Med, Los Angeles, CA 90095 USA.;Kermanshah Univ Med Sci, Kermanshah, Iran..
    Bell, Brent
    Bell, Michelle L.
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA..
    Bennett, Derrick A.
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Bensenor, Isabela M.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Benzian, Habib
    UCL, Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, London, England.;NYU, Coll Dent, Dept Epidemiol & Hlth Promot, New York, NY USA..
    Berhane, Adugnaw
    Debre Berhane Univ, Debre Berhan, Ethiopia..
    Bernabe, Eduardo
    Kings Coll London, London, England. Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Betsu, Balem Demtsu
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Beyene, Addisu Shunu
    Haramaya Univ, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Bhala, Neeraj
    Queen Elizabeth Hosp Birmingham, Birmingham, W Midlands, England.;Univ Otago, Sch Med, Wellington, New Zealand..
    Bhatt, Samir
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Biadgilign, Sibhatu
    Bienhofff, Kelly
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bikbov, Boris
    Acad VI Shumakov Fed Res Ctr Transplantol & Artif, Dept Nephrol Issues Transplanted Kidney, Moscow, Russia..
    Biryukov, Stan
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Bisanzio, Donal
    Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England..
    Bjertness, Espen
    Dept Community Med, Oslo, Norway..
    Blore, Jed
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Borschmann, Rohan
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Boufous, Soufiane
    Transport & Rd Safety TARS Res, Kensington, NSW, Australia..
    Brainin, Michael
    Danube Univ Krems, Krems, Austria..
    Brazinova, Alexandra
    Trnava Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Dept Publ Hlth, Trnava, Slovakia.;Int Neurotrauma Res Org, Vienna, Austria..
    Breitborde, Nicholas J. K.
    Ohio State Univ, Columbus, OH 43210 USA..
    Brown, Jonathan
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Buchbinder, Rachelle
    Monash Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Prevent Med, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Cabrini Inst, Monash Dept Clin Epidemiol, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Buckle, Geoffrey Colin
    Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA..
    Butt, Zahid A.
    Al Shifa Trust Eye Hosp, Rawalpindi, Pakistan..
    Calabria, Bianca
    Univ New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia.;Australian Natl Univ, Natl Ctr Epidemiol & Populat Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Ricardo Campos-Nonato, Ismael
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico.;Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Cesar Campuzano, Julio
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Carabin, Helene
    Univ Oklahoma, Hlth Sci Ctr, Dept Biostat & Epidemiol, Oklahoma City, OK USA..
    Cardenas, Rosario
    Metropolitan Autonomous Univ, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Carpenter, David O.
    SUNY Albany, Rensselaer, NY USA..
    Carrero, Juan Jesus
    Dept Clin Sci Intervent & Technol, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Castaneda-Orjuela, Carlos A.
    Inst Nacl Salud, Colombian Natl Hlth Observ, Bogota, Colombia.;Univ Nacl Colombia, Epidemiol & Publ Hlth Evaluat Grp, Dept Publ Hlth, Bogota, Colombia..
    Castillo Rivas, Jacqueline
    Caja Costarricense Seguro Social, San Jose, Costa Rica.;Univ Costa Rica, San Pedro, Montes De Oca, Costa Rica..
    Catala-Lopez, Ferran
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Valencia, Spain.;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain.;Ottawa Hosp, Res Inst, Clin Epidemiol Program, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Chang, Jung-Chen
    Natl Taiwan Univ, Coll Med, Sch Nursing, Taipei, Taiwan..
    Chiang, Peggy Pei-Chia
    Gold Coast Hlth, Clin Governance Unit, Southport, Qld, Australia..
    Chibueze, Chioma Ezinne
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan..
    Chisumpa, Vesper Hichilombwe
    Univ Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Choi, Jee-Young Jasmine
    Seoul Natl Univ Med Lib, Seoul, South Korea..
    Chowdhury, Rajiv
    Univ Cambridge, Dept Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Cambridge, England..
    Christensen, Hanne
    Bispebjerg Hosp, Copenhagen, Denmark..
    Christopher, Devasahayam Jesudas
    Christian Med Coll & Hosp, Vellore, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Ciobanu, Liliana G.
    Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Cirillo, Massimo
    Univ Salerno, Baronissi, Italy..
    Coates, Matthew M.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Colquhoun, Samantha M.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Cooper, Cyrus
    NIHR Musculoskeletal Biomed Res Ctr, Oxford, England.;Univ Southampton, MRC Lifecourse Epidemiol Unit, Southampton, Hants, England.;Univ Southampton, NIHR Biomed Res Ctr, Southampton, Hants, England.;Univ Hosp Southampton NHS Fdn Trust, Southampton, Hants, England..
    Cortinovis, Monica
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy..
    Crump, John A.
    Dunedin Sch Med, Ctr Int Hlth, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Damtew, Solomon Abrha
    Wolaita Sodo Univ, Wolaita Sodo, Ethiopia.;Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Dandona, Rakhi
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Daoud, Farah
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Dargan, Paul I.
    Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, London, England..
    das Neves, Jose
    Univ Porto, INEB Inst Engn Biomed, Oporto, Portugal..
    Davey, Gail
    Wellcome Trust Brighton & Sussex Ctr Global Hlth, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Davis, Adrian C.
    Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    De Leo, Diego
    Griffith Univ, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Degenhardt, Louisa
    Natl Drug & Alcohol Res Ctr, Kensington, NSW, Australia..
    Del Gobbo, Liana C.
    Stanford Univ, Stanford, CA 94305 USA..
    Dellavalle, Robert P.
    Univ Colorado, Sch Med, Aurora, CO USA.;Colorado Sch Publ Hlth, Aurora, CO USA..
    Deribe, Kebede
    Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Brighton & Sussex Med Sch, Brighton, E Sussex, England..
    Deribew, Amare
    Nuffield Dept Med, Oxford, England.;KEMRI Wellcome Trust Res Programme, Kilifi, Kenya..
    Derrett, Sarah
    Dunedin Sch Med, Injury Prevent Res Unit, Dept Prevent & Social Med, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Des Jarlais, Don C.
    Mt Sinai Beth Israel, New York, NY USA.;Icahn Sch Med Mt Sinai, New York, NY 10029 USA..
    Dharmaratne, Samath D.
    Univ Peradeniya, Fac Med, Dept Community Med, Peradeniya, Sri Lanka..
    Dhillon, Preet K.
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Diaz-Torne, Cesar
    Hosp Santa Creu & Sant Pau, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ding, Eric L.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA..
    Driscoll, Tim R.
    Sydney Sch Publ Hlth, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Duan, Leilei
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Dubey, Manisha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Duncan, Bruce Bartholow
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.;Univ N Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC USA..
    Ebrahimi, Hedyeh
    Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Shariati Hosp, Digest Dis Res Inst, Liver & Pancreaticobiliary Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Ellenbogen, Richard G.
    Harborview UW Med, Seattle, WA USA..
    Elyazar, Iqbal
    Eijkman Oxford Clin Res Unit, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Endres, Matthias
    Charite Univ Med Berlin, Berlin, Germany..
    Endries, Aman Yesuf
    Arba Minch Univ, Arba Minch, Ethiopia..
    Ermakov, Sergey Petrovich
    Russian Acad Sci, Inst Social & Econ Studies Populat, Moscow, Russia.;Minist Hlth Russian Federat, Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Eshrati, Babak
    Minist Hlth & Med Educ, Tehran, Iran.;Arak Univ Med Sci, Arak, Iran..
    Estep, Kara
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Farid, Talha A.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.;Univ Louisville, Louisville, KY 40292 USA..
    Sofia e Sa Farinha, Carla
    DGS Directorate Gen Hlth, Lisbon, Portugal..
    Faro, Andre
    Univ Fed Sergipe, Aracaju, Brazil..
    Farvid, Maryam S.
    Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Mongan Inst Hlth Policy, Harvard MGH Ctr Genom Vulnerable Populat & Hlth, Boston, MA 02114 USA..
    Farzadfar, Farshad
    Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Feigin, Valery L.
    Natl Inst Stroke & Appl Neurosci, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Felson, David T.
    Boston Univ, Boston, MA 02215 USA..
    Fereshtehnejad, Seyed-Mohammad
    Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc NVS, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Fernandes, Jefferson G.
    German Hosp Oswaldo Cruz, Inst Educ & Sci, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Fernandes, Joao C.
    Queen Mary Univ London, Ctr Expt Med & Rheumatol, William Harvey Res Inst, Barts & London Sch Med & Dent, London, England..
    Fischer, Florian
    Univ Bielefeld, Bielefeld, Germany..
    Fitchett, Joseph R. A.
    Harvard Univ, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Foreman, Kyle
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Fowkes, Gerry R.
    Univ Edinburgh, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland..
    Fox, Jordan
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Franklin, Richard C.
    Friedman, Joseph
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Frostad, Joseph
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Furst, Thomas
    Univ Basel, Basel, Switzerland.;Dept Epidemiol & Publ Hlth, Basel, Switzerland.;Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol, London, England.;James Cook Univ, Townsville, Qld, Australia..
    Futran, Neal D.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Gabbe, Belinda
    Monash Univ, Sch Publ Hlth & Prevent Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Ganguly, Parthasarathi
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Gankpe, Fortune Gbetoho
    Leras Afrique, Cotonou, Benin.;CHU Hassan II, Fes, Morocco..
    Gebre, Teshome
    Task Force Global Hlth, Decatur, GA USA..
    Gebrehiwot, Tsegaye Tewelde
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia..
    Gebremedhin, Amanuel Tesfay
    Jimma Univ, Jimma, Ethiopia.;Univ Munich, Munich, Germany..
    Geleijnse, Johanna M.
    Div Human Nutr, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Gessner, Bradford D.
    Agence Med Prevent, Paris, France..
    Gibney, Katherine B.
    Peter Doherty Inst Infect & Immun, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Royal Melbourne Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Ginawi, Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed
    Univ Hail, Coll Med, Hail, Saudi Arabia..
    Giref, Ababi Zergaw
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Giroud, Maurice
    Univ Hosp Dijon, Dijon, France. Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia..
    Gishu, Melkamu Dedefo
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Kersa Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Harar, Ethiopia..
    Glaser, Elizabeth
    Heller Sch Social Policy & Management, Waltham, MA USA..
    Godwin, William W.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Gomez-Dantes, Hector
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Gona, Philimon
    Univ Massachusetts Boston, Boston, MA USA..
    Goodridge, Amador
    Inst Invest Cient & Serv Alta Tecnol INDICASAT AI, Ciudad Del Saber, Panama..
    Gopalani, Sameer Vali
    Govt Federated States Micronesia, Dept Hlth & Social Affairs, Palikir, Micronesia..
    Gotay, Carolyn C.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Goto, Atsushi
    Gouda, Hebe N.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Grainger, Rebecca
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Greaves, Felix
    Imperial Coll London, London, England.;Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Guillemin, Francis
    Univ Lorraine, Sch Publ Hlth, Nancy, France..
    Guo, Yuming
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Gupta, Rahul
    Gupta, Rajeev
    Gupta, Vipin
    Univ Delhi, Dept Anthropol, Delhi, India..
    Gutierrez, Reyna A.
    Natl Inst Psychiat Ramon Fuente, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Haile, Demewoz
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Hailu, Alemayehu Desalegne
    Sch Publ Hlth, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Hailu, Gessessew Bugssa
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Kilte Awlaelo Hlth & Demog Surveillance Syst, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Halasa, Yara A.
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA..
    Hamadeh, Randah Ribhi
    Arabian Gulf Univ, Manama, Bahrain..
    Hamidi, Samer
    Hamdan Bin Mohammed Smart Univ, Dubai, U Arab Emirates..
    Hammami, Mouhanad
    Wayne Cty Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Detroit, MI USA..
    Hancock, Jamie
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Handal, Alexis J.
    Univ New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM 87131 USA..
    Hankey, Graeme J.
    Univ Western Australia, Sch Med & Pharmacol, Perth, WA, Australia.;Harry Perkins Inst Med Res, Nedlands, WA, Australia.;Western Australian Neurosci Res Inst, Nedlands, WA, Australia..
    Hao, Yuantao
    Sun Yat Sen Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Guangzhou, Guangdong, Peoples R China..
    Harb, Hilda L.
    Minist Publ Hlth, Beirut, Lebanon..
    Harikrishnan, Sivadasanpillai
    Sree Chitra Tirunal Inst Med Sci & Technol, Trivandrum, Kerala, India..
    Maria Haro, Josep
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, St Boi De Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.;Univ Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain..
    Havmoeller, Rasmus
    Karolinska Inst, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Hay, Roderick J.
    Kings Coll London, London, England. Coll Hlth & Med Sci, Harar, Ethiopia.;Int Fdn Dermatol, London, England..
    Beatriz Heredia-Pi, Ileana
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Heydarpour, Pouria
    Neurosci Inst, Multiple Sclerosis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Hoek, Hans W.
    Univ Med Ctr Groningen, Dept Psychiat, Groningen, Netherlands.;Mailman Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol, New York, NY USA.;Columbia Univ, New York, NY USA..
    Horino, Masako
    Nevada Div Publ & Behav Hlth, Dept Hlth & Human Serv, Carson City, NV USA..
    Horita, Nobuyuki
    Yokohama City Univ, Grad Sch Med, Dept Pulmonol, Yokohama, Kanagawa, Japan..
    Hosgood, H. Dean
    Albert Einstein Coll Med, Bronx, NY 10467 USA..
    Hoy, Damian G.
    Pacific Commun, Publ Hlth Div, Noumea, New Caledonia..
    Htet, Aung Soe
    Univ Oslo, Oslo, Norway.;Minist Hlth, Int Relat Div, Nay Pyi Taw, Myanmar..
    Huang, Hsiang
    Cambridge Hlth Alliance, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Huang, John J.
    Yale Univ, New Haven, CT USA..
    Huynh, Chantal
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Iannarone, Marissa
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Iburg, Kim Moesgaard
    Aarhus Univ, Aarhus, Denmark..
    Innos, Kaire
    Natl Inst Hlth Dev, Tallinn, Estonia..
    Inoue, Manami
    Natl Canc Ctr, Tokyo, Japan. West Virginia Bur Publ Hlth, Charleston, WV USA. Eternal Heart Care Ctr & Res Inst, Jaipur, Rajasthan, India.;Grad Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan..
    Iyer, Veena J.
    Indian Inst Publ Hlth Gandhinagar, Ahmadabad, Gujarat, India..
    Jacobsen, Kathryn H.
    George Mason Univ, Dept Global & Community Hlth, Fairfax, VA 22030 USA..
    Jahanmehr, Nader
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Sch Publ Hlth, Tehran, Iran..
    Jakovljevic, Mihajlo B.
    Univ Kragujevac, Fac Med Sci, Kragujevac, Serbia..
    Javanbakht, Mehdi
    Univ Aberdeen, Aberdeen, Scotland..
    Jayatilleke, Achala Upendra
    Postgrad Inst Med, Colombo, Sri Lanka.;Inst Violence & Injury Prevent, Colombo, Sri Lanka..
    Jee, Sun Ha
    Yonsei Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Seoul, South Korea..
    Jeemon, Panniyammakal
    Ctr Control Chron Condit, New Delhi, India.;Ctr Control Chron Condit, Gurgaon, India.;Ctr Chron Dis Control, New Delhi, India..
    Jensen, Paul N.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA..
    Jiang, Ying
    Univ Occupat & Environm Hlth, Inst Ind Ecol Sci, Dept Hlth Dev, Kitakyushu, Fukuoka, Japan..
    Jibat, Tariku
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia.;Wageningen Univ, Wageningen, Netherlands..
    Jimenez-Corona, Aida
    Inst Ophthalmol Conde Valencia, Dept Ocular Epidemiol & Visual Hlth, Mexico City, DF, Mexico.;Minist Hlth, Gen Directorate Epidemiol, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Jin, Ye
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Jonas, Jost B.
    Heidelberg Univ, Dept Ophthalmol, Med Fac Mannheim, Mannheim, Germany..
    Kabir, Zubair
    Univ Coll Cork, Cork, Ireland..
    Kalkonde, Yogeshwar
    Soc Educ Act & Res Community Hlth, Gadchiroli, India..
    Kamal, Ritul
    CSIR Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Kan, Haidong
    Fudan Univ, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Karch, Andre
    Helmholtz Ctr Infect Res, Epidemiol & Stat Methods Res Grp, Braunschweig, Germany.;German Ctr Infect Res, Hannover Braunschweig Site, Braunschweig, Germany..
    Karema, Corine Kakizi
    Swiss Trop & Publ Hlth Inst, Basel, Switzerland.;Qual & Equ Hlth Care, Kigali, Rwanda. Case Western Univ Hosp, Cleveland, OH USA..
    Karimkhani, Chante
    Kasaeian, Amir
    Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Hematol Oncol & Stem Cell Transplantat Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Kaul, Anil
    Oklahoma State Univ, Tulsa, OK USA..
    Kawakami, Norito
    Sch Publ Hlth, Tokyo, Japan..
    Keiyoro, Peter Njenga
    Inst Trop & Infect Dis, Nairobi, Kenya.;Sch Continuing & Distance Educ, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Kemp, Andrew Haddon
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Swansea Univ, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Keren, Andre
    Assuta Hosp, Assuta Hashalom, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Kesavachandran, Chandrasekharan Nair
    CSIR Indian Inst Toxicol Res, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Khader, Yousef Saleh
    Jordan Univ Sci & Technol, Irbid, Jordan. Hlth Serv Acad, Islamabad, Pakistan..
    Khaiff, Abdur Rahman
    Khaiff, Ejaz Ahmad
    Khang, Young-Ho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Coll Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Khera, Sahil
    New York Med Coll, Valhalla, NY 10595 USA..
    Khoja, Tawfik Ahmed Muthafer
    Execut Board Hlth Ministers Council Cooperat Coun, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Khubchandani, Jagdish
    Ball State Univ, Muncie, IN 47306 USA..
    Kieling, Christian
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.;Hosp Clin Porto Alegre, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Kim, Pauline
    Kim, Cho-il
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Korea Hlth Ind Dev Inst, Cheongju, South Korea..
    Kim, Daniel
    Northeastern Univ, Dept Hlth Sci, Boston, MA 02115 USA..
    Kim, Yun Jin
    Southern Univ Coll, Skudai, Malaysia..
    Kissoon, Niranjan
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Knibbs, Luke D.
    Sch Publ Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Knudsen, Ann Kristin
    Dept Global Publ Hlth & Primary Care, Bergen, Norway.;Ctr Dis Burden, Oslo, Norway..
    Kokubo, Yoshihiro
    Natl Cerebral & Cardiovasc Ctr, Dept Prevent Cardiol, Suita, Osaka, Japan..
    Kolte, Dhaval
    Div Cardiol, Providence, RI USA..
    Kopec, Jacek A.
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Kosen, Soewarta
    NIHRD, Ctr Community Empowerment Hlth Policy & Humanitie, Jakarta, Indonesia..
    Kotsakis, Georgios A.
    Sch Dent, Seattle, WA USA..
    Koul, Parvaiz A.
    Sherikashmir Inst Med Sci, Srinagar, Jammu & Kashmir, India..
    Koyanagi, Ai
    Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Deu CIBERSAM, Res & Dev Unit, Barcelona, Spain..
    Kravchenko, Michael
    Res Ctr Neurol, Moscow, Russia..
    Defo, Barthelemy Kuate
    Univ Montreal, Dept Demog, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Publ Hlth Res Inst, Montreal, PQ, Canada.;Univ Montreal, Dept Social & Prevent Med, Sch Publ Hlth, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Bicer, Burcu Kucuk
    Hacettepe Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Ankara, Turkey..
    Kudom, Andreas A.
    Univ Cape Coast, Cape Coast, Ghana..
    Kuipers, Ernst J.
    Univ Med Ctr Rotterdam, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Kumar, G. Anil
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, New Delhi, India..
    Kutz, Michael
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Kwan, Gene F.
    Sch Med, Boston, MA USA..
    Lal, Aparna
    Lalloo, Ratilal
    Sch Dent, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Lallukka, Tea
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Work Disabil Prevent, Work Org, Helsinki, Finland.;Fac Med, Dept Publ Hlth, Helsinki, Finland..
    Lam, Hilton
    Natl Inst Hlth, Inst Hlth Policy & Dev Studies, Manila, Philippines..
    Lam, Jennifer O.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA..
    Langan, Sinead M.
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    Larsson, Anders
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Surgical Sciences, Anaesthesiology and Intensive Care.
    Lavados, Pablo M.
    Univ Desarrollo, Serv Neurol, Clin Alemana, Santiago, Chile..
    Leasher, Janet L.
    Nova Southeastern Univ, Coll Optometry, Ft Lauderdale, FL 33314 USA..
    Leigh, James
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Leung, Ricky
    SUNY Albany, Rensselaer, NY USA..
    Levi, Miriam
    Tuscany Reg Ctr Occupat Injuries & Dis, Florence, Italy. San Francisco VA Med Ctr, San Francisco, CA USA..
    Li, Yichong
    Li, Yongmei
    Liang, Juan
    Sichuan Univ, West China Univ Hosp 2, Natl Off Maternal & Child Hlth Surveillance, Chengdu, Peoples R China..
    Liu, Shiwei
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Liu, Yang
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA..
    Lloyd, Belinda K.
    Monash Univ, Eastern Hlth Clin Sch, Fitzroy, Vic, Australia.;Eastern Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Lo, Warren D.
    Dept Pediat, Columbus, OH USA.;Dept Neurol, Columbus, OH USA.;Nationwide Childrens Hosp, Columbus, OH USA..
    Logroscino, Giancarlo
    Univ Bari, Bari, Italy..
    Looker, Katharine J.
    Univ Bristol, Bristol, Avon, England..
    Lotufo, Paulo A.
    Univ Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Lunevicius, Raimundas
    Aintree Univ Hosp NHS Fdn Trust, Natl Hlth Serv Fdn Trust, Liverpool, Merseyside, England.;Univ Liverpool, Sch Med, Liverpool, Merseyside, England..
    Lyons, Ronan A.
    Farr Inst, Swansea, W Glam, Wales..
    Mackay, Mark T.
    Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Abd El Razek, Mohammed Magdy
    Aswan Univ Hosp, Aswan Fac Med, Aswan, Egypt..
    Mahdavi, Mandi
    Social Secur Org, Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Erasmus Univ, Inst Hlth Policy & Management, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Majdan, Marek
    Trnava Univ, Fac Hlth Sci & Social Work, Dept Publ Hlth, Trnava, Slovakia..
    Majeed, Azeem
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Malekzadeh, Reza
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Marcenes, Wagner
    Kings Coll London, Inst Dent, Div Populat & Patient Hlth, London, England..
    Margolis, David Joel
    Univ Penn, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Martinez-Raga, Jose
    Univ Valencia, Univ Hosp Doctor Peset, Valencia, Spain.;CEU Cardenal Herrera Univ, Moncada, Valencia, Spain..
    Masiye, Felix
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Massano, Joao
    Univ Porto, Inst Invest Inovacao Sande i3S, Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Fac Med, Oporto, Portugal.;Hosp Pedro Hispano ULS Matosinhos, Matosinhos, Portugal..
    McGarvey, Stephen Theodore
    Brown Univ, Providence, RI 02912 USA..
    McGrath, John J.
    Univ Queensland, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    McKee, Martin
    London Sch Hyg & Trop Med, London, England..
    McMahon, Brian J.
    Alaska Native Tribal Hlth Consortium, Anchorage, AK USA..
    Meaney, Peter A.
    Perelman Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA USA.;Childrens Hosp Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA..
    Mehari, Alem
    Howard Univ, Coll Med, Washington, DC USA..
    Meija-Rodriguez, Fabiola
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Mekonnen, Alemayehu B.
    Univ Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia..
    Melaku, Yohannes Adama
    Sch Med, Adelaide, SA, Australia.;Sch Publ Hlth, Mekelle, Ethiopia..
    Memiah, Peter
    Univ West Florida, Pensacola, FL 32514 USA..
    Memish, Ziad A.
    Saudi Minist Hlth, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.;Alfaisal Univ, Coll Med, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Mendoza, Walter
    United Nations Populat Fund, Lima, Peru..
    Meretoja, Atte
    Dept Med, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Helsinki, Finland..
    Meretoja, Tuomo J.
    Univ Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland.;Helsinki Univ Hosp, Ctr Comprehens Canc, Breast Surg Unit, Helsinki, Finland..
    Mhimbira, Francis Apolinary
    Ifakara Hlth Inst, Bagamoyo, Tanzania..
    Miller, Ted R.
    Pacific Inst Res & Evaluat, Calverton, MD USA.;Curtin Univ, Ctr Populat Hlth, Perth, WA, Australia..
    Mills, Edward J.
    Univ Ottawa, Ottawa, ON, Canada..
    Mirarefin, Mojde
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mitchell, Philip B.
    Univ New South Wales, Kensington, NSW, Australia..
    Mock, Charles N.
    Harborview Injury Prevent & Res Ctr, Seattle, WA USA..
    Mohammadi, Alireza
    Baqiyatallah Univ Med Sci, Neurosci Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Mohammed, Shafiu
    Heidelberg Univ, Inst Publ Hlth, Heidelberg, Germany.;Ahmadu Bello Univ, Hlth Syst & Policy Res Unit, Zaria, Nigeria..
    Monasta, Lorenzo
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Montanez Hernandez, Julio Cesar
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Montico, Marcella
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Mooney, Meghan D.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Moradi-Lakeh, Maziar
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Iran Univ Med Sci, Prevent Med & Publ Hlth Res Ctr, Gastrointestinal & Liver Dis Res Ctr, Dept Community Med, Tehran, Iran..
    Morawska, Lidia
    Queensland Univ Technol, Int Lab Air Qual & Hlth, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Mueller, Ulrich O.
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Mullany, Erin
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Mumford, John Everett
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Murdoch, Michele E.
    West Herts Hosp NHS Trust, Watford, Hereford, England..
    Nachega, Jean B.
    Johns Hopkins Bloomberg Sch Publ Hlth, Baltimore, MD USA.;Univ Pittsburgh, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Pittsburgh, PA USA.;Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Nagel, Gabriele
    Univ Ulm, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany..
    Naheed, Aliya
    Int Ctr Diarrhoeal Dis Res Bangladesh Icddr B, Dhaka, Bangladesh..
    Naldi, Luigi
    Azienda Ospedal Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy..
    Nangia, Vinay
    Suraj Eye Inst, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India..
    Newton, John N.
    Publ Hlth England, London, England..
    Ng, Marie
    Ngalesoni, Frida Namnyak
    Minist Hlth & Social Welf, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Nguyen, Quyen Le
    Nisar, Muhammad Imran
    Aga Khan Univ, Karachi, Pakistan..
    Nkamedjie Pete, Patrick Martial
    Inst Res Socioecon Dev & Commun, Yaounde, Cameroon. Hosp Univ Bellvitge, Lhospitalet De Llobregat, Spain..
    Nona, Joan M.
    Norheim, Ole F.
    Univ Bergen, Bergen, Norway..
    Norman, Rosana E.
    Queensland Univ Technol, Inst Hlth & Biomed Innovat, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Norrving, Bo
    Lund Univ, Skane Univ Hosp, Dept Clin Sci Lund, Lund, Sweden..
    Nunes, Bruno P.
    Univ Fed Pelotas, Pelotas, Brazil..
    Ogbo, Felix Akpojene
    Univ Western Sydney, Ctr Hlth Res, Sydney, NSW, Australia..
    Oh, In-Hwan
    Kyung Hee Univ, Sch Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Ohkubo, Takayoshi
    Teikyo Univ, Sch Med, Tokyo, Japan..
    Olivares, Pedro R.
    Univ Autonoma Chile, Talca, Chile..
    Olusanya, Bolajoko Olubukunola
    Ctr Hlth Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Olusanya, Jacob Olusegun
    Ctr Hlth Start Initiat, Lagos, Nigeria..
    Ortiz, Alberto
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz UAM, Madrid, Spain..
    Osman, Majdi
    Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA.;YBank, Cambridge, MA USA..
    Ota, Erika
    St Lukes Int Univ, Tokyo, Japan..
    Mahesh, P. A.
    JSS Univ, JSS Med Coll, Mysore, Karnataka, India..
    Park, Eun-Kee
    Kosin Univ, Coll Med, Dept Med Humanities & Social Med, Busan, South Korea..
    Parsaeian, Mahboubeh
    Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Tehran, Iran..
    de Azeredo Passos, Valeria Maria
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Paternina Caicedo, Angel J.
    Univ Pittsburgh, Publ Hlth Dynam Lab, Pittsburgh, PA USA.;Univ Cartagena, Cartagena, Colombia..
    Patten, Scott B.
    Dept Community Hlth Sci, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Patton, George C.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Pereira, David M.
    Univ Porto, Fac Farm, Dept Quim, REQUIMTE LAQV,Lab Farmacognosia, Oporto, Portugal..
    Perez-Padilla, Rogelio
    Natl Inst Resp Dis, Mexico City, DF, Mexico..
    Perico, Norberto
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy..
    Pesudovs, Konrad
    Flinders Univ Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, Australia..
    Petzold, Max
    Univ Gothenburg, Hlth Metr Unit, Gothenburg, Sweden.;Univ Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, South Africa..
    Phillips, Michael Robert
    Emory Univ, Atlanta, GA 30322 USA.;Shanghai Jiao Tong Univ, Sch Med, Shanghai, Peoples R China..
    Piel, Frederic B.
    Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, London, England..
    Pillay, Julian David
    Durban Univ Technol, Durban, South Africa..
    Pishgar, Farhad
    Endocrinol & Metab Populat Sci Inst, Noncommunicable Dis Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Urooncol Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Plass, Dietrich
    German Environm Agcy, Exposure Assessment & Environm Hlth Indicators, Berlin, Germany..
    Platts-Mills, James A.
    Univ Virginia, Charlottesville, VA USA..
    Polinder, Suzanne
    Dept Publ Hlth, Rotterdam, Netherlands..
    Pond, Constance D.
    Univ Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW, Australia..
    Popova, Svetlana
    Ctr Addict & Mental Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada..
    Poulton, Richie G.
    Univ Otago, Dunedin, New Zealand..
    Pourmalek, Farshad
    Univ British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada..
    Prabhakaran, Dorairaj
    Ctr Chron Dis Control, New Delhi, India..
    Prasad, Noela M.
    Fred Hollows Fdn, Sydney, NSW, Australia.;Ctr Eye Res Australia, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Qorbani, Mostafa
    Alborz Univ Med Sci, Sch Med, Dept Community Med, Karaj, Iran..
    Rabiee, Rynaz H. S.
    Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Stockholm, Sweden..
    Radfar, Amir
    A T Still Univ, Kirksville, MO USA..
    Rafay, Anwar
    Contech Sch Publ Hlth, Lahore, Pakistan..
    Rahimi, Kazem
    Univ Oxford, Oxford, England..
    Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa
    Sina Trauma & Surg Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran..
    Rahman, Mahfuzar
    Rahman, Mohammad Hifz Ur
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Rahman, Sajjad Ur
    BRAC, Res & Evaluat Div, Dhaka, Bangladesh.;Hamad Med Corp, Doha, Qatar..
    Rai, Rajesh Kumar
    Soc Hlth & Demog Surveillance, Suri, India..
    Rajsic, Sasa
    Univ Hlth Sci Med Informat & Technol, ERAWEB Program, Hall in Triol, Austria..
    Ram, Usha
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Rao, Puja
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Refaat, Amany H.
    Walden Univ, Minneapolis, MN USA.;Suez Canal Univ, Ismailia, Egypt..
    Reitsma, Marissa B.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Remuzzi, Giuseppe
    IRCCS Ist Ric Farmacol Mario Negri, Bergamo, Italy.;Azienda Ospedal Papa Giovanni XXIII, Bergamo, Italy.;Univ Milan, Dept Biomed & Clin Sci L Sacco, Milan, Italy..
    Resnikofff, Serge
    Brien Holden Vision Inst, Kensington, NSW, Australia..
    Reynolds, Alex
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Ribeiro, Antonio L.
    Univ Fed Minas Gerais, Hosp Clin, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil..
    Rios Blancas, Maria Jesus
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Rolm, Hirbo Shore
    Rojas-Rueda, David
    ISGlobal Inst Salud Global Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ronfani, Luca
    IRCCS Burlo Garofolo, Inst Maternal & Child Hlth, Trieste, Italy..
    Roshandel, Gholamreza
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran.;Golestan Univ Med Sci, Golestan Res Ctr Gastroenterol & Hepatol, Gorgan, Iran..
    Roth, Gregory A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Rothenbacher, Dietrich
    Univ Ulm, Inst Epidemiol & Med Biometry, Ulm, Germany..
    Roy, Ambuj
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Sagar, Rajesh
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Sahathevan, Ramesh
    Ballarat Hlth Serv, Ballarat, Vic, Australia.;Univ Kebangsaan Malaysia, Med Ctr, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Sanabria, Juan R.
    Marshall Univ, J Edwards Sch Med, Huntington, WV USA.;Case Western Reserve Univ, Cleveland, OH USA..
    Dolores Sanchez-Nino, Maria
    IIS Fdn Jimenez Diaz, Madrid, Spain..
    Santos, Itamar S.
    Dept Internal Med, Sao Paulo, Brazil..
    Santos, Joao Vasco
    Univ Porto, Inst Invest Inovacao Sande i3S, Oporto, Portugal.;Univ Porto, Fac Med, Oporto, Portugal..
    Sarmiento-Suarez, Rodrigo
    Univ Ciencias Aplicadas & Ambientales, Bogota, Colombia..
    Sartorius, Benn
    Univ KwaZulu Natal, Durban, South Africa..
    Satpathy, Maheswar
    All India Inst Med Sci, New Delhi, India..
    Savic, Miloje
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway.;Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Sawhney, Monika
    Marshall Univ, Huntington, WV USA..
    Schaub, Michael P.
    Swiss Res Inst Publ Hlth & Addict, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Schmidt, Maria Ines
    Univ Fed Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil..
    Schneider, Ione J. C.
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Schottker, Ben
    German Canc Res Ctr, Heidelberg, Germany.;FOM Univ, Inst Hlth Care & Social Sci, Essen, Germany..
    Schwebel, David C.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Scott, James G.
    Clin Res Ctr, Brisbane, Qld, Australia..
    Seedat, Soraya
    Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Sepanlou, Sadaf G.
    Digest Dis Res Inst, Tehran, Iran..
    Servan-Mori, Edson E.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth Cuernavaca, Cuernavaca, Morelos, Mexico..
    Shackelford, Katya A.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Shaheen, Amira
    An Najah Univ, Dept Publ Hlth, Nablus, Israel..
    Shaikh, Masood Ali
    Sharma, Rajesh
    Indian Inst Technol Ropar, Rupnagar, India..
    Sharma, Upasana
    ICMR Natl Inst Epidemiol, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India..
    Shen, Jiabin
    Coll Med, Columbus, OH USA.;Nationwide Childrens Hosp, Res Inst, Columbus, OH USA..
    Shepard, Donald S.
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA..
    Sheth, Kevin N.
    Sch Med, New Haven, CT USA..
    Shibuya, Kenji
    Univ Tokyo, Tokyo, Japan..
    Shin, Min-Jeong
    Korea Univ, Grad Sch, Dept Publ Hlth Sci, Seoul, South Korea..
    Shiri, Rahman
    Finnish Inst Occupat Hlth, Work Disabil Prevent, Work Org, Helsinki, Finland..
    Shiue, Ivy
    Alzheimer Scotland Dementia Res Ctr, Edinburgh, Midlothian, Scotland.;Northumbria Univ, Fac Hlth & Life Sci, Newcastle Upon Tyne, Tyne & Wear, England..
    Shrime, Mark G.
    Harvard Med Sch, Boston, MA USA..
    Sigfusdottir, Inga Dora
    Reykjavik Univ, Reykjavik, Iceland..
    Silva, Diego Augusto Santos
    Univ Fed Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC, Brazil..
    Alves Silveira, Dayane Gabriele
    Univ Brasilia, Brasilia, DF, Brazil..
    Singh, Abhishek
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Singh, Jasvinder A.
    Univ Alabama Birmingham, Birmingham, AL USA..
    Singh, Om Prakash
    Banaras Hindu Univ, Inst Med Sci, Dept Med, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India..
    Singh, Prashant Kumar
    Inst Human Dev, New Delhi, India..
    Sivonda, Anna
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Skirbekk, Vegard
    Norwegian Inst Publ Hlth, Oslo, Norway..
    Skogen, Jens Christoffer
    Dept Hlth Promot, Oslo, Norway.;Alcohol & Drug Res Western Norway, Stavanger, Norway..
    Sligar, Amber
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Silwa, Karen
    Soljak, Michael
    Imperial Coll London, London, England..
    Soreide, Kjetil
    Stavanger Univ Hosp, Stavanger, Norway. Hatter Inst Cardiovasc Res Africa, Fac Hlth Sci, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Soriano, Joan B.
    Univ Autonoma Madrid, Catedra UAM Linde, Hosp Univ de la Princesa, Inst Invest, Palma de Mallorca, Spain..
    Sposato, Luciano A.
    Western Univ, Dept Clin Neurol Sci, London, ON, Canada..
    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T.
    Int Med Univ, Dept Community Med, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia..
    Stathopoulou, Vasiliki
    Attikon Univ Hosp, Athens, Greece..
    Steel, Nicholas
    Publ Hlth England, London, England.;Univ East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, England..
    Stein, Dan J.
    Dept Psychiat, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council Unit Anxiety & Stre, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Steiner, Timothy J.
    Div Brain Sci, London, England.;Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, Trondheim, Norway..
    Steinke, Sabine
    Univ Hosp Muenster, Dept Dermatol, Munster, Nrw, Germany..
    Stovner, Lars
    Norwegian Univ Sci & Technol, Dept Neurosci, Trondheim, Norway.;St Olavs Hosp, Norwegian Advisory Unit Headache, Trondheim, Norway..
    Stroumpoulis, Konstantinos
    Alexandra Gen Hosp Athens, Athens, Greece.;Ctr Hosp Publ Cotentin, Cherbourg, France..
    Sunguya, Bruno F.
    Muhimbili Univ Hlth & Allied Sci, Dar Es Salaam, Tanzania..
    Sur, Patrick
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Swaminathan, Soumya
    Indian Council Med Res, New Delhi, India..
    Sykes, Bryan L.
    Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Criminol, Irvine, CA USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Law & Soc, Irvine, CA USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Sociol, Irvine, CA USA.;Univ Calif Irvine, Dept Publ Hlth, Irvine, CA USA..
    Szoeke, Cassandra E. I.
    Inst Hlth & Ageing, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Tabares-Seisdedos, Rafael
    Univ Valencia, Dept Med, INCLIVA Hlth Res Inst, Valencia, Spain.;CIBERSAM, Valencia, Spain..
    Takala, Jukka S.
    Minist Manpower, WSH Inst, Singapore, Singapore.;Tampere Univ Technol, Tampere, Finland..
    Landon, Nikhil
    Tanne, David
    Chaim Sheba Med Ctr, Tel Hashomer, Israel.;Tel Aviv Univ, Tel Aviv, Israel..
    Tavakkoli, Mohammad
    Taye, Bineyam
    Univ Addis Ababa, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Taylor, Hugh R.
    Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Te Ao, Braden J.
    Auckland Univ Technol, Auckland, New Zealand..
    Tedla, Bemnet Amare
    Univ Gondar, Gondar, Ethiopia.;James Cook Univ, Cairns, Qld, Australia..
    Terkawi, Abdullah Sulieman
    Dept Anesthesiol, Charlottesville, VA USA.;Outcomes Res Consortium, Cleveland, OH USA.;King Fahad Med City, Dept Anesthesiol, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia..
    Thomson, Alan J.
    Adapt Knowledge Management, Victoria, BC, Canada..
    Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L.
    Dept Nutr, Boston, MA USA.;WorldFish, George Town, Penang, Malaysia..
    Thrift, Amanda G.
    Monash Univ, Dept Med, Sch Clin Sci Monash Hlth, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Thurston, George D.
    NYU, Nelson Inst Environm Med, Sch Med, Tuxedo Pk, NY USA..
    Tobe-Gai, Ruoyan
    Natl Ctr Child Hlth & Dev, Tokyo, Japan..
    Tonelli, Marcello
    Univ Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada..
    Topor-Madry, Roman
    Jagiellonian Univ, Coll Med, Fac Hlth Sci, Inst Publ Hlth, Krakow, Poland.;Wroclaw Med Univ, Fac Hlth Sci, Wroclaw, Poland..
    Topouzis, Fotis
    Aristotle Univ Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece..
    Tran, Bach Xuan
    Johns Hopkins Univ, Baltimore, MD USA.;Hanoi Med Univ, Hanoi, Vietnam..
    Dimbuene, Zacharie Tsala
    Univ Kinshasa, Fac Econ & Management, Dept Populat Sci & Dev, Kinshasa, Congo.;African Populat & Hlth Res Ctr, Nairobi, Kenya..
    Tsilimbaris, Miltiadis
    Univ Crete, Dept Med, Iraklion, Greece..
    Tura, Abera Kenay
    Haramaya Univ, Dire Dawa, Ethiopia.;Univ Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands..
    Tuzcu, Emin Murat
    Cleveland Clin, Cleveland, OH 44106 USA..
    Tyrovolas, Stefanos
    Univ Barcelona, CIBERSAM, Fundacio St Joan de Deu, Parc Sanitari St Joan de Deu, Barcelona, Spain..
    Ukwaja, Kingsley N.
    Fed Teaching Hosp, Dept Internal Med, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Undurraga, Eduardo A.
    Brandeis Univ, Waltham, MA USA..
    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse
    Ebonyi State Univ, Abakaliki, Nigeria..
    Uthman, Olalekan A.
    Univ Warwick, Warwick Med Sch, Coventry, W Midlands, England..
    van Gool, Coen H.
    Natl Inst Publ Hlth & Environm, Bilthoven, Netherlands..
    Varakin, Yuri Y.
    Res Ctr Neurol, Moscow, Russia..
    Vasankari, Tommi
    UKK Inst Hlth Promot Res, Tampere, Finland..
    Venketasubramanian, Narayanaswamy
    Raffles Hosp, Raffles Neurosci Ctr, Singapore, Singapore..
    Verma, Raj Kumar
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Violante, Francesco S.
    Univ Bologna, Bologna, Italy..
    Vladimirov, Sergey K.
    Fed Res Inst Hlth Org & Informat, Moscow, Russia..
    Vlassov, Vasiliy Victorovich
    Natl Res Univ, Higher Sch Econ, Moscow, Russia..
    Vollset, Stein Emil
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Ctr Dis Burden, Oslo, Norway..
    Wagner, Gregory R.
    Harvard TH Chan Sch Publ Hlth, Boston, MA USA.;NIOSH, Washington, DC USA..
    Waller, Stephen G.
    Univ Hlth Sci, Uniformed Serv, Bethesda, MD USA..
    Wang, Linhong
    Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Watkins, David A.
    Univ Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 USA.;Univ Cape Town, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Weichenthal, Scott
    McGill Univ, Montreal, PQ, Canada..
    Weiderpass, Elisabete
    Dept Med Epidemiol & Biostatist, Stockholm, Sweden.;Inst Populat Based Canc Res, Canc Registry Norway, Dept Res, Oslo, Norway.;Arctic Univ Norway, Univ Tromso, Fac Hlth Sci, Dept Community Med, Tromso, Norway.;Folkhalsan Res Ctr, Genet Epidemiol Grp, Helsinki, Finland..
    Weintraub, Robert G.
    Murdoch Childrens Res Inst, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Univ Melbourne, Melbourne, Vic, Australia.;Royal Childrens Hosp, Melbourne, Vic, Australia..
    Werdecker, Andrea
    Competence Ctr Mortal Follow Up German Natl Cohor, Wiesbaden, Germany..
    Westerman, Ronny
    Fed Inst Populat Res, Wiesbaden, Germany.;German Natl Cohort Consortium, Heidelberg, Germany..
    White, Richard A.
    Dept Infect Dis Epidemiol & Modelling, Oslo, Norway..
    Williams, Hywel C.
    Univ Nottingham, Ctr Evidence Based Dermatol, Nottingham, England..
    Wiysonge, Charles Shey
    Univ Stellenbosch, Cape Town, South Africa.;South African Med Res Council, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Wolfe, Charles D. A.
    Div Hlth & Social Care Res, London, England.;Guys & St Thomas NHS Fdn Trust, Natl Inst Hlth Res, Comprehens Biomed Res Ctr, London, England.;Kings Coll London, London, England..
    Won, Sungho
    Seoul Natl Univ, Grad Sch Publ Hlth, Seoul, South Korea..
    Woodbrook, Rachel
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Wubshet, Mamo
    St Pauls Hosp, Millennium Med Coll, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia..
    Xavier, Denis
    St Johns Med Coll & Res Inst, Bangalore, Karnataka, India..
    Xu, Gelin
    Nanjing Univ, Sch Med, Jinling Hosp, Dept Neurol, Nanjing, Jiangsu, Peoples R China..
    Yadav, Ajit Kumar
    Int Inst Populat Sci, Bombay, Maharashtra, India..
    Yan, Lijing L.
    Duke Kunshan Univ, Global Hlth Res Ctr, Kunshan, Peoples R China..
    Yano, Yuichiro
    Northwestern Univ, Dept Prevent Med, Chicago, IL 60611 USA..
    Yaseri, Mehdi
    Shahid Beheshti Univ Med Sci, Ophthalm Res Ctr, Tehran, Iran.;Univ Tehran Med Sci, Tehran, Iran..
    Ye, Pengpeng
    Yebyo, Henock Gebremedhin
    Mekelle Univ, Mekelle, Ethiopia.;Univ Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland..
    Yip, Paul
    Univ Hong Kong, Social Work & Social Adm Dept, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China.;Univ Hong Kong, Hong Kong Jockey Club Ctr Suicide Res & Prevent, Hong Kong, Hong Kong, Peoples R China..
    Yonemoto, Naohiro
    Kyoto Univ, Sch Publ Hlth, Dept Biostat, Kyoto, Japan..
    Yoon, Seok-Jun
    Korea Univ, Coll Med, Dept Prevent Med, Seoul, South Korea..
    Younis, Mustafa Z.
    Jackson State Univ, Jackson, MS USA..
    Yu, Chuanhua
    Wuhan Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat, Sch Publ Hlth, Wuhan, Peoples R China.;Wuhan Univ, Global Hlth Inst, Wuhan, Peoples R China..
    Zaidi, Zoubida
    Univ Hosp, Setif, Algeria..
    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed
    Mansoura Univ, Fac Med, Mansoura, Egypt..
    Zeeb, Hajo
    Leibniz Inst Prevent Res & Epidemiol, Bremen, Germany..
    Zhou, Maigeng
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA.;Univ Canberra, Ctr Res & Act Publ Hlth, Fac Hlth, Canberra, ACT, Australia..
    Zodpey, Sanjay
    Publ Hlth Fdn India, Gurgaon, India..
    Zuhlke, Liesl Joanna
    Red Cross War Mem Childrens Hosp, Cape Town, South Africa..
    Murray, Christopher J. L.
    Inst Hlth Metr & Evaluat, Seattle, WA 98121 USA..
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 310 diseases and injuries, 1990-2015: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20152016In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 388, no 10053, p. 1545-1602Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Non-fatal outcomes of disease and injury increasingly detract from the ability of the world's population to live in full health, a trend largely attributable to an epidemiological transition in many countries from causes affecting children, to non-communicable diseases (NCDs) more common in adults. For the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2015 (GBD 2015), we estimated the incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for diseases and injuries at the global, regional, and national scale over the period of 1990 to 2015. Methods We estimated incidence and prevalence by age, sex, cause, year, and geography with a wide range of updated and standardised analytical procedures. Improvements from GBD 2013 included the addition of new data sources, updates to literature reviews for 85 causes, and the identification and inclusion of additional studies published up to November, 2015, to expand the database used for estimation of non-fatal outcomes to 60 900 unique data sources. Prevalence and incidence by cause and sequelae were determined with DisMod-MR 2.1, an improved version of the DisMod-MR Bayesian meta-regression tool first developed for GBD 2010 and GBD 2013. For some causes, we used alternative modelling strategies where the complexity of the disease was not suited to DisMod-MR 2.1 or where incidence and prevalence needed to be determined from other data. For GBD 2015 we created a summary indicator that combines measures of income per capita, educational attainment, and fertility (the Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) and used it to compare observed patterns of health loss to the expected pattern for countries or locations with similar SDI scores. Findings We generated 9.3 billion estimates from the various combinations of prevalence, incidence, and YLDs for causes, sequelae, and impairments by age, sex, geography, and year. In 2015, two causes had acute incidences in excess of 1 billion: upper respiratory infections (17.2 billion, 95% uncertainty interval [UI] 15.4-19.2 billion) and diarrhoeal diseases (2.39 billion, 2.30-2.50 billion). Eight causes of chronic disease and injury each affected more than 10% of the world's population in 2015: permanent caries, tension-type headache, iron-deficiency anaemia, age-related and other hearing loss, migraine, genital herpes, refraction and accommodation disorders, and ascariasis. The impairment that affected the greatest number of people in 2015 was anaemia, with 2.36 billion (2.35-2.37 billion) individuals affected. The second and third leading impairments by number of individuals affected were hearing loss and vision loss, respectively. Between 2005 and 2015, there was little change in the leading causes of years lived with disability (YLDs) on a global basis. NCDs accounted for 18 of the leading 20 causes of age-standardised YLDs on a global scale. Where rates were decreasing, the rate of decrease for YLDs was slower than that of years of life lost (YLLs) for nearly every cause included in our analysis. For low SDI geographies, Group 1 causes typically accounted for 20-30% of total disability, largely attributable to nutritional deficiencies, malaria, neglected tropical diseases, HIV/AIDS, and tuberculosis. Lower back and neck pain was the leading global cause of disability in 2015 in most countries. The leading cause was sense organ disorders in 22 countries in Asia and Africa and one in central Latin America; diabetes in four countries in Oceania; HIV/AIDS in three southern sub-Saharan African countries; collective violence and legal intervention in two north African and Middle Eastern countries; iron-deficiency anaemia in Somalia and Venezuela; depression in Uganda; onchoceriasis in Liberia; and other neglected tropical diseases in the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is increasing the number of people living with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Shifts in the epidemiological profile driven by socioeconomic change also contribute to the continued increase in years lived with disability (YLDs) as well as the rate of increase in YLDs. Despite limitations imposed by gaps in data availability and the variable quality of the data available, the standardised and comprehensive approach of the GBD study provides opportunities to examine broad trends, compare those trends between countries or subnational geographies, benchmark against locations at similar stages of development, and gauge the strength or weakness of the estimates available.

  • 9105. Vos, Theo
    et al.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Murray, Christopher J.
    Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 301 acute and chronic diseases and injuries in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 20132015In: The Lancet, ISSN 0140-6736, E-ISSN 1474-547X, Vol. 386, no 9995, p. 743-800Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Up-to-date evidence about levels and trends in disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) is an essential input into global, regional, and national health policies. In the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013), we estimated these quantities for acute and chronic diseases and injuries for 188 countries between 1990 and 2013. Methods Estimates were calculated for disease and injury incidence, prevalence, and YLDs using GBD 2010 methods with some important refinements. Results for incidence of acute disorders and prevalence of chronic disorders are new additions to the analysis. Key improvements include expansion to the cause and sequelae list, updated systematic reviews, use of detailed injury codes, improvements to the Bayesian meta-regression method (DisMod-MR), and use of severity splits for various causes. An index of data representativeness, showing data availability, was calculated for each cause and impairment during three periods globally and at the country level for 2013. In total, 35 620 distinct sources of data were used and documented to calculated estimates for 301 diseases and injuries and 2337 sequelae. The comorbidity simulation provides estimates for the number of sequelae, concurrently, by individuals by country, year, age, and sex. Disability weights were updated with the addition of new population-based survey data from four countries. Findings Disease and injury were highly prevalent; only a small fraction of individuals had no sequelae. Comorbidity rose substantially with age and in absolute terms from 1990 to 2013. Incidence of acute sequelae were predominantly infectious diseases and short-term injuries, with over 2 billion cases of upper respiratory infections and diarrhoeal disease episodes in 2013, with the notable exception of tooth pain due to permanent caries with more than 200 million incident cases in 2013. Conversely, leading chronic sequelae were largely attributable to non-communicable diseases, with prevalence estimates for asymptomatic permanent caries and tension-type headache of 2.4 billion and 1.6 billion, respectively. The distribution of the number of sequelae in populations varied widely across regions, with an expected relation between age and disease prevalence. YLDs for both sexes increased from 537.6 million in 1990 to 764.8 million in 2013 due to population growth and ageing, whereas the age-standardised rate decreased little from 114.87 per 1000 people to 110.31 per 1000 people between 1990 and 2013. Leading causes of YLDs included low back pain and major depressive disorder among the top ten causes of YLDs in every country. YLD rates per person, by major cause groups, indicated the main drivers of increases were due to musculoskeletal, mental, and substance use disorders, neurological disorders, and chronic respiratory diseases; however HIV/AIDS was a notable driver of increasing YLDs in sub-Saharan Africa. Also, the proportion of disability-adjusted life years due to YLDs increased globally from 21.1% in 1990 to 31.2% in 2013. Interpretation Ageing of the world's population is leading to a substantial increase in the numbers of individuals with sequelae of diseases and injuries. Rates of YLDs are declining much more slowly than mortality rates. The non-fatal dimensions of disease and injury will require more and more attention from health systems. The transition to non-fatal outcomes as the dominant source of burden of disease is occurring rapidly outside of sub-Saharan Africa. Our results can guide future health initiatives through examination of epidemiological trends and a better understanding of variation across countries.

  • 9106.
    Vrettou, Katja
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    MI inom folkhälsoarbete - en kvalitativ studie om insatscoachers upplevelser av MI-metoden i arbete med social utsatta individer.2015Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9107. Vriezinga, S. L.
    et al.
    Auricchio, R.
    Bravi, E.
    Castillejo, G.
    Chmielewska, A.
    Crespo Escobar, P.
    Kolaček, S.
    Koletzko, S.
    Korponay-Szabo, I. R.
    Mummert, E.
    Polanco, I.
    Putter, H.
    Ribes-Koninckx, C.
    Shamir, R.
    Szajewska, H.
    Werkstetter, K.
    Greco, L.
    Gyimesi, J.
    Hartman, C.
    Esch, C. Hogen
    Hopman, E.
    Ivarsson, Anneli
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Koltai, T.
    Koning, F.
    Martinez-Ojinaga, E.
    te Marvelde, C.
    Pavic, A. Mocic
    Romanos, J.
    Stoopman, E.
    Villanacci, V.
    Wijmenga, C.
    Troncone, R.
    Mearin, M. L.
    Randomized feeding intervention in infants at high risk for celiac disease2014In: New England Journal of Medicine, ISSN 0028-4793, E-ISSN 1533-4406, Vol. 371, no 14, p. 1304-1315Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND A window of opportunity has been suggested for reducing the risk of celiac disease by introducing gluten to infants at 4 to 6 months of age. METHODS We performed a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled dietary-intervention study involving 944 children who were positive for HLA-DQ2 or HLA-DQ8 and had at least one first-degree relative with celiac disease. From 16 to 24 weeks of age, 475 participants received 100 mg of immunologically active gluten daily, and 469 received placebo. Anti-transglutaminase type 2 and antigliadin antibodies were periodically measured. The primary outcome was the frequency of biopsy-confirmed celiac disease at 3 years of age. RESULTS Celiac disease was confirmed by means of biopsies in 77 children. To avoid underestimation of the frequency of celiac disease, 3 additional children who received a diagnosis of celiac disease according to the 2012 European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition diagnostic criteria (without having undergone biopsies) were included in the analyses (80 children; median age, 2.8 years; 59% were girls). The cumulative incidence of celiac disease among patients 3 years of age was 5.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.6 to 6.8), with similar rates in the gluten group and the placebo group (5.9% [95% CI, 3.7 to 8.1] and 4.5% [95% CI, 2.5 to 6.5], respectively; hazard ratio in the gluten group, 1.23; 95% CI, 0.79 to 1.91). Rates of elevated levels of anti-transglutaminase type 2 and antigliadin antibodies were also similar in the two study groups (7.0% [95% CI, 4.7 to 9.4] in the gluten group and 5.7% [95% CI, 3.5 to 7.9] in the placebo group; hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.76 to 1.73). Breast-feeding, regardless of whether it was exclusive or whether it was ongoing during gluten introduction, did not significantly influence the development of celiac disease or the effect of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS As compared with placebo, the introduction of small quantities of gluten at 16 to 24 weeks of age did not reduce the risk of celiac disease by 3 years of age in this group of high-risk children. (Funded by the European Commission and others; PreventCD Current Controlled Trials number, ISRCTN74582487.)

  • 9108.
    Vu Thuy Huong, Le
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gender and Social Determinants of road accident mortality and injury in low- and middle- income countries: A literature review2015Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background

    Road traffic accidents (RTAs) are becoming one of the most serious public health problems in the World, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). It is a fact that 90% of traffic deaths happened in these countries which contain roughly half of world’s total vehicle. Besides that, the influences of RTAs on men and women are sharply difference with the number of men died is nearly 3 times higher than women as well as traffic injuries. Unsafe driving behaviours are the most common traffic accidents causes, such as excessive speed and drink-driving. These factors separate differently between men and women and link closely with socio-cultural factors. Following this inequality health outcome in LMICs, gender theory is used to explain not only the gap between men and women, but also find the impact of other factors by applying power relationship and labour construction to analyze.

    Objectives

    This paper aims to review the disparity of driver’s risk contributing factors between men and women. The socio-cultural factors, then, influence to their decision making about road safety in LMICs.

    Methodology

    Literature review was conducted by using electronic database of PubMed and Web of Science to define research outcomes and the World Bank to pinpoint LMICs in selected studies. The research key words were: road traffic accidents and Road traffic accidents separately combined with: gender differences (theory), drivers, knowledge, behavior, attitude and low- and middle-income countries in both qualitative and quantitative studies. After collecting 18 full-text articles, including 6 qualitative studies and 12 quantitative ones, I analyzed 2 types of methods separately to find common contributing risk factors and summed them up into different themes. Finally, gender theory was used to analyze the different outcome between men and women relating to RTAs.

    Findings

    There were two qualitative themes and three quantitative ones leading to unsafe driving factors in these countries. Two themes based on qualitative studies were socio-cultural determinants and personal factors and in terms of quantitative ones, three themes were human factors, vehicle factors and environmental factors. Two quantitative articles were concerned gender difference and no qualitative articles used a gender approach to their research.

    Conclusion

    A gender-base approach to RTAs in LMICs was rare. Most of studies mentioned the big difference between men and women due to RTAs but the authors did not explain the difference contributing factors in gender. Interestingly, applying gender theory, I found that masculinity and femininity have strongly relationship with the difference of risk driving behaviours between men and women. This theory is a useful tool to explore the circumstance. 

  • 9109.
    Vujicic, Slobodan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Association between Nephropathia Epidemica and Poor Sleep Quality as a Long-Term Outcome2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Nephropathia epidemica (NE) is a common viral disease in northern Sweden. While the clinical aspects of NE have been widely described, the long-term outcomes following the recovery phase of the disease are not well known. Research on other infectious diseases shows that long-term consequences, such as chronic fatigue, poor general health, and poor sleep quality, may persist after the recovery phase of an infectious disease. The aim of this study was to investigate if there is an association between nephropathia epidemica and poor sleep quality as a long-term consequence.

    Methods: Secondary data from a survey "Patient reported long-term outcomes of Puumala virus infection in northern Sweden" was used for this study. 1132 former NE patients and 915 non-exposed subjects responded to the survey. The age range was 18-93 years. Sleep quality was measured using the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). As a dependent variable sleep quality was evaluated as both continuous variable (PSQI total score) and a binary variable (poor sleep quality). An association between NE exposure and sleep quality was evaluated by simple and multiple linear and logistic regression models. The analyses were stratified by sex. Results with p values less than 0.05 and confidence intervals of 95% were considered statistically significant.

    Results: Former NE patients reported higher PSQI total scores than the subjects in the comparison group, indicating that exposure to NE is associated with poor sleep quality (results statistically significant). Female patients had higher PSQI total scores than male patients (result statistically significant). The linear and logistic regression analyses of NE exposure and sleep quality showed similar results. After adjusting for the other variables in the study (age, current disease, smoking, obesity and exercise) sleep quality remained significantly associated with NE exposure. In men, sleep quality showed statistically significant association with time since exposure to NE only in the "≥4 years ago" category while the other categories (2-3 years ago, 1 year ago, 6-12 months ago and 3-6 months ago) did not show statistically significant results. In women, association between time since exposure to NE and sleep quality was statistically significant for "≥4 years ago", "2-3 years ago", and "1 year ago" and not statistically significant for "6-12 months ago" and "3-6 months ago".

    Conclusion: Poor sleep quality may be a long-term outcome of nephropathia epidemica. Former NE patients have higher PSQI component scores and a higher PSQI total score, which is indicative of poor sleep quality. Sleep quality is worse in female patients than in male patients. Time since exposure to NE does not have a significant impact on sleep quality. Further research is needed to better asses sleep disturbances after exposure to nephropathia epidemica.

  • 9110.
    Vujicic, Slobodan
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Socioeconomic inequalities and hazardous drinking in Northern Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol consumption have been well documented in several different countries. However, little is known about prevalence of hazardous drinking in Northern Sweden in relation to all three components of socioeconomic status: education, occupation, and income. The aim of this study is to explore the association between socioeconomic status and hazardous alcohol consumption and to measure the impact of socioeconomic inequalities on hazardous drinking patterns in Northern Sweden.

    Methods: A cross-sectional study using data from the Swedish National Public Health Survey conducted in 2014. The sample included 25,667 people (50% response rate) between 16-84 years from the four northern counties of Sweden. Hazardous alcohol consumption was measured using AUDIT-C, a short version of the World Health Organisation’s Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test. Education, occupation and income were used as determinants of socioeconomic status. Log-binomial regression was used to assess the association between socioeconomic status and hazardous drinking. Relative index of inequalities and slope index of inequality were used to measure the magnitude of socioeconomic inequalities in alcohol consumption.

    Results: Independent of the occupational level, amount of disposable income, gender, age, and marital status, educational attainment was inversely associated with hazardous drinking (low educational level had PR=1.61 and the medium level PR=1.46). Occupation and income were not significant predictors of hazardous drinking. The relative educational inequality showed that the low-educated group of people had an increased risk of hazardous drinking compared to the high-educated group (RII=1.62), while the absolute educational inequality was not significant. Income inequality was not significant in neither relative nor absolute terms.

    Conclusion: The results suggest that educational attainment has a significant effect on hazardous alcohol consumption while occupation and income do not play a significant role in hazardous drinking behavior. Furthermore, relative educational inequality in hazardous drinking is present in Northern Sweden, while income inequality does not have a significant impact on hazardous drinking behavior. Since the present study demonstrates that higher education predicts lower prevalence of hazardous drinking policy makers could consider focusing more attention towards education among young people.

  • 9111. Vuorinen, Miika
    et al.
    Damangir, Soheil
    Niskanen, Eini
    Miralbell, Julia
    Rusanen, Minna
    Spulber, Gabriela
    Soininen, Hilkka
    Kivipelto, Miia
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Solomon, Alina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Aging Research Center (ARC), (together with KI).
    Coronary heart disease and cortical thickness, gray matter and white matter lesion volumes on MRI.2014In: PLoS ONE, ISSN 1932-6203, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 9, no 10, p. e109250-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) has been linked with cognitive decline and dementia in several studies. CHD is strongly associated with blood pressure, but it is not clear how blood pressure levels or changes in blood pressure over time affect the relation between CHD and dementia-related pathology. The aim of this study was to investigate relations between CHD and cortical thickness, gray matter volume and white matter lesion (WML) volume on MRI, considering CHD duration and blood pressure levels from midlife to three decades later. The study population included 69 elderly at risk of dementia who participated in the Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging and Dementia (CAIDE) study. CAIDE participants were examined in midlife, re-examined 21 years later, and then after additionally 7 years (in total up to 30 years follow-up). MRIs from the second re-examination were used to calculate cortical thickness, gray matter and WML volume. CHD diagnoses were obtained from the Finnish Hospital Discharge Register. Linear regression analyses were adjusted for age, sex, follow-up time and scanner type, and additionally total intracranial volume in GM volume analyses. Adding diabetes, cholesterol or smoking to the models did not influence the results. CHD was associated with lower thickness in multiple regions, and lower total gray matter volume, particularly in people with longer disease duration (>10 years). Associations between CHD, cortical thickness and gray matter volume were strongest in people with CHD and hypertension in midlife, and those with CHD and declining blood pressure after midlife. No association was found between CHD and WML volumes. Based on these results, long-term CHD seems to have detrimental effects on brain gray matter tissue, and these effects are influenced by blood pressure levels and their changes over time.

  • 9112.
    Vuorinen, Miika
    et al.
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Kåreholt, Ingemar
    Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ. Ageing - living conditions and health. Jönköping University, School of Health and Welfare, HHJ, Institute of Gerontology.
    Julkunen, Valtteri
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Spulber, Gabriela
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Niskanen, Eini
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Paajanen, Teemu
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Soininen, Hilkka
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Kivipelto, Miia
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Solomon, Alina
    University of Eastern Finland.
    Changes in vascular factors 28 years from midlife and late-life cortical thickness2013In: Neurobiology of Aging, ISSN 0197-4580, E-ISSN 1558-1497, Vol. 34, no 1, p. 100-109Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    We assessed midlife blood pressure (BP), body mass index, total cholesterol, and their changes over time in relation to cortical thickness on magnetic resonance imaging 28 years later in 63 elderly at risk of dementia. Participants in the population-based Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Dementia study were first examined at midlife. A first follow-up was conducted after 21 years, and a second follow-up after an additional 7 years. Magnetic resonance images from the second follow-up were analyzed using algorithms developed at McGill University, Montreal, Canada. Midlife hypertension was related to thinner cortex in several brain areas, including insular, frontal, and temporal cortices. In elderly with thinner insular cortex, there was a continuous decline in systolic BP and an increase in pulse pressure after midlife, while in elderly with thicker insular cortex the decline in systolic BP started at older ages, paralleled by a decline in pulse pressure. No associations were found between body mass index, cholesterol, or apolipoprotein E ε4 allele and cortical thickness in this group of elderly at risk individuals.

  • 9113.
    Vyncke, K
    et al.
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, De Pintelaan 185 – 2 Blok A, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium.
    Fernandez Cruz, Estefania
    Research Foundation Flanders, Brussels,.
    Fajó-Pascual, Marta
    Facultad Ciencias Salud y Deporte, University of Zaragoza.
    Cuenca-Garcia, Magdalena
    School of Medicine, University of Granada.
    De Keyser, Willem
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University,.
    González Gross, Marcela
    Facultad de Ciencias de la Actividad Física y del Deporte, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid.
    Moreno, Luis
    Escuela Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Zaragoza.
    Beghin, Laurent
    Université Lille, France.
    Breidenassel, Christina
    fInstitut für Ernährungs- und Lebensmittelwissenschaften-Humanernährung, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität, Bonn.
    Kersting, Mathilde
    Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Rheinische Friedrich-Wilhelms Universität Bonn, Dortmund, Germany.
    Albers, Ulrike
    Department of Health and Human Performance, Madrid.
    Diethelm, Katharina
    Research Institute of Child Nutrition Dortmund.
    Mouratidou, Theodora
    Escuela Universitaria de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Zaragoza.
    Grammatikaki, Eva
    Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University, Athens, Greece.
    DeVriendt, Tinike
    Ghent University, Department of Public Health, Ghent, Belgium.
    Marcos, Ascensión
    Department of Metabolism and Nutrition, Institute of Food Science and Technology, Madrid.
    Bammann, Karin
    Institute for Public Health and Nursing Care Research, University of Bremen.
    Börnhorst, Claudia
    BIPS Institute for Epidemiology and Prevention Research, Bremen.
    Leclercq, Caterine
    National Research Institute on Food and Nutrition, Rome.
    Manios, Yannis
    Department: Nutrition & Dietetics; Harokopio University Athens.
    Dallongeville, Jean
    Institut Pasteur de Lille, France.
    Vereecken, Carine
    Department of Public Health, University Hospital, Ghent.
    Maes, Lea
    Department of Public Health, University Hospital,Gent.
    Gwozdz, Wencke
    Department of Intercultural Communication and Management, Copenhagen Business School.
    Van Winckel, Myriam
    Department of Pediatrics and Medical Genetics, Ghent University Hospital, Ghent.
    Gottrand, Frédéric
    Faculté de Médecine, Université de Lille.
    Sjöström, Michael
    Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institute.
    Diaz, Ligia-Esperanza
    Instituto del Frío, Spanish National Research Council.
    Geelen, Anouk
    Division of Human Nutrition, Wageningen University, Wageningen, The Netherlands.
    Hallström, Lena
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Widhalm, Kurt
    Department of Pediatrics, Medical University of Vienna.
    Kafatos, Anthony
    Preventive Medicine and Nutrition Clinic, Department of Social Medicine, School of Medicine, University of Crete, Greece.
    Molnar, Dénes
    University of Pecs, Pecs, Hungary.
    De Henauw, Stefaan
    Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium.
    Huybrechts, Inge
    Department of Public Health, Ghent University.
    Validation of the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents by comparison with biomarkers, nutrient and food intakes: the HELENA study2013In: British Journal of Nutrition, ISSN 0007-1145, E-ISSN 1475-2662, Vol. 109, no 11, p. 2067-2078Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim to address the nutritional requirements at population level in order to prevent diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle. Diet quality indices can be used to assess the compliance with these FBDG. The present study aimed to investigate whether the newly developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components' dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo-transcobalamin and n-3 fatty acid serum levels. The present study has shown good validity of the DQI-A by confirming the expected associations with food and nutrient intakes and some biomarkers in blood.

  • 9114. Väfors Fritz, M.
    et al.
    Eklund, Jenny M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Liljeberg, J.
    af Klinteberg, Britt
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Psychology, Biological psychology. Karolinska Institute, Sweden.
    Quality of Life in Different Male Offender Groups – Possible Underlying Effects of Intelligence and Psychopathic Tendencies2016In: Journal of Forensic Science & Criminology, ISSN 2348-9804, Vol. 4, no 2, article id 202Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The role of psychopathic tendencies and intelligence on Quality of life (QoL) ratings in different male offender groups was explored. Participants were 199 Swedish males with a history of criminality at age 11-14 and matched controls from the longitudinal project Young Lawbreakers as Adults. Based on registered crimes prior to 15 years and up to 34 years of age, four criminal groups were yielded: non-criminals (NC); adolescence-limited (AL); persistent (P); and adult-onset (AO). The QoL construct consists of the following dimensions: Self-perception, Psychological health, Family, Children, Education, Work, and Finances, all self-rated at age 38-41 when also psychopathic tendencies were clinically assessed using the Psychopathy Check List (PCL). The P group reported lower QoL in all dimensions compared to the NC and AL groups and lower QoL regarding Family and Education than the AO group. When controlling for psychopathic tendencies, the group differences in QoL regarding Self-perception and Children was no longer significant. Generally, individuals with higher IQ scores rated higher QoL than individuals with lower IQ scores. IQ however did not explain the divergence in QoL between offender groups. Psychopathic tendencies are suggested to overtake the importance of group belonging regarding the QoL dimensions of Self-perception and Children.

  • 9115.
    Väisänen, Lina
    et al.
    Karlstad University.
    Hedlund, Marika
    Karlstad University.
    Motivation till fysisk aktivitet: En studie bland seniorer2013Student paper second term, 5 credits / 7,5 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • 9116.
    Värnild, Astrid
    Mälardalen University, School of Health, Care and Social Welfare.
    Vägtrafikskadade i Västmanlands län idag och för tjugo år sedan: Regional uppföljning av det nationella trafiksäkerhetsmålet2012Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the extent to which it is possible to make a follow- up on the regional level of the national road safety target by using existing police and hospital statistics. Do the two sources provide a similar picture of the changes of the number of persons injured in road traffic accidents during the past twenty years? The survey covers persons injured but survived in road accidents in the county of Västmanland. 2008/2009 figures are compared with 1989/1990 figures.

    Both sets of statistics provide a similar picture of the changes with regard to the number of injured motorists, motorcyclists and moped drivers. However, concerning pedestrians and cyclists there are significant differences.

    During the time period being studied, the number of injured persons registered by the hospitals of the county has decreased. This is due to the fact that the number of pedestrians and cyclists injured has decreased. However, it is due to structural changes of the health care difficult to quantify the reduction. The lower number fractures, primarily of pedestrians but also of cyclists, shows that there has been a decrease. On the contrary, the number of injured motorists has increased, but their injuries are less serious than in 1989/1990. However, the number of those motorists with serious injuries (ISS > 8) has increased.

    For the period 1997 – 2009 there has not had an established national target for the number of seriously injured. According to police statistics, the number of severely injured road users in the county has remained unchanged during the time period being studied. If those being hospitalized in the medical statistics are defined as seriously injured, the number of seriously injured has decreased with 27 %. However, if seriously injured is defined as those with

    ISS > 8, the number has remained unchanged. 

  • 9117. Vågerö, Denny
    Commentary: The role of alcohol in mortality differences between European countries2007In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 36, no 2, p. 468-469Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9118.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Södertörn University College, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Do health inequalities persist in the new global order?: A European perspective2006In: Inequalities of the world: [new theoretical frameworks, multiple empirical approaches] / [ed] Göran Therborn, London: Verso Publications , 2006, p. 61-92Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9119.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    ”Från Santiago till Malmö…och sen?”2014In: Socialmedicinsk Tidskrift, ISSN 0037-833X, Vol. 91, no 5, p. 459-467Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9120. Vågerö, Denny
    Health inequalities in women and men: Studies of specific causes of death should use household criteria2000In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 320, p. 1286-1287Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9121. Vågerö, Denny
    Material and cultural factors2004In: Key concepts in medical sociology / [ed] Jonathan Gabe, Michael Bury and Mary Ann Elston, London: Sage Publications , 2004, p. 32-35Chapter in book (Other academic)
  • 9122.
    Vågerö, Denny
    Stockholm University.
    Where does new theory come from?2006In: Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health, ISSN 0143-005X, E-ISSN 1470-2738, Vol. 60, p. 573-574Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9123.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Aronsson, Vanda
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Modin, Bitte
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Why is parental lifespan linked to children’s chances of reaching a high age? A transgenerational hypothesis2018In: SSM - Population Health, ISSN 2352-8273, Vol. 4, p. 45-54Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose

    Transgenerational determinants of longevity are poorly understood. We used data from four linked generations (G0, G1, G2 and G3) of the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigeneration Study to address this issue.

    Methods

    Mortality in G1 (N = 9565) was followed from 1961–2015 and analysed in relation to tertiles of their parents’ (G0) age-at-death using Cox regression. Parental social class and marital status were adjusted for in the analyses, as was G1’s birth order and adult social class. For an almost entirely deceased segment of G1 (n = 1149), born 1915–1917, we compared exact age-at-death with G0 parents’ age-at-death. Finally, we explored ‘resilience’ as a potentially important mechanism for intergenerational transmission of longevity, using conscript information from psychological interviews of G2 and G3 men.

    Results

    G0 men’s and women’s ages-at-death were independently associated with G1 midlife and old age mortality. This association was robust and minimally reduced when G0 and G1 social class were adjusted for. We observed an increased lifespan in all social groups. Median difference in age-at-death for sons compared to fathers was + 3.9 years, and + 6.9 years for daughters compared to mothers.

    Parents’ and maternal grandmother’s longevity were associated with resilience in subsequent generations. Resilience scores of G2 men were also associated with those of their G3 sons and with their own mortality in midlife.

    Conclusions

    The chance of reaching a high age is transmitted from parents to children in a modest, but robust way. Longevity inheritance is paralleled by the inheritance of individual resilience. Individual resilience, we propose, develops in the first part of life as a response to adversity and early experience in general. This gives rise to a transgenerational pathway, distinct from social class trajectories. A theory of longevity inheritance should bring together previous thinking around general susceptibility, frailty and resilience with new insights from epigenetics and social epidemiology.

  • 9124.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Garcy, Anthony M.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Does unemployment cause long-term mortality? Selection and causation after the 1992–96 deep Swedish recession2016In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 26, no 5, p. 778-783Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Mass unemployment in Europe is endemic, especially among the young. Does it cause mortality? Methods: We analyzed long-term effects of unemployment occurring during the deep Swedish recession 1992–96. Mortality from all and selected causes was examined in the 6-year period after the recession among those employed in 1990 (3.4 million). Direct health selection was analyzed as risk of unemployment by prior medical history based on all hospitalizations 1981–91. Unemployment effects on mortality were estimated with and without adjustment for prior social characteristics and for prior medical history. Results: A prior circulatory disease history did not predict unemployment; a history of alcohol-related disease or suicide attempts did, in men and women. Unemployment predicted excess male, but not female, mortality from circulatory disease, both ischemic heart disease and stroke, and from all causes combined, after full adjustment. Adjustment for prior social characteristics reduced estimates considerably; additional adjustment for prior medical history did not. Mortality from external and alcohol-related causes was raised in men and women experiencing unemployment, after adjustment for social characteristics and medical history. For the youngest birth cohorts fully adjusted alcohol mortality HRs were substantial (male HR = 4.44; female HR = 5.73). The effect of unemployment on mortality was not uniform across the population; men, those with a low education, low income, unmarried or in urban employment were more vulnerable. Conclusions: Direct selection by medical history explains a modest fraction of any increased mortality risk following unemployment. Mass unemployment imposes long-term mortality risk on a sizeable segment of the population.

  • 9125.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Kislitsyna, Olga
    Self-reported heart symptoms are strongly linked to past and present poverty in Russia: evidence from the 1998 Taganrog interview survey2005In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 15, p. 418-423Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: In this Russian-Swedish collaborative study the question of how symptoms of heart disease are linked to poverty in Russia was addressed. Method: A random sample household survey was conducted in Taganrog, southern Russia. It covered questions about living circumstances, poverty and health. Health questions included both symptoms of heart problems, such as chest pain and high blood pressure, psychological problems such as depression and anxiety, as well as health-related behaviours such as alcohol drinking. Answers from 1972 women and men aged 18-70 are analysed here. Results: The poorest fifth of the population were more than twice as likely as others to report heart symptoms. Problems in affording vegetables, meat or fish, clothes and footwear were linked to heart symptoms more closely than other economic indicators, such as car ownership or ownership of consumer durables. Psychological symptoms, sleeping problems and alcohol drinking were all related to self-reported heart symptoms, but explained little of the excess risks attributable to present poverty. Childhood poverty was also linked to present heart symptoms. Conclusion: Life-time accumulated experience of economic hardship contributes to present levels of heart disease symptomology in Russia.

  • 9126. Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Koupilová, Ilona
    Leon, David A
    Lithell, Ulla-Britt
    Social determinants of birthweight, ponderal index and gestational age in Sweden in the 1920s and the 1980s1999In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 88, p. 445-453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]
    This study compared the effect of social class and marital status on birth outcomes in Sweden, using (i) data on all births at the Akademiska Hospital in Uppsala from 1920 to 1924 with socioeconomic information from records at birth; and (ii) a linkage of the Medical Births Registry for all births in Sweden in November/December 1985 to the 1985 Census. Preterm births (<37 weeks) have become less common during the 20th century. Between 1920–24 and 1985, mean and median birthweight increased, as did mean ponderal index, indicating a shift to the right of the birthweight and ponderal index distributions. In 1920–24, birthweight and ponderal index were associated with the social class of the household and with the marital status of the mother. Babies of single mothers were lighter and thinner, and had a much greater probability of being born preterm. In contrast, in 1985, maternal marital status (and cohabitation status) had a weaker effect on birthweight and ponderal index. The importance of household social class for ponderal index and preterm birth changed similarly, but its importance for birthweight remained. The mediating mechanism may have changed. Mothers from farming households now gave birth to the heaviest babies (nearly 200 g heavier than those of unskilled workers). Adjustment for a number of factors, including smoking, had a limited effect on these social class differences. In conclusion, biological processes during the foetal period are systematically linked to the social circumstances of the mother, but in a different way in the 1920s and in 1985.
  • 9127.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Leinsalu, Mall
    Södertörn University, School of Sociology and Contemporary History, Sociology. Södertörn University, School of Social Sciences, SCOHOST (Stockholm Centre on Health of Societies in Transition).
    Commentary: Health inequalities and social dynamics in Europe2005In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 331, no 7510, p. 186-187Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9128. Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Prenatal growth, subsequent marital status, and mortality: longitudinal study2002In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 324, p. 398-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9129. Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    The associations between height, cognition and education and their relevance for health studies: [a comment to Magnusson et al. : International Journal of Epidemiology]2006In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 35, p. 663-664Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9130. Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Modin, Bitte
    Koupil, Ilona
    Reproductive history and cardiovascular mortality among women: Evidence from the Uppsala Birth Cohort Multigeneration Study [abstract]2005In: Pediatric Research, ISSN 0031-3998, E-ISSN 1530-0447, Vol. 58, no 5, p. 1077-Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9131.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS). Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Stress Research Institute.
    Does childhood trauma influence offspring’s birth characteristics?2017In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 219-229Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: A recent epigenetic hypothesis postulates that ‘a sex-specific male-line transgenerational effect exists in humans’, which can be triggered by childhood trauma during ‘the slow growth period’ just before puberty. The evidence is based on a few rather small epidemiological studies. We examine what response childhood trauma predicts, if any, in the birth size and prematurity risk of almost 800 000 offspring. Methods: Children of parity 1, 2 or 3, born 1976-2002 in Sweden, for whom we could trace both parents and all four grandparents, constituted generation 3 (G3, n ¼ 764 569). Around 5% of their parents, G2, suffered parental (G1) death during their own childhood. The association of such trauma in G2 with G3 prematurity and birthweight was analysed, while controlling for confounders in G1 and G2. We examined whether the slow growth period was extra sensitive to parental loss. Results: Parental (G1) death during (G2) childhood predicts premature birth and lower birthweight in the offspring generation (G3). This response is dependent on G2 gender, G2 age at exposure and G3 parity, but not G3 gender. Conclusions: The results are compatible with the Pembrey-Bygren hypothesis that trauma exposure during boys’ slow growth period may trigger a transgenerational response; age at trauma exposure among girls seems less important, suggesting a different set of pathways for any transgenerational response. Finally, parental death during childhood was not important for the reproduction of social inequalities in birthweight and premature birth.

  • 9132.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Rajaleid, Kristiina
    Stockholm University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Centre for Health Equity Studies (CHESS).
    Transgenerational response and life history theory: a response to Peeter Hõrak2017In: International Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0300-5771, E-ISSN 1464-3685, Vol. 46, no 1, p. 233-234Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9133.
    Vågerö, Denny
    et al.
    Stockholm University.
    Shestov, Dmitri B.
    Galanti, Maria Rosaria
    Sparén, Pär
    Long term mortality after severe starvation during the siege of Leningrad: authors' reply2004In: BMJ. British Medical Journal, E-ISSN 1756-1833, Vol. 328, no 7435, p. 346-347Article in journal (Refereed)
  • 9134.
    Vårhammar, Annelie
    Halmstad University, School of Business, Engineering and Science.
    Is there canine distemper virus in the Antarctic seal populations?2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The highly contagious canine distemper virus (CDV) has caused many so called epizootics, i.e. widespread transmissions of severe diseases in animal populations. Antibodies to CDV have been found several times in the northern hemisphere, but only once in the 1980’s in the phocid seal populations on the remote continent of Antarctica. This raises the question of whether the virus is enzootic or if it has been eliminated from the seal populations, which brings forth this study with serological testing on recently sampled seals. In this study, samples of 49 crabeater seals (Lobodon carcinophagus), 49 Weddell seals (Leptonychotes weddellii) and 14 Ross seals (Ommatophoca rossii) from two separate expeditions with the Swedish icebreaker Oden in year 2008/2009 and 2010/2011 were tested for antibodies to CDV using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The ELISA was repeated three times on the same samples but unexpectedly showed inconsistent results. Statistical analysis revealed that there were significant differences in titre values between the three trials in all three species. The results must therefore be considered unreliable for the purpose of estimating antibody prevalence and should be discarded. The inconsistency could be explained by the ELISA kit being designed for dogs. Thus, the present study is valuable as a pilot study and shows that ELISA tests on seals developed for dogs should be treated with caution and that the samples need to be re-tested with other methods, preferably by using a virus neutralization test. The present study reviews the preceding literature concerning the prevalence of antibodies against CDV in the Antarctic seals, and also displays how the results of a future re-testing can be used to assess the susceptibility of a future outbreak of CDV in the seals of Antarctica.

  • 9135.
    Vægter, Keld
    et al.
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Wahlström, Rolf
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Wedel, Hans
    Svärdsudd, Kurt
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Caring Sciences, Family Medicine and Clinical Epidemiology.
    Effect of mailed feedback on drug prescribing profiles in general practice: a seven-year longitudinal study in Storstrom County, Denmark2010In: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences, ISSN 0300-9734, E-ISSN 2000-1967, Vol. 115, no 4, p. 238-244Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background. Whether written feedback on drug prescribing in general practice affects prescribing habits is controversial. Most short-term studies showed no effect. However, the issue has not been tested in long-term studies involving the local general practitioner community. Aims of the study. To assess whether prescribing levels in general practice are affected by long-term, unsolicited, systematically repeated, mailed feedback. Methods. Each of the 94 general practices in Storstrom County, Denmark, received semi-annual, mailed feedback about their prescribing volumes and costs within 13 major drug groups, in relation to the levels for all the other 93 practices over a 7-year period in a project initiated by the local general practitioner association. Data on the number of defined daily doses (DDDs) prescribed per 1000 listed patients in each practice per 6-months, and practice characteristics, were obtained from the Pharmaceutical Database at the County Health Department. Results. There was a large variation in drug prescribing volume between practices, but little within-practice variation over time. After adjustments for the influence of practice size and other potential outcome-affecting variables, there was no evidence of a general change of prescribing volume over time, no change among practices with a high or a low prescribing level, and no significant change within the various drug groups. Conclusions. We found no significant effects on prescribing levels of mailed feedback, even when repeated semi-annually during 7 years and initiated by the local general practitioner community.

  • 9136.
    Waendell, Per E.
    et al.
    Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Huddinge, Sweden.
    de Waard, Anne-Karien M.
    Univ Med Ctr, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Holzmann, Martin J.
    Karolinska Univ Hosp, Funct Area Emergency Med, Stockholm, Sweden;Karolinska Inst, Dept Internal Med, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Gornitzki, Carl
    Karolinska Inst, Univ Lib, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Lionis, Christos
    Univ Crete, Sch Med, Clin Social & Family Med, Iraklion, Greece.
    de Wit, Niek
    Univ Med Ctr, Julius Ctr Hlth Sci & Primary Care, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Sondergaard, Jens
    Univ Southern, Inst Publ Hlth, Res Unit Gen Practice, Odense, Denmark.
    Sonderlund, Anders L.
    Charles Univ Prague, Fac Med 1, Dept Gen Practice, Prague, Czech Republic.
    Kral, Norbert
    NIVEL Netherlands Inst Hlth Serv Res, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Seifert, Bohumil
    NIVEL Netherlands Inst Hlth Serv Res, Utrecht, Netherlands.
    Korevaar, Joke C.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Dept Gen Practice & Elderly Care Med, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Schellevis, Francois G.
    Vrije Univ Amsterdam Med Ctr, Amsterdam Publ Hlth Res Inst, Dept Gen Practice & Elderly Care Med, Amsterdam, Netherlands.
    Carlsson, Axel C
    Uppsala University, Disciplinary Domain of Medicine and Pharmacy, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Medical Sciences, Cardiovascular epidemiology. Karolinska Inst, Dept Neurobiol Care Sci & Soc, Div Family Med & Primary Care, Huddinge, Sweden.
    Barriers and facilitators among health professionals in primary care to prevention of cardiometabolic diseases: A systematic review2018In: Family Practice, ISSN 0263-2136, E-ISSN 1460-2229, Vol. 35, no 4, p. 383-398Article, review/survey (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The aim of this study is to identify potential facilitators and barriers for health care professionals to undertake selective prevention of cardiometabolic diseases (CMD) in primary health care. We developed a search string for Medline, Embase, Cinahl and PubMed. We also screened reference lists of relevant articles to retain barriers and facilitators for prevention of CMD. We found 19 qualitative studies, 7 quantitative studies and 2 mixed qualitative and quantitative studies. In terms of five overarching categories, the most frequently reported barriers and facilitators were as follows: Structural (barriers: time restraints, ineffective counselling and interventions, insufficient reimbursement and problems with guidelines; facilitators: feasible and effective counselling and interventions, sufficient assistance and support, adequate referral, and identification of obstacles), Organizational (barriers: general organizational problems, role of practice, insufficient IT support, communication problems within health teams and lack of support services, role of staff, lack of suitable appointment times; facilitators: structured practice, IT support, flexibility of counselling, sufficient logistic/practical support and cooperation with allied health staff/community resources, responsibility to offer and importance of prevention), Professional (barriers: insufficient counselling skills, lack of knowledge and of experience; facilitators: sufficient training, effective in motivating patients), Patient-related factors (barriers: low adherence, causes problems for patients; facilitators: strong GP-patient relationship, appreciation from patients), and Attitudinal (barriers: negative attitudes to prevention; facilitators: positive attitudes of importance of prevention). We identified several frequently reported barriers and facilitators for prevention of CMD, which may be used in designing future implementation and intervention studies.

  • 9137.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine.
    Temporary employment and illness2013Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is debated whether temporary employment compared to permanent employment entails an elevated risk of illness or not, as the empirical studies have not shown a unified picture. Since a significant part of the Swedish workforce is currently working under temporary employment contracts, it is important for public health research to pay close attention to what the implications in terms of illness might be. Therefore the aim of this thesis was to explore the relationship between temporary employment and illness.

    Methods: This thesis was based on data from the Northern Swedish Cohort, consisting of all pupils in grade 9 in Luleå in 1981 (n=1083). The cohort was followed with extensive questionnaires. The latest follow-up was performed in year 2007, when 94% participated. To analyse the quantitative questionnaire data, logistic regression and trajectory analysis were used. A qualitative method, Grounded Theory, was also applied in this thesis to analyse interviews performed in 2011, with a strategic selection of 12 participants from the cohort.

    Results: Quantitative data showed that temporary employees had overall higher odds ratios for illness in terms of psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health compared to permanent employees. This general difference in odds ratios was evident irrespective of how temporary employment was measured as well as after control for earlier health status and confounders. The qualitative analysis gained insight into temporary employment as social processes of: underling the driving force for employment; working hard for a job. The structural conditions emerged in terms of, being used and exploited on the labour market and these conditions were related to the individual strategies of adaptation and coping. In the intersection of agency, structural conditions and adaption, emotional and bodily reactions emerged, such as being worn out, worried and wrathful.

    Conclusion: Illness is unevenly distributed between temporary and permanent employees, with temporary employees being the unfavourable group. Striving for good and evenly distributed health conditions in the population, policy makers should aim at reducing the number of employees working in temporary contracts. In addition, there is a need to improve surveillance of the health situation among temporary employees and to reduce unfavourable conditions, such as job and financial insecurity and unemployment, among temporary employees.

  • 9138.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Jonsson, F.
    Does youth clinics in northern Sweden offer person-centered care?2017In: European Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1101-1262, E-ISSN 1464-360X, Vol. 27, no Suppl_3, p. 528-Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: It is especially important for youth that the care is person-centered, responding to the need of the individual which usually will be broader and more complex than the specific health problem they consult in the first place. That in terms of youth health care everything is connected and health care services can be an opportunity to discuss sexual & reproductive SRS issues and mental health issues. The literature show that with young people the reason for consultation can only be an excuse to come to a health care professional. To examine this issue and in an attempt to increase our understanding about youths’s experiences of visiting youth clinics in Sweden overall, the present study compared reasons for the consultation at the youth clinic to the topics attended at the consultation, and by doing so also measuring the level of person-centered care.

    Methods: Data from a cross-sectional survey sent out in September 2016 collected from twenty-two youth clinics in the four northern most counties in Sweden, was used in the present study. In total 1223 youth responded to the survey. Chi2 was used to determine significant differences.

    Results: Preliminary results shows that of the youth participating in the survey 63.9% got a balanced response to what they asked for, 27.7% were offered more than their initial asked for and 8.4% were offered less than what they asked for. Being offered more than you asked for was not depending on gender, sexual orientation or trans identification. However, on county-level there were differences, where Västernorrland offered more to 35.5%, Jämtland 28.2%, Norrbotten 22.1% and Västerbotten 21.5% of the youth.

    Conclusions: The results could be interpreted as a sign that youth clinics offers person-centered care (responding to the needs beyond the specific reason for consultations). In between county difference may be related to differences in organizational systems between counties.

    Key messages:

    • Youth clinics in northern Sweden offers person-centred care to young people, by responding to the needs beyond the specific reason for consultation.
    • The level of person centred care offered is dependent on county but not on gender or sexual orientation.
  • 9139.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    School of Health Sciences, University of Tampere, Finland.
    Are changes in labour market attachment over 12 years related to health status?: An analysis of the Northern Swedish Cohort.Manuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9140.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Gustafsson, Per E.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    History of labour market attachment as a determinant of health status: a 12-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 2, article id e004053Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The present study aims at using trajectory analysis to measure labour market attachment (LMA) over 12years and at examining whether labour market tracks relate to perceived health status.

    Design Data were retrieved from a 26-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Setting and participants All ninth grade students (n=1083) within the municipality of Lulea in northern Sweden were included in the baseline investigation in 1981. The vast majority (94%) of the original cohort participated at the fourth follow-up. In this study, 969 participants were included.

    Measures Perceived health status (psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health) at age 42 and the data obtained from questionnaires.

    Results We have identified four tracks in relation to LMA across the 12-year period: permanent', high level', strengthening' and poor level' of attachment. LMA history relates to psychological distress. High level (OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.27)), strengthening (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.93)) and poor attachment (OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.10 to 4.70) involve higher OR for psychological distress compared with permanent attachment. The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001). Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model.

    Conclusions Our results suggest that health status in mid-life, particularly psychological distress, is related to patterns of LMA history, to a large part independently of other social risk factors and previous health. Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health.

  • 9141.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Gustafsson, Per
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    History of labour market attachment as a determinant of health status: a 12-year follow-up of the Northern Swedish Cohort2014In: BMJ Open, ISSN 2044-6055, E-ISSN 2044-6055, Vol. 4, no 2, p. e004053-Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Objective The present study aims at using trajectory analysis to measure labour market attachment (LMA) over 12years and at examining whether labour market tracks relate to perceived health status.

    Design Data were retrieved from a 26-year prospective cohort study, the Northern Swedish Cohort.

    Setting and participants All ninth grade students (n=1083) within the municipality of Lulea in northern Sweden were included in the baseline investigation in 1981. The vast majority (94%) of the original cohort participated at the fourth follow-up. In this study, 969 participants were included.

    Measures Perceived health status (psychological distress and non-optimal self-rated health) at age 42 and the data obtained from questionnaires.

    Results We have identified four tracks in relation to LMA across the 12-year period: permanent', high level', strengthening' and poor level' of attachment. LMA history relates to psychological distress. High level (OR 1.55 (95% CI 1.06 to 2.27)), strengthening (OR 1.95 (95% CI 1.29 to 2.93)) and poor attachment (OR 3.14 (95% CI 2.10 to 4.70) involve higher OR for psychological distress compared with permanent attachment. The overall p value remained significant in the final model (p=0.001). Analyses regarding non-optimal self-rated health displayed a similar pattern but this was not significant in the final model.

    Conclusions Our results suggest that health status in mid-life, particularly psychological distress, is related to patterns of LMA history, to a large part independently of other social risk factors and previous health. Consideration of heterogeneity and time in LMA might be important when analysing associations with perceived health.

  • 9142.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå universitet, Sjukgymnastik.
    “Worn, worried and wrathful”: experiences and illness in an exposed position as temporarily employedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9143.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Wiklund, Maria
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Community Medicine and Rehabilitation, Physiotherapy.
    “Worn, worried and wrathful”: experiences and illness in an exposed position as temporarily employedManuscript (preprint) (Other academic)
  • 9144.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Stenmark, Helena
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Bergström, Erik
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Hägglöf, Bruno
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
    Öhman, Ann
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health. Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå Centre for Gender Studies (UCGS).
    Petersen, Solveig
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    School experiences may be important determinants of mental health problems in middle childhood: a Swedish longitudinal population-based study2016In: Acta Paediatrica, ISSN 0803-5253, E-ISSN 1651-2227, Vol. 105, no 4, p. 407-415Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    AimLittle is known about the association between school experiences and mental health in young schoolchildren. This study explored the cross-sectional and prospective associations between children's school experiences and mental health in middle childhood. MethodsWe gathered comprehensive population-based data on the school experiences and mental health of 592 schoolchildren attending grades three and six in Sweden (ages approximately nine and 12 years). The KIDSCREEN questionnaire was used to measure school experiences in both age groups while the Child Behavior Checklist and the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire measured mental health in grades three and six, respectively. ResultsChildren with problematic school experiences in grade three had an approximately two times higher odds for concurrent total, internalised, externalised, attention-hyperactivity and social problems. They also had a 1.5-2.5 higher odds for these mental health problems three years later. Likewise, there was an association between problematic school experiences in grade three and lower levels of prosocial behaviour three years later. These associations were shown in both boys and girls, but were particularly pronounced in girls. ConclusionThis study indicated that school experiences in young schoolchildren may be important determinants of concurrent and later mental health problems.

  • 9145.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Umeå universitet, Epidemiologi och global hälsa.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå universitet, Allmänmedicin.
    Is temporary employment related to health status?: Analysis of the Northern Swedish Cohort.2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 533-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether temporary employment was related to non-optimal self-rated healthand psychological distress at age 42 after adjustment for the same indicators at age 30, and to analyze the effects of jobinsecurity, low cash margin and high job strain on this relationship.

    Methods: A subcohort of the Northern Swedish Cohortthat was employed at the 2007 follow-up survey (n¼907, response rate of 94%) was analyzed using data from 1995 and 2007questionnaires.

    Results: Temporary employees had a higher risk of both non-optimal self-rated health and psychologicaldistress. After adjustment for non-optimal self-rated health at age 30 and psychological distress at age 30 as well as forsociodemographic variables, the odds ratios decreased but remained significant. However, after adjustment for job insecurity,high job strain and low cash margin the odds ratio dropped for non-optimal self-rated health but remained significant forpsychological distress.

    Conclusions: Temporary employment may have adverse effects on self-rated health andpsychological health after adjustment for previous health status and sociodemographic variables. Our findingsindicate that low cash margin and job insecurity may partially mediate the association between temporaryemployment and health status.

  • 9146.
    Waenerlund, Anna-Karin
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Virtanen, Pekka
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Hammarström, Anne
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Family Medicine.
    Is temporary employment related to health status?: Analysis of the Northern Swedish Cohort.2011In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 5, p. 533-539Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate whether temporary employment was related to non-optimal self-rated healthand psychological distress at age 42 after adjustment for the same indicators at age 30, and to analyze the effects of jobinsecurity, low cash margin and high job strain on this relationship.

    Methods: A subcohort of the Northern Swedish Cohortthat was employed at the 2007 follow-up survey (n¼907, response rate of 94%) was analyzed using data from 1995 and 2007questionnaires.

    Results: Temporary employees had a higher risk of both non-optimal self-rated health and psychologicaldistress. After adjustment for non-optimal self-rated health at age 30 and psychological distress at age 30 as well as forsociodemographic variables, the odds ratios decreased but remained significant. However, after adjustment for job insecurity,high job strain and low cash margin the odds ratio dropped for non-optimal self-rated health but remained significant forpsychological distress.

    Conclusions: Temporary employment may have adverse effects on self-rated health andpsychological health after adjustment for previous health status and sociodemographic variables. Our findingsindicate that low cash margin and job insecurity may partially mediate the association between temporaryemployment and health status.

  • 9147.
    Waernbaum, Ingeborg
    et al.
    Umeå University, Faculty of Social Sciences, Umeå School of Business and Economics (USBE), Statistics.
    Dahlquist, Gisela
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Clinical Sciences, Paediatrics.
    Low mean temperature rather than few sunshine hours are associated with an increased incidence of type 1 diabetes in children2016In: European Journal of Epidemiology, ISSN 0393-2990, E-ISSN 1573-7284, Vol. 31, no 1, p. 61-65Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The well-known north-south gradient and the seasonal variability in incidence of childhood type1 diabetes indicate climatological factors to have an effect on the onset. Both sunshine hours and a low temperature may be responsible. In the present study we tried to disentangle these effects that tend to be strongly connected.

    Exposure data were sunshine hours and mean temperature respectively obtained from eleven meteorological stations in Sweden which were linked to incidence data from geographically matched areas. Incident cases during 1983-2008 were retrieved from the population based Swedish childhood diabetes register. We used generalized additive models to analyze the incidence as a function of mean temperature and hours of sun adjusted for the time trend, age and sex.

    In our data set the correlation between sun hours and temperature was weak (r=0.36) implying that it was possible to estimate the effect of these variables in a regression model. We fit a general additive model with a smoothing term for the time trend. In the model with sun hours we found no significant effect on T1 incidence (p=0.17) whereas the model with temperature as predictor was significant (p=0.05) when adjusting for the time trend, sex and age. Adding sun hours in the model where mean temperature was already present did not change the effect of temperature.

    There is an association with incidence of type1 diabetes in children and low mean temperature independent of a possible effect of sunshine hours after adjustment for age, sex and time trend. The findings may mirror the cold effect on insulin resistance and accords with the hypothesis that overload of an already ongoing beta cell destruction may accelerate disease onset.

  • 9148.
    Wagenius, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Feeling as a part of the greater whole: A Grounded Theory-study of the process of working in an innovative public health initiative in northern Sweden2017Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: One of the main public health issues in Sweden today is to support the psychosocial health of the youth. To meet this need the social determinants of health should be addressed, which involves working broadly, preferably over organizational boundaries. Furthermore, public health work such as this is often performed through projects, one example being the pilot project SAM in the county council of Norrbotten. One of the crucial aspects determining projects‟ success is the process of adapting to a project for the participants.

    Aims: The aim of the present study is to analyse how professionals experience working in a new public health project that is designed as collaboration across sectorial borders with the focus on prevention. With the specific aims of the study being to i) investigate how participants create engagement and stay engaged in a new public health project, and ii) to investigate how participants tackle doubts and uncertainties when working in a new public health project.

    Methods: The study is conducted by using grounded theory method with a constructivist approach. Data collection was performed through interviews with eight informants involved in the SAM-project.

    Results: The study suggests that it is necessary for the participants to feel as a part of the greater whole to be involved in, and continue working with the project; i.e. that they see that they are part of a collective effort that is larger than themselves and their immediate reality. The greater whole is composed by i) seeing the need of it, ii) finding it meaningful to be part of it, and iii) feeling a belonging to it; furthermore the participants use a set of strategies to (re)create these three aspects.

    Conclusion: The study presents encouraging results of the process of adapting in public health projects for its participants. It is possible to collaborate over organizational boundaries and the collaboration in itself strengthens both the willingness and ability to work with public health matters together with others. By gaining a richer understanding of how professionals create motivation to collaborate, how they handle their doubts, together with knowledge of the strategies that are being used to (re)create the engagement; we can increase the possibilities of implementing innovative public health projects.

  • 9149.
    Wagenius, Cecilia
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Inequity in access to healthcare in Sweden – does it exist?: An investigation on vertical and horizontal inequities of healthcare utilisation regarding young people in the north of Sweden2016Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Previous studies in Sweden have detected inequities in access to healthcare services in varying ways. There is limited information targeting the younger populations, in between childhood and adulthood. The aim of this study was to explore possible inequities in young peoples’ (age 16-24) access to healthcare services in the north of Sweden.

    Methods: The study used data from the survey Health on Equal Terms (n = 2726) for health variables and from national registers for sociodemographic characteristics. Calculations of frequency of healthcare utilisation were used to estimate the utilisation of healthcare services of the different groups in the study. Crude and multivariate regression analysis (prevalence ratio) were used to assess i) vertical equity, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics and ii) horizontal equity, adjusting for need-variables.

    Results: GP was the most common healthcare service used by the study population and more women than men utilised healthcare services. Vertical inequity was detected for both men and women in the case of youth clinics. Horizontal inequities were found for both men and women in relation to all three healthcare services included in the study, but with varying results.

    Conclusion: The findings suggests that inequities in access exists for young persons in the north of Sweden, and that the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and healthcare utilisation are complex and are in need of further investigations. 

  • 9150. Wagenius, Cecilia M
    et al.
    San Sebastián, Miguel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Gustafsson, Per E
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Umeå University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Public Health and Clinical Medicine, Epidemiology and Global Health.
    Access for all? Assessing vertical and horizontal inequities in healthcare utilization among young people in northern Sweden.2018In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, article id 1403494818774965Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies in Sweden have detected socioeconomic inequities in access to healthcare services. However, there is limited information regarding access in younger populations. The aim of this study was to explore vertical and horizontal inequities in access to healthcare services in young adults in the north of Sweden.

    METHODS: The study used data from the Health on Equal Terms survey (age group 16-24 years, n = 2726) for the health and healthcare variables and from national registers for the sociodemographic characteristics. Self-rated healthcare utilization was measured as visits to general practitioners, youth clinics and nurses. Crude and multivariable binomial regression analysis, stratified by sex, was used to assess vertical equity, adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, and horizontal equity, adjusting for need variables.

    RESULTS: Vertical inequity was detected for all three healthcare services (youth clinics, general practitioners and nurses), with variations for men and women. Horizontal inequities were also found for both men and women in relation to all three healthcare services.

    CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that both vertical and horizontal inequities in access exist for young people in northern Sweden and that the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and healthcare utilization are complex and need further investigation.

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